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Sample records for a30p mutant affect

  1. Structures and free energy landscapes of the wild-type and A30P mutant-type α-synuclein proteins with dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wise-Scira, Olivia; Aloglu, Ahmet Kemal; Dunn, Aquila; Sakallioglu, Isin Tuna; Coskuner, Orkid

    2013-03-20

    The genetic missense A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein protein results in the replacement of the 30th amino acid residue from alanine (Ala) to proline (Pro) and was initially found in the members of a German family who developed Parkinson's disease. Even though the structures of these proteins have been measured before, detailed understanding about the structures and their relationships with free energy landscapes is lacking, which is of interest to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Parkinson's disease. We report the secondary and tertiary structures and conformational free energy landscapes of the wild-type and A30P mutant-type α-synuclein proteins in an aqueous solution environment via extensive parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulations along with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, we present the residual secondary structure component transition stabilities at the atomic level with dynamics in terms of free energy change calculations using a new strategy that we reported most recently. Our studies yield new interesting results; for instance, we find that the A30P mutation has local as well as long-range effects on the structural properties of the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The helical content at Ala18-Gly31 is less prominent in comparison to the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The β-sheet structure abundance decreases in the N-terminal region upon A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein, whereas the NAC and C-terminal regions possess larger tendencies for β-sheet structure formation. Long-range intramolecular protein interactions are less abundant upon A30P mutation, especially between the NAC and C-terminal regions, which is linked to the less compact and less stable structures of the A30P mutant-type rather than the wild-type α-synuclein protein. Results including the usage of our new strategy for secondary structure transition stabilities show that the A30P mutant-type α-synuclein tendency toward

  2. Structures and Free Energy Landscapes of the Wild-Type and A30P Mutant-Type α-Synuclein Proteins with Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The genetic missense A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein protein results in the replacement of the 30th amino acid residue from alanine (Ala) to proline (Pro) and was initially found in the members of a German family who developed Parkinson’s disease. Even though the structures of these proteins have been measured before, detailed understanding about the structures and their relationships with free energy landscapes is lacking, which is of interest to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Parkinson’s disease. We report the secondary and tertiary structures and conformational free energy landscapes of the wild-type and A30P mutant-type α-synuclein proteins in an aqueous solution environment via extensive parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulations along with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, we present the residual secondary structure component transition stabilities at the atomic level with dynamics in terms of free energy change calculations using a new strategy that we reported most recently. Our studies yield new interesting results; for instance, we find that the A30P mutation has local as well as long-range effects on the structural properties of the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The helical content at Ala18-Gly31 is less prominent in comparison to the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The β-sheet structure abundance decreases in the N-terminal region upon A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein, whereas the NAC and C-terminal regions possess larger tendencies for β-sheet structure formation. Long-range intramolecular protein interactions are less abundant upon A30P mutation, especially between the NAC and C-terminal regions, which is linked to the less compact and less stable structures of the A30P mutant-type rather than the wild-type α-synuclein protein. Results including the usage of our new strategy for secondary structure transition stabilities show that the A30P mutant-type α-synuclein tendency toward

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants affected in attachment to plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C J; Halperin, W; Nester, E W

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with Tn5 insertions in chromosomal DNA showed that the chromosome of A. tumefaciens codes for a specific ability of this bacterium to attach to plant cells. This ability is associated with tumorigenesis by A. tumefaciens, the ability of avirulent A. tumefaciens to inhibit tumorigenesis, and the ability to adsorb certain phages. A second class of chromosomal mutations affects tumorigenesis without altering the ability to attach to plant cells. The attachment of A. tumefaciens to plant cells was assayed by mixing radiolabeled bacteria with suspensions of tobacco tissue culture cells or freshly isolated Zinnia leaf mesophyll cells. Under the conditions of this assay, an avirulent Ti plasmid-cured strain attached to the same extent as the same strain containing pTiB6806. Six of eight avirulent mutants with Tn5 insertions in chromosomal DNA showed defective attachment, whereas two retained wild-type attachment ability. In contrast to the strains showing wild-type attachment, the attachment-defective mutants failed to inhibit tumorigenesis when inoculated onto Jerusalem artichoke slices before inoculation of a virulent strain and also showed a loss of sensitivity to two Agrobacterium phages. The loss of phage sensitivity appeared to be due to a loss of ability to adsorb the phages. Staining with Calcofluor indicated that the mutants retained the ability to synthesize cellulose fibrils, which have been implicated in the attachment process. Southern filter hybridizations demonstrated that each mutant contained a single Tn5 insertion, and genetic linkage between the Tn5 insertion in one mutant and the attachment phenotype has also been demonstrated. Images PMID:6292165

  4. Characterization of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens avirulent mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect induction of vir genes.

    PubMed

    Metts, J; West, J; Doares, S H; Matthysse, A G

    1991-02-01

    Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect bacterial virulence were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. Two of the mutants were avirulent on all hosts tested. The third mutant, Ivr-211, was a host range mutant which was avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana, Nicotiana tabacum, N. debneyi, N. glauca, and Daucus carota but was virulent on Zinnia elegans and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). That the mutant phenotype was due to the transposon insertion was determined by cloning the DNA containing the transposon insertion and using the cloned DNA to replace the wild-type DNA in the parent bacterial strain by marker exchange. The transposon insertions in the three mutants mapped at three widely separated locations on the bacterial chromosome. The effects of the mutations on various steps in tumor formation were examined. All three mutants showed no alteration in binding to carrot cells. However, none of the mutants showed any induction of vir genes by acetosyringone under conditions in which the parent strain showed vir gene induction. When the mutant bacteria were examined for changes in surface components, it was found that all three of the mutants showed a similar alteration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS from the mutants was larger in size and more heavily saccharide substituted than LPS from the parent strain. Two of the mutants showed no detectable alteration in outer membrane and periplasmic space proteins. The third mutant, Ivr-225, was missing a 79-kDa surface peptide. The reason(s) for the failure of vir gene induction in these mutants and its relationship, if any, to the observed alteration in LPS are unknown.

  5. Methylammonium-resistant mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia are affected in nitrate transport.

    PubMed

    Godon, C; Krapp, A; Leydecker, M T; Daniel-Vedele, F; Caboche, M

    1996-02-25

    This work reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants resistant to methylammonium. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants cannot grow on low levels of nitrate in the presence of methylammonium. Methylammonium is not used as a nitrogen source, although it can be efficiently taken up by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells and converted into methylglutamine, an analog of glutamine. Glutamine is known to repress the expression of the enzymes that mediate the first two steps in the nitrate assimilatory pathway, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR). Methylammonium has therefore been used, in combination with low concentrations of nitrate, as a selective agent in order to screen for mutants in which the nitrate pathway is de-repressed. Eleven semi-dominant mutants, all belonging to the same complementation group, were identified. The mutant showing the highest resistance to methylammonium was not affected either in the utilization of ammonium, accumulation of methylammonium or in glutamine synthase activity. A series of experiments showed that utilization of nitrite by the wild-type and the mutant was comparable, in the presence or the absence of methylammonium, thus suggesting that the mutation specifically affected nitrate transport or reduction. Although NR mRNA levels were less repressed by methylammonium treatment of the wild-type than the mutant, NR activities of the mutant remained comparable with or without methylammonium, leading to the hypothesis that modified expression of NR is probably not responsible for resistance to methylammonium. Methylammonium inhibited nitrate uptake in the wild-type but had only a limited effect in the mutant. The implications of these results are discussed.

  6. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  7. Mutants with Altered Sensitivity to a Calmodulin Antagonist Affect the Circadian Clock in Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S.; Katagiri, S.; Nakashima, H.

    1996-01-01

    Two newly isolated mutant strains of Neurospora crassa, cpz-1 and cpz-2, were hypersensitive to chlorpromazine with respect to mycelial growth but responded differently to the drug with respect to the circadian conidiation rhythm. In the wild type, chlorpromazine caused shortening of the period length of the conidiation rhythm. Pulse treatment with the drug shifted the phase and inhibited light-induced phase shifting in Neurospora. By contrast to the wild type, the cpz-2 strain was resistant to these inhibitory effects of chlorpromazine. Inhibition of cpz-2 function by chlorpromazine affected three different parameters of circadian conidiation rhythm, namely, period length, phase and light-induced phase shifting. These results indicate that the cpz-2 gene must be involved in or related closely to the clock mechanism of Neurospora. By contrast, the cpz-1 strain was hypersensitive to chlorpromazine with respect to the circadian conidiation rhythm. PMID:8807291

  8. Root hair-specific disruption of cellulose and xyloglucan in AtCSLD3 mutants, and factors affecting the post-rupture resumption of mutant root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Galway, Moira E; Eng, Ryan C; Schiefelbein, John W; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-05-01

    The glycosyl transferase encoded by the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLD3/KJK/RHD7 (At3g03050) is required for cell wall integrity during root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana but it remains unclear whether it contributes to the synthesis of cellulose or hemicellulose. We identified two new alleles, root hair-defective (rhd) 7-1 and rhd7-4, which affect the C-terminal end of the encoded protein. Like root hairs in the previously characterized kjk-2 putative null mutant, rhd7-1 and rhd7-4 hairs rupture before tip growth but, depending on the growth medium and temperature, hairs are able to survive rupture and initiate tip growth, indicating that these alleles retain some function. At 21°C, the rhd7 tip-growing root hairs continued to rupture but at 5ºC, rupture was inhibited, resulting in long, wild type-like root hairs. At both temperatures, the expression of another root hair-specific CSLD gene, CSLD2, was increased in the rhd7-4 mutant but reduced in the kjk-2 mutant, suggesting that CSLD2 expression is CSLD3-dependent, and that CSLD2 could partially compensate for CSLD3 defects to prevent rupture at 5°C. Using a fluorescent brightener (FB 28) to detect cell wall (1 → 4)-β-glucans (primarily cellulose) and CCRC-M1 antibody to detect fucosylated xyloglucans revealed a patchy distribution of both in the mutant root hair cell walls. Cell wall thickness varied, and immunogold electron microscopy indicated that xyloglucan distribution was altered throughout the root hair cell walls. These cell wall defects indicate that CSLD3 is required for the normal organization of both cellulose and xyloglucan in root hair cell walls.

  9. Isolation and characterization of mutants with lesions affecting pellicle formation and erythrocyte agglutination by type 1 piliated Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S L; Elliott, D A; Blake, M C; Must, L M; Messenger, M; Orndorff, P E

    1990-01-01

    The product of the pilE (also called fimH) gene is a minor component of type 1 pili in Escherichia coli. Mutants that have insertions in the pilE gene are fully piliated but unable to bind to and agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes, a characteristic of wild-type type 1 piliated E. coli. In this paper we describe the isolation of 48 mutants with point lesions that map to the pilE gene. Such mutants were isolated by using mutT mutagenesis and an enrichment procedure devised to favor the growth of individuals that could form a pellicle in static broth containing alpha-methylmannoside, an inhibitor of erythrocyte binding and pellicle formation. Results indicated that the enrichment favored mutants expressing pilE gene products that were defective in mediating erythrocyte binding. Characterization of 12 of the mutants in greater detail revealed that certain lesions affected pilus number and length. In addition, a mutant that was temperature sensitive for erythrocyte binding was isolated and used to provide evidence that pellicle formation relies on the intercellular interaction of pilE gene products. Our results suggest a molecular explanation for the old and paradoxical observations connecting pellicle formation and erythrocyte agglutination by type 1 piliated E. coli. Images PMID:1977736

  10. φX-174 Bacteriophage Structural Mutants Which Affect Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jeff E. D.; Hayashi, Masaki

    1969-01-01

    Seven cistrons in φX-174 were identified and one in particular was studied intensively: cistron A, which is assigned a protein in the mature phage. Amber mutants in this cistron synthesize a new deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) form in addition to circular phage DNA upon infection of the restrictive host. This DNA is linear, non-infectious, and single-stranded; it is formed from the phage strand of replicative form φX-174 DNA. These mutants produce two different defective particles in the restrictive host. One particle contains circular phage DNA but is not infectious; the other contains the new DNA form and is similar to the 70S particles found in wild-type phage lysates. The mutant A gene product acts independently of normal A protein upon mixed infection of the restrictive host with an A mutant and a mutant from any other cistron or wild type. PMID:5823229

  11. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele.

    PubMed

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons ('mirror neurons') in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in

  12. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons (‘mirror neurons’) in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger

  13. Phospho-mimicry mutant of atToc33 affects early development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oreb, Mislav; Zoryan, Mikael; Vojta, Aleksandar; Maier, Uwe G; Eichacker, Lutz A; Schleiff, Enrico

    2007-12-22

    The precursor protein receptor at the chloroplast outer membrane atToc33 is a GTPase, which can be inactivated by phosphorylation in vitro, being arrested in the GDP loaded state. To assess the physiological function of phosphorylation, attoc33 knock out mutants were complemented with a mutated construct mimicking the constitutively phosphorylated state. Our data suggest that the reduced functionality of the mutant protein can be compensated by its upregulation. Chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity are impaired in the mutants during the early developmental stage, which is consistent with the requirement of atToc33 in young photosynthetic tissues.

  14. Inhibition of mutant IDH1 decreases D-2-HG levels without affecting tumorigenic properties of chondrosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Suijker, Johnny; Oosting, Jan; Koornneef, Annemarie; Struys, Eduard A; Salomons, Gajja S; Schaap, Frank G; Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Wijers-Koster, Pauline M; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Haazen, Lizette; Riester, Scott M; Dudakovic, Amel; Danen, Erik; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; van Wijnen, Andre J; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-05-20

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found in a subset of benign and malignant cartilage tumors, gliomas and leukaemias. The mutant enzyme causes the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), affecting CpG island and histone methylation. While mutations in IDH1/2 are early events in benign cartilage tumors, we evaluated whether these mutations play a role in malignant chondrosarcomas. Compared to IDH1/2 wildtype cell lines, chondrosarcoma cell lines harboring an endogenous IDH1 (n=3) or IDH2 mutation (n=2) showed up to a 100-fold increase in intracellular and extracellular D-2-HG levels. Specific inhibition of mutant IDH1 using AGI-5198 decreased levels of D-2-HG in a dose dependent manner. After 72 hours of treatment one out of three mutant IDH1 cell lines showed a moderate decrease in viability , while D-2-HG levels decreased >90%. Likewise, prolonged treatment (up to 20 passages) did not affect proliferation and migration. Furthermore, global gene expression, CpG island methylation as well as histone H3K4, -9, and -27 trimethylation levels remained unchanged. Thus, while IDH1/2 mutations cause enchondroma, malignant progression towards central chondrosarcoma renders chondrosarcoma growth independent of these mutations. Thus, monotherapy based on inhibition of mutant IDH1 appears insufficient for treatment of inoperable or metastasized chondrosarcoma patients.

  15. High temperature specifically affects the photoprotective responses of chlorophyll b-deficient wheat mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Kunderlikova, Kristyna; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2016-12-01

    The effects of high temperature on CO 2 assimilation rate, processes associated with photosynthetic electron and proton transport, as well as photoprotective responses, were studied in chlorophyll b-deficient mutant lines (ANK-32A and ANK-32B) and wild type (WT) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Despite the low chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a-to-b ratio, the non-stressed mutant plants had the similar level of CO 2 assimilation and photosynthetic responses as WT. However, in ANK mutant plants exposed to prolonged high temperature episode (42 °C for ~10 h), we observed lower CO 2 assimilation compared to WT, especially when a high CO 2 supply was provided. In all heat-exposed plants, we found approximately the same level of PSII photoinhibition, but the decrease in content of photooxidizable PSI was higher in ANK mutant plants compared to WT. The PSI damage can be well explained by the level of overreduction of PSI acceptor side observed in plants exposed to high temperature, which was, in turn, the result of the insufficient transthylakoid proton gradient associated with low non-photochemical quenching and lack of ability to downregulate the linear electron transport to keep the reduction state of PSI acceptor side low enough. Compared to WT, the ANK mutant lines had lower capacity to drive the cyclic electron transport around PSI in moderate and high light; it confirms the protective role of cyclic electron transport for the protection of PSI against photoinhibition. Our results, however, also suggest that the inactivation of PSI in heat stress conditions can be the protective mechanism against photooxidative damage of chloroplast and cell structures.

  16. AMPA receptor flip/flop mutants affecting deactivation, desensitization, and modulation by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Partin, K M; Fleck, M W; Mayer, M L

    1996-11-01

    AMPA receptor GluRA subunits with mutations at position 750, a residue shown previously to control allosteric regulation by cyclothiazide, were analyzed for modulation of deactivation and desensitization by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate. Point mutations from Ser to Asn, Ala, Asp, Gly, Gln, Met, Cys, Thr, Leu, Val, and Tyr were constructed in GluRAflip. The last four of these mutants were not functional; S750D was active only in the presence of cyclothiazide, and the remaining mutants exhibited altered rates of deactivation and desensitization for control responses to glutamate, and showed differential modulation by cyclothiazide and aniracetam. Results from kinetic analysis are consistent with aniracetam and cyclothiazide acting via distinct mechanisms. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the functional importance of residue 750 in regulating intrinsic channel-gating kinetics and emphasize the biological significance of alternative splicing in the M3-M4 extracellular loop.

  17. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance is not affected in Ustilago maydis Δatg11 mutants blocked in mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Vogel, Gaby; Lämmer, Frauke; Kämper, Jörg; Basse, Christoph W

    2015-02-06

    Maternal or uniparental inheritance (UPI) of mitochondria is generally observed in sexual eukaryotes, however, the underlying mechanisms are diverse and largely unknown. Recently, based on the use of mutants blocked in autophagy, it has been demonstrated that autophagy is required for strict maternal inheritance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance has been well documented for numerous fungal species, and in particular, has been shown to be genetically governed by the mating-type loci in the isogamous species Cryptococcus neoformans, Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Ustilago maydis. Previously, we have shown that the a2 mating-type locus gene lga2 is decisive for UPI during sexual development of U. maydis. In axenic culture, conditional overexpression of lga2 triggers efficient loss of mtDNA as well as mitophagy. To assess a functional relationship, we have investigated UPI in U. maydis Δatg11 mutants, which are blocked in mitophagy. This study has revealed that Δatg11 mutants are not affected in pathogenic development and this has allowed us to analyse UPI under comparable developmental conditions between mating-compatible wild-type and mutant strain combinations. Explicitly, we have examined two independent strain combinations that gave rise to different efficiencies of UPI. We demonstrate that in both cases UPI is atg11-independent, providing evidence that mitophagy is not critical for UPI in U. maydis, even under conditions of strict UPI. Until now, analysis of a role of mitophagy in UPI has not been reported for microbial species. Our study suggests that selective autophagy does not contribute to UPI in U. maydis, but is rather a consequence of selective mtDNA elimination in response to mitochondrial damage.

  18. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  19. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as “dry eye” and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Method Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Results Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107–667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Conclusions Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients. PMID:28444329

  20. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-18

    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315). We have isolated a dominant mutation, BPC1-1, that allows growth in this medium of yeasts with interrupted PYC1 and PYC2 genes. The BPC1-1 mutation abolishes catabolite repression of a series of genes and allows expression of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle during growth in glucose. A functional glyoxylate cycle is necessary for suppression as a disruption of gene ICL1 encoding isocitrate lyase abolished the phenotypic effect of BPC1-1 on growth in glucose-ammonium. Concurrent expression from constitutive promoters of genes ICL1 and MLS1 (encoding malate synthase) also suppressed the growth phenotype of pyc1 pyc2 mutants. The mutation BPC1-1 is either allelic or closely linked to the mutation DGT1-1.

  1. Drosophila Insulin Pathway Mutants Affect Visual Physiology and Brain Function Besides Growth, Lipid, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Maldonado, Juan M.; Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Salgado, Luis M.; Salceda, Rocío; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes worldwide. Some of its complications, such as retinopathy and neuropathy, are long-term and protracted, with an unclear etiology. Given this problem, genetic model systems, such as in flies where type 2 diabetes can be modeled and studied, offer distinct advantages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used individual flies in experiments: control and mutant individuals with partial loss-of-function insulin pathway genes. We measured wing size and tested body weight for growth phenotypes, the latter by means of a microbalance. We studied total lipid and carbohydrate content, lipids by a reaction in single fly homogenates with vanillin-phosphoric acid, and carbohydrates with an anthrone-sulfuric acid reaction. Cholinesterase activity was measured using the Ellman method in head homogenates from pooled fly heads, and electroretinograms with glass capillary microelectrodes to assess performance of central brain activity and retinal function. RESULTS Flies with partial loss-of-function of insulin pathway genes have significantly reduced body weight, higher total lipid content, and sometimes elevated carbohydrate levels. Brain function is impaired, as is retinal function, but no clear correlation can be drawn from nervous system function and metabolic state. CONCLUSIONS These studies show that flies can be models of type 2 diabetes. They weigh less but have significant lipid gains (obese); some also have carbohydrate gains and compromised brain and retinal functions. This is significant because flies have an open circulatory system without microvasculature and can be studied without the complications of vascular defects. PMID:21464442

  2. Plasma membrane lipid–protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zauber, Henrik; Burgos, Asdrubal; Garapati, Prashanth; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipid–protein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status. PMID:24672530

  3. Mutant WDR36 directly affects axon growth of retinal ganglion cells leading to progressive retinal degeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Zai-Long; Yasumoto, Fumie; Sergeev, Yuri; Minami, Masayoshi; Obazawa, Minoru; Kimura, Itaru; Takada, Yuichiro; Iwata, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the three principal subtypes of glaucoma and among the leading cause of blindness worldwide. POAG is defined by cell death of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and surrounding neuronal cells at higher or normal intraocular pressure (IOP). Coded by one of the three genes responsible for POAG, WD repeat-containing protein 36 (WDR36) has two domains with a similar folding. To address whether WDR36 is functionally important in the retina, we developed four transgenic mice strains overexpressing a wild-type (Wt) and three mutant variants of D606G, deletion of amino acids at positions 605–607 (Del605–607) and at 601–640 (Del601–640) equivalent to the location of the D658G mutation observed in POAG patients. A triple amino acid deletion of mouse Wdr36 at positions 605–607 corresponding to the deletion at positions 657–659 in humans developed progressive retinal degeneration at the peripheral retina with normal IOP. RGCs and connecting amacrine cell synapses were affected at the peripheral retina. Axon outgrowth rate of cultured RGC directly isolated from transgenic animal was significantly reduced by the Wdr36 mutation compared with Wt. Molecular modeling of wild and mutant mouse Wdr36 revealed that deletion at positions 605–607 removed three residues and a hydrogen bond, required to stabilize anti-parallel β-sheet of the 6th β-propeller in the second domain. We concluded that WDR36 plays an important functional role in the retina homeostasis and mutation to this gene can cause devastating retinal damage. These data will improve understanding of the functional property of WDR36 in the retina and provide a new animal model for glaucoma therapeutics. PMID:20631153

  4. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  5. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies.

  6. Immunotherapy targeting α-synuclein protofibrils reduced pathology in (Thy-1)-h[A30P] α-synuclein mice.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Veronica; Fagerqvist, Therese; Nordström, Eva; Eriksson, Fredrik; Lord, Anna; Tucker, Stina; Andersson, Jessica; Johannesson, Malin; Schell, Heinrich; Kahle, Philipp J; Möller, Christer; Gellerfors, Pär; Bergström, Joakim; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein) in the central nervous system (CNS) is an early pathogenic event in Parkinson's disease and other Lewy body disorders. In recent years, animal studies have indicated immunotherapy with antibodies directed against α-synuclein as a promising novel treatment strategy. Since large α-synuclein oligomers, or protofibrils, have been demonstrated to possess pronounced cytotoxic properties, such species should be particularly attractive as therapeutic targets. In support of this, (Thy-1)-h[A30P] α-synuclein transgenic mice with motor dysfunction symptoms were found to display increased levels of α-synuclein protofibrils in the CNS. An α-synuclein protofibril-selective monoclonal antibody (mAb47) was evaluated in this α-synuclein transgenic mouse model. As measured by ELISA, 14month old mice treated for 14weeks with weekly intraperitoneal injections of mAb47 displayed significantly lower levels of both soluble and membrane-associated protofibrils in the spinal cord. Besides the lower levels of pathogenic α-synuclein demonstrated, a reduction of motor dysfunction in transgenic mice upon peripheral administration of mAb47 was indicated. Thus, immunotherapy with antibodies targeting toxic α-synuclein species holds promise as a future disease-modifying treatment in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell wall composition and penetration resistance against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum are affected by impaired starch turnover in Arabidopsis mutants.

    PubMed

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Will, Cornelia; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmitt, Christine; Merritt, Brian B; Rieger, Leonie; Frenger, Marc S; Marschall, André; Franke, Rochus B; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Voll, Lars M

    2017-01-01

    Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm. Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance. Glycome profiling analysis showed that both overall cell wall polysaccharide extractability and relative extractability of specific pectin and xylan epitopes were affected in pgm, suggesting extensive structural changes in pgm cell walls. Screening of mutants with alterations in content or modification of specific cell wall monosaccharides indicated an important function of pectic polymers for penetration resistance and hyphal growth of C. higginsianum during the biotrophic interaction phase. While mutants with affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (mur8) were hypersusceptible, penetration frequency and morphology of fungal hyphae were impaired on pmr5 pmr6 mutants with increased pectin levels. Our results reveal a strong impact of starch metabolism on cell wall composition and suggest a link between carbohydrate availability, cell wall pectin and penetration resistance.

  8. Cell wall composition and penetration resistance against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum are affected by impaired starch turnover in Arabidopsis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Will, Cornelia; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmitt, Christine; Merritt, Brian B.; Rieger, Leonie; Frenger, Marc S.; Marschall, André; Franke, Rochus B.; Pattathil, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm. Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance. Glycome profiling analysis showed that both overall cell wall polysaccharide extractability and relative extractability of specific pectin and xylan epitopes were affected in pgm, suggesting extensive structural changes in pgm cell walls. Screening of mutants with alterations in content or modification of specific cell wall monosaccharides indicated an important function of pectic polymers for penetration resistance and hyphal growth of C. higginsianum during the biotrophic interaction phase. While mutants with affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (mur8) were hypersusceptible, penetration frequency and morphology of fungal hyphae were impaired on pmr5 pmr6 mutants with increased pectin levels. Our results reveal a strong impact of starch metabolism on cell wall composition and suggest a link between carbohydrate availability, cell wall pectin and penetration resistance. PMID:28204541

  9. The absence of chlorophyll b affects lateral mobility of photosynthetic complexes and lipids in grana membranes of Arabidopsis and barley chlorina mutants.

    PubMed

    Tyutereva, Elena V; Evkaikina, Anastasiia I; Ivanova, Alexandra N; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V

    2017-09-01

    The lateral mobility of integral components of thylakoid membranes, such as plastoquinone, xanthophylls, and pigment-protein complexes, is critical for the maintenance of efficient light harvesting, high rates of linear electron transport, and successful repair of damaged photosystem II (PSII). The packaging of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in the membrane depends on their size and stereometric parameters which in turn depend on the composition of the complexes. Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an important regulator of antenna size and composition. In this study, the lateral mobility (the mobile fraction size) of pigment-protein complexes and lipids in grana membranes was analyzed in chlorina mutants of Arabidopsis and barley lacking Chlb. In the Arabidopsis ch1-3 mutant, diffusion of membrane lipids decreased as compared to wild-type plants, but the diffusion of photosynthetic complexes was not affected. In the barley chlorina f2 3613 mutant, the diffusion of pigment-protein complexes significantly decreased, while the diffusion of lipids increased, as compared to wild-type plants. We propose that the size of the mobile fractions of pigment-protein complexes in grana membranes in vivo is higher than reported previously. The data are discussed in the context of the protein composition of antennae, characteristics of the plastoquinone pool, and production of reactive oxygen species in leaves of chlorina mutants.

  10. The Annona muricata leaf ethanol extract affects mobility and reproduction in mutant strain NB327 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bustos, A V Gualteros; Jiménez, M Gómez; Mora, R M Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    The C. elegans NB327 mutant strain is characterized for the knockdown of the dic-1 gene. The dic-1 gene is homologous to the dice-1 gene in humans, encoding the protein DICE-1 as a tumor suppressor. Absence or under-regulation of the dice-1 gene can be reflected in lung and prostate cancer [17], [18]. This study evaluated the effect of EEAML on the C. elegans NB327 mutant strain. Phenotypic aspects such as morphology, body length, locomotion, and reproductive behaviour were analyzed. It is important to emphasize that the strain presents a phenotype characteristic with respect to egg laying and hatching. Reported studies showed that Annona muricata extract and its active components evidence anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects, through experimentation in vivo and in vitro models. However, neurotoxicity has been reported as a side effect. The results showed that the mutant strain NB327 was exposed to EEAML (5 mg/ml) concentration, it showed a significant decrease in average locomotion, resulting in 13 undulations in 30 s. This contrasts with the control strain's 17.5 undulations in 30 s. Similarly, the number of progenies was reduced from 188 progenies (control strain) to 114 and 92 progenies at the dose of (1 mg/ml and 5 mg/m) EEAML. The results of this study suggest that EEAML has a possible neurotoxic effect in concentrations equal to or greater than 5 mg/ml. Also, it does not have positive effects on the mutant strain of Caenorhabditis elegans NB327 phenotype.

  11. Active site mutant transgene confers tolerance to human β-glucuronidase without affecting the phenotype of MPS VII mice

    PubMed Central

    Sly, William S.; Vogler, Carole; Grubb, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Mi; Jiang, Jinxing; Zhou, Xiao Yan; Tomatsu, Shunji; Bi, Yanhua; Snella, Elizabeth M.

    2001-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII; Sly syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder due to an inherited deficiency of β-glucuronidase. A naturally occurring mouse model for this disease was discovered at The Jackson Laboratory and shown to be due to homozygosity for a 1-bp deletion in exon 10 of the gus gene. The murine model MPS VII (gusmps/mps) has been very well characterized and used extensively to evaluate experimental strategies for lysosomal storage diseases, including bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy, and gene therapy. To enhance the value of this model for enzyme and gene therapy, we produced a transgenic mouse expressing the human β-glucuronidase cDNA with an amino acid substitution at the active site nucleophile (E540A) and bred it onto the MPS VII (gusmps/mps) background. We demonstrate here that the mutant mice bearing the active site mutant human transgene retain the clinical, morphological, biochemical, and histopathological characteristics of the original MPS VII (gusmps/mps) mouse. However, they are now tolerant to immune challenge with human β-glucuronidase. This “tolerant MPS VII mouse model” should be useful for preclinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of enzyme and/or gene therapy with the human gene products likely to be administered to human patients with MPS VII. PMID:11226217

  12. Loss of Either Rac1 or Rac3 GTPase Differentially Affects the Behavior of Mutant Mice and the Development of Functional GABAergic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pennucci, Roberta; Talpo, Francesca; Astro, Veronica; Montinaro, Valentina; Morè, Lorenzo; Cursi, Marco; Castoldi, Valerio; Chiaretti, Sara; Bianchi, Veronica; Marenna, Silvia; Cambiaghi, Marco; Tonoli, Diletta; Leocani, Letizia; Biella, Gerardo; D'Adamo, Patrizia; de Curtis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Rac GTPases regulate the development of cortical/hippocampal GABAergic interneurons by affecting the early development and migration of GABAergic precursors. We have addressed the function of Rac1 and Rac3 proteins during the late maturation of hippocampal interneurons. We observed specific phenotypic differences between conditional Rac1 and full Rac3 knockout mice. Rac1 deletion caused greater generalized hyperactivity and cognitive impairment compared with Rac3 deletion. This phenotype matched with a more evident functional impairment of the inhibitory circuits in Rac1 mutants, showing higher excitability and reduced spontaneous inhibitory currents in the CA hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Morphological analysis confirmed a differential modification of the inhibitory circuits: deletion of either Rac caused a similar reduction of parvalbumin-positive inhibitory terminals in the pyramidal layer. Intriguingly, cannabinoid receptor-1-positive terminals were strongly increased only in the CA1 of Rac1-depleted mice. This increase may underlie the stronger electrophysiological defects in this mutant. Accordingly, incubation with an antagonist for cannabinoid receptors partially rescued the reduction of spontaneous inhibitory currents in the pyramidal cells of Rac1 mutants. Our results show that Rac1 and Rac3 have independent roles in the formation of GABAergic circuits, as highlighted by the differential effects of their deletion on the late maturation of specific populations of interneurons. PMID:26582364

  13. Fork stalling and template switching as a mechanism for polyalanine tract expansion affecting the DYC mutant of HOXD13, a new murine model of synpolydactyly.

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, Olivier; Brault, Véronique; Babinet, Charles; Herault, Yann

    2009-09-01

    Polyalanine expansion diseases are proposed to result from unequal crossover of sister chromatids that increases the number of repeats. In this report we suggest an alternative mechanism we put forward while we investigated a new spontaneous mutant that we named "Dyc" for "Digit in Y and Carpe" phenotype. Phenotypic analysis revealed an abnormal limb patterning similar to that of the human inherited congenital disease synpolydactyly (SPD) and to the mouse mutant model Spdh. Both human SPD and mouse Spdh mutations affect the Hoxd13 gene within a 15-residue polyalanine-encoding repeat in the first exon of the gene, leading to a dominant negative HOXD13. Genetic analysis of the Dyc mutant revealed a trinucleotide expansion in the polyalanine-encoding region of the Hoxd13 gene resulting in a 7-alanine expansion. However, unlike the Spdh mutation, this expansion cannot result from a simple duplication of a short segment. Instead, we propose the fork stalling and template switching (FosTeS) described for generation of nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements as a possible mechanism for the Dyc polyalanine extension, as well as for other polyalanine expansions described in the literature and that could not be explained by unequal crossing over.

  14. Fork Stalling and Template Switching As a Mechanism for Polyalanine Tract Expansion Affecting the DYC Mutant of HOXD13, a New Murine Model of Synpolydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Cocquempot, Olivier; Brault, Véronique; Babinet, Charles; Herault, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Polyalanine expansion diseases are proposed to result from unequal crossover of sister chromatids that increases the number of repeats. In this report we suggest an alternative mechanism we put forward while we investigated a new spontaneous mutant that we named “Dyc” for “Digit in Y and Carpe” phenotype. Phenotypic analysis revealed an abnormal limb patterning similar to that of the human inherited congenital disease synpolydactyly (SPD) and to the mouse mutant model Spdh. Both human SPD and mouse Spdh mutations affect the Hoxd13 gene within a 15-residue polyalanine-encoding repeat in the first exon of the gene, leading to a dominant negative HOXD13. Genetic analysis of the Dyc mutant revealed a trinucleotide expansion in the polyalanine-encoding region of the Hoxd13 gene resulting in a 7-alanine expansion. However, unlike the Spdh mutation, this expansion cannot result from a simple duplication of a short segment. Instead, we propose the fork stalling and template switching (FosTeS) described for generation of nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements as a possible mechanism for the Dyc polyalanine extension, as well as for other polyalanine expansions described in the literature and that could not be explained by unequal crossing over. PMID:19546318

  15. Constraints imposed by transmembrane domains affect enzymatic activity of membrane-associated human CD39/NTPDase1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Musi, Elgilda; Islam, Naziba; Drosopoulos, Joan H F

    2007-05-01

    Human CD39/NTPDase1 is an endothelial cell membrane-associated nucleotidase. Its large extracellular domain rapidly metabolizes nucleotides, especially ADP released from activated platelets, inhibiting further platelet activation/recruitment. Previous studies using our recombinant soluble CD39 demonstrated the importance of residues S57, D54, and D213 for enzymatic/biological activity. We now report effects of S57A, D54A, and D213A mutations on full-length (FL)CD39 function. Enzymatic activity of alanine modified FLCD39s was less than wild-type, contrasting the enhanced activity of their soluble counterparts. Furthermore, conservative substitutions D54E and D213E led to enzymes with activities greater than the alanine modified FLCD39s, but less than wild-type. Reductions in mutant activities were primarily associated with reduced catalytic rates. Differences in enzymatic activity were not attributable to gross changes in the nucleotide binding pocket or the enzyme's ability to multimerize. Thus, composition of the active site of wild-type CD39 appears optimized for ADPase function in the context of the transmembrane domains.

  16. Regions flanking ori sequences affect the replication efficiency of the mitochondrial genome of ori+ petite mutants from yeast.

    PubMed

    Rayko, E; Goursot, R; Cherif-Zahar, B; Melis, R; Bernardi, G

    1988-03-31

    The mitochondrial genomes of progenies from 26 crosses between 17 cytoplasmic, spontaneous, suppressive, ori+ petite mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied by electrophoresis of restriction fragments. Only parental genomes (or occasionally, genomes derived from them by secondary excisions) were found in the progenies of the almost 500 diploids investigated; no evidence for illegitimate, site-specific mitochondrial recombination was detected. One of the parental genomes was always found to be predominate over the other one, although to different extents in different crosses. This predominance appears to be due to a higher replication efficiency, which is correlated with a greater density of ori sequences on the mitochondrial genome (and with a shorter repeat unit size of the latter). Exceptions to the 'repeat-unit-size rule' were found, however, even when the parental mitochondrial genomes carried the same ori sequence. This indicates that noncoding, intergenic sequences outside ori sequences also play a role in modulating replication efficiency. Since in different petites such sequences differ in primary structure, size, and position relative to ori sequences, this modulation is likely to take place through an indirect effect on DNA and nucleoid structure.

  17. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Furuse, Tamio; Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  18. Quantitative proteomics in A30P*A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice reveals upregulation of Sel1l.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianguo; Zhang, Pei; Jiao, Fengjuan; Wang, Qingzhi; He, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Zheng; Lv, Zexi; Peng, Xiang; Cai, Hongwei; Tian, Bo

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an abundantly expressed neuronal protein that is at the center of focus in understanding a group of neurodegenerative disorders called synucleinopathies, which are characterized by the intracellular presence of aggregated α-synuclein. However, the mechanism of α-synuclein biology in synucleinopathies pathogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, mice overexpressing human A30P*A53T α-synuclein were evaluated by a motor behavior test and count of TH-positive neurons, and then two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with tandem mass tags (TMTs) labeling was employed to quantitatively identify the differentially expressed proteins of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) tissue samples that were obtained from the α-synuclein transgenic mice and wild type controls. The number of SNpc dopaminergic neurons and the motor behavior were unchanged in A30P*A53T transgenic mice at the age of 6 months. Of the 4,715 proteins identified by proteomic techniques, 271 were differentially expressed, including 249 upregulated and 22 downregulated proteins. These alterations were primarily associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, ubiquitin-proteasome system impairment, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Some obviously changed proteins, which were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, including Sel1l and Sdhc, may be involved in the α-synuclein pathologies of synucleinopathies. A biological pathway analysis of common related proteins showed that the proteins were linked to a total of 31 KEGG pathways. Our findings suggest that these identified proteins may serve as novel therapeutic targets for synucleinopathies.

  19. Bacillus subtilis mutant LicT antiterminators exhibiting enzyme I- and HPr-independent antitermination affect catabolite repression of the bglPH operon.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Cordula; Hecker, Michael; Le Coq, Dominique; Deutscher, Josef

    2002-09-01

    The Bacillus subtilis antiterminator LicT regulates the expression of bglPH and bglS, which encode the enzymes for the metabolism of aryl-beta-glucosides and the beta-glucanase BglS. The N-terminal domain of LicT (first 55 amino acids) prevents the formation of rho-independent terminators on the respective transcripts by binding to target sites overlapping these terminators. Proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulate the antitermination activity of LicT by phosphorylating histidines in its two PTS regulation domains (PRDs). Phosphorylation at His-100 in PRD-1 requires the PTS proteins enzyme I and HPr and the phosphorylated permease BglP and inactivates LicT. During transport and phosphorylation of aryl-beta-glucosides, BglP is dephosphorylated, which renders LicT active and thus leads to bglPH and bglS induction. In contrast, phosphorylation at His-207 and/or His-269 in PRD-2, which requires only enzyme I and HPr, is absolutely necessary for LicT activity and bglPH and bglS expression. We isolated spontaneous licT mutants expressing bglPH even when enzyme I and HPr were absent (as indicated by the designation "Pia" [PTS-independent antitermination]). Introduced in a ptsHI(+) strain, two classes of licT(Pia) mutations could be distinguished. Mutants synthesizing LicT(Pia) antiterminators altered in PRD-2 still required induction by aryl-beta-glucosides, whereas mutations affecting PRD-1 caused constitutive bglPH expression. One of the two carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanisms operative for bglPH requires the rho-independent terminator and is probably prevented when LicT is activated by P approximately His-HPr-dependent phosphorylation in PRD-2 (where the prefix "P approximately " stands for "phospho"). During CCR, the small amount of P approximately His-HPr present in cells growing on repressing PTS sugars probably leads to insufficient phosphorylation at PRD-2 of LicT and therefore to reduced bglPH expression

  20. Bacillus subtilis Mutant LicT Antiterminators Exhibiting Enzyme I- and HPr-Independent Antitermination Affect Catabolite Repression of the bglPH Operon

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Cordula; Hecker, Michael; Le Coq, Dominique; Deutscher, Josef

    2002-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis antiterminator LicT regulates the expression of bglPH and bglS, which encode the enzymes for the metabolism of aryl-β-glucosides and the β-glucanase BglS. The N-terminal domain of LicT (first 55 amino acids) prevents the formation of ρ-independent terminators on the respective transcripts by binding to target sites overlapping these terminators. Proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulate the antitermination activity of LicT by phosphorylating histidines in its two PTS regulation domains (PRDs). Phosphorylation at His-100 in PRD-1 requires the PTS proteins enzyme I and HPr and the phosphorylated permease BglP and inactivates LicT. During transport and phosphorylation of aryl-β-glucosides, BglP is dephosphorylated, which renders LicT active and thus leads to bglPH and bglS induction. In contrast, phosphorylation at His-207 and/or His-269 in PRD-2, which requires only enzyme I and HPr, is absolutely necessary for LicT activity and bglPH and bglS expression. We isolated spontaneous licT mutants expressing bglPH even when enzyme I and HPr were absent (as indicated by the designation “Pia” [PTS-independent antitermination]). Introduced in a ptsHI+ strain, two classes of licT(Pia) mutations could be distinguished. Mutants synthesizing LicT(Pia) antiterminators altered in PRD-2 still required induction by aryl-β-glucosides, whereas mutations affecting PRD-1 caused constitutive bglPH expression. One of the two carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanisms operative for bglPH requires the ρ-independent terminator and is probably prevented when LicT is activated by P∼His-HPr-dependent phosphorylation in PRD-2 (where the prefix “P∼” stands for “phospho”). During CCR, the small amount of P∼His-HPr present in cells growing on repressing PTS sugars probably leads to insufficient phosphorylation at PRD-2 of LicT and therefore to reduced bglPH expression. In agreement with this concept

  1. Structural investigation of a C-terminal EphA2 receptor mutant: Does mutation affect the structure and interaction properties of the Sam domain?

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia A; Costantini, Susan; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Guariniello, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina L; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia M; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-09-01

    Ephrin A2 receptor (EphA2) plays a key role in cancer, it is up-regulated in several types of tumors and the process of ligand-induced receptor endocytosis, followed by degradation, is considered as a potential path to diminish tumor malignancy. Protein modulators of this mechanism are recruited at the cytosolic Sterile alpha motif (Sam) domain of EphA2 (EphA2-Sam) through heterotypic Sam-Sam associations. These interactions engage the C-terminal helix of EphA2 and close loop regions (the so called End Helix side). In addition, several studies report on destabilizing mutations in EphA2 related to cataract formation and located in/or close to the Sam domain. Herein, we analyzed from a structural point of view, one of these mutants characterized by the insertion of a novel 39 residue long polypeptide at the C-terminus of EphA2-Sam. A 3D structural model was built by computational methods and revealed partial disorder in the acquired C-terminal tail and a few residues participating in an α-helix and two short β-strands. We investigated by CD and NMR studies the conformational properties in solution of two peptides encompassing the whole C-terminal tail and its predicted helical region, respectively. NMR binding experiments demonstrated that these peptides do not interact relevantly with either EphA2-Sam or its interactor Ship2-Sam. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further indicated that the EphA2 mutant could be represented only through a conformational ensemble and that the C-terminal tail should not largely wrap the EphA2-Sam End-Helix interface and affect binding to other Sam domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gibberellins regulate the stem elongation rate without affecting the mature plant height of a quick development mutant of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Xie, Yong-Dun; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Lin-Shu; Xiong, Hong-Chun; Gu, Jia-Yu; Li, Jun-Hui; Kong, Fu-Quan; Sui, Li; Zhao, Zi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Rong; Liu, Lu-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is essential for determining plant height. Alteration of GA content or GA signaling results in a dwarf or slender phenotype. Here, we characterized a novel wheat mutant, quick development (qd), in which GA regulates stem elongation but does not affect mature plant height. qd and wild-type plants did not exhibit phenotypic differences at the seedling stage. From jointing to heading stage, qd plants were taller than wild-type plants due to elongated cells. However, wild-type and qd plants were the same height at heading. Unlike wild-type plants, qd plants were sensitive to exogenous GA due to mutation of Rht-B1. With continuous GA stimulation, qd seedlings and adult plants were taller than wild-type. Thus, the GA content of qd plants might differ from that of wild-type during the growth process. Analysis of GA biosynthetic gene expression verified this hypothesis and showed that TaKAO, which is involved in catalyzing the early steps of GA biosynthesis, was differentially expressed in qd plants compared with wild-type. The bioactive GA associated gene TaGA20ox was downregulated in qd plants during the late growth stages. Measurements of endogenous GA content were consistent with the gene-expression analysis results. Consistent with the GA content variation, the first three basal internodes were longer and the last two internodes were shorter in qd than in wild-type plants. The qd mutant might be useful in dissecting the mechanism by which GA regulates stem-growing process, and it may be serve as a GA responsive semi-dwarf germplasm in breeding programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Chasing stress signals - Exposure to extracellular stimuli differentially affects the redox state of cell compartments in the wild type and signaling mutants of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Robert; Schumacher, Julia; Siegmund, Ulrike; Tudzynski, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important molecules influencing intracellular developmental processes as well as plant pathogen interactions. They are produced at the infection site and affect the intracellular redox homeostasis. However, knowledge of ROS signaling pathways, their connection to other signaling cascades, and tools for the visualization of intra- and extracellular ROS levels and their impact on the redox state are scarce. By using the genetically encoded biosensor roGFP2 we studied for the first time the differences between the redox states of the cytosol, the intermembrane space of mitochondria and the ER in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea. We showed that the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione inside of the cellular compartments differ and that the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and the fluorescent dye calcofluor white (CFW) have a direct impact on the cellular redox states. Dependent on the type of stress agents applied, the redox states were affected in the different cellular compartments in a temporally shifted manner. By integrating the biosensor in deletion mutants of bcnoxA, bcnoxB, bctrx1 and bcltf1 we further elucidated the putative roles of the different proteins in distinct stress-response pathways. We showed that the redox states of ΔbcnoxA and ΔbcnoxB display a wild-type pattern upon exposure to H2O2, but appear to be strongly affected by CaCl2 and CFW. Moreover, we demonstrated the involvement of the light-responsive transcription factor BcLtf1 in the maintenance of the redox state in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Finally, we report that CaCl2 as well as cell wall stress-inducing agents stimulate ROS production and that ΔbcnoxB produces significantly less ROS than the wild type and ΔbcnoxA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary Metabolism and Interspecific Competition Affect Accumulation of Spontaneous Mutants in the GacS-GacA Regulatory System in Pseudomonas protegens

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qing; Lopes, Lucas D.; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Kidarsa, Teresa A.; Vining, Oliver; Philmus, Benjamin; Song, Chunxu; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; McPhail, Kerry L.; Andreote, Fernando D.; Chang, Jeff H.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Secondary metabolites are synthesized by many microorganisms and provide a fitness benefit in the presence of competitors and predators. Secondary metabolism also can be costly, as it shunts energy and intermediates from primary metabolism. In Pseudomonas spp., secondary metabolism is controlled by the GacS-GacA global regulatory system. Intriguingly, spontaneous mutations in gacS or gacA (Gac− mutants) are commonly observed in laboratory cultures. Here we investigated the role of secondary metabolism in the accumulation of Gac− mutants in Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5. Our results showed that secondary metabolism, specifically biosynthesis of the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin, contributes significantly to the accumulation of Gac− mutants. Pyoluteorin biosynthesis, which poses a metabolic burden on the producer cells, but not pyoluteorin itself, leads to the accumulation of the spontaneous mutants. Interspecific competition also influenced the accumulation of the Gac− mutants: a reduced proportion of Gac− mutants accumulated when P. protegens Pf-5 was cocultured with Bacillus subtilis than in pure cultures of strain Pf-5. Overall, our study associated a fitness trade-off with secondary metabolism, with metabolic costs versus competitive benefits of production influencing the evolution of P. protegens, assessed by the accumulation of Gac− mutants. PMID:29339425

  5. Alpha-synuclein aggregation induced by brief ischemia negatively impacts neuronal survival in vivo: a study in [A30P]alpha-synuclein transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Unal-Cevik, Isin; Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin; Yemisci, Muge; Lule, Sevda; Gurer, Gunfer; Can, Alp; Müller, Veronica; Kahle, Philip J; Dalkara, Turgay

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein oligomerization and aggregation are considered to have a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, despite numerous in vitro studies, the impact of aggregates in the intact brain is unclear. In vitro, oxidative/nitrative stress and acidity induce α-synuclein oligomerization. These conditions favoring α-synuclein fibrillization are present in the ischemic brain, which may serve as an in vivo model to study α-synuclein aggregation. In this study, we show that 30-minute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and 72 hours reperfusion induce oligomerization of wild-type α-synuclein in the ischemic mouse brain. The nonamyloidogenic isoform β-synuclein did not form oligomers. Alpha-synuclein aggregates were confined to neurons and colocalized with ubiquitin immunoreactivity. We also found that 30 minutes proximal MCA occlusion and 24 hours reperfusion induced larger infarcts in C57BL/6(Thy1)-h[A30P]alphaSYN transgenic mice, which have an increased tendency to form synuclein fibrils. Trangenics also developed more selective neuronal necrosis when subjected to 20 minutes distal MCA occlusion and 72 hours reperfusion. Enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in transgenic mice suggests that oxidative/nitrative stress may be one of the mechanisms mediating aggregate toxicity. Thus, the increased vulnerability of transgenic mice to ischemia suggests that α-synuclein aggregates not only form during ischemia but also negatively impact neuronal survival, supporting the idea that α-synuclein misfolding may be neurotoxic. PMID:20877387

  6. Secondary Metabolism and Interspecific Competition Affect Accumulation of Spontaneous Mutants in the GacS-GacA Regulatory System in Pseudomonas protegens.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Lopes, Lucas D; Shaffer, Brenda T; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Vining, Oliver; Philmus, Benjamin; Song, Chunxu; Stockwell, Virginia O; Raaijmakers, Jos M; McPhail, Kerry L; Andreote, Fernando D; Chang, Jeff H; Loper, Joyce E

    2018-01-16

    Secondary metabolites are synthesized by many microorganisms and provide a fitness benefit in the presence of competitors and predators. Secondary metabolism also can be costly, as it shunts energy and intermediates from primary metabolism. In Pseudomonas spp., secondary metabolism is controlled by the GacS-GacA global regulatory system. Intriguingly, spontaneous mutations in gacS or gacA (Gac - mutants) are commonly observed in laboratory cultures. Here we investigated the role of secondary metabolism in the accumulation of Gac - mutants in Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5. Our results showed that secondary metabolism, specifically biosynthesis of the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin, contributes significantly to the accumulation of Gac - mutants. Pyoluteorin biosynthesis, which poses a metabolic burden on the producer cells, but not pyoluteorin itself, leads to the accumulation of the spontaneous mutants. Interspecific competition also influenced the accumulation of the Gac - mutants: a reduced proportion of Gac - mutants accumulated when P. protegens Pf-5 was cocultured with Bacillus subtilis than in pure cultures of strain Pf-5. Overall, our study associated a fitness trade-off with secondary metabolism, with metabolic costs versus competitive benefits of production influencing the evolution of P. protegens , assessed by the accumulation of Gac - mutants. IMPORTANCE Many microorganisms produce antibiotics, which contribute to ecologic fitness in natural environments where microbes constantly compete for resources with other organisms. However, biosynthesis of antibiotics is costly due to the metabolic burdens of the antibiotic-producing microorganism. Our results provide an example of the fitness trade-off associated with antibiotic production. Under noncompetitive conditions, antibiotic biosynthesis led to accumulation of spontaneous mutants lacking a master regulator of antibiotic production. However, relatively few of these spontaneous mutants

  7. The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tian; Strasser, Richard; Lee, Christopher M; Gonneau, Martine; Mach, Lukas; Vernhettes, Samantha; Kim, Seong H; J Cosgrove, Daniel; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-06-01

    In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Arabidopsis thaliana GH9A1/KORRIGAN1 is a membrane-bound, family 9 glycosyl hydrolase that is important for cellulose synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls. Most previously identified korrigan1 mutants show severe phenotypes such as embryo lethality; therefore, the role of GH9A1 in cellulose synthesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel A577V missense mutation, designated jiaoyao1 (jia1), in the second of the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 active site signature motifs in GH9A1. jia1 is defective in cell expansion in dark-grown hypocotyls, roots, and adult plants. Consistent with its defect in cell expansion, this mutation in GH9A1 resulted in reduced cellulose content and reduced CSC velocity at the plasma membrane. Green fluorescent protein-GH9A1 is associated with CSCs at multiple locations, including the plasma membrane, Golgi, trans-Golgi network, and small CESA-containing compartments or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments, indicating a tight association between GH9A1 and CSCs. GH9A1 A577V abolishes the endoglucanase activity of GH9A1 in vitro but does not affect its interaction with CESAs in vitro, suggesting that endoglucanase activity is important for cellulose synthesis. Interestingly, jia1 results in both cellulose microfibril and microtubule disorganization. Our study establishes the important role of endoglucanase in cellulose synthesis and cellulose microfibril organization in plants. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. The PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT68–LIKE Protein Evolved from a PSII Assembly Factor to Mediate Assembly of the Chloroplast NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Complex in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Ute; Rühle, Thilo; Kreller, Renate; Strotbek, Christoph; Zühlke, Jessica; Tadini, Luca; Blunder, Thomas; Hertle, Alexander P.; Qi, Yafei; Rengstl, Birgit; Nickelsen, Jörg; Frank, Wolfgang; Leister, Dario

    2013-01-01

    In vascular plants, the chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex (NDH-C) is assembled from five distinct subcomplexes, the membrane-spanning (subM) and the luminal (subL) subcomplexes, as well as subA, subB, and subE. The assembly process itself is poorly understood. Vascular plant genomes code for two related intrinsic thylakoid proteins, PHOTOSYNTHESIS-AFFECTED MUTANT68 (PAM68), a photosystem II assembly factor, and PHOTOSYNTHESIS-AFFECTED MUTANT68-LIKE (PAM68L). As we show here, inactivation of Arabidopsis thaliana PAM68L in the pam68l-1 mutant identifies PAM68L as an NDH-C assembly factor. The mutant lacks functional NDH holocomplexes and accumulates three distinct NDH-C assembly intermediates (subB, subM, and subA+L), which are also found in mutants defective in subB assembly (ndf5) or subM expression (CHLORORESPIRATORY REDUCTION4-3 mutant). NDH-C assembly in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and the moss Physcomitrella patens does not require PAM68 proteins, as demonstrated by the analysis of knockout lines for the single-copy PAM68 genes in these species. We conclude that PAM68L mediates the attachment of subB- and subM-containing intermediates to a complex that contains subA and subL. The evolutionary appearance of subL and PAM68L during the transition from mosses like P. patens to flowering plants suggests that the associated increase in the complexity of the NDH-C might have been facilitated by the recruitment of evolutionarily novel assembly factors like PAM68L. PMID:24096342

  9. Single-point ACT2 gene mutation in the Arabidopsis root hair mutant der1-3 affects overall actin organization, root growth and plant development.

    PubMed

    Vaškebová, L; Šamaj, J; Ovecka, M

    2017-12-27

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic network in plant cells. A single-point mutation in the DER1 (deformed root hairs1) locus located in the sequence of ACTIN2, a gene for major actin in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, leads to impaired root hair development (Ringli C, Baumberger N, Diet A, Frey B, Keller B. 2002. ACTIN2 is essential for bulge site selection and tip growth during root hair development of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology129: 1464-1472). Only root hair phenotypes have been described so far in der1 mutants, but here we demonstrate obvious aberrations in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and overall plant development. Organization of the actin cytoskeleton in epidermal cells of cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots was studied qualitatively and quantitatively by live-cell imaging of transgenic lines carrying the GFP-FABD2 fusion protein and in fixed cells after phalloidin labelling. Patterns of root growth were characterized by FM4-64 vital staining, light-sheet microscopy imaging and microtubule immunolabelling. Plant phenotyping included analyses of germination, root growth and plant biomass. Speed of germination, plant fresh weight and total leaf area were significantly reduced in the der1-3 mutant in comparison with the C24 wild-type. Actin filaments in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells of the der1-3 mutant were shorter, thinner and arranged in more random orientations, while actin bundles were shorter and had altered orientations. The wavy pattern of root growth in der1-3 mutant was connected with higher frequencies of shifted cell division planes (CDPs) in root cells, which was consistent with the shifted positioning of microtubule-based preprophase bands and phragmoplasts. The organization of cortical microtubules in the root cells of the der1-3 mutant, however, was not altered. Root growth rate of the der1-3 mutant is not reduced, but changes in the actin cytoskeleton organization can induce a wavy root growth pattern

  10. The subcutaneous inoculation of pH 6 antigen mutants of Yersinia pestis does not affect virulence and immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Andrey P; Bakhteeva, Irina V; Panfertsev, Evgeniy A; Svetoch, Tat'yana E; Kravchenko, Tat'yana B; Platonov, Mikhail E; Titareva, Galina M; Kombarova, Tat'yana I; Ivanov, Sergey A; Rakin, Alexander V; Amoako, Kingsley K; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V

    2009-01-01

    Two isogenic sets of Yersinia pestis strains were generated, composed of wild-type strains 231 and I-1996, their non-polar pH 6(-) mutants with deletions in the psaA gene that codes for its structural subunit or the whole operon, as well as strains with restored ability for temperature- and pH-dependent synthesis of adhesion pili or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen. The mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the psa operon and subsequent complementation in trans. It was shown that the loss of synthesis or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen did not influence Y. pestis virulence or the average survival time of subcutaneously inoculated BALB/c naïve mice or animals immunized with this antigen.

  11. Absence of Nrf2 or its selective overexpression in neurons and muscle does not affect survival in ALS-linked mutant hSOD1 mouse models.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marcelo R; Burton, Neal C; Kutzke, Jennifer; Gan, Li; Johnson, Delinda A; Schäfer, Matthias; Werner, Sabine; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) governs the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Nrf2 activation can prevent or reduce cellular damage associated with several types of injury in many different tissues and organs. Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. We have previously shown that Nrf2 activation in astrocytes delays neurodegeneration in ALS mouse models. To further investigate the role of Nrf2 in ALS we determined the effect of absence of Nrf2 or its restricted overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers on symptoms onset and survival in mutant hSOD1 expressing mice. We did not observe any detrimental effect associated with the lack of Nrf2 in two different mutant hSOD1 animal models of ALS. However, restricted Nrf2 overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers delayed disease onset but failed to extend survival in hSOD1(G93A) mice. These results highlight the concept that not only the pharmacological target but also the cell type targeted may be relevant when considering a Nrf2-mediated therapeutic approach for ALS.

  12. Absence of Nrf2 or Its Selective Overexpression in Neurons and Muscle Does Not Affect Survival in ALS-Linked Mutant hSOD1 Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Marcelo R.; Burton, Neal C.; Gan, Li; Johnson, Delinda A.; Schäfer, Matthias; Werner, Sabine; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) governs the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Nrf2 activation can prevent or reduce cellular damage associated with several types of injury in many different tissues and organs. Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. We have previously shown that Nrf2 activation in astrocytes delays neurodegeneration in ALS mouse models. To further investigate the role of Nrf2 in ALS we determined the effect of absence of Nrf2 or its restricted overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers on symptoms onset and survival in mutant hSOD1 expressing mice. We did not observe any detrimental effect associated with the lack of Nrf2 in two different mutant hSOD1 animal models of ALS. However, restricted Nrf2 overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers delayed disease onset but failed to extend survival in hSOD1G93A mice. These results highlight the concept that not only the pharmacological target but also the cell type targeted may be relevant when considering a Nrf2-mediated therapeutic approach for ALS. PMID:23418589

  13. Pectate lyase affects pathogenicity in natural isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes and in pelA gene-disrupted and gene-overexpressing mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Bar-Zvi, Dudy; Tsror Lahkim, Leah

    2012-02-01

    Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S. Hughes, the causal agent of black dot on potato and anthracnose on tomato, reduces yield and crop quality. We explored the role of secreted pectate lyase (PL), a cell wall-degrading enzyme, in the aggressiveness of C. coccodes. In vitro-cultivated highly aggressive isolates secreted immunologically detectable PL levels 6 h after transfer to secondary medium versus 12 h for mildly aggressive isolates, suggesting that secreted PL is a virulence factor. The gene encoding PL, CcpelA, was cloned and used for the genetic manipulation of highly (US-41 and Si-72) and mildly (Si-60) aggressive isolates. CcpelA gene-disrupted mutants showed reduced aggressiveness towards tomato fruits and impaired PL secretion and extracellular activity. Conversely, overexpression of CcpelA in the Si-60 isolate increased its aggressiveness and PL secretion. Comparison of CcpelA cloned from isolates US-41 and Si-60 revealed that both encode identical proteins, but differ in their promoters. Bioinformatics analysis for cis-acting elements suggested that the promoters of the US-41 and Si-60 isolates contain one and no AreA-binding site (GATA box), respectively. AreA has been suggested to be involved in fungal aggressiveness; therefore, CcpelA may be a key virulence factor in C. coccodes pathogenicity, and the differences in isolate aggressiveness might result from promoter activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the higher level of CcpelA transcript in isolate US-41 versus Si-60. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. Escherichia coli mutants impaired in maltodextrin transport.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M; Ferenci, T

    1979-10-01

    Wild-type Escherichia coli K-12 was found to grow equally well on maltose and on maltodextrins containing up to seven glucose residues. Three classes of mutants unable to grow on maltodextrins, but still able to grow on maltose, were investigated in detail. The first class, already known, was composed of phage lambda-resistant mutants, which lack the outer membrane protein coded by gene lamB. These mutants grow on maltose and maltotriose but not at all on maltotetraose and longer maltodextrins which cannot cross the outer membrane. A second class of mutants were affected in malE, the structural gene of the periplasmic maltose binding protein. The maltose binding proteins isolated from the new mutants were altered in their substrate binding properties, but not in a way that could account for the mutant phenotypes. Rather, the results of growth experiments and transport studies suggest that these malE mutants are impaired in their ability to transport maltodextrins across the outer membrane. This implies that the maltose binding protein (in wild-type strains) cooperates with the lambda receptor in permeation through the outer membrane. The last class of mutants described in this paper were affected in malG, or perhaps in an as yet undetected gene close to malG. They were defective in the transfer of maltodextrins from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm but only slightly affected in the transport of maltose.

  15. In silico prediction of a disease-associated STIL mutant and its affect on the recruitment of centromere protein J (CENPJ).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ambuj; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Purohit, Rituraj

    2012-01-01

    Human STIL (SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus) protein maintains centriole stability and spindle pole localisation. It helps in recruitment of CENPJ (Centromere protein J)/CPAP (centrosomal P4.1-associated protein) and other centrosomal proteins. Mutations in STIL protein are reported in several disorders, especially in deregulation of cell cycle cascades. In this work, we examined the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) reported in STIL protein for their disease association. Different SNP prediction tools were used to predict disease-associated nsSNPs. Our evaluation technique predicted rs147744459 (R242C) as a highly deleterious disease-associated nsSNP and its interaction behaviour with CENPJ protein. Molecular modelling, docking and molecular dynamics simulation were conducted to examine the structural consequences of the predicted disease-associated mutation. By molecular dynamic simulation we observed structural consequences of R242C mutation which affects interaction of STIL and CENPJ functional domains. The result obtained in this study will provide a biophysical insight into future investigations of pathological nsSNPs using a computational platform.

  16. Aspergillus niger mutants affected in conidial pigmentation do not have an increased susceptibility to water stress during growth at low water activity.

    PubMed

    Segers, F J J; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV radiation, and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (a w ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0·81 a w and germ tubes continued growth at a w  ≥ 0·83. Conidia and microcolonies of the different strains were incubated for 1 week at lowered RH (33-84%). Conidia of all strains germinated and formed colonies after exposure to RH ≥33% when transferred back to malt extract medium at a w 0·98. Conidia germinated and showed limited growth at 84% RH. Microcolonies of all strains did not survive an incubation of 1 week at RH ≤75%, but continued growth after exposure to 84% RH. Together, this is the first genetic evidence that melanin does not play a role during germination and radial extension of fungi at low water conditions. Aspergillus niger, a cosmopolitan fungus with melanized conidia, is used here as a model system for fungal growth at low water activity (a w ) and humidity dynamics. From this study it becomes clear that melanin, contrary to what has been suggested before, is not a key factor in survival and growth during situations that mimic indoor conditions. Indoor fungal growth can lead to cosmetic damage to building materials and health problems. This knowledge makes clear that novel ways to limit indoor fungal growth have to be based on interference with other cellular traits of fungi. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tian; Strasser, Richard; Lee, Christopher M.; Gonneau, Martine; Mach, Lukas; Vernhettes, Samantha; Kim, Seong H.; J. Cosgrove, Daniel; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane–localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Arabidopsis thaliana GH9A1/KORRIGAN1 is a membrane-bound, family 9 glycosyl hydrolase that is important for cellulose synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls. Most previously identified korrigan1 mutants show severe phenotypes such as embryo lethality; therefore, the role of GH9A1 in cellulose synthesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel A577V missense mutation, designated jiaoyao1 (jia1), in the second of the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 active site signature motifs in GH9A1. jia1 is defective in cell expansion in dark-grown hypocotyls, roots, and adult plants. Consistent with its defect in cell expansion, this mutation in GH9A1 resulted in reduced cellulose content and reduced CSC velocity at the plasma membrane. Green fluorescent protein–GH9A1 is associated with CSCs at multiple locations, including the plasma membrane, Golgi, trans-Golgi network, and small CESA-containing compartments or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments, indicating a tight association between GH9A1 and CSCs. GH9A1A577V abolishes the endoglucanase activity of GH9A1 in vitro but does not affect its interaction with CESAs in vitro, suggesting that endoglucanase activity is important for cellulose synthesis. Interestingly, jia1 results in both cellulose microfibril and microtubule disorganization. Our study establishes the important role of endoglucanase in cellulose synthesis and cellulose microfibril organization in plants. PMID:24963054

  18. PDGFRA-mutant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Carbone, Arnaldo; Lanza, Paola; Biondi, Alberto; Rindi, Guido; Cassano, Alessandra; Larghi, Alberto; Persiani, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi M

    2015-07-01

    Germline PDGFRA mutations cause multiple heterogeneous gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. In its familial form this disease, which was formerly termed intestinal neurofibromatosis/neurofibromatosis 3b (INF/NF3b), has been included among familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) because of its genotype, described when GIST was the only known PDGFRA-mutant gastrointestinal tumor. Shortly afterwards, however, inflammatory fibroid polyps also revealed PDGFRA mutations. Subsequently, gastrointestinal CD34+ 'fibrous tumors' of uncertain classification were described in a germline PDGFRA-mutant context. Our aim was to characterize the syndrome produced by germline PDGFRA mutations and establish diagnostic criteria and management strategies for this hitherto puzzling disease. We studied a kindred displaying multiple gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors, comparing it with published families/individuals with possible analogous conditions. We identified a novel inherited PDGFRA mutation (P653L), constituting the third reported example of familial PDGFRA mutation. In adult mutants we detected inflammatory fibroid polyps, gastric GISTs and gastrointestinal fibrous tumors of uncertain nosology. We demonstrate that the syndrome formerly defined as INF/NF3b (exemplified by the family reported herein) is simplistically considered a form of familial GIST, because inflammatory fibroid polyps often prevail. Fibrous tumors appear variants of inflammatory fibroid polyps. 'INF/NF3b' and 'familial GIST' are misleading terms which we propose changing to 'PDGFRA-mutant syndrome'. In this condition, unlike KIT-dependent familial GIST syndromes, if present, GISTs are stomach-restricted and diffuse Cajal cell hyperplasia is not observed. This restriction of GISTs to the stomach in PDGFRA-mutant syndrome: (i) focuses oncological concern on gastric masses, as inflammatory fibroid polyps are benign; (ii) supports a selective role of gastric environment for PDGFRA mutations to elicit GISTs

  19. Imaginal Disc Abnormalities in Lethal Mutants of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shearn, Allen; Rice, Thomas; Garen, Alan; Gehring, Walter

    1971-01-01

    Late lethal mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, dying after the larval stage of development, were isolated. The homozygous mutant larvae were examined for abnormal imaginal disc morphology, and the discs were injected into normal larval hosts to test their capacities to differentiate into adult structures. In about half of the mutants analyzed, disc abnormalities were found. Included among the abnormalities were missing discs, small discs incapable of differentiating, morphologically normal discs with limited capacities for differentiation, and discs with homeotic transformations. In some mutants all discs were affected, and in others only certain discs. The most extreme abnormal phenotype is a class of “discless” mutants. The viability of these mutant larvae indicates that the discs are essential only for the development of an adult and not of a larva. The late lethals are therefore a major source of mutants for studying the genetic control of disc formation. Images PMID:5002822

  20. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  1. Isolation of ntrA-like mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Santero, E; Luque, F; Medina, J R; Tortolero, M

    1986-01-01

    A number of chlorate-resistant mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in a general control of nitrogen metabolism were isolated. These mutants could not utilize dinitrogen, nitrate, or nitrite as a nitrogen source. The reason for this inability is that they were simultaneously deficient in nitrogenase and nitrate and nitrite reductase activities. They were complemented by a cosmid carrying a DNA fragment of A. vinelandii able to complement ntrA mutants of Escherichia coli, so they seemed to be ntrA-like mutants. PMID:3009406

  2. Characterization and classification of zebrafish brain morphology mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Laura Anne; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Gutzman, Jennifer H.; Sive, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the vertebrate brain achieves its three-dimensional structure are clearly complex, requiring the functions of many genes. Using the zebrafish as a model, we have begun to define genes required for brain morphogenesis, including brain ventricle formation, by studying 16 mutants previously identified as having embryonic brain morphology defects. We report the phenotypic characterization of these mutants at several time-points, using brain ventricle dye injection, imaging, and immunohistochemistry with neuronal markers. Most of these mutants display early phenotypes, affecting initial brain shaping, while others show later phenotypes, affecting brain ventricle expansion. In the early phenotype group, we further define four phenotypic classes and corresponding functions required for brain morphogenesis. Although we did not use known genotypes for this classification, basing it solely on phenotypes, many mutants with defects in functionally related genes clustered in a single class. In particular, class 1 mutants show midline separation defects, corresponding to epithelial junction defects; class 2 mutants show reduced brain ventricle size; class 3 mutants show midbrain-hindbrain abnormalities, corresponding to basement membrane defects; and class 4 mutants show absence of ventricle lumen inflation, corresponding to defective ion pumping. Later brain ventricle expansion requires the extracellular matrix, cardiovascular circulation, and transcription/splicing-dependent events. We suggest that these mutants define processes likely to be used during brain morphogenesis throughout the vertebrates. PMID:19051268

  3. Controlling aggregation propensity in A53T mutant of alpha-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sonu; Sarkar, Anita; Sundar, Durai, E-mail: sundar@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2009-09-18

    Understanding {alpha}-synuclein in terms of fibrillization, aggregation, solubility and stability is fundamental in Parkinson's disease (PD). The three familial mutations, namely, A30P, E46K and A53T cause PD because the hydrophobic regions in {alpha}-synuclein acquire {beta}-sheet configuration, and have a propensity to fibrillize and form amyloids that cause cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. On simulating the native form and mutants (A30P, E46K and A53T) of {alpha}-synuclein in water solvent, clear deviations are observed in comparison to the all-helical 1XQ8 PDB structure. We have identified two crucial residues, {sup 40}Val and {sup 74}Val, which play key roles in {beta}-sheet aggregation in the hydrophobic regionsmore » 36-41 and 68-78, respectively, leading to fibrillization and amyloidosis in familial (A53T) PD. We have also identified V40D{sub V}74D, a double mutant of A53T (the most amyloidogenic mutant). The simultaneous introduction of these two mutations in A53T nearly ends its aggregation propensity, increases its solubility and positively enhances its thermodynamic stability.« less

  4. Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis. Under suspension conditions, the mutants exhibited dramatic reductions in the uptake of bacteria and polystyrene latex beads. The initial binding of these ligands was unaffected, however, indicating that the defect was not in a plasma membrane receptor: Because of the phagocytosis defect, the mutants were unable to grow when cultured in suspensions of heat-killed bacteria. The mutants exhibited normal capacities for fluid phase endocytosis and grew as rapidly as parental (AX4) cells in axenic medium. Both the defects in phagocytosis and growth on bacteria were corrected when the mutant Dictyostelium cells were cultured on solid substrates. Reversion and genetic complementation analysis suggested that the mutant phenotypes were caused by single gene defects. While the precise site of action of the mutations was not established, the mutations are likely to affect an early signaling event because the binding of bacteria to mutant cells in suspension was unable to trigger the localized polymerization of actin filaments required for ingestion; other aspects of actin function appeared normal. This class of conditional phagocytosis mutant should prove to be useful for the expression cloning of the affected gene(s). PMID:7519624

  5. Functional classification of rice flanking sequence tagged genes using MapMan terms and global understanding on metabolic and regulatory pathways affected by dxr mutant having defects in light response.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoo, Yo-Han; Yoon, Ung-Han; Ahn, Byung-Ohg; Yun, Doh-Won; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Hong-Kyu; An, GynHeung; Kim, Tae-Ho; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops for humans. To improve the agronomical traits of rice, the functions of more than 1,000 rice genes have been recently characterized and summarized. The completed, map-based sequence of the rice genome has significantly accelerated the functional characterization of rice genes, but progress remains limited in assigning functions to all predicted non-transposable element (non-TE) genes, estimated to number 37,000-41,000. The International Rice Functional Genomics Consortium (IRFGC) has generated a huge number of gene-indexed mutants by using mutagens such as T-DNA, Tos17 and Ds/dSpm. These mutants have been identified by 246,566 flanking sequence tags (FSTs) and cover 65 % (25,275 of 38,869) of the non-TE genes in rice, while the mutation ratio of TE genes is 25.7 %. In addition, almost 80 % of highly expressed non-TE genes have insertion mutations, indicating that highly expressed genes in rice chromosomes are more likely to have mutations by mutagens such as T-DNA, Ds, dSpm and Tos17. The functions of around 2.5 % of rice genes have been characterized, and studies have mainly focused on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Slow progress in characterizing the function of rice genes is mainly due to a lack of clues to guide functional studies or functional redundancy. These limitations can be partially solved by a well-categorized functional classification of FST genes. To create this classification, we used the diverse overviews installed in the MapMan toolkit. Gene Ontology (GO) assignment to FST genes supplemented the limitation of MapMan overviews. The functions of 863 of 1,022 known genes can be evaluated by current FST lines, indicating that FST genes are useful resources for functional genomic studies. We assigned 16,169 out of 29,624 FST genes to 34 MapMan classes, including major three categories such as DNA, RNA and protein. To demonstrate the MapMan application on FST genes, transcriptome

  6. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  7. Gravitropism in roots of intermediate-starch mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Wright, J. B.; Caspar, T.

    1996-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in roots of wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (strain Wassilewskija) and three starch-deficient mutants that were generated by T-DNA insertional mutagenesis. One of these mutants was starchless while the other two were intermediate mutants, which had 51% and 60%, respectively, of the WT amount of starch as determined by light and electron microscopy. The four parameters used to assay gravitropism were: orientation during vertical growth, time course of curvature, induction, and intermittent stimulation experiments. WT roots were much more responsive to gravity than were roots of the starchless mutant, and the intermediate starch mutants exhibited an intermediate graviresponse. Our data suggest that lowered starch content in the mutants primarily affects gravitropism rather than differential growth because both phototropic curvature and growth rates were approximately equal among all four genotypes. Since responses of intermediate-starch mutants were closer to the WT response than to the starchless mutant, it appears that 51-60% of the WT level of starch is near the threshold amount needed for full gravitropic sensitivity. While other interpretations are possible, the data are consistent with the starch statolith hypothesis for gravity perception in that the degree of graviresponsiveness is proportional to the total mass of plastids per cell.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of a photomorphogenic mutant.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Christian; Casal, Jorge J

    2004-09-01

    Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor controlling plant growth and development throughout their life cycle. Plants have evolved sophisticated light-sensing mechanisms to monitor fluctuations in light quality, intensity, direction and periodicity (day length). In Arabidopsis, three families of photoreceptors have been identified by molecular genetic studies. The UV-A/blue light receptors cryptochromes and the red/far-red receptors phytochromes control an overlapping set of responses including photoperiodic flowering induction and de-etiolation. Phototropins are the primary photoreceptors for a set of specific responses to UV-A/blue light such as phototropism, chloroplast movement and stomatal opening. Mutants affecting a photoreceptor have a characteristic phenotype. It is therefore possible to determine the specific developmental responses and the photoreceptor pathway(s) affected in a mutant by performing an appropriate set of photobiological and genetic experiments. In this paper, we outline the principal and easiest experiments that can be performed to obtain a first indication about the nature of the photobiological defect in a given mutant.

  9. Isolation and characterization of gallium resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Hernández-González, Ismael L; Maeda, Toshinari; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Boogerd, Fred C; Sheng, Lili; Wood, Thomas K; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 cells resistant to the novel antimicrobial gallium nitrate (Ga) were developed using transposon mutagenesis and by selecting spontaneous mutants. The mutants showing the highest growth in the presence of Ga were selected for further characterization. These mutants showed 4- to 12-fold higher Ga minimal inhibitory growth concentrations and a greater than 8-fold increase in the minimum biofilm eliminating Ga concentration. Both types of mutants produced Ga resistant biofilms whereas the formation of wild-type biofilms was strongly inhibited by Ga. The gene interrupted in the transposon mutant was hitA, which encodes a periplasmic iron binding protein that delivers Fe³⁺ to the HitB iron permease; complementation of the mutant with the hitA gene restored the Ga sensitivity. This hitA mutant showed a 14-fold decrease in Ga internalization versus the wild-type strain, indicating that the HitAB system is also involved in the Ga uptake. Ga uptake in the spontaneous mutant was also lower, although no mutations were found in the hitAB genes. Instead, this mutant harbored 64 non-silent mutations in several genes including those of the phenazine pyocyanin biosynthesis. The spontaneous mutant produced 2-fold higher pyocyanin basal levels than the wild-type; the addition of this phenazine to wild-type cultures protected them from the Ga bacteriostatic effect. The present data indicate that mutations affecting Ga transport and probably pyocyanin biosynthesis enable cells to develop resistance to Ga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutants of Yeast Defective in Sucrose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marian; Osmond, Barbara C.; Botstein, David

    1981-01-01

    Utilization of sucrose as a source of carbon and energy in yeast (Saccharomyces) is controlled by the classical SUC genes, which confer the ability to produce the sucrose-degrading enzyme invertase (Mortimer and Hawthorne 1969). Mutants of S. cerevisiae strain S288C (SUC2+) unable to grow anaerobically on sucrose, but still able to use glucose, were isolated. Two major complementation groups were identified: twenty-four recessive mutations at the SUC2 locus (suc2-); and five recessive mutations defining a new locus, SNF1 (for sucrose nonfermenting), essential for sucrose utilization. Two minor complementation groups, each comprising a single member with a leaky sucrose-nonfermenting phenotype, were also identified. The suc2 mutations isolated include four suppressible amber mutations and five mutations apparently exhibiting intragenic complementation; complementation analysis and mitotic mapping studies indicated that all of the suc2 mutations are alleles of a single gene. These results suggest that SUC2 encodes a protein, probably a dimer or multimer. No invertase activity was detected in suc2 mutants.—The SNF1 locus is not tightly linked to SUC2. The snf1 mutations were found to be pleiotropic, preventing sucrose utilization by SUC2+ and SUC7+ strains, and also preventing utilization of galactose, maltose and several nonfermentable carbon sources. Although snf1 mutants thus display a petite phenotype, classic petite mutations do not interfere with utilization of sucrose, galactose or maltose. A common feature of all the carbon utilization systems affected by SNF1 is that all are regulated by glucose repression. The snf1 mutants were found to produce the constitutive nonglycosylated form of invertase, but failed to produce the glucose-repressible, glycosylated, secreted invertase. This failure cannot be attributed to a general defect in production of glycosylated and secreted proteins because synthesis of acid phosphatase, a glycosylated secreted protein not

  12. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  14. Isolation of peroxisome-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, R; Veenhuis, M; Mertens, D; Kunau, W H

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affected in peroxisomal assembly (pas mutants) have been isolated and characterized. Each strain contains a single mutation that results in (i) the inability to grow on oleic acid, (ii) accumulation of peroxisomal matrix enzymes in the cytosol, and (iii) absence of detectable peroxisomes at the ultrastructural level. These lesions (pas1-1 and pas2) are shown to be nonallelic and recessive. Crossing of pas1-1 and pas2 strains resulted in diploid cells that had regained the ability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source and to form peroxisomes. These pas mutants may provide useful tools for future studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisomal assembly. Images PMID:2568633

  15. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  16. The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium: Identification of ocular mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Monica M.; Wang, Xiaofei; Lu, Lu

    2005-06-01

    The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) is in its fifth year of a ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-based mutagenesis screen to detect recessive mutations that affect the eye and brain. Each pedigree is tested by various phenotyping domains including the eye, neurohistology, behavior, aging, ethanol, drug, social behavior, auditory, and epilepsy domains. The utilization of a highly efficient breeding protocol and coordination of various universities across Tennessee makes it possible for mice with ENU-induced mutations to be evaluated by nine distinct phenotyping domains within this large-scale project known as the TMGC. Our goal is to create mutant lines that model human diseases andmore » disease syndromes and to make the mutant mice available to the scientific research community. Within the eye domain, mice are screened for anterior and posterior segment abnormalities using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, eye weight, histology, and immunohistochemistry. As of January 2005, we have screened 958 pedigrees and 4800 mice, excluding those used in mapping studies. We have thus far identified seven pedigrees with primary ocular abnormalities. Six of the mutant pedigrees have retinal or subretinal aberrations, while the remaining pedigree presents with an abnormal eye size. Continued characterization of these mutant mice should in most cases lead to the identification of the mutated gene, as well as provide insight into the function of each gene. Mice from each of these pedigrees of mutant mice are available for distribution to researchers for independent study.« less

  17. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  18. Phenotypic characterization of adenovirus type 12 temperature-sensitive mutants in productive infection and transformation.

    PubMed

    Hama, S; Kimura, G

    1980-01-01

    Eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of adenovirus type 12, capable of forming plaques in human cells at 33 C but not at 39.5 C, were isolated from a stock of a wild-type strain after treatment with either nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. Complementation tests in doubly infected human cells permitted a tentative assignment of eight of these mutants to six complementation groups. Temperature-shift experiments revealed that one mutant is affected early and most of the other mutants are affected late. Only the early mutant, H12ts505, was temperature sensitive in viral DNA replication. Infectious virions of all the mutants except H12ts505 and two of the late mutants produced at 33 C, appeared to be more heat labile than those of the wild type. Only H12ts505 was temperature sensitive for the establishment of transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. One of the late mutants (H12ts504) had an increased transforming ability at the permissive temperature. Results of temperature-shift transformation experiments suggest that a viral function affected in H12ts505 is required for "initiation" of transformation. Some of the growth properties of H12ts505-transformed cells were also temperature dependent, suggesting that a functional expression of a gene mutation in H12ts505 is required to maintain at least some aspects of the transformed state.

  19. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Nava, Edson Jiovany; González-Valdez, Abigail; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Hernández-Pineda, Jessica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Marcial-Quino, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD) and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro), and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro). The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD) and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations. PMID:29072585

  20. Tissue-Specific Profiling Reveals Transcriptome Alterations in Arabidopsis Mutants Lacking Morphological Phenotypes[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marissa; Bruex, Angela; Kainkaryam, Raghunandan M.; Zheng, Xiaohua; Huang, Ling; Woolf, Peter J.; Schiefelbein, John

    2013-01-01

    Traditional genetic analysis relies on mutants with observable phenotypes. Mutants lacking visible abnormalities may nevertheless exhibit molecular differences useful for defining gene function. To examine this, we analyzed tissue-specific transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor gene mutants with known roles in root epidermis development, but lacking a single-gene mutant phenotype due to genetic redundancy. We discovered substantial transcriptional changes in each mutant, preferentially affecting root epidermal genes in a manner consistent with the known double mutant effects. Furthermore, comparing transcript profiles of single and double mutants, we observed remarkable variation in the sensitivity of target genes to the loss of one or both paralogous genes, including preferential effects on specific branches of the epidermal gene network, likely reflecting the pathways of paralog subfunctionalization during evolution. In addition, we analyzed the root epidermal transcriptome of the transparent testa glabra2 mutant to clarify its role in the network. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of genetic redundancy and duplicate gene diversification at the level of a specific gene regulatory network, and they demonstrate the usefulness of tissue-specific transcript profiling to define gene function in mutants lacking informative visible changes in phenotype. PMID:24014549

  1. Paranodal permeability in `myelin mutants'

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, S.; Mierzwa, A.; Scherer, S.S.; Peles, E.; Arevalo, J.C.; Chao, M.V.; Rosenbluth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three `myelin mutant' mice, Caspr-null, cst-null and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3kDa, 10kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40kDa, 70kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of transverse bands in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of transverse bands. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of transverse bands but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of `pathway 3', the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  2. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Sordaria macrospora Mutants Identifies Developmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou; Teichert, Ines; Masloff, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    The study of mutants to elucidate gene functions has a long and successful history; however, to discover causative mutations in mutants that were generated by random mutagenesis often takes years of laboratory work and requires previously generated genetic and/or physical markers, or resources like DNA libraries for complementation. Here, we present an alternative method to identify defective genes in developmental mutants of the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora through Illumina/Solexa whole-genome sequencing. We sequenced pooled DNA from progeny of crosses of three mutants and the wild type and were able to pinpoint the causative mutations in the mutant strains through bioinformatics analysis. One mutant is a spore color mutant, and the mutated gene encodes a melanin biosynthesis enzyme. The causative mutation is a G to A change in the first base of an intron, leading to a splice defect. The second mutant carries an allelic mutation in the pro41 gene encoding a protein essential for sexual development. In the mutant, we detected a complex pattern of deletion/rearrangements at the pro41 locus. In the third mutant, a point mutation in the stop codon of a transcription factor-encoding gene leads to the production of immature fruiting bodies. For all mutants, transformation with a wild type-copy of the affected gene restored the wild-type phenotype. Our data demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing of mutant strains is a rapid method to identify developmental genes in an organism that can be genetically crossed and where a reference genome sequence is available, even without prior mapping information.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Sordaria macrospora Mutants Identifies Developmental Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nowrousian, Minou; Teichert, Ines; Masloff, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The study of mutants to elucidate gene functions has a long and successful history; however, to discover causative mutations in mutants that were generated by random mutagenesis often takes years of laboratory work and requires previously generated genetic and/or physical markers, or resources like DNA libraries for complementation. Here, we present an alternative method to identify defective genes in developmental mutants of the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora through Illumina/Solexa whole-genome sequencing. We sequenced pooled DNA from progeny of crosses of three mutants and the wild type and were able to pinpoint the causative mutations in the mutant strains through bioinformatics analysis. One mutant is a spore color mutant, and the mutated gene encodes a melanin biosynthesis enzyme. The causative mutation is a G to A change in the first base of an intron, leading to a splice defect. The second mutant carries an allelic mutation in the pro41 gene encoding a protein essential for sexual development. In the mutant, we detected a complex pattern of deletion/rearrangements at the pro41 locus. In the third mutant, a point mutation in the stop codon of a transcription factor-encoding gene leads to the production of immature fruiting bodies. For all mutants, transformation with a wild type-copy of the affected gene restored the wild-type phenotype. Our data demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing of mutant strains is a rapid method to identify developmental genes in an organism that can be genetically crossed and where a reference genome sequence is available, even without prior mapping information. PMID:22384404

  5. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affectmore » sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Sex-Linked Female-Sterile Mutants in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Madeleine; Audit, Claudie; Masson, Michele

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments described was to identify X chromosome genes functioning mainly or exclusively during oogenesis. Two mutagenesis experiments were carried out with ethyl methane sulfonate. Following treatment inducing 60% lethals, 9% of the treated X chromosomes carried a female sterility mutation which did not otherwise seriously affect viability. Among —95 isolated mutants, 19 were heat-sensitive and 5 cold-sensitive. The mutants have been classified as follows: I (16 mutants; 12 complementation groups): the females laid few or no eggs; the defect concerned either ovulation or oogenesis. II (37 mutants; 18 complementation groups): the female laid morphologically abnormal eggs, often with increased membrane permeability. III A (13 mutants; at least 8 complementation groups): the homozygous females were sterile if mated to mutant males; their progeny (homo- and hemizygous) died at a late embryonic stage (11 mutants), at the larval stage (1 mutant) or at the pupal stage (1 mutant). However fertility was partly restored by breeding to wild-type males as shown by survival of some heterozygous descendants. III B (29 mutants; 22 complementation groups): the fertility of the females was not restored by breeding to a wild-type male. Most of the eggs of 13 of the mutants died at a late stage of embryogenesis. The eggs of the others ceased development earlier or, perhaps, remained unfertilized. The distribution of the number of mutants per complementation group led to an estimation of a total of about 150 X-linked genes involved in female fertility. The females of three mutants, heat-sensitive and totally sterile at 29°, produced at a lower temperature descendants morphologically abnormal or deprived of germ cells. Three other mutants not described in detail showed a reduction in female fertility with many descendants lacking germ cells. A desirable mutant which was not recovered was one with normal fertile females producing descendants which, regardless of

  8. Single-molecule FRET studies on alpha-synuclein oligomerization of Parkinson’s disease genetically related mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatto, Laura; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Dear, Alexander J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Cremades, Nunilo; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David

    2015-11-01

    Oligomers of alpha-synuclein are toxic to cells and have been proposed to play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. As certain missense mutations in the gene encoding for alpha-synuclein induce early-onset forms of the disease, it has been suggested that these variants might have an inherent tendency to produce high concentrations of oligomers during aggregation, although a direct experimental evidence for this is still missing. We used single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer to visualize directly the protein self-assembly process by wild-type alpha-synuclein and A53T, A30P and E46K mutants and to compare the structural properties of the ensemble of oligomers generated. We found that the kinetics of oligomer formation correlates with the natural tendency of each variant to acquire beta-sheet structure. Moreover, A53T and A30P showed significant differences in the averaged FRET efficiency of one of the two types of oligomers formed compared to the wild-type oligomers, indicating possible structural variety among the ensemble of species generated. Importantly, we found similar concentrations of oligomers during the lag-phase of the aggregation of wild-type and mutated alpha-synuclein, suggesting that the properties of the ensemble of oligomers generated during self-assembly might be more relevant than their absolute concentration for triggering neurodegeneration.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Sex-Linked Female-Sterile Mutants in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER with Special Attention to Eggshell Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Komitopoulou, Katia; Gans, Madeleine; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Masson, Michele

    1983-01-01

    To study genes that function mainly or exclusively during oogenesis, we have isolated and analyzed female-sterile mutations, with special emphasis on those that affect eggshell formation. Following treatment that induced 61 to 66% lethals, 8.1% of the 1071 X chromosomes tested carried recessive female sterility mutations (87 isolates), and 8.0% carried partial female-sterile mutations (86 isolates), respectively. In addition, three dominant female steriles were recovered. Some of the mutants had very low fecundity, and others laid morphologically normal eggs that failed to develop. A third category included 29 mutants that laid eggs with morphological abnormalities: 26 were female steriles, two were partial female steriles and one was fertile. Mutants of this third category were characterized in some detail and compared with 40 previously isolated mutants that laid similarly abnormal eggs. Approximately 28–31 complementation groups with morphological abnormalities were detected, some of which were large allelic series (11, 9, 7, 6 and 5 alleles). Twenty-four groups were mapped genetically or cytogenetically, and 21 were partially characterized by ultrastructural and biochemical procedures. Of the latter, one group showed clear deficiency of yolk proteins, and nine showed prominent ultrastructural defects in the chorion (at least eight accompanied by deficiencies in characterized chorion proteins). At least six groups with clear-cut effects were found at loci not previously identified with known chorion structural genes. PMID:17246182

  10. Biodiversity in the cyclic competition system of three species according to the emergence of mutant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junpyo

    2018-05-01

    Understanding mechanisms which promote or hinder existing ecosystems are important issues in ecological sciences. In addition to fundamental interactions such as competition and migration among native species, existing ecosystems can be easily disturbed by external factors, and the emergence of new species may be an example in such cases. The new species which does not exist in a current ecosystem can be regarded as either alien species entered from outside or mutant species born by mutation in existing normal species. Recently, as existing ecosystems are getting influenced by various physical/chemical external factors, mutation due to anthropogenic and environmental factors can occur more frequently and is thus attracting much attention for the maintenance of ecosystems. In this paper, we consider emergences of mutant species among self-competing three species in the cyclic dominance. By defining mutation as the birth of mutant species, we investigate how mutant species can affect biodiversity in the existing ecosystem. Through microscopic and macroscopic approaches, we have found that the society of existing normal species can be disturbed by mutant species either the society is maintained accompanying with the coexistence of all species or jeopardized by occupying of mutant species. Due to the birth of mutant species, the existing society may be more complex by constituting two different groups of normal and mutant species, and our results can be contributed to analyze complex ecosystems of many species. We hope our findings may propose a new insight on mutation in cyclic competition systems of many species.

  11. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been no central location for storing generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or for data associated with these mutants. Instead researchers relied on several independent, non-integrated databases. FgMutantDB was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web th...

  12. Misfolded rhodopsin mutants display variable aggregation properties.

    PubMed

    Gragg, Megan; Park, Paul S-H

    2018-06-08

    The largest class of rhodopsin mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is mutations that lead to misfolding and aggregation of the receptor. The misfolding mutants have been characterized biochemically, and categorized as either partial or complete misfolding mutants. This classification is incomplete and does not provide sufficient information to fully understand the disease pathogenesis and evaluate therapeutic strategies. A Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) method was utilized to directly assess the aggregation properties of misfolding rhodopsin mutants within the cell. Partial (P23H and P267L) and complete (G188R, H211P, and P267R) misfolding mutants were characterized to reveal variability in aggregation properties. The complete misfolding mutants all behaved similarly, forming aggregates when expressed alone, minimally interacting with the wild-type receptor when coexpressed, and were unresponsive to treatment with the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis retinal. In contrast, variability was observed between the partial misfolding mutants. In the opsin form, the P23H mutant behaved similarly as the complete misfolding mutants. In contrast, the opsin form of the P267L mutant existed as both aggregates and oligomers when expressed alone and formed mostly oligomers with the wild-type receptor when coexpressed. The partial misfolding mutants both reacted similarly to the pharmacological chaperone 9-cis retinal, displaying improved folding and oligomerization when expressed alone but aggregating with wild-type receptor when coexpressed. The observed differences in aggregation properties and effect of 9-cis retinal predict different outcomes in disease pathophysiology and suggest that retinoid-based chaperones will be ineffective or even detrimental. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; McCann, Maureen C.

    2015-04-06

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with ‘invisible’ phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basismore » of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.« less

  14. Selection of Streptococcus lactis Mutants Defective in Malolactic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Pierre P.; Heslot, Henri

    1987-01-01

    An enrichment medium and a new sensitive medium were developed to detect malolactic variants in different strains of lactic bacteria. Factors such as the concentration of glucose and l-malate, pH level, and the type of indicator dye used are discussed with regard to the kinetics of malic acid conversion to lactic acid. Use of these media allowed a rapid and easier screening of mutagenized streptococcal cells unable to ferment l-malate. A collection of malolactic-negative mutants of Streptococcus lactis induced by UV, nitrosoguanidine, or transposonal mutagenesis were characterized. The results showed that several mutants were apparently defective in the structural gene of malolactic enzyme, whereas others contained mutations which may either inactivate a putative permease or affect a regulatory sequence. PMID:16347282

  15. Implications of long tails in the distribution of mutant effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxman, D.; Feng, J.

    2005-07-01

    Long-tailed distributions possess an infinite variance, yet a finite sample that is drawn from such a distribution has a finite variance. In this work we consider a model of a population subject to mutation, selection and drift. We investigate the implications of a long-tailed distribution of mutant allelic effects on the distribution of genotypic effects in a model with a continuum of allelic effects. While the analysis is confined to asexual populations, it does also have implications for sexual populations. We obtain analytical results for a selectively neutral population as well as one subject to selection. We supplement these analytical results with numerical simulations, to take into account genetic drift. We find that a long-tailed distribution of mutant effects may affect both the equilibrium and the evolutionary adaptive behaviour of a population.

  16. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95 pdz3 ) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Kasugamycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, E R

    1978-01-01

    Kasugamycin-dependent mutants have been isolated from Escherichia coli B. They were obtained through mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine in conjunction with an antibiotic underlay technique. In the case of nitrosoguanidine, dependent mutants were obtained at a frequency of about 3% of survivors growing up in the selection. In the case of ethyl methane sulfonate, the corresponding value was 1%. Nineteen mutants showing a kasugamycin-dependent phenotype were studied. In terms of response to various temperatures and antibiotic concentrations, they were very heterogeneous, although most fell into two general classes. Genetic analysis indicated that in at least some cases, the kasugamycin-dependent phenotype was the product of two mutations. Two-dimensional gel electropherograms revealed alterations in the ribosomal proteins of seven mutants. One mutant had an alteration in protein S13, and one had an alteration in protein L14. Three showed changes in protein S9. Each of two mutants had changes in two proteins, S18 and L11. Three of these mutants additionally had protein S18 occurring in a partly altered, partly unaltered form. Images PMID:363701

  18. Characterization and Complementation of a Chlorophyll-Less Dominant Mutant GL1 in Lagerstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu'an; Wang, Peng; Gao, Lulu; Yang, Rutong; Li, Linfang; Zhang, Enliang; Wang, Qing; Li, Ya; Yin, Zengfang

    2017-05-01

    Crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) is a woody ornamental plant popularly grown because of its long-lasting, midsummer blooms and beautiful colors. The GL1 dominant mutant is the first chlorophyll-less mutant identified in crape myrtle. It was obtained from a natural yellow leaf bud mutation. We previously revealed that leaf color of the GL1 mutant is affected by light intensity. However, the mechanism of the GL1 mutant on light response remained unclear. The acclimation response of mutant and wild-type (WT) plants was assessed in a time series after transferring from low light (LL) to high light (HL) by analyzing chlorophyll synthesis precursor content, photosynthetic performance, and gene expression. In LL conditions, coproporphyrinogen III (Coprogen III) content had the greatest amount of accumulation in the mutant compared with WT, increasing by 100%. This suggested that the yellow leaf phenotype of the GL1 dominant mutant might be caused by disruption of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO) biosynthesis. Furthermore, the candidate gene, oxygen-independent CPO (HEMN), might only affect expression of upstream genes involved in chlorophyll metabolism in the mutant. Moreover, two genes, photosystem II (PSII) 10 kDa protein (psbR) and chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene (CAB1), had decreased mRNA levels in the GL1 mutant within the first 96 h following LL/HL transfer compared with the WT. Hierarchical clustering revealed that these two genes shared a similar expression trend as the oxygen-dependent CPO (HEMF). These findings provide evidence that GL1 is highly coordinated with PSII stability and chloroplast biogenesis.

  19. Abnormal lignin in a loblolly pine mutant.

    PubMed

    Ralph, J; MacKay, J J; Hatfield, R D; O'Malley, D M; Whetten, R W; Sederoff, R R

    1997-07-11

    Novel lignin is formed in a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) severely depleted in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.195), which converts coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, the primary lignin precursor in pines. Dihydroconiferyl alcohol, a monomer not normally associated with the lignin biosynthetic pathway, is the major component of the mutant's lignin, accounting for approximately 30 percent (versus approximately 3 percent in normal pine) of the units. The level of aldehydes, including new 2-methoxybenzaldehydes, is also increased. The mutant pines grew normally indicating that, even within a species, extensive variations in lignin composition need not disrupt the essential functions of lignin.

  20. Characterization of Novel Sorghum brown midrib Mutants from an EMS-Mutagenized Population

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Overall, most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles. PMID:25187038

  1. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE PAGES

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; ...

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib ( bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were notmore » allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  2. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1 -Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1 -Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The hypothesis of this proposal is that LBD mutations in ESR1 promote resistance to

  3. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0360 TITLE: Targeting ESR1 -Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Geoffrey L. Greene, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE September 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2014 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1 -Mutant...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The hypothesis of this proposal is that LBD mutations in ESR1 promote resistance to current FDA

  4. Drosophila melanogaster White Mutant w1118 Undergo Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro, María José; Pérez, Coralia; Marchesano, Mariana; Ruiz, Santiago; Caputi, Angel; Aguilera, Pedro; Barrio, Rosa; Cantera, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Key scientific discoveries have resulted from genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster, using a multitude of transgenic fly strains, the majority of which are constructed in a genetic background containing mutations in the white gene. Here we report that white mutant flies from w1118 strain undergo retinal degeneration. We observed also that w1118 mutants have progressive loss of climbing ability, shortened life span, as well as impaired resistance to various forms of stress. Retinal degeneration was abolished by transgenic expression of mini-white+ in the white null background w1118. We conclude that beyond the classical eye-color phenotype, mutations in Drosophila white gene could impair several biological functions affecting parameters like mobility, life span and stress tolerance. Consequently, we suggest caution and attentiveness during the interpretation of old experiments employing white mutant flies and when planning new ones, especially within the research field of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. We also encourage that the use of w1118 strain as a wild-type control should be avoided. PMID:29354028

  5. Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function

    DOE PAGES

    Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Waters, R. Jordan; ...

    2018-05-16

    One-third of all protein-coding genes from bacterial genomes cannot be annotated with a function. Here, to investigate the functions of these genes, we present genome-wide mutant fitness data from 32 diverse bacteria across dozens of growth conditions. We identified mutant phenotypes for 11,779 protein-coding genes that had not been annotated with a specific function. Many genes could be associated with a specific condition because the gene affected fitness only in that condition, or with another gene in the same bacterium because they had similar mutant phenotypes. Of the poorly annotated genes, 2,316 had associations that have high confidence because theymore » are conserved in other bacteria. By combining these conserved associations with comparative genomics, we identified putative DNA repair proteins; in addition, we propose specific functions for poorly annotated enzymes and transporters and for uncharacterized protein families. Lastly, our study demonstrates the scalability of microbial genetics and its utility for improving gene annotations.« less

  6. Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Waters, R. Jordan

    One-third of all protein-coding genes from bacterial genomes cannot be annotated with a function. Here, to investigate the functions of these genes, we present genome-wide mutant fitness data from 32 diverse bacteria across dozens of growth conditions. We identified mutant phenotypes for 11,779 protein-coding genes that had not been annotated with a specific function. Many genes could be associated with a specific condition because the gene affected fitness only in that condition, or with another gene in the same bacterium because they had similar mutant phenotypes. Of the poorly annotated genes, 2,316 had associations that have high confidence because theymore » are conserved in other bacteria. By combining these conserved associations with comparative genomics, we identified putative DNA repair proteins; in addition, we propose specific functions for poorly annotated enzymes and transporters and for uncharacterized protein families. Lastly, our study demonstrates the scalability of microbial genetics and its utility for improving gene annotations.« less

  7. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms in mutant figs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Bertoni, B W; Figueira, A; Giuliatti, S

    2013-07-08

    Fig (Ficus carica) breeding programs that use conventional approaches to develop new cultivars are rare, owing to limited genetic variability and the difficulty in obtaining plants via gamete fusion. Cytosine methylation in plants leads to gene repression, thereby affecting transcription without changing the DNA sequence. Previous studies using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers revealed no polymorphisms among select fig mutants that originated from gamma-irradiated buds. Therefore, we conducted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis to verify the existence of variability due to epigenetic DNA methylation among these mutant selections compared to the main cultivar 'Roxo-de-Valinhos'. Samples of genomic DNA were double-digested with either HpaII (methylation sensitive) or MspI (methylation insensitive) and with EcoRI. Fourteen primer combinations were tested, and on an average, non-methylated CCGG, symmetrically methylated CmCGG, and hemimethylated hmCCGG sites accounted for 87.9, 10.1, and 2.0%, respectively. MSAP analysis was effective in detecting differentially methylated sites in the genomic DNA of fig mutants, and methylation may be responsible for the phenotypic variation between treatments. Further analyses such as polymorphic DNA sequencing are necessary to validate these differences, standardize the regions of methylation, and analyze reads using bioinformatic tools.

  8. Molecular Genetic Analysis of an Endotoxin Nonresponder Mutant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Schromm, Andra B.; Lien, Egil; Henneke, Philipp; Chow, Jesse C.; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Heine, Holger; Latz, Eicke; Monks, Brian G.; Schwartz, David A.; Miyake, Kensuke; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic cell mutagenesis is a powerful tool for characterizing receptor systems. We reported previously two complementation groups of mutant cell lines derived from CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary–K1 fibroblasts defective in responses to bacterial endotoxin. Both classes of mutants expressed a normal gene product for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and fully responded to stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1β. We identified the lesion in one of the complementation groups in the gene for MD-2, a putative TLR4 coreceptor. The nonresponder phenotype of this mutant was reversed by transfection with MD-2. Cloning of MD-2 from the nonresponder cell line revealed a point mutation in a highly conserved region resulting in a C95Y amino acid exchange. Both forms of MD-2 colocalized with TLR4 on the cell surface after transfection, but only the wild-type cDNA reverted the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) nonresponder phenotype. Furthermore, soluble MD-2, but not soluble MD-2C95Y, functioned to enable LPS responses in cells that expressed TLR4. Thus, MD-2 is a required component of the LPS signaling complex and can function as a soluble receptor for cells that do not otherwise express it. We hypothesize that MD-2 conformationally affects the extracellular domain of TLR4, perhaps resulting in a change in affinity for LPS or functioning as a portion of the true ligand for TLR4. PMID:11435474

  9. Mouse mutants from chemically mutagenized embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Robert J.; Bergstrom, Rebecca A.; Zheng, Qing Yin; Libby, Brian; Smith, Richard; John, Simon W.M.; Schimenti, Kerry J.; Browning, Victoria L.; Schimenti, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The drive to characterize functions of human genes on a global scale has stimulated interest in large-scale generation of mouse mutants. Conventional germ-cell mutagenesis with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) is compromised by an inability to monitor mutation efficiency, strain1 and interlocus2 variation in mutation induction, and extensive husbandry requirements. To overcome these obstacles and develop new methods for generating mouse mutants, we devised protocols to generate germline chi-maeric mice from embryonic stem (ES) cells heavily mutagenized with ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS). Germline chimaeras were derived from cultures that underwent a mutation rate of up to 1 in 1,200 at the Hprt locus (encoding hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase). The spectrum of mutations induced by EMS and the frameshift mutagen ICR191 was consistent with that observed in other mammalian cells. Chimaeras derived from ES cells treated with EMS transmitted mutations affecting several processes, including limb development, hair growth, hearing and gametogenesis. This technology affords several advantages over traditional mutagenesis, including the ability to conduct shortened breeding schemes and to screen for mutant phenotypes directly in ES cells or their differentiated derivatives. PMID:10700192

  10. Drosophila melanogaster White Mutant w 1118 Undergo Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, María José; Pérez, Coralia; Marchesano, Mariana; Ruiz, Santiago; Caputi, Angel; Aguilera, Pedro; Barrio, Rosa; Cantera, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Key scientific discoveries have resulted from genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster , using a multitude of transgenic fly strains, the majority of which are constructed in a genetic background containing mutations in the white gene. Here we report that white mutant flies from w 1118 strain undergo retinal degeneration. We observed also that w 1118 mutants have progressive loss of climbing ability, shortened life span, as well as impaired resistance to various forms of stress. Retinal degeneration was abolished by transgenic expression of mini-white + in the white null background w 1118 . We conclude that beyond the classical eye-color phenotype, mutations in Drosophila white gene could impair several biological functions affecting parameters like mobility, life span and stress tolerance. Consequently, we suggest caution and attentiveness during the interpretation of old experiments employing white mutant flies and when planning new ones, especially within the research field of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. We also encourage that the use of w 1118 strain as a wild-type control should be avoided.

  11. Polarity-defective mutants of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Osherov, N; Mathew, J; May, G S

    2000-12-01

    We have identified two polarity-defective (pod) mutants in Aspergillus nidulans from a collection of heat-sensitive lethal mutants. At restrictive temperature, these mutants are capable of nuclear division but are unable to establish polar hyphal growth. We cloned the two pod genes by complementation of their heat-sensitive lethal phenotypes. The libraries used to clone the pod genes are under the control of the bidirectional niaD and niiA promoters. Complementation of the pod mutants is dependent on growth on inducing medium. We show that rescue of the heat-sensitive phenotype on inducing media is independent of the orientation of the gene relative to the niaD or niiA promoters, demonstrating that the intergenic region between the niaD and the niiA genes functions as an orientation-independent enhancer and repressor that is capable of functioning over long distances. The products of the podG and the podH genes were identified as homologues of the alpha subunit of yeast mitochondrial phenylalanyl--tRNA synthetase and transcription factor IIF interacting component of the CTD phosphatase. Neither of these gene products would have been predicted to produce a pod mutant phenotype based on studies of cellular polarity mutants in other organisms. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Rapid degeneration of rod photoreceptors expressing self-association-deficient arrestin-1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiufeng; Seo, Jungwon; Baameur, Faiza; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A.; Chen, Qiuyan; Kook, Seunghyi; Kim, Miyeon; Brooks, Evan K.; Altenbach, Christian; Hong, Yuan; Hanson, Susan M.; Palazzo, Maria C.; Chen, Jeannie; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2013-01-01

    Arrestin-1 binds light-activated phosphorhodopsin and ensures timely signal shutoff. We show that high transgenic expression of an arrestin-1 mutant with enhanced rhodopsin binding and impaired oligomerization causes apoptotic rod death in mice. Dark rearing does not prevent mutant-induced cell death, ruling out the role of arrestin complexes with light-activated rhodopsin. Similar expression of WT arrestin-1 that robustly oligomerizes, which leads to only modest increase in the monomer concentration, does not affect rod survival. Moreover, WT arrestin-1 co-expressed with the mutant delays retinal degeneration. Thus, arrestin-1 mutant directly affects cell survival via binding partner(s) other than light-activated rhodopsin. Due to impaired self-association of the mutant its high expression dramatically increases the concentration of the monomer. The data suggest that monomeric arrestin-1 is cytotoxic and WT arrestin-1 protects rods by forming mixed oligomers with the mutant and/or competing with it for the binding to non-receptor partners. Thus, arrestin-1 self-association likely serves to keep low concentration of the toxic monomer. The reduction of the concentration of harmful monomer is an earlier unappreciated biological function of protein oligomerization. PMID:24012956

  13. Rapid degeneration of rod photoreceptors expressing self-association-deficient arrestin-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufeng; Seo, Jungwon; Baameur, Faiza; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Chen, Qiuyan; Kook, Seunghyi; Kim, Miyeon; Brooks, Evan K; Altenbach, Christian; Hong, Yuan; Hanson, Susan M; Palazzo, Maria C; Chen, Jeannie; Hubbell, Wayne L; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2013-12-01

    Arrestin-1 binds light-activated phosphorhodopsin and ensures timely signal shutoff. We show that high transgenic expression of an arrestin-1 mutant with enhanced rhodopsin binding and impaired oligomerization causes apoptotic rod death in mice. Dark rearing does not prevent mutant-induced cell death, ruling out the role of arrestin complexes with light-activated rhodopsin. Similar expression of WT arrestin-1 that robustly oligomerizes, which leads to only modest increase in the monomer concentration, does not affect rod survival. Moreover, WT arrestin-1 co-expressed with the mutant delays retinal degeneration. Thus, arrestin-1 mutant directly affects cell survival via binding partner(s) other than light-activated rhodopsin. Due to impaired self-association of the mutant its high expression dramatically increases the concentration of the monomer. The data suggest that monomeric arrestin-1 is cytotoxic and WT arrestin-1 protects rods by forming mixed oligomers with the mutant and/or competing with it for the binding to non-receptor partners. Thus, arrestin-1 self-association likely serves to keep low concentration of the toxic monomer. The reduction of the concentration of harmful monomer is an earlier unappreciated biological function of protein oligomerization. © 2013.

  14. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

    A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants withmore » some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.« less

  15. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  16. Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with temperature-sensitive defects in endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized temperature-sensitive endocytosis mutants in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium is an attractive model for genetic studies of endocytosis because of its high rates of endocytosis, its reliance on endocytosis for nutrient uptake, and tractable molecular genetics. Endocytosis-defective mutants were isolated by a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) as cells unable to take up a fluorescent marker. One temperature-sensitive mutant (indy1) was characterized in detail and found to exhibit a complete block in fluid phase endocytosis at the restrictive temperature, but normal rates of endocytosis at the permissive temperature. Likewise, a potential cell surface receptor that was rapidly internalized in wild-type cells and indy1 cells at the permissive temperature was poorly internalized in indy1 under restrictive conditions. Growth was also completely arrested at the restrictive temperature. The endocytosis block was rapidly induced upon shift to the restrictive temperature and reversed upon return to normal conditions. Inhibition of endocytosis was also specific, as other membrane-trafficking events such as phagocytosis, secretion of lysosomal enzymes, and contractile vacuole function were unaffected at the restrictive temperature. Because recycling and transport to late endocytic compartments were not affected, the site of the defect's action is probably at an early step in the endocytic pathway. Additionally, indy1 cells were unable to proceed through the normal development program at the restrictive temperature. Given the tight functional and growth phenotypes, the indy1 mutant provides an opportunity to isolate genes responsible for endocytosis in Dictyostelium by complementation cloning. PMID:7929583

  17. Accelerated bang recovery in Drosophila genderblind mutants.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, David E; Yanoga, Fatoumata; Grosjean, Yael

    2008-07-01

    Cystine-glutamate transporters import cystine into cells for glutathione synthesis and protection from oxidative stress, but also export significant amounts of glutamate. Increasing evidence suggests that 'ambient extracellular glutamate' secreted by cystine-glutamate transporters in the nervous system modulates glutamatergic synapse strength and behavior. To date, the only cystine-glutamate transporter mutants examined behaviorally are Drosophila genderblind mutants. These animals contain loss-of-function mutations in the 'genderblind' gene, which encodes an xCT subunit essential for cystine-glutamate transporter function. Genderblind was named based on a mutant courtship phenotype: male genderblind mutants are attracted to normally aversive male pheromones and thus court and attempt to copulate with both male and female partners equally. However, genderblind protein is expressed in many parts of the fly brain and thus might be expected to also regulate other behaviors, including behaviors not related to male courtship or chemosensation. Here, we show that genderblind mutants display faster recovery and increased negative geotaxis after strong mechanical stimuli (e.g., they climb faster and farther after vial banging). This phenotype is displayed by both males and females, consistent with strong genderblind expression in both sexes.

  18. Computing border bases using mutant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, E.; Abbas Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Border bases, a generalization of Gröbner bases, have actively been addressed during recent years due to their applicability to industrial problems. In cryptography and coding theory a useful application of border based is to solve zero-dimensional systems of polynomial equations over finite fields, which motivates us for developing optimizations of the algorithms that compute border bases. In 2006, Kehrein and Kreuzer formulated the Border Basis Algorithm (BBA), an algorithm which allows the computation of border bases that relate to a degree compatible term ordering. In 2007, J. Ding et al. introduced mutant strategies bases on finding special lower degree polynomials in the ideal. The mutant strategies aim to distinguish special lower degree polynomials (mutants) from the other polynomials and give them priority in the process of generating new polynomials in the ideal. In this paper we develop hybrid algorithms that use the ideas of J. Ding et al. involving the concept of mutants to optimize the Border Basis Algorithm for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite fields. In particular, we recall a version of the Border Basis Algorithm which is actually called the Improved Border Basis Algorithm and propose two hybrid algorithms, called MBBA and IMBBA. The new mutants variants provide us space efficiency as well as time efficiency. The efficiency of these newly developed hybrid algorithms is discussed using standard cryptographic examples.

  19. Autolytic defective mutant of Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Cornett, J B; Redman, B E; Shockman, G D

    1978-01-01

    Properties of a variant of Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790 with defective cellular autolysis are described. The mutant strain was selected as a survivor from a mutagenized cell population simultaneously challenged with two antibiotics which inhibit cell wall biosynthesis, penicillin G and cycloserine. Compared to the parental strain, the mutant strain exhibited: (i) a thermosensitive pattern of cellular autolysis; (ii) an autolytic enzyme activity that had only a slightly increased thermolability when tested in solution in the absence of wall substrate; and (iii) an isolated autolysin that had hydrolytic activity on isolated S. faecalis wall substrate indistinguishable from that of the parental strain, but that was inactive when tested on walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. These data indicate an alteration in the substrate specificity of the autolytic enzyme of the mutant which appears to result from the synthesis of an altered form of autolytic enzyme. PMID:415045

  20. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    PubMed Central

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  1. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  2. Induction and characterization of morphologic mutants in a natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Claudia; Bianchi, Lucia; Pinzauti, Francesca; Lodi, Tiziana; Ferrero, Iliana; Polsinelli, Mario; Casalone, Enrico

    2007-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model with which to study the effects of morphologic differentiation on the ecological behaviour of fungi. In this work, 33 morphologic mutants of a natural strain of S. cerevisiae, obtained with UV mutagenesis, were selected for their streak shape and cell shape on rich medium. Two of them, showing both high sporulation proficiency and constitutive pseudohyphal growth, were analysed from a genetic and physiologic point of view. Each mutant carries a recessive monogenic mutation, and the two mutations reside in unlinked genes. Flocculation ability and responsiveness to different stimuli distinguished the two mutants. Growth at 37 degrees C affected the cell but not the colony morphology, suggesting that these two phenotypes are regulated differently. The effect of ethidium bromide, which affects mitochondrial DNA replication, suggested a possible "retrograde action" of mitochondria in pseudohyphal growth.

  3. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  4. Characterization of a novel gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2008-09-01

    In higher plants, gravity is a major environmental cue that governs growth orientation, a phenomenon termed gravitropism. It has been suggested that gravity also affects other aspects of morphogenesis, such as circumnutation and winding movements. Previously, we showed that these aspects of plant growth morphology require amyloplast sedimentation inside gravisensing endodermal cells. However, the molecular mechanism of the graviresponse and its relationship to circumnutation and winding remains obscure. Here, we have characterized a novel shoot gravitropic mutant of morning glory, weeping2 ( we2). In the we2 mutant, the gravitropic response of the stem was absent, and hypocotyls exhibited a severely reduced gravitropic response, whereas roots showed normal gravitropism. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that we2 mutant has defects in shoot circumnutation and winding. Histological analysis showed that we2 mutant forms abnormal endodermal cells. We identified a mutation in the morning glory homolog of SHORT-ROOT ( PnSHR1) that was genetically linked to the agravitropic phenotype of we2 mutant, and which may underlie the abnormal differentiation of endodermal cells in this plant. These results suggest that the phenotype of we2 mutant is due to a mutation of PnSHR1, and that PnSHR1 regulates gravimorphogenesis, including circumnutation and winding movements, in morning glory.

  5. Respiratory-deficient mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas: a review.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Thalia; Larosa, Véronique; Cardol, Pierre; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Remacle, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Genetic manipulation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is straightforward. Nuclear genes can be interrupted by insertional mutagenesis or targeted by RNA interference whereas random or site-directed mutagenesis allows the introduction of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This, combined with a screen that easily allows discriminating respiratory-deficient mutants, makes Chlamydomonas a model system of choice to study mitochondria biology in photosynthetic organisms. Since the first description of Chlamydomonas respiratory-deficient mutants in 1977 by random mutagenesis, many other mutants affected in mitochondrial components have been characterized. These respiratory-deficient mutants increased our knowledge on function and assembly of the respiratory enzyme complexes. More recently some of these mutants allowed the study of mitochondrial gene expression processes poorly understood in Chlamydomonas. In this review, we update the data concerning the respiratory components with a special focus on the assembly factors identified on other organisms. In addition, we make an inventory of different mitochondrial respiratory mutants that are inactivated either on mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the induction of ethylene biosynthesis by cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. P.; Schuerman, P.; Woeste, K.; Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins elevate ethylene biosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via a post-transcriptional modification of one isoform of the key biosynthetic enzyme ACC synthase. In order to begin to dissect the signaling events leading from cytokinin perception to this modification, we have isolated a series of mutants that lack the ethylene-mediated triple response in the presence of cytokinin due to their failure to increase ethylene biosynthesis. Analysis of genetic complementation and mapping revealed that these Cin mutants (cytokinin-insensitive) represent four distinct complementation groups, one of which, cin4, is allelic to the constitutive photomorphogenic mutant fus9/cop10. The Cin mutants have subtle effects on the morphology of adult plants. We further characterized the Cin mutants by analyzing ethylene biosynthesis in response to various other inducers and in adult tissues, as well as by assaying additional cytokinin responses. The cin3 mutant did not disrupt ethylene biosynthesis under any other conditions, nor did it disrupt any other cytokinin responses. Only cin2 disrupted ethylene biosynthesis in multiple circumstances. cin1 and cin2 made less anthocyanin in response to cytokinin. cin1 also displayed reduced shoot initiation in tissue culture in response to cytokinin, suggesting that it affects a cytokinin signaling element.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of mutants with elevated lipid content in Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Hélène; Duby, Francéline; Kaymak, Esra; Niessen, Guillaume; Motte, Patrick; Franck, Fabrice; Remacle, Claire

    2012-11-30

    This paper describes the isolation and partial biomass characterization of high triacylglycerol (TAG) mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus, two algal species considered as potential source of biodiesel. Following UV mutagenesis, 2000 Chlorella and 2800 Scenedesmus colonies were screened with a method based on Nile Red fluorescence. Several mutants with high Nile Red fluorescence were selected by this high-throughput method in both species. Growth and biomass parameters of the strongest mutants were analyzed in detail. All of the four Chlorella mutants showed no significant changes in growth rate, cell weight, cell size, protein and chlorophyll contents on a per cell basis. Whereas all contained elevated total lipid and TAG content per unit of dry weight, two of them were also affected for starch metabolism, suggesting a change in biomass/storage carbohydrate composition. Two Scenedesmus mutants showed a 1.5 and 2-fold increased cell weight and larger cells compared to the wild type, which led to a general increase of biomass including total lipid and TAG content on a per cell basis. Such mutants could subsequently be used as commercial oleaginous algae and serve as an alternative to conventional petrol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of a novel mutant gene for soil-surface rooting in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root system architecture is an important trait affecting the uptake of nutrients and water by crops. Shallower root systems preferentially take up nutrients from the topsoil and help avoid unfavorable environments in deeper soil layers. We have found a soil-surface rooting mutant from an M2 population that was regenerated from seed calli of a japonica rice cultivar, Nipponbare. In this study, we examined the genetic and physiological characteristics of this mutant. Results The primary roots of the mutant showed no gravitropic response from the seedling stage on, whereas the gravitropic response of the shoots was normal. Segregation analyses by using an F2 population derived from a cross between the soil-surface rooting mutant and wild-type Nipponbare indicated that the trait was controlled by a single recessive gene, designated as sor1. Fine mapping by using an F2 population derived from a cross between the mutant and an indica rice cultivar, Kasalath, revealed that sor1 was located within a 136-kb region between the simple sequence repeat markers RM16254 and 2935-6 on the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 4, where 13 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were found. We sequenced these ORFs and detected a 33-bp deletion in one of them, Os04g0101800. Transgenic plants of the mutant transformed with the genomic fragment carrying the Os04g0101800 sequence from Nipponbare showed normal gravitropic responses and no soil-surface rooting. Conclusion These results suggest that sor1, a rice mutant causing soil-surface rooting and altered root gravitropic response, is allelic to Os04g0101800, and that a 33-bp deletion in the coding region of this gene causes the mutant phenotypes. PMID:24280269

  9. Isolation of a novel mutant gene for soil-surface rooting in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hanzawa, Eiko; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Shinsei; Obara, Mitsuhiro; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Uga, Yusaku; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Higashitani, Atsushi; Maekawa, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi

    2013-11-20

    Root system architecture is an important trait affecting the uptake of nutrients and water by crops. Shallower root systems preferentially take up nutrients from the topsoil and help avoid unfavorable environments in deeper soil layers. We have found a soil-surface rooting mutant from an M2 population that was regenerated from seed calli of a japonica rice cultivar, Nipponbare. In this study, we examined the genetic and physiological characteristics of this mutant. The primary roots of the mutant showed no gravitropic response from the seedling stage on, whereas the gravitropic response of the shoots was normal. Segregation analyses by using an F2 population derived from a cross between the soil-surface rooting mutant and wild-type Nipponbare indicated that the trait was controlled by a single recessive gene, designated as sor1. Fine mapping by using an F2 population derived from a cross between the mutant and an indica rice cultivar, Kasalath, revealed that sor1 was located within a 136-kb region between the simple sequence repeat markers RM16254 and 2935-6 on the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 4, where 13 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were found. We sequenced these ORFs and detected a 33-bp deletion in one of them, Os04g0101800. Transgenic plants of the mutant transformed with the genomic fragment carrying the Os04g0101800 sequence from Nipponbare showed normal gravitropic responses and no soil-surface rooting. These results suggest that sor1, a rice mutant causing soil-surface rooting and altered root gravitropic response, is allelic to Os04g0101800, and that a 33-bp deletion in the coding region of this gene causes the mutant phenotypes.

  10. Melanopsin Polymorphisms in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Affective Disorder and Melanopsin Pigmentosa (RP), which is a disease characterized by retinal degeneration. Melanopsin is structurally similar to all...abnormal intradiscal disulfide bond in misfolded retinitis pigmentosa mutants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A, 98(9), p4872-4876...in rhodopsin: correct folding and misfolding in two point mutants in the intradiscal domain of rhodopsin identified in retinitis pigmentosa

  11. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M. Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg products are major sources of human salmonellosis, yet the strategies used by Salmonella to colonize chickens are poorly understood. We applied a novel two-step hierarchical procedure to identify new genes important for colonization and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in chickens. A library of 182 S. Typhimurium mutants each containing a targeted deletion of a group of contiguous genes (for a total of 2,069 genes deleted) was used to identify regions under selection at 1, 3, and 9 days postinfection in chicks. Mutants in 11 regions were under selection at all assayed times (colonization mutants), and mutants in 15 regions were under selection only at day 9 (persistence mutants). We assembled a pool of 92 mutants, each deleted for a single gene, representing nearly all genes in nine regions under selection. Twelve single gene deletion mutants were under selection in this assay, and we confirmed 6 of 9 of these candidate mutants via competitive infections and complementation analysis in chicks. STM0580, STM1295, STM1297, STM3612, STM3615, and STM3734 are needed for Salmonella to colonize and persist in chicks and were not previously associated with this ability. One of these key genes, STM1297 (selD), is required for anaerobic growth and supports the ability to utilize formate under these conditions, suggesting that metabolism of formate is important during infection. We report a hierarchical screening strategy to interrogate large portions of the genome during infection of animals using pools of mutants of low complexity. Using this strategy, we identified six genes not previously known to be needed during infection in chicks, and one of these (STM1297) suggests an important role for formate metabolism during infection. PMID:26857572

  12. Genotyping-by-sequencing of glossy mutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glossy mutants are a common occurrence in Brassica oleracea L. and they have been documented in most crop varieties of the species including cabbage, kale, broccoli, and collard. Glossy phenotypes have been of particular interest to researchers due to observations that they influence insect behavior...

  13. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  14. Nicotinamide Ribosyl Uptake Mutants in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiβ, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease. PMID:12933892

  15. Phenotypic mutant library: potential for gene discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rapid development of high throughput and affordable Next- Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques has renewed interest in gene discovery using forward genetics. The conventional forward genetic approach starts with isolation of mutants with a phenotype of interest, mapping the mutation within a s...

  16. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  17. Quantitative genetics and utilization of mutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relatively low level of genetic variability currently available in cotton makes mutagenesis attractive to overcome this problem. Mutations can occur either spontaneously or be induced. The majority of the genes we use today are spontaneous mutants that developed over a long period of time. Induc...

  18. The Sequences of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitate Rapid Functional Genomic Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guotian; Jain, Rashmi; Chern, Mawsheng; Pham, Nikki T; Martin, Joel A; Wei, Tong; Schackwitz, Wendy S; Lipzen, Anna M; Duong, Phat Q; Jones, Kyle C; Jiang, Liangrong; Ruan, Deling; Bauer, Diane; Peng, Yi; Barry, Kerrie W; Schmutz, Jeremy; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-06-01

    The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitate functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake ( Oryza sativa ssp japonica ), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, i.e., 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single-base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportion of loss-of-function mutations. We identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient, cost-effective identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks. This population complements other available mutant collections and gene-editing technologies. This work demonstrates how inexpensive next-generation sequencing can be applied to generate a high-density catalog of mutations. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct Rayleigh scattering from hot spot mutant p53 proteins reveals cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ho Joon; Nguyen, Anh H; Kim, Yeul Hong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Sim, Sang Jun

    2014-07-23

    The scattering of light redirects and resonances when an electromagnetic wave interacts with electrons orbits in the hot spot core protein and oscillated electron of the gold nanoparticles (AuNP). This report demonstrates convincingly that resonant Rayleigh scattering generated from hot spot mutant p53 proteins is correspondence to cancer cells. Hot spot mutants have unique local electron density changes that affect specificity of DNA binding affinity compared with wild types. Rayleigh scattering changes introduced by hot-spot mutations were monitored by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shift changes. The LSPR λmax shift for hot-spot mutants ranged from 1.7 to 4.2 nm for mouse samples and from 0.64 nm to 2.66 nm for human samples, compared to 9.6 nm and 15 nm for wild type and mouse and human proteins, respectively with a detection sensitivity of p53 concentration at 17.9 nM. It is interesting that hot-spot mutants, which affect only interaction with DNA, launches affinitive changes as considerable as wild types. These changes propose that hot-spot mutants p53 proteins can be easily detected by local electron density alterations that disturbs the specificity of DNA binding of p53 core domain on the surface of the DNA probed-nanoplasmonic sensor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Sequences of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitate Rapid Functional Genomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nikki T.; Wei, Tong; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Lipzen, Anna M.; Duong, Phat Q.; Jones, Kyle C.; Ruan, Deling; Bauer, Diane; Peng, Yi; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitate functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake (Oryza sativa ssp japonica), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, i.e., 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single-base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportion of loss-of-function mutations. We identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient, cost-effective identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks. This population complements other available mutant collections and gene-editing technologies. This work demonstrates how inexpensive next-generation sequencing can be applied to generate a high-density catalog of mutations. PMID:28576844

  1. Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation: the zebrafish circler mutants.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, T; Rüsch, A; Friedrich, R W; Granato, M; Ruppersberg, J P; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1998-02-01

    The molecular basis of sensory hair cell mechanotransduction is largely unknown. In order to identify genes that are essential for mechanosensory hair cell function, we characterized a group of recently isolated zebrafish motility mutants. These mutants are defective in balance and swim in circles but have no obvious morphological defects. We examined the mutants using calcium imaging of acoustic-vibrational and tactile escape responses, high resolution microscopy of sensory neuroepithelia in live larvae, and recordings of extracellular hair cell potentials (microphonics). Based on the analyses, we have identified several classes of genes. Mutations in sputnik and mariner affect hair bundle integrity. Mutant astronaut and cosmonaut hair cells have relatively normal microphonics and thus appear to affect events downstream of mechanotransduction. Mutant orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae have normal hair cell morphology and yet do not respond to acoustic-vibrational stimuli. The microphonics of lateral line hair cells of orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae are absent or strongly reduced. Therefore, these genes may encode components of the transduction apparatus.

  2. Small-molecule RETRA suppresses mutant p53-bearing cancer cells through a p73-dependent salvage pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, J. E.; Ilyinskaya, G. V.; Komarov, P. G.; Agapova, L. S.; Kochetkov, D. V.; Strom, E.; Frolova, E. I.; Kovriga, I.; Gudkov, A. V.; Feinstein, E.; Chumakov, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of unique features of cancer cells is important for defining specific and efficient therapeutic targets. Mutant p53 is present in nearly half of all cancer cases, forming a promising target for pharmacological reactivation. In addition to being defective for the tumor-suppressor function, mutant p53 contributes to malignancy by blocking a p53 family member p73. Here, we describe a small-molecule RETRA that activates a set of p53-regulated genes and specifically suppresses mutant p53-bearing tumor cells in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Although the effect is strictly limited to the cells expressing mutant p53, it is abrogated by inhibition with RNAi to p73. Treatment of mutant p53-expressing cancer cells with RETRA results in a substantial increase in the expression level of p73, and a release of p73 from the blocking complex with mutant p53, which produces tumor-suppressor effects similar to the functional reactivation of p53. RETRA is active against tumor cells expressing a variety of p53 mutants and does not affect normal cells. The results validate the mutant p53–p73 complex as a promising and highly specific potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:18424558

  3. Construction and functional analysis of Trichoderma harzianum mutants that modulate maize resistance to the pathogen Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lili; Fu, Kehe; Yu, Chuanjin; Ma, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to generate an insertional mutant library of the mycelial fungus Trichoderma harzianum. From a total of 450 mutants, six mutants that showed significant influence on maize resistance to C. lunata were analyzed in detail. Maize coated with these mutants was more susceptible to C. lunata compared with those coated with a wild-type (WT) strain. Similar to other fungal ATMT libraries, all six mutants were single copy integrations, which occurred preferentially in noncoding regions (except two mutants) and were frequently accompanied by the loss of border sequences. Two mutants (T66 and T312) that were linked to resistance were characterized further. Maize seeds coated with T66 and T312 were more susceptible to C. lunata than those treated with WT. Moreover, the mutants affected the resistance of maize to C. lunata by enhancing jasmonate-responsive gene expression. T66 and T312 induced maize resistance to C. lunata infection through a jasmonic acid-dependent pathway.

  4. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5-7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology.

  5. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation

    PubMed Central

    Malinova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5–7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology. PMID:29155859

  6. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  7. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression of EMS-induced short fiber mutant Ligon lintless-y (liy) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait characteristic that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. Cotton fiber mutants have been useful tools to study the molecular processes of fiber development. In this work we describe a chemically-induced short fiber mutant Ligon-li...

  8. Staying Alive: Cancer Cells Expressing Mutant KRas Depend on ERH for Survival | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The small G-protein KRas acts like a molecular switch, turning on and off pro-growth signaling pathways within cells when appropriate. In a large number of cancers, KRas is permanently turned on by a variety of mutations and drives the constant growth of these tumor cells. KRas itself has proved to be a poor drug target so researchers in the laboratory of Ji Luo, Ph.D., in CCR’s Medical Oncology Branch decided to look for other pathways that are essential for the growth of cells expressing mutant KRas. These pathways could present new drug targets, and blocking their activities might selectively affect cells that express mutant KRas.

  9. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

    2015-07-01

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with 'invisible' phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Overexpression of mutant HSP27 causes axonal neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinho; Jung, Sung-Chul; Joo, Jaesoon; Choi, Yu-Ri; Moon, Hyo Won; Kwak, Geon; Yeo, Ha Kyung; Lee, Ji-Su; Ahn, Hye-Jee; Jung, Namhee; Hwang, Sunhee; Rheey, Jingeun; Woo, So-Youn; Kim, Ji Yon; Hong, Young Bin; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2015-06-19

    Mutations in heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSP27 or HSPB1) cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 F (CMT2F) according to unknown factors. Mutant HSP27 proteins affect axonal transport by reducing acetylated tubulin. We generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing HSP27-S135F mutant protein driven by Cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter. The mouse phenotype was similar to dHMN patients in that they exhibit motor neuropathy. To determine the phenotypic aberration of transgenic mice, behavior test, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrophysiological study, and pathology were performed. Rotarod test showed that founder mice exhibited lowered motor performance. MRI also revealed marked fatty infiltration in the anterior and posterior compartments at calf level. Electrophysiologically, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) but not motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was reduced in the transgenic mice. Toluidine staining with semi-thin section of sciatic nerve showed the ratio of large myelinated axon fiber was reduced, which might cause reduced locomotion in the transgenic mice. Electron microscopy also revealed abundant aberrant myelination. Immunohistochemically, neuronal dysfunctions included elevated level of phosphorylated neurofilament and reduced level of acetylated tubulin in the sural nerve of transgenic mice. There was no additional phenotype besides motor neuronal defects. Overexpression of HSP27-S135F protein causes peripheral neuropathy. The mouse model can be applied to future development of therapeutic strategies for dHMN or CMT2F.

  11. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gáliková, Martina; Diesner, Max; Klepsatel, Peter; Hehlert, Philip; Xu, Yanjun; Bickmeyer, Iris; Predel, Reinhard; Kühnlein, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of biological functions under negative energy balance depends on mobilization of storage lipids and carbohydrates in animals. In mammals, glucagon and glucocorticoid signaling mobilizes energy reserves, whereas adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) play a homologous role in insects. Numerous studies based on AKH injections and correlative studies in a broad range of insect species established the view that AKH acts as master regulator of energy mobilization during development, reproduction, and stress. In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed “adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide” (APRP)] is functionally orphan. APRP is discussed as ecdysiotropic hormone or as scaffold peptide during AKH prohormone processing. However, as in the case of AKH, final evidence for APRP functions requires genetic mutant analysis. Here we employed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering to create AKH and AKH plus APRP-specific mutants in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Lack of APRP did not affect any of the tested steroid-dependent processes. Similarly, Drosophila AKH signaling is dispensable for ontogenesis, locomotion, oogenesis, and homeostasis of lipid or carbohydrate storage until up to the end of metamorphosis. During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. PMID:26275422

  12. Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma Mutants with Increased Astaxanthin Content

    PubMed Central

    An, Gil-Hwan; Schuman, Donald B.; Johnson, Eric A.

    1989-01-01

    carotene precursors to a greater extent than the parent. The physiology of the antimycin isolates and the known specificity of antimycin for cytochrome b in the respiratory chain suggests that alteration of cytochrome b or cytochrome P-450 components involved in oxygenation and desaturation of carotenes in mitochondria are affected, which results in increased astaxanthin production. These astaxanthin-overproducing mutants and more highly pigmented derivative strains could be useful in providing a natural source of astaxanthin for the pen-reared-salmon industry or for other farmed animals that contain astaxanthin as their principal carotenoid. Images PMID:16347815

  13. Mutant KRAS promotes malignant pleural effusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Αgalioti, Theodora; Giannou, Anastasios D.; Krontira, Anthi C.; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Kati, Danai; Vreka, Malamati; Pepe, Mario; Spella, Μagda; Lilis, Ioannis; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Nikolouli, Eirini; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Papadakis, Andreas; Papadia, Konstantina; Voulgaridis, Apostolos; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Stamou, Panagiota; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Snyder, Linda A.; Antimisiaris, Sophia G.; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Psallidas, Ioannis; Μarazioti, Antonia; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2017-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is the lethal consequence of various human cancers metastatic to the pleural cavity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MPE are still obscure. Here we show that mutant KRAS is important for MPE induction in mice. Pleural disseminated, mutant KRAS bearing tumour cells upregulate and systemically release chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) into the bloodstream to mobilize myeloid cells from the host bone marrow to the pleural space via the spleen. These cells promote MPE formation, as indicated by splenectomy and splenocyte restoration experiments. In addition, KRAS mutations are frequently detected in human MPE and cell lines isolated thereof, but are often lost during automated analyses, as indicated by manual versus automated examination of Sanger sequencing traces. Finally, the novel KRAS inhibitor deltarasin and a monoclonal antibody directed against CCL2 are equally effective against an experimental mouse model of MPE, a result that holds promise for future efficient therapies against the human condition. PMID:28508873

  14. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  15. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  16. Defeat mutant KRAS with synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ras proteins are considered as the founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that control fundamental cellular functions. Mutationally activated RAS genes were discovered in human cancer cells more than 3 decades ago, but intensive efforts on Ras structure, biochemistry, function and signaling continue even now. Because mutant Ras proteins are inherently difficult to inhibit and have yet been therapeutically conquered, it was designated as “the Everest of oncogenes” in the cancer genome landscape, further promoting a “renaissance” in RAS research. Different paths to directly or indirectly targeting mutant Ras signaling are currently under investigation in the hope of finding an efficacious regimen. Inhibitors directly binding to KRASG12C to block its downstream signaling have been revealed, supporting the notion of Ras' druggability. An alternative indirect approach by targeting synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS is underway. We recently employed a synthetic lethal drug screen plus a combinatorial strategy using a panel of clinical agents and discovered that KRAS-mutant cancers were fragile to the combined inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK). The combined regimen of BI-2536 (a Plk1 inhibitor) and fasudil (a ROCK inhibitor) promoted a significant inhibition of patient-derived lung cancer xenografts and prolonged the survival of LSL-KRASG12D mice. In this commentary, we will summarize the state-of-the art for the direction of synthetic lethality, and also speculate on the future development of this approach. PMID:27463838

  17. Selective Chemosensitization of Rb Mutant Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Cambridge, MA). pLPC-12S coexpresses an E1A 12S cDNA with puromycin phosphotransferase (puro) and pWZL-12S coexpresses E1A with hygromycin phospho...retinoblastoma; CR1, -2, -3, conserved regions 1, 2, and 3; MEF, mouse embryonic fibroblast; puro, puromycin; hygro, hygromycin . To whom reprint requests...ml hygromycin B (Boehringer Mannheim) to elim- inate uninfected cells. When two separate E1A mutants were coexpressed, they were introduced

  18. Mutants with Enhanced Nitrogenase Activity in Hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-Wheat Associations

    PubMed Central

    Pereg Gerk, Lily; Gilchrist, Kate; Kennedy, Ivan R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induced mutants were established. The results of this study show that the ability of Sp7 and Sp245 mutant strains to remain in a vegetative form improved their ability to express nitrogenase activity in association with wheat in a hydroponic system. Restoring the cyst formation and colonization pattern to the spontaneous mutant Sp7-S reduced nitrogenase activity rates in association with plants to that of the wild-type Sp7. Although Tn5-induced flcA mutants showed higher potentials for nitrogenase expression than Sp7, their potentials were lower than that of Sp7-S, indicating that other factors in this strain contribute to its exceptional nitrogenase activity rates on plants. The lack of lateral flagella is not one of these factors, as Sp7-PM23, a spontaneous mutant impaired in swarming and lateral-flagellum production but not in flocculation, showed wild-type nitrogenase activity and expression. The results also suggest factors of importance in evolving an effective symbiosis between Azospirillum and wheat, such as increasing the availability of microaerobic niches along the root, increased supply of carbon sources by the plant, and the retention of the bacterial cells in vegetative form for faster metabolism. PMID:10788397

  19. Physiology and pathogenicity of cpdB deleted mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Chen, Liping; Si, Wei; Wang, Chunlai; Zhu, Fangna; Li, Guangxing; Liu, Siguo

    2017-04-01

    Avian colibacillosis is one of the most common infectious diseases caused partially or entirely by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in birds. In addition to spontaneous infection, APEC can also cause secondary infections that result in greater severity of illness and greater losses to the poultry industry. In order to assess the role of 2', 3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase (cpdB) in APEC on disease physiology and pathogenicity, an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-34 (APEC-34) cpdB mutant was obtained using the Red system. The cpdB mutant grew at a slower rate than the natural strain APEC-34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the bacteria of the cpdB mutant were significantly longer than the bacteria observed in the natural strain (P<0.01), and that the width of the cpdB mutant was significantly smaller than its natural counterpart (P<0.01). In order to evaluate the role of cpdB in APEC in the colonization of internal organs (lung, liver and spleen) in poultry, seven-day-old SPF chicks were infected with 10 9 CFU/chick of the cpdB mutant or the natural strain. No colonizations of cpdB mutants were observed in the internal organs 10days following the infection, though numerous natural strains were observed at 20days following infection. Additionally, the relative expression of division protein ftsZ, outer membrane protein A ompA, ferric uptake regulator fur and tryptophanase tnaA genes in the mutant strain were all significantly lower than in the natural strain (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results suggested that cpdB is involved in the long-term colonization of APEC in the internal organs of the test subjects. The deletion of the cpdB gene also significantly affected the APEC growth and morphology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mutant Huntingtin Causes a Selective Decrease in the Expression of Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2C.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chaohua; Zhu, Gaochun; Liu, Xiangqian; Li, He

    2018-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant Htt causes synaptic transmission dysfunctions by interfering in the expression of synaptic proteins, leading to early HD symptoms. Synaptic vesicle proteins 2 (SV2s), a family of synaptic vesicle proteins including 3 members, SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C, plays important roles in synaptic physiology. Here, we investigated whether the expression of SV2s is affected by mutant Htt in the brains of HD transgenic (TG) mice and Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a cells) expressing mutant Htt. Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of SV2A and SV2B were not significantly changed in the brains of HD TG mice expressing mutant Htt with 82 glutamine repeats. However, in the TG mouse brain there was a dramatic decrease in the protein level of SV2C, which has a restricted distribution pattern in regions particularly vulnerable in HD. Immunostaining revealed that the immunoreactivity of SV2C was progressively weakened in the basal ganglia and hippocampus of TG mice. RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA level of SV2C progressively declined in the TG mouse brain without detectable changes in the mRNA levels of SV2A and SV2B, indicating that mutant Htt selectively inhibits the transcriptional expression of SV2C. Furthermore, we found that only SV2C expression was progressively inhibited in N2a cells expressing a mutant Htt containing 120 glutamine repeats. These findings suggest that the synaptic dysfunction in HD results from the mutant Htt-mediated inhibition of SV2C transcriptional expression. These data also imply that the restricted distribution and decreased expression of SV2C contribute to the brain region-selective pathology of HD.

  1. Sleep restores behavioral plasticity to Drosophila mutants

    PubMed Central

    Dissel, Stephane; Angadi, Veena; Kirszenblat, Leonie; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff; Klose, Markus; Koch, Zachary; English, Denis; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; van Swinderen, Bruno; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Given the role that sleep plays in modulating plasticity, we hypothesized that increasing sleep would restore memory to canonical memory mutants without specifically rescuing the causal molecular-lesion. Sleep was increased using three independent strategies: activating the dorsal Fan Shaped Body (FB), increasing the expression of Fatty acid binding protein (dFabp) or by administering the GABA-A agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP). Short-term memory (STM) or Long-term memory (LTM) was evaluated in rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc) mutants using Aversive Phototaxic Suppression (APS) and courtship conditioning. Each of the three independent strategies increased sleep and restored memory to rut and dnc mutants. Importantly, inducing sleep also reverses memory defects in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer’s disease. Together these data demonstrate that sleep plays a more fundamental role in modulating behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated and suggests that increasing sleep may benefit patients with certain neurological disorders. PMID:25913403

  2. Differential effects on enzyme stability and kinetic parameters of mutants related to human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nallely; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Perez-Montfort, Ruy

    2018-06-01

    Human triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) deficiency is a very rare disease, but there are several mutations reported to be causing the illness. In this work, we produced nine recombinant human triosephosphate isomerases which have the mutations reported to produce TIM deficiency. These enzymes were characterized biophysically and biochemically to determine their kinetic and stability parameters, and also to substitute TIM activity in supporting the growth of an Escherichia coli strain lacking the tim gene. Our results allowed us to rate the deleteriousness of the human TIM mutants based on the type and severity of the alterations observed, to classify four "unknown severity mutants" with altered residues in positions 62, 72, 122 and 154 and to explain in structural terms the mutation V231M, the most affected mutant from the kinetic point of view and the only homozygous mutation reported besides E104D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral and molecular analyses suggest that circadian output is disrupted by disconnected mutants in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, P E; Hall, J C; Rosbash, M

    1992-01-01

    Mutations in the disconnected (disco) gene act to disrupt neural cell patterning in the Drosophila visual system. These mutations also affect adult locomotor activity rhythms, as disco flies are arrhythmic under conditions of constant darkness (DD). To determine the state of the circadian pacemaker in disco mutants, we constructed with pers double mutants (a short period allele of the period gene) and assayed their behavioral rhythms in light-dark cycles (LD), and their biochemical rhythms of period gene expression under both LD and DD conditions. The results demonstrate that disco flies are rhythmic, indicating that they have an active circadian pacemaker that can be entrained by light. They also suggest that disco mutants block or interfere with elements of the circadian system located between the central pacemaker and its outputs that mediate overt rhythms. Images PMID:1740100

  4. Mutants of Neurospora crassa that alter gene expression and conidia development.

    PubMed Central

    Madi, L; Ebbole, D J; White, B T; Yanofsky, C

    1994-01-01

    Several genes have been identified that are highly expressed during conidiation. Inactivation of these genes has no observable phenotypic effect. Transcripts of two such genes, con-6 and con-10, are normally absent from vegetative mycelia. To identify regulatory genes that affect con-6 and/or con-10 expression, strains were prepared in which the regulatory regions for these genes were fused to a gene conferring hygromycin resistance. Mutants were then selected that were resistant to the drug during mycelial growth. Mutations in several of the isolates had trans effects; they activated transcription of the corresponding intact gene and, in most isolates, one or more of the other con genes. Most interestingly, resistant mutants were obtained that were defective at different stages of conidiation. One mutant conidiated under conditions that do not permit conidiation in wild type. Images PMID:8016143

  5. An annotated database of Arabidopsis mutants of acyl lipid metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Zhang, Meng; ...

    2014-12-10

    Mutants have played a fundamental role in gene discovery and in understanding the function of genes involved in plant acyl lipid metabolism. The first mutant in Arabidopsis lipid metabolism ( fad4) was described in 1985. Since that time, characterization of mutants in more than 280 genes associated with acyl lipid metabolism has been reported. This review provides a brief background and history on identification of mutants in acyl lipid metabolism, an analysis of the distribution of mutants in different areas of acyl lipid metabolism and presents an annotated database (ARALIPmutantDB) of these mutants. The database provides information on the phenotypesmore » of mutants, pathways and enzymes/proteins associated with the mutants, and allows rapid access via hyperlinks to summaries of information about each mutant and to literature that provides information on the lipid composition of the mutants. Mutants for at least 30 % of the genes in the database have multiple names, which have been compiled here to reduce ambiguities in searches for information. Furthermore, the database should also provide a tool for exploring the relationships between mutants in acyl lipid-related genes and their lipid phenotypes and point to opportunities for further research.« less

  6. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  7. Bridging the gap between chemistry, physiology, and evolution: quantifying the functionality of sperm whale myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper P

    2012-01-01

    This work merges a large set of previously reported thermochemical data for myoglobin (Mb) mutants with a physiological model of O(2)-transport and -storage. The model allows a quantification of the functional proficiency of myoglobin (Mb) mutants under various physiological conditions, i.e. O(2)-consumption rate resembling workload, O(2) partial pressure resembling hypoxic stress, muscle cell size, and Mb concentration, resembling different organism-specific and compensatory variables. We find that O(2)-storage and -transport are distinct functions that rank mutants and wild type differently depending on O(2) partial pressure. Specifically, the wild type is near-optimal for storage at all conditions, but for transport only at severely hypoxic conditions. At normoxic conditions, low-affinity mutants are in fact better O(2)-transporters because they still have empty sites for O(2), giving rise to a larger [MbO(2)] gradient (more varying saturation curve). The distributions of functionality reveal that many mutants are near-neutral with respect to function, whereas only a few are strongly affected, and the variation in functionality increases dramatically at lower O(2) pressure. These results together show that conserved residues in wild type (WT) Mb were fixated under a selection pressure of low P(O2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    PubMed

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production.

  9. A cadmium-sensitive, glutathione-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Howden, R; Andersen, C R; Goldsbrough, P B; Cobbett, C S

    1995-01-01

    The roots of the cadmium-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, cad1-1, become brown in the presence of cadmium. A new cadmium-sensitive mutant affected at a second locus, cad2, has been identified using this phenotype. Genetic analysis has grown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Assays of cadmium accumulation by intact plants indicated that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester cadmium. Undifferentiated callus tissue was also cadmium sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. The level of cadmium-binding complexes formed in vivo was decreased compared with the wild type and accumulation of phytochelatins was about 10% of that in the wild type. The level of glutathione, the substrate for phytochelatin biosynthesis, in tissues of the mutant was decreased to about 15 to 30% of that in the wild type. Thus, the deficiency in phytochelatin biosynthesis can be explained by a deficiency in glutathione. PMID:7770518

  10. Isolation and characterization of OmpC porin mutants with altered pore properties

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, R.; Benson, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The LamB protien is normally required for the uptake of maltodextrins. Starting with a LamB/sup -/ OmpF/sup -/ strain, we have isolated mutants that will grow on maltodextrins. The mutation conferring the Dex/sup +/ phenotype in the majority of these mutants has been mapped to the ompC locus. These mutants, unlike LamB/sup -/ OmpF/sup -/ strains, grew on maltotriose and maltotetraose, but not on maltopentaose, and showed a significantly higher rate of (/sup 14/C) maltose uptake than the parent strain did. In addition, these mutants showed increased sensitivity to certain ..beta..-lactam antibiotics and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but did not exhibitmore » an increase in sensitivity to other antibiotics and detergents. The nucleotide sequence of these mutants has been determined. In all cases, residue 74 (arginine) of the mature OmpC protein was affected. The results suggest that this region of the OmpC protein is involved in the pore domain and that the alterations lead to an increased pore size.« less

  11. Understanding protein lids: kinetic analysis of active hinge mutants in triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    1999-08-31

    In previous work we tested what three amino acid sequences could serve as a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase [Sun, J., and Sampson, N. S. (1998) Protein Sci. 7, 1495-1505]. We generated a genetic library encoding all 8000 possible 3 amino acid combinations at the C-terminal hinge and selected for those combinations of amino acids that formed active mutants. These mutants were classified into six phylogenetic families. Two families resembled wild-type hinges, and four families represented new types of hinges. In this work, the kinetic characteristics and thermal stabilities of mutants representing each of these families were determined in order to understand what properties make an efficient protein hinge, and why all of the families are not observed in nature. From a steady-state kinetic analysis of our mutants, it is clear that the partitioning between protonation of intermediate to form product and intermediate release from the enzyme surface to form methylglyoxal (a decomposition product) is not affected. The two most impaired mutants undergo a change in rate-limiting step from enediol formation to dihydroxyacetone phosphate binding. Thus, it appears that k(cat)/K(m)'s are reduced relative to wild type as a result of slower Michaelis complex formation and dissociation, rather than increased loop opening speed.

  12. Otx1 null mutant mice show partial segregation of sensory epithelia comparable to lamprey ears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Signore, M.; Simeone, A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the development of inner ear innervation in Otx1 null mutants, which lack a horizontal canal, between embryonic day 12 (E12) and postnatal day 7 (P7) with DiI and immunostaining for acetylated tubulin. Comparable to control animals, horizontal crista-like fibers were found to cross over the utricle in Otx1 null mice. In mutants these fibers extend toward an area near the endolymphatic duct, not to a horizontal crista. Most Otx1 null mutants had a small patch of sensory hair cells at this position. Measurement of the area of the utricular macula suggested it to be enlarged in Otx1 null mutants. We suggest that parts of the horizontal canal crista remain incorporated in the utricular sensory epithelium in Otx1 null mutants. Other parts of the horizontal crista appear to be variably segregated to form the isolated patch of hair cells identifiable by the unique fiber trajectory as representing the horizontal canal crista. Comparison with lamprey ear innervation reveals similarities in the pattern of innervation with the dorsal macula, a sensory patch of unknown function. SEM data confirm that all foramina are less constricted in Otx1 null mutants. We propose that Otx1 is not directly involved in sensory hair cell formation of the horizontal canal but affects the segregation of the horizontal canal crista from the utricle. It also affects constriction of the two main foramina in the ear, but not their initial formation. Otx1 is thus causally related to horizontal canal morphogenesis as well as morphogenesis of these foramina.

  13. Tomato TILLING Technology: Development of a Reverse Genetics Tool for the Efficient Isolation of Mutants from Micro-Tom Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Saito, Takeshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Brès, Cécile; Rothan, Christophe; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To accelerate functional genomic research in tomato, we developed a Micro-Tom TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) platform. DNA pools were constructed from 3,052 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant lines treated with 0.5 or 1.0% EMS. The mutation frequency was calculated by screening 10 genes. The 0.5% EMS population had a mild mutation frequency of one mutation per 1,710 kb, whereas the 1.0% EMS population had a frequency of one mutation per 737 kb, a frequency suitable for producing an allelic series of mutations in the target genes. The overall mutation frequency was one mutation per 1,237 kb, which affected an average of three alleles per kilobase screened. To assess whether a Micro-Tom TILLING platform could be used for efficient mutant isolation, six ethylene receptor genes in tomato (SlETR1–SlETR6) were screened. Two allelic mutants of SlETR1 (Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2) that resulted in reduced ethylene responses were identified, indicating that our Micro-Tom TILLING platform provides a powerful tool for the rapid detection of mutations in an EMS mutant library. This work provides a practical and publicly accessible tool for the study of fruit biology and for obtaining novel genetic material that can be used to improve important agronomic traits in tomato. PMID:21965606

  14. Tomato TILLING technology: development of a reverse genetics tool for the efficient isolation of mutants from Micro-Tom mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Saito, Takeshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Brès, Cécile; Rothan, Christophe; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    To accelerate functional genomic research in tomato, we developed a Micro-Tom TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) platform. DNA pools were constructed from 3,052 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant lines treated with 0.5 or 1.0% EMS. The mutation frequency was calculated by screening 10 genes. The 0.5% EMS population had a mild mutation frequency of one mutation per 1,710 kb, whereas the 1.0% EMS population had a frequency of one mutation per 737 kb, a frequency suitable for producing an allelic series of mutations in the target genes. The overall mutation frequency was one mutation per 1,237 kb, which affected an average of three alleles per kilobase screened. To assess whether a Micro-Tom TILLING platform could be used for efficient mutant isolation, six ethylene receptor genes in tomato (SlETR1-SlETR6) were screened. Two allelic mutants of SlETR1 (Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2) that resulted in reduced ethylene responses were identified, indicating that our Micro-Tom TILLING platform provides a powerful tool for the rapid detection of mutations in an EMS mutant library. This work provides a practical and publicly accessible tool for the study of fruit biology and for obtaining novel genetic material that can be used to improve important agronomic traits in tomato.

  15. Multiplex growth rate phenotyping of synthetic mutants in selection to engineer glucose and xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Groot, Joost; Cepress-Mclean, Sidney C; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2017-04-01

    Engineering the simultaneous consumption of glucose and xylose sugars is critical to enable the sustainable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. In most major industrial microorganisms glucose completely inhibits the uptake of xylose, limiting efficient sugar mixture conversion. In E. coli removal of the major glucose transporter PTS allows for glucose and xylose co-consumption but only after prolonged adaptation, which is an effective process but hard to control and prone to co-evolving undesired traits. Here we synthetically engineer mutants to target sugar co-consumption properties; we subject a PTS - mutant to a short adaptive step and subsequently either delete or overexpress key genes previously suggested to affect sugar consumption. Screening the co-consumption properties of these mutants individually is very laborious. We show we can evaluate sugar co-consumption properties in parallel by culturing the mutants in selection and applying a novel approach that computes mutant growth rates in selection using chromosomal barcode counts obtained from Next-Generation Sequencing. We validate this multiplex growth rate phenotyping approach with individual mutant pure cultures, identify new instances of mutants cross-feeding on metabolic byproducts, and, importantly, find that the rates of glucose and xylose co-consumption can be tuned by altering glucokinase expression in our PTS - background. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 885-893. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. RNA polymerase III mutants in TFIIFα-like C37 that cause terminator readthrough with no decrease in transcription output.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2013-01-07

    How eukaryotic RNA polymerases switch from elongation to termination is unknown. Pol III subunits Rpc53 and Rpc37 (C53/37) form a heterodimer homologous to TFIIFβ/α. C53/37 promotes efficient termination and together with C11 also mediates pol III recycling in vitro. We previously developed Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains that report on two pol III termination activities: RNA oligo(U) 3'-end cleavage, and terminator readthrough. We randomly mutagenized C53 and C37 and isolated many C37 mutants with terminator readthrough but no comparable C53 mutants. The majority of C37 mutants have strong phenotypes with up to 40% readthrough and map to a C-terminal tract previously localized near Rpc2p in the pol III active center while a minority represent a distinct class with weaker phenotype, less readthrough and 3'-oligo(U) lengthening. Nascent pre-tRNAs released from a terminator by C37 mutants have shorter 3'-oligo(U) tracts than in cleavage-deficient C11 double mutants indicating RNA 3'-end cleavage during termination. We asked whether termination deficiency affects transcription output in the mutants in vivo both by monitoring intron-containing nascent transcript levels and (14)C-uridine incorporation. Surprisingly, multiple termination mutants have no decrease in transcript output relative to controls. These data are discussed in context of current models of pol III transcription.

  17. RNA polymerase III mutants in TFIIFα-like C37 that cause terminator readthrough with no decrease in transcription output

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    How eukaryotic RNA polymerases switch from elongation to termination is unknown. Pol III subunits Rpc53 and Rpc37 (C53/37) form a heterodimer homologous to TFIIFβ/α. C53/37 promotes efficient termination and together with C11 also mediates pol III recycling in vitro. We previously developed Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains that report on two pol III termination activities: RNA oligo(U) 3′-end cleavage, and terminator readthrough. We randomly mutagenized C53 and C37 and isolated many C37 mutants with terminator readthrough but no comparable C53 mutants. The majority of C37 mutants have strong phenotypes with up to 40% readthrough and map to a C-terminal tract previously localized near Rpc2p in the pol III active center while a minority represent a distinct class with weaker phenotype, less readthrough and 3′-oligo(U) lengthening. Nascent pre-tRNAs released from a terminator by C37 mutants have shorter 3′-oligo(U) tracts than in cleavage-deficient C11 double mutants indicating RNA 3′-end cleavage during termination. We asked whether termination deficiency affects transcription output in the mutants in vivo both by monitoring intron-containing nascent transcript levels and 14C-uridine incorporation. Surprisingly, multiple termination mutants have no decrease in transcript output relative to controls. These data are discussed in context of current models of pol III transcription. PMID:23093604

  18. Mutants in three novel complementation groups inhibit membrane protein insertion into and soluble protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated mutants that inhibit membrane protein insertion into the ER membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutants were contained in three complementation groups, which we have named SEC70, SEC71, and SEC72. The mutants also inhibited the translocation of soluble proteins into the lumen of the ER, indicating that they pleiotropically affect protein transport across and insertion into the ER membrane. Surprisingly, the mutants inhibited the translocation and insertion of different proteins to drastically different degrees. We have also shown that mutations in SEC61 and SEC63, which were previously isolated as mutants inhibiting the translocation of soluble proteins, also affect the insertion of membrane proteins into the ER. Taken together our data indicate that the process of protein translocation across the ER membrane involves a much larger number of gene products than previously appreciated. Moreover, different translocation substrates appear to have different requirements for components of the cellular targeting and translocation apparatus. PMID:1730771

  19. Selective Chemosensitization of Rb Mutant Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    MA). pLPC-12S coexpresses an E1A 12S cDNA with puromycin phosphotransferase (puro) and pWZL-12S coexpresses E1A with hygromycin phospho...expressing puromycin phosphotransferase (puro); LPC-12S, a 12S El A cDNA in LPC (McCurrach et al. 1997); LPC-12S.AN and LPC-12S.ACR2, El A mutants that...2, -3, conserved regions 1, 2, and 3; MEF, mouse embryonic fibroblast; puro, puromycin; hygro, hygromycin . To whom reprint requests should be

  20. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  1. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  2. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  3. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Development of a forward genetic screen to isolate oil mutants in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Cagnon, Caroline; Mirabella, Boris; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Bouvet, Séverine; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2013-12-02

    Oils produced by microalgae are precursors to biodiesel. To achieve a profitable production of biodiesel from microalgae, identification of factors governing oil synthesis and turnover is desirable. The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is amenable to genetic analyses and has recently emerged as a model to study oil metabolism. However, a detailed method to isolate various types of oil mutants that is adapted to Chlamydomonas has not been reported. We describe here a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants altered in oil synthesis and turnover from C. reinhardtii. It consists of a three-step screening procedure: a primary screen by flow cytometry of Nile red stained transformants grown in 96-deep-well plates under three sequential conditions (presence of nitrogen, then absence of nitrogen, followed by oil remobilization); a confirmation step using Nile red stained biological triplicates; and a validation step consisting of the quantification by thin layer chromatography of oil content of selected strains. Thirty-one mutants were isolated by screening 1,800 transformants generated by random insertional mutagenesis (1.7%). Five showed increased oil accumulation under the nitrogen-replete condition and 13 had altered oil content under nitrogen-depletion. All mutants were affected in oil remobilization. This study demonstrates that various types of oil mutants can be isolated in Chlamydomonas based on the method set-up here, including mutants accumulating oil under optimal biomass growth. The strategy conceived and the protocol set-up should be applicable to other microalgal species such as Nannochloropsis and Chlorella, thus serving as a useful tool in Chlamydomonas oil research and algal biotechnology.

  5. Transcription analysis of peloric mutants of Phalaenopsis orchids derived from tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya Huei; Tsai, Yi Jung; Huang, Jian Zhi; Chen, Fure Chyi

    2005-08-01

    Tissue culture has been widely used for mass propagation of Phalaenopsis. However, somaclonal variation occurred during micropropagation process posed a severe problem by affecting product quality. In this study, wild type and peloric flower buds of Phalaenopsis hybrids derived from flower stalk nodal culture were used for cDNA-RAPD and cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization analyses in order to study their genetic difference in terms of expressed sequence tags. A total of 209 ESTs from normal flower buds and 230 from mutants were sequenced. These ESTs sequences can be grouped into several functional categories involved in different cellular processes including metabolism, signal transduction, transcription, cell growth and division, protein synthesis, and protein localization, and into a subcategory of proteins with unknown function. Cymbidium mosaic virus transcript was surprisingly found expressed frequently in the peloric mutant of P. Little Mary. Real-time RT-PCR analysis on selected ESTs showed that in mutant flower buds, a bZIP transcription factor (TGA1a-like protein) was down-regulated, while up-regulated genes include auxin-regulated protein kinase, cyclophilin, and TCP-like genes. A retroelement clone was also preferentially expressed in the peloric mutant flowers. On the other hand, ESTs involved in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation, such as DNA methyltransferase, histone acetyltransferase, ERECTA, and DEAD/DEAH RNA helicase, were enriched in normal flower buds than the mutants. The enriched transcripts in the wild type indicate the down regulation of these transcripts in the mutants, and vice versa. The potential roles of the analyzed transcripts in the development of Phalaenopsis flowers are discussed.

  6. Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Defects in Acetate Metabolism: Isolation and Characterization of Acn(-) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673

  7. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  8. Molecular characterization of baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus polyhedron mutants.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, S; Noguchi, Y; Shimada, T; Nagata, M; Kobayashi, M; Maeda, S

    1999-01-01

    Four newly isolated and two previously isolated polyhedron mutants of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) were studied. Two polyhedron deficient mutants, #126 and #136, produced small uncrystallized particles of polyhedrin in the nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells. Mutant #211 produced a large number of variably sized polyhedra in the nucleus and #220 produced a few large cuboidal polyhedra in the nucleus. Mutant #24 and #128 were previously isolated BmNPV mutants. Mutant #24 could not produce polyhedrin mRNA and polyhedra produced by mutant #128 lacked oral infectivity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that five mutants (#126, #136, #211, #220 and #128) had amino acid substitutions in polyhedrin and mutant #24 had a point mutation only in the promoter region of the polyhedrin gene. Cotransfection experiments showed that the altered phenotypes were due to the mutations found in the polyhedrin gene regions. In mutants #126 and #136, amino acid sequences of the nuclear localization signal of polyhedrin were identical to those of wild-type BmNPV, suggesting that this sequence was necessary but not sufficient for nuclear localization of polyhedrin. Electron microscopic observation revealed that fewer occluded virions were contained in polyhedra of #128 and #220.

  9. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Melloni N.; Dunning, Jonathan P; Wiley, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsivenessmore » to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.« less

  10. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0177 TITLE: Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Katerina Politi...CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0177 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Phenotypic changes have been observed in EGFR mutant lung cancers that become resistant to targeted

  11. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  12. A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, K F; Leys, C M; White, J G

    1998-01-01

    A novel screen to isolate conditional cell-division mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed. The screen is based on the phenotypes associated with existing cell-division mutations: some disrupt postembryonic divisions and affect formation of the gonad and ventral nerve cord-resulting in sterile, uncoordinated animals-while others affect embryonic divisions and result in lethality. We obtained 19 conditional mutants that displayed these phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature at the appropriate developmental stage. Eighteen of these mutations have been mapped; 17 proved to be single alleles of newly identified genes, while 1 proved to be an allele of a previously identified gene. Genetic tests on the embryonic lethal phenotypes indicated that for 13 genes, embryogenesis required maternal expression, while for 6, zygotic expression could suffice. In all cases, maternal expression of wild-type activity was found to be largely sufficient for embryogenesis. Cytological analysis revealed that 10 mutants possessed embryonic cell-division defects, including failure to properly segregate DNA, failure to assemble a mitotic spindle, late cytokinesis defects, prolonged cell cycles, and improperly oriented mitotic spindles. We conclude that this approach can be used to identify mutations that affect various aspects of the cell-division cycle. PMID:9649522

  13. Understanding the thermostability and activity of Bacillus subtilis lipase mutants: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bipin; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan; Mitra, Abhijit

    2015-01-15

    Improving the thermostability of industrial enzymes is an important protein engineering challenge. Point mutations, induced to increase thermostability, affect the structure and dynamics of the target protein in several ways and thus can also affect its activity. There appears to be no general rules for improving the thermostabilty of enzymes without adversely affecting their enzymatic activity. We report MD simulations, of wild type Bacillus subtilis lipase (WT) and its six progressively thermostable mutants (2M, 3M, 4M, 6M, 9M, and 12M), performed at different temperatures, to address this issue. Less thermostable mutants (LTMs), 2M to 6M, show WT-like dynamics at all simulation temperatures. However, the two more thermostable mutants (MTMs) show the required flexibility at appropriate temperature ranges and maintain conformational stability at high temperature. They show a deep and rugged free-energy landscape, confining them within a near-native conformational space by conserving noncovalent interactions, and thus protecting them from possible aggregation. In contrast, the LTMs having marginally higher thermostabilities than WT show greater probabilities of accessing non-native conformations, which, due to aggregation, have reduced possibilities of reverting to their respective native states under refolding conditions. Our analysis indicates the possibility of nonadditive effects of point mutations on the conformational stability of LTMs.

  14. [Construction and stress tolerance of trehalase mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ye; Xiao, Dongguang; He, Dongqin; Guo, Xuewu

    2008-10-01

    Accumulation of trehalose is critical in improving the stress tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing trehalose: a neutral trehalase (NTH1) and an acidic trehalase (ATH1). We constructed trehalase disruption mutants to provide a basis for future commercial application. To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cell, we constructed diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Deltanth1), acid trehalase mutants (Deltaath1) and double mutants (Deltaath1Deltanth1) by using gene disruption. We tested mutants'trehalose content and their tolerance to freezing, heat, high-sugar and ethanol concentrations. These trehalase disruption mutants were further confirmed by PCR amplification and southern blot. All mutant strains accumulated higher levels of cellular trehalose and grew to a higher cell density than the isogenic parent strain. In addition, the levels of trehalose in these mutants correlated with increased tolerance to freezing, heat, high-sugar and ethanol concentration. The improved tolerance of trehalase mutants may make them useful in commercial applications, including baking and brewing protein.

  15. Diaminopurine-Resistant Mutants of Cultured, Diploid Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Harriet; DeMars, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Clones of cells resistant to 2,6-diaminopurine were detected in skin fibroblast cultures derived from 13 of 21 normal humans of both sexes from 17 unrelated families. Almost all of the cultures that yielded mutants were chosen for further study from among a total of 83 surveyed because they displayed a slight resistance to low concentrations of diaminopurine. The incidences of mutant colonies ranged between about 10-5 and 10-4 per cell surviving prior mutagenic treatment with MNNG. The incidences of spontaneous mutants were about 10-7 to 10-5 in three unrelated cultures. Most independent mutants had distinctly reduced activity of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase but some had apparently normal amounts of activity. Two mutants from unrelated boys had little or no detectable enzyme activity and were unable to effectively use exogenous adenine for growth when purine biosynthesis was blocked with azaserine. Most mutants could utilize exogenous adenine, just as most azaguanine-resistant fibroblast mutants can utilize exogenous hypoxanthine, even when their hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity is reduced. Diverse genetic changes conferred diaminopurine resistance but their specific natures are still undefined. Gross numerical or structural chromosome abnormalities were not observed in the mutants examined so far. Since at least one gene responsible for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity is on autosome No. 16 our results suggest that at least some of the cultures yielding mutants were heterozygous and that alleles conferring diaminopurine resistance may be frequent enough to comprise a polymorphism. PMID:4358687

  16. Correlation between in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo lethal activity in mice of epsilon toxin mutants from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Pauillac, Serge; Díaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Popoff, Michel R; Blasi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens is a pore-forming protein with a lethal effect on livestock, producing severe enterotoxemia characterized by general edema and neurological alterations. Site-specific mutations of the toxin are valuable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanism of the toxin activity. In particular, mutants with paired cysteine substitutions that affect the membrane insertion domain behaved as dominant-negative inhibitors of toxin activity in MDCK cells. We produced similar mutants, together with a well-known non-toxic mutant (Etx-H106P), as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to perform in vivo studies in an acutely intoxicated mouse model. The mutant (GFP-Etx-I51C/A114C) had a lethal effect with generalized edema, and accumulated in the brain parenchyma due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the renal system, this mutant had a cytotoxic effect on distal tubule epithelial cells. The other mutants studied (GFP-Etx-V56C/F118C and GFP-Etx-H106P) did not have a lethal effect or cross the BBB, and failed to induce a cytotoxic effect on renal epithelial cells. These data suggest a direct correlation between the lethal effect of the toxin, with its cytotoxic effect on the kidney distal tubule cells, and the ability to cross the BBB.

  17. Correlation between In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Lethal Activity in Mice of Epsilon Toxin Mutants from Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Pauillac, Serge; Díaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Popoff, Michel R.; Blasi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens is a pore-forming protein with a lethal effect on livestock, producing severe enterotoxemia characterized by general edema and neurological alterations. Site-specific mutations of the toxin are valuable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanism of the toxin activity. In particular, mutants with paired cysteine substitutions that affect the membrane insertion domain behaved as dominant-negative inhibitors of toxin activity in MDCK cells. We produced similar mutants, together with a well-known non-toxic mutant (Etx-H106P), as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to perform in vivo studies in an acutely intoxicated mouse model. The mutant (GFP-Etx-I51C/A114C) had a lethal effect with generalized edema, and accumulated in the brain parenchyma due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the renal system, this mutant had a cytotoxic effect on distal tubule epithelial cells. The other mutants studied (GFP-Etx-V56C/F118C and GFP-Etx-H106P) did not have a lethal effect or cross the BBB, and failed to induce a cytotoxic effect on renal epithelial cells. These data suggest a direct correlation between the lethal effect of the toxin, with its cytotoxic effect on the kidney distal tubule cells, and the ability to cross the BBB. PMID:25013927

  18. Tissue-specific patterns of lignification are disturbed in the brown midrib2 mutant of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Vermerris, W; Boon, J J

    2001-02-01

    Despite recent progress, several aspects of lignin biosynthesis, including variation in lignin composition between species and between tissues within a given species, are still poorly understood. The analysis of mutants affected in cell wall biosynthesis may help increase the understanding of these processes. We have analyzed the maize brown midrib2 (bm2) mutant, one of the four bm mutants of maize, using pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Vascular tissues from the leaf blade and leaf sheath from different parts of the plant were investigated and compared to the corresponding samples from a wild-type plant of the same genetic background (inbred line A619). Multivariate analysis revealed that the bm2 mutant had reduced amounts of di- and trimeric lignin derivatives, notably species with m/z 272 and m/z 330, and that the ratio of guaiacyl residues to polysaccharides was reduced in the bm2 mutant. In addition, differences in cell wall composition between different parts of the plant (blade versus sheath, young versus old tissue) were much less pronounced in the bm2 mutant. These changes suggest that the functional Bm2 gene is important for the establishment of tissue-specific cell wall composition.

  19. A Dominant Loss-of-Function GJA1 (Cx43) Mutant Impairs Parturition in the Mouse1

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Dan; Lu, Xuerong; Wang, Hong-Xing; Plante, Isabelle; Lui, Ed; Laird, Dale W.; Bai, Donglin; Kidder, Gerald M.

    2009-01-01

    Expression of GJA1 (commonly known as connexin43 or Cx43), a major myometrial gap junction protein, is upregulated before the onset of delivery, suggesting an essential role for Cx43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in normal uterine contraction during parturition. To determine how a disease-linked Cx43 mutation affects myometrial function, we studied a mutant mouse model carrying an autosomal dominant mutation (Gja1Jrt) in the gene encoding Cx43 that displays features of the human genetic disease oculodentodigital dysplasia. We found that Cx43 level, specifically the phosphorylated species of the protein, is significantly reduced in the myometrium of the mutant mice (Gja1Jrt/+), as revealed by Western blotting and immunostaining. Patch-clamp electrophysiological measurements demonstrated that coupling between myometrial smooth muscle cells is reduced to <15% of wild-type, indicating that the mutant protein acts dominantly on its wild-type counterpart. The phosphorylated species of Cx43 in the mutant myometrium failed to increase prior to parturition as well as in response to exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments with uterine strips revealed weaker contraction of the mutant myometrium and reduced responsiveness to oxytocin, providing an explanation for the prolonged gestation and presence of suffocated fetuses in the uteri that were observed in some of the mutant mice. We conclude that the Gja1Jrt mutation has a dominant-negative effect on Cx43 function in the myometrium, severely reducing GJIC, leading to impaired parturition. PMID:19176884

  20. The Role of Zic Genes in Inner Ear Development in the Mouse: Exploring Mutant Mouse Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chervenak, Andrew P.; Bank, Lisa M.; Thomsen, Nicole; Glanville-Jones, Hannah C; Skibo, Jonathan; Millen, Kathleen J.; Arkell, Ruth M.; Barald, Kate F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Murine Zic genes (Zic1-5) are expressed in the dorsal hindbrain and in periotic mesenchyme (POM) adjacent to the developing inner ear. Zic genes are involved in developmental signaling pathways in many organ systems, including the ear, although their exact roles haven't been fully elucidated. This report examines the role of Zic1, Zic2, and Zic4 during inner ear development in mouse mutants in which these Zic genes are affected Results Zic1/Zic4 double mutants don't exhibit any apparent defects in inner ear morphology. By contrast, inner ears from Zic2kd/kd and Zic2Ku/Ku mutants have severe but variable morphological defects in endolymphatic duct/sac and semicircular canal formation and in cochlear extension in the inner ear. Analysis of otocyst patterning in the Zic2Ku/Ku mutants by in situ hybridization showed changes in the expression patterns of Gbx2 and Pax2. Conclusions The experiments provide the first genetic evidence that the Zic genes are required for morphogenesis of the inner ear. Zic2 loss-of-function doesn't prevent initial otocyst patterning but leads to molecular abnormalities concomitant with morphogenesis of the endolymphatic duct. Functional hearing deficits often accompany inner ear dysmorphologies, making Zic2 a novel candidate gene for ongoing efforts to identify the genetic basis of human hearing loss. PMID:25178196

  1. An alphavirus temperature-sensitive capsid mutant reveals stages of nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yan, E-mail: yzheng15@students.kgi.edu; Kielian, Margaret, E-mail: margaret.kielian@einstein.yu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Alphaviruses have a nucleocapsid core composed of the RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral lattice of capsid protein. An insertion after position 186 in the capsid protein produced a strongly temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Even when the structural proteins were synthesized at the permissive temperature (28 °C), subsequent incubation of the cells at the non-permissive temperature (37 °C) dramatically decreased mutant capsid protein stability and particle assembly. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids in mutant-infected cells cultured at the permissive temperature, but these nucleocapsids were not stable to sucrose gradient separation. In contrast, nucleocapsids isolated from mutant virus particlesmore » had similar stability to that of wildtype virus. Our data support a model in which cytoplasmic nucleocapsids go through a maturation step during packaging into virus particles. The insertion site lies in the interface between capsid proteins in the assembled nucleocapsid, suggesting the region where such a stabilizing transition occurs. - Highlights: • We characterize an alphavirus capsid insertion mutation. • These capsid mutants are highly temperature sensitive for growth. • The insertion affects nucleocapsid stability. • Results suggest that the nucleocapsid is stabilized during virus budding.« less

  2. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  3. Silencing neuronal mutant androgen receptor in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Hung, Gene; Adachi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Naohide; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Tohnai, Genki; Iida, Madoka; Bennett, C Frank; Sobue, Gen

    2015-11-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that affects males, results from a CAG triplet repeat/polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Patients develop progressive muscular weakness and atrophy, and no effective therapy is currently available. The tissue-specific pathogenesis, especially relative pathological contributions between degenerative motor neurons and muscles, remains inconclusive. Though peripheral pathology in skeletal muscle caused by toxic AR protein has been recently reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SBMA using mouse models, the role of motor neuron degeneration in SBMA has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we exploited synthetic antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the RNA levels of mutant AR in the central nervous system (CNS) and explore its therapeutic effects in our SBMA mouse model that harbors a mutant AR gene with 97 CAG expansions and characteristic SBMA-like neurogenic phenotypes. A single intracerebroventricular administration of the antisense oligonucleotides in the presymptomatic phase efficiently suppressed the mutant gene expression in the CNS, and delayed the onset and progression of motor dysfunction, improved body weight gain and survival with the amelioration of neuronal histopathology in motor units such as spinal motor neurons, neuromuscular junctions and skeletal muscle. These findings highlight the importance of the neurotoxicity of mutant AR protein in motor neurons as a therapeutic target. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Overexpression of mutant ataxin-3 in mouse cerebellum induces ataxia and cerebellar neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Clévio; Nascimento-Ferreira, Isabel; Onofre, Isabel; Albuquerque, David; Conceição, Mariana; Déglon, Nicole; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is a fatal, dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the polyglutamine-expanded protein ataxin-3. Clinical manifestations include cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs culminating in severe neuronal degeneration. Currently, there is no therapy able to modify disease progression. In the present study, we aimed at investigating one of the most severely affected brain regions in the disorder--the cerebellum--and the behavioral defects associated with the neuropathology in this region. For this purpose, we injected lentiviral vectors encoding full-length human mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum of 3-week-old C57/BL6 mice. We show that circumscribed expression of human mutant ataxin-3 in the cerebellum mediates within a short time frame--6 weeks, the development of a behavioral phenotype including reduced motor coordination, wide-based ataxic gait, and hyperactivity. Furthermore, the expression of mutant ataxin-3 resulted in the accumulation of intranuclear inclusions, neuropathological abnormalities, and neuronal death. These data show that lentiviral-based expression of mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum induces localized neuropathology, which is sufficient to generate a behavioral ataxic phenotype. Moreover, this approach provides a physiologically relevant, cost-effective and time-effective animal model to gain further insights into the pathogenesis of MJD and for the evaluation of experimental therapeutics of MJD.

  5. Reduced gravitropism in hypocotyls of starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Guisinger, M. M.; Miller, A. J.; Stackhouse, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Gravitropism was examined in dark- and light-grown hypocotyls of wild-type (WT), two reduced starch mutants (ACG 20 and ACG 27), and a starchless mutant (ACG 21) of Arabidopsis. In addition, the starch content of these four strains was studied with light and electron microscopy. Based on time course of curvature and orientation studies, the graviresponse in hypocotyls is proportional to the amount of starch in a genotype. Furthermore, starch mutations seem to primarily affect gravitropism rather than differential growth since both phototropic curvature and growth rates among the four genotypes are approximately equal. Our results suggest that gravity perception may require a greater plastid mass in hypocotyls compared to roots. The kinetics of gravitropic curvature also was compared following reorientation at 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees. As has been reported for other plant species, the optimal angle of reorientation is 135 degrees for WT Arabidopsis and the two reduced starch mutants, but the magnitude of curvature of the starchless mutant appears to be independent of the initial angle of displacement. Taken together, the results of the present study and our previous experiments with roots of the same four genotypes [Kiss et al. (1996) Physiol. Plant. 97: 237] support a plastid-based hypothesis for gravity perception in plants.

  6. A potential functional association between mutant BMPR2 and primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Liliana Catherine; Silgado, Daniel; Laissue, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) affects ~1% of women in the general population. Despite numerous attempts at identifying POI genetic aetiology, coding mutations in only a few genes have been functionally related to POI pathogenesis. It has been suggested that mutant BMPR2 might contribute towards the phenotype. Several BMP15 (a BMPR2 ligand) coding mutations in human species have been related to POI pathogenesis. The BMPR2 p.Ser987Phe mutation, previously identified in a woman with POI, might therefore lead to cellular dysfunction contributing to the phenotype. To explore such an assumption, the present study assessed potential pathogenic subcellular localization/aggregation patterns associated with the p.Ser987Phe mutant form of BMPR2 in a relevant model for studying ovarian function. A significant increase in protein-like aggregation patterns was identified at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which permitted us to establish, for the first time, a potential functional association between mutant BMPR2 and POI aetiology. Since BMPR2 mutant forms were previously related to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, BMPR2 mutations may be related to an as-yet-to-be described syndromic form of POI involving pulmonary dysfunction. Additional assays are necessary to confirm that BMPR2 abnormal subcellular patterns are composed by aggregates. POI: primary ovarian insufficiency; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; NGS: next generation sequencing.

  7. Positive selection of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with increased stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Manuel J; Riddle, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    We developed selective conditions for long-lived mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by subjecting the first larval stage (L1) to thermal stress at 30 degrees for 7 days. The surviving larvae developed to fertile adults after the temperature was shifted to 15 degrees. A total of one million F(2) progeny and a half million F(3) progeny of ethyl-methanesulfonate-mutagenized animals were treated in three separate experiments. Among the 81 putative mutants that recovered and matured to the reproductive adult, 63 retested as thermotolerant and 49 (80%) exhibited a >15% increase in mean life span. All the known classes of dauer formation (Daf) mutant that affect longevity were found, including six new alleles of daf-2, and a unique temperature-sensitive, dauer-constitutive allele of age-1. Alleles of dyf-2 and unc-13 were isolated, and mutants of unc-18, a gene that interacts with unc-13, were also found to be long lived. Thirteen additional mutations define at least four new genes. PMID:12586705

  8. Mutational scanning of the human serotonin transporter reveals fast translocating serotonin transporter mutants.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Anders S; Larsen, Mads B; Johnsen, Laust B; Wiborg, Ove

    2004-03-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of sodium-chloride-dependent transporters responsible for uptake of amino acids and biogenic amines from the extracellular space. SERT represents a major pharmacological target in the treatment of several clinical conditions, including depression and anxiety. In the present study we have undertaken a mutational scanning of human SERT in order to identify residues that are responsible for individual differences among related monoamine transporters. One mutant, G100A, was inactive in transport. However, ligand binding affinity was similar to wild-type, suggesting that G100A amongst different possible SERT conformations is restrained to a binding conformation. We suggest that the main role of glycine-100 is to confer structural flexibility during substrate translocation. For the two single mutants, T178A and F263C, uptake rates and K(m) values were both several-fold higher than wild-type while binding affinities and inhibitory potencies decreased considerably for several drugs. Ion dependency increased and only at hyperosmotic concentrations were K(m) values partly restored. For the double mutant, T178A/F263C, shifts in uptake kinetics and ligand affinities, as well as ion dependencies, were drastic. Effects were synergistic compared to the corresponding single mutants. In conclusion, we suggest that mutating threonine-178 to an alanine and phenylalanine-263 to a cysteine mainly alter the overall uptake kinetics of SERT by affecting the conformational equilibrium of different transporter conformations.

  9. Root graviresponsiveness and cellular differentiation in wild-type and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1989-01-01

    Primary roots of a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana L. are strongly graviresponsive despite lacking amyloplasts in their columella cells. The ultrastructures of calyptrogen and peripheral cells in wild-type as compared to mutant seedlings are not significantly different. The largest difference in cellular differentiation in caps of mutant and wild-type roots is the relative volume of plastids in columella cells. Plastids occupy 12.3% of the volume of columella cells in wild-type seedlings, but only 3.69% of columella cells in mutant seedlings. These results indicate that: (1) amyloplasts and starch are not necessary for root graviresponsiveness; (2) the increase in relative volume of plastids that usually accompanies differentiation of columella cells is not necessary for root graviresponsiveness; and (3) the absence of starch and amyloplasts does not affect the structure of calyptrogen (i.e. meristematic) and secretory (i.e. peripheral) cells in root caps. These results are discussed relative to proposed models for root gravitropism.

  10. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP selectively regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor by ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chaeuk; Yoo, Geon; Kim, Tackhoon; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Choong-Sik; Cha, Hye Rim; Park, Yeon Hee; Moon, Jae Young; Jung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ju Ock; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Myoungrin; Park, Dong Il; Lim, Dae-Sik; Jang, Kang Won; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-10-14

    Somatic mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a decisive factor for the therapeutic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma. The stability of mutant EGFR is maintained by various regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a Hsp70/Hsp90 co-chaperone and exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The high-affinity Hsp90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively regulates their client proteins. CHIP also works with its own E3 ligase activity independently of Hsp70/Hsp90. Here, we investigated the role of CHIP in regulating EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma and also evaluated the specificity of CHIP's effects on mutant EGFR. In HEK 293T cells transfected with either WT EGFR or EGFR mutants, the overexpression of CHIP selectively decreased the expression of certain EGFR mutants (G719S, L747_E749del A750P and L858R) but not WT EGFR. In a pull-down assay, CHIP selectively interacted with EGFR mutants and simultaneously induced their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The expressions of mutant EGFR in PC9 and H1975 were diminished by CHIP, while the expression of WT EGFR in A549 was nearly not affected. In addition, CHIP overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and xenograft's tumor growth of EGFR mutant cell lines, but not WT EGFR cell lines. EGFR mutant specific ubiquitination by CHIP may provide a crucial regulating mechanism for EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that CHIP can be novel therapeutic target for overcoming the EGFR TKI resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cho2 Mutants Are Deficient in Phospholipid Methylation and Cross-Pathway Regulation of Inositol Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Summers, E. F.; Letts, V. A.; McGraw, P.; Henry, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    Five allelic Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) have been isolated, using two different screening techniques. Biochemical analysis suggested that these mutants define a locus, designated CHO2, that may encode a methyltransferase. Membranes of cho2 mutant cells grown in defined medium contain approximately 10% phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 40-50% PE as compared to wild-type levels of 40-45% PC and 15-20% PE. In spite of this greatly altered phospholipid composition, cho2 mutant cells are viable in defined medium and are not auxotrophic for choline or other phospholipid precursors such as monomethylethanolamine (MME). However, analysis of yeast strains carrying more than one mutation affecting phospholipid biosynthesis indicated that some level of methylated phospholipid is essential for viability. The cho2 locus was shown by tetrad analysis to be unlinked to other loci affecting phospholipid synthesis. Interestingly, cho2 mutants and other mutant strains that produce reduced levels of methylated phospholipids are unable to properly repress synthesis of the cytoplasmic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase. This enzyme was previously shown to be regulated at the level of mRNA abundance in response to inositol and choline in the growth medium. We cloned the CHO2 gene on a 3.6-kb genomic DNA fragment and created a null allele of cho2 by disrupting the CHO2 gene in vivo. The cho2 disruptant, like all other cho2 mutants, is viable, exhibits altered regulation of inositol biosynthesis and is not auxotrophic for choline or MME. PMID:3066687

  12. Dictyostelium myosin I double mutants exhibit conditional defects in pinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Novak, K D; Peterson, M D; Reedy, M C; Titus, M A

    1995-12-01

    The functional relationship between three Dictyostelium myosin Is, myoA, myoB, and myoC, has been examined through the creation of double mutants. Two double mutants, myoA-/B- and myoB-/C-, exhibit similar conditional defects in fluid-phase pinocytosis. Double mutants grown in suspension culture are significantly impaired in their ability to take in nutrients from the medium, whereas they are almost indistinguishable from wild-type and single mutant strains when grown on a surface. The double mutants are also found to internalize gp126, a 116-kD membrane protein, at a slower rate than either the wild-type or single mutant cells. Ultrastructural analysis reveals that both double mutants possess numerous small vesicles, in contrast to the wild-type or myosin I single mutants that exhibit several large, clear vacuoles. The alterations in fluid and membrane internalization in the suspension-grown double mutants, coupled with the altered vesicular profile, suggest that these cells may be compromised during the early stages of pinocytosis, a process that has been proposed to occur via actin-based cytoskeletal rearrangements. Scanning electron microscopy and rhodamine-phalloidin staining indicates that the myosin I double mutants appear to extend a larger number of actin-filled structures, such as filopodia and crowns, than wild-type cells. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining of the F-actin cytoskeleton of these suspension-grown cells also reveals that the double mutant cells are delayed in the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich structures upon adhesion to a substrate. We propose that myoA, myoB, and myoC play roles in controlling F-actin filled membrane projections that are required for pinosome internalization in suspension.

  13. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  14. Attenuated Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis Mutants of Brucella melitensis Identified during the Acute Phase of Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lestrate, P.; Dricot, A.; Delrue, R.-M.; Lambert, C.; Martinelli, V.; De Bolle, X.; Letesson, J.-J.; Tibor, A.

    2003-01-01

    For this study, we screened 1,152 signature-tagged mutagenesis mutants of Brucella melitensis 16M in a mouse model of infection and found 36 of them to be attenuated in vivo. Molecular characterization of transposon insertion sites showed that for four mutants, the affected genes were only present in Rhizobiaceae. Another mutant contained a disruption in a gene homologous to mosA, which is involved in rhizopine biosynthesis in some strains of Rhizobium, suggesting that this sugar may be involved in Brucella pathogenicity. A mutant was disrupted in a gene homologous to fliF, a gene potentially coding for the MS ring, a basal component of the flagellar system. Surprisingly, a mutant was affected in the rpoA gene, coding for the essential α-subunit of the RNA polymerase. This disruption leaves a partially functional protein, impaired for the activation of virB transcription, as demonstrated by the absence of induction of the virB promoter in the Tn5::rpoA background. The results presented here highlight the fact that the ability of Brucella to induce pathogenesis shares similarities with the molecular mechanisms used by both Rhizobium and Agrobacterium to colonize their hosts. PMID:14638795

  15. The Sequences of 1,504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitate Rapid Functional Genomic Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guotian; Jain, Rashmi; Chern, Mawsheng; ...

    2017-06-02

    The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitate functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake (Oryza sativa ssp japonica), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, i.e., 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single-base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportionmore » of loss-of-function mutations. We identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient, cost-effective identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks. This population complements other available mutant collections and gene-editing technologies. In conclusion, this work demonstrates how inexpensive next-generation sequencing can be applied to generate a high-density catalog of mutations.« less

  16. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    PubMed

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development ( ufd ). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  17. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  18. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  19. A Mutant Hunt Using the C-Fern (Ceratopteris Richardii)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calie, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    A modification of the popular C-Fern system, the tropical fern Ceratopteris richardii is developed in which students plate out a genetically mixed set of fern spores and then select for specific mutants. This exercise can provide students with an experience in plant mutant selection and can be used as a platform to expose students to a diverse…

  20. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Pan, David

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  1. Chaperone-mediated autophagy degrades mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Kim, Minsu; Xia, Hong-guang; Iwanicki, Marcin P.; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Coloff, Jonathan L.; Pan, Lifeng; Ince, Tan A.; Kroemer, Guido; Brugge, Joan S.; Yuan, Junying

    2013-01-01

    Missense mutations in the gene TP53, which encodes p53, one of the most important tumor suppressors, are common in human cancers. Accumulated mutant p53 proteins are known to actively contribute to tumor development and metastasis. Thus, promoting the removal of mutant p53 proteins in cancer cells may have therapeutic significance. Here we investigated the mechanisms that govern the turnover of mutant p53 in nonproliferating tumor cells using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches. We show that suppression of macroautophagy by multiple means promotes the degradation of mutant p53 through chaperone-mediated autophagy in a lysosome-dependent fashion. In addition, depletion of mutant p53 expression due to macroautophagy inhibition sensitizes the death of dormant cancer cells under nonproliferating conditions. Taken together, our results delineate a novel strategy for killing tumor cells that depend on mutant p53 expression by the activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy and potential pharmacological means to reduce the levels of accumulated mutant p53 without the restriction of mutant p53 conformation in quiescent tumor cells. PMID:23913924

  2. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    DOEpatents

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  3. Loss of circadian clock accelerates aging in neurodegeneration-prone mutants.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Natraj; Rakshit, Kuntol; Chow, Eileen S; Wentzell, Jill S; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2012-03-01

    Circadian clocks generate rhythms in molecular, cellular, physiological, and behavioral processes. Recent studies suggest that disruption of the clock mechanism accelerates organismal senescence and age-related pathologies in mammals. Impaired circadian rhythms are observed in many neurological diseases; however, it is not clear whether loss of rhythms is the cause or result of neurodegeneration, or both. To address this important question, we examined the effects of circadian disruption in Drosophila melanogaster mutants that display clock-unrelated neurodegenerative phenotypes. We combined a null mutation in the clock gene period (per(01)) that abolishes circadian rhythms, with a hypomorphic mutation in the carbonyl reductase gene sniffer (sni(1)), which displays oxidative stress induced neurodegeneration. We report that disruption of circadian rhythms in sni(1) mutants significantly reduces their lifespan compared to single mutants. Shortened lifespan in double mutants was coupled with accelerated neuronal degeneration evidenced by vacuolization in the adult brain. In addition, per(01)sni(1) flies showed drastically impaired vertical mobility and increased accumulation of carbonylated proteins compared to age-matched single mutant flies. Loss of per function does not affect sni mRNA expression, suggesting that these genes act via independent pathways producing additive effects. Finally, we show that per(01) mutation accelerates the onset of brain pathologies when combined with neurodegeneration-prone mutation in another gene, swiss cheese (sws(1)), which does not operate through the oxidative stress pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that the period gene may be causally involved in neuroprotective pathways in aging Drosophila. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Loss of circadian clock accelerates aging in neurodegeneration-prone mutants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Natraj; Rakshit, Kuntol; Chow, Eileen S.; Wentzell, Jill S.; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks generate rhythms in molecular, cellular, physiological, and behavioral processes. Recent studies suggest that disruption of the clock mechanism accelerates organismal senescence and age-related pathologies in mammals. Impaired circadian rhythms are observed in many neurological diseases; however, it is not clear whether loss of rhythms is the cause or result of neurodegeneration, or both. To address this important question, we examined the effects of circadian disruption in Drosophila melanogaster mutants that display clock-unrelated neurodegenerative phenotypes. We combined a null mutation in the clock gene period (per01) that abolishes circadian rhythms, with a hypomorphic mutation in the carbonyl reductase gene sniffer (sni1), which displays oxidative stress induced neurodegeneration. We report that disruption of circadian rhythms in sni1 mutants significantly reduces their lifespan compared to single mutants. Shortened lifespan in double mutants was coupled with accelerated neuronal degeneration evidenced by vacuolization in the adult brain. In addition, per01 sni1 flies showed drastically impaired vertical mobility and increased accumulation of carbonylated proteins compared to age-matched single mutant flies. Loss of per function does not affect sni mRNA expression, suggesting that these genes act via independent pathways producing additive effects. Finally, we show that per01 mutation accelerates the onset of brain pathologies when combined with neurodegeneration-prone mutation in another gene, swiss cheese (sws1), which does not operate through the oxidative stress pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that the period gene may be causally involved in neuroprotective pathways in aging Drosophila. PMID:22227001

  5. Mutant protein of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Fukamachi, H; Uzumaki, H; Kabaya, K; Tsumura, H; Ishikawa, M; Matsuki, S; Kusaka, M

    1991-05-15

    A new mutant protein of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was produced for the studies on receptors for human G-CSF. The mutant protein [(Tyr1, Tyr3]rhG-CSF), the biological activity of which was almost equal to that of rhG-CSF, was prepared by the replacement of threonine-1 and leucine-3 of rhG-CSF with tyrosine. The radioiodinated preparation of the mutant protein showed high specific radioactivity and retained full biological activity for at least 3 weeks. The binding capacity of the radioiodinated ligand was compared with that of [35S]rhG-CSF. Both radiolabeled ligands showed specific binding to murine bone marrow cells. Unlabeled rhG-CSF and human G-CSF purified from the culture supernatant of the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 equally competed for the binding of labeled rhG-CSFs in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the sugar moiety of human G-CSF made no contribution to the binding of human G-CSF to target cells. In contrast, all other colony-stimulating factors and lymphokines examined did not affect the binding. Scatchard analysis of the specific binding of both labeled ligands revealed a single class of binding site with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 20-30 pM and 100-200 maximal binding sites per cell. These data indicate that the radioiodinated preparation of the mutant protein binds the same specific receptor with the same affinity as [35S]rhG-CSF. The labeled mutant protein also showed specific binding to human circulating neutrophils.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Misfolded opsin mutants display elevated β -sheet structure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lisa M.; Gragg, Megan; Kim, Tae Gyun

    Mutations in rhodopsin can cause misfolding and aggregation of the receptor, which leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degenerative disease. The structure adopted by misfolded opsin mutants and the associated cell toxicity is poorly understood. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were utilized to probe within cells the structures formed by G188R and P23H opsins, which are misfolding mutants that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Also, both mutants formed aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited altered secondary structure with elevated β-sheet and reduced α-helical content. The newly formed β-sheet structure may facilitate themore » aggregation of misfolded opsin mutants. In conclusion, the effects observed for the mutants were unrelated to retention of opsin molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum itself.« less

  7. Misfolded opsin mutants display elevated β -sheet structure

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Lisa M.; Gragg, Megan; Kim, Tae Gyun; ...

    2015-09-07

    Mutations in rhodopsin can cause misfolding and aggregation of the receptor, which leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degenerative disease. The structure adopted by misfolded opsin mutants and the associated cell toxicity is poorly understood. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were utilized to probe within cells the structures formed by G188R and P23H opsins, which are misfolding mutants that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Also, both mutants formed aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited altered secondary structure with elevated β-sheet and reduced α-helical content. The newly formed β-sheet structure may facilitate themore » aggregation of misfolded opsin mutants. In conclusion, the effects observed for the mutants were unrelated to retention of opsin molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum itself.« less

  8. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  9. Cardiac-Targeted Transgenic Mutant Mitochondrial Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, James J.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Green, Elgin; Hoying-Brandt, Amy; Cucoranu, Ioan; Haase, Chad P.; Russ, Rodney; Srivastava, Jaya; Ivey, Kristopher; Ludaway, Tomika; Kapoor, Victor; Abuin, Allison; Shapoval, Alexsey; Santoianni, Robert; Saada, Ann; Elpeleg, Orly; Lewis, William

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA biogenesis is critical to cardiac contractility. DNA polymerase gamma (pol γ) replicates mtDNA, whereas thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) monophosphorylates pyrimidines intramitochondrially. Point mutations in POLG and TK2 result in clinical diseases associated with mtDNA depletion and organ dysfunction. Pyrimidine analogs (NRTIs) inhibit Pol γ and mtDNA replication. Cardiac “dominant negative” murine transgenes (TGs; Pol γ Y955G, and TK2 H121N or I212N) defined the role of each in the heart. mtDNA abundance, histopathological features, histochemistry, mitochondrial protein abundance, morphometry, and echocardiography were determined for TGs in “2 × 2” studies with or without pyrimidine analogs. Cardiac mtDNA abundance decreased in Y955C TGs (∼50%) but increased in H121N and I212N TGs (20-70%). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) increased in hearts of all mutants. Ultrastructural changes occurred in Y955C and H121N TGs. Histopathology demonstrated hypertrophy in H121N, LV dilation in I212N, and both hypertrophy and dilation in Y955C TGs. Antiretrovirals increased LV mass (≈50%) for all three TGs which combined with dilation indicates cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these studies demonstrate three manifestations of cardiac dysfunction that depend on the nature of the specific mutation and antiretroviral treatment. Mutations in genes for mtDNA biogenesis increase risk for defective mtDNA replication, leading to LV hypertrophy. PMID:18446447

  10. Membrane cytochromes of Escherichia coli chl mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, N R; Bragg, P D

    1983-01-01

    The cytochromes present in the membranes of Escherichia coli cells having defects in the formate dehydrogenase-nitrate reductase system have been analyzed by spectroscopic, redox titration, and enzyme fractionation techniques. Four phenotypic classes differing in cytochrome composition were recognized. Class I is represented by strains with defects in the synthesis or insertion of molybdenum cofactor. Cytochromes of the formate dehydrogenase-nitrate reductase pathway are present. Class II strains map in the chlC-chlI region. The cytochrome associated with nitrate reductase (cytochrome bnr) is absent in these strains, whereas that associated with formate dehydrogenase (cytochrome bfdh) is the major cytochrome in the membranes. Class III strains lack both cytochromes bfdh and bnr but overproduce cytochrome d of the aerobic pathway even under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Class III strains have defects in the regulation of cytochrome synthesis. An fdhA mutant produced cytochrome bnr but lacked cytochrome bfdh. These results support the view that chlI (narI) is the structural gene for cytochrome bnr and that chlC (narG) and chlI(narI) are in the same operon, and they provide evidence of the complexity of the regulation of cytochrome synthesis. PMID:6302081

  11. Mutants of Cre recombinase with improved accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Eroshenko, Nikolai; Church, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in genome engineering technologies, inserting genes into precise locations in the human genome remains an outstanding problem. It has been suggested that site-specific recombinases can be adapted towards use as transgene delivery vectors. The specificity of recombinases can be altered either with directed evolution or via fusions to modular DNA-binding domains. Unfortunately, both wildtype and altered variants often have detectable activities at off-target sites. Here we use bacterial selections to identify mutations in the dimerization surface of Cre recombinase (R32V, R32M, and 303GVSdup) that improve the accuracy of recombination. The mutants are functional in bacteria, in human cells, and in vitro (except for 303GVSdup, which we did not purify), and have improved selectivity against both model off-target sites and the entire E. coli genome. We propose that destabilizing binding cooperativity may be a general strategy for improving the accuracy of dimeric DNA-binding proteins. PMID:24056590

  12. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assaysmore » confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.« less

  13. Detection of Cell Wall Chemical Variation in Zea Mays Mutants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buyck, N.; Thomas, S.

    Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material for commercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) atmore » the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These genes will eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop.« less

  14. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Rodriguez, David; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2018-01-01

    The micronutrient iron (Fe) is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs) are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III). The Fe(III)-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III)-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC) were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron acquisition

  15. Expression of a Mutant kcnj2 Gene Transcript in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ivone U. S.; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Shelling, Andrew N.; Love, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Long QT 7 syndrome (LQT7, also known as Andersen-Tawil syndrome) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder that causes cardiac arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. Mutations in the human KCNJ2 gene, which encodes for the subunit of the potassium inwardly-rectifying channel (IK1), have been associated with the disorder. The majority of mutations are considered to be dominant-negative as mutant proteins interact to limit the function of wild type KCNJ2 proteins. Several LQT7 syndrome mouse models have been created that vary in the physiological similarity to the human disease. To complement the LQT7 mouse models, we investigated the usefulness of the zebrafish as an alternative model via a transient approach. Initial bioinformatic analysis identified the zebrafish orthologue of the human KCNJ2 gene, together with a spatial expression profile that was similar to that of human. The expression of a kcnj2-12 transcript carrying an in-frame deletion of critical amino acids identified in human studies resulted in embryos that exhibited defects in muscle development, thereby affecting movement, a decrease in jaw size, pupil-pupil distance, and signs of scoliosis. These defects correspond to some phenotypes expressed by human LQT7 patients. PMID:27335675

  16. Serine 421 regulates mutant huntingtin toxicity and clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kratter, Ian H.; Zahed, Hengameh; Lau, Alice; Daub, Aaron C.; Weiberth, Kurt F.; Gu, Xiaofeng; Humbert, Sandrine; Yang, X. William; Osmand, Alex; Steffan, Joan S.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the N-terminal region of the protein huntingtin (HTT). There are no cures or disease-modifying therapies for HD. HTT has a highly conserved Akt phosphorylation site at serine 421, and prior work in HD models found that phosphorylation at S421 (S421-P) diminishes the toxicity of mutant HTT (mHTT) fragments in neuronal cultures. However, whether S421-P affects the toxicity of mHTT in vivo remains unknown. In this work, we used murine models to investigate the role of S421-P in HTT-induced neurodegeneration. Specifically, we mutated the human mHTT gene within a BAC to express either an aspartic acid or an alanine at position 421, mimicking tonic phosphorylation (mHTT-S421D mice) or preventing phosphorylation (mHTT-S421A mice), respectively. Mimicking HTT phosphorylation strongly ameliorated mHTT-induced behavioral dysfunction and striatal neurodegeneration, whereas neuronal dysfunction persisted when S421 phosphorylation was blocked. We found that S421 phosphorylation mitigates neurodegeneration by increasing proteasome-dependent turnover of mHTT and reducing the presence of a toxic mHTT conformer. These data indicate that S421 is a potent modifier of mHTT toxicity and offer in vivo validation for S421 as a therapeutic target in HD. PMID:27525439

  17. Genetic Characterization of the Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Isolation of a Colorless Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Van Dien, Stephen J.; Marx, Christopher J.; O'Brien, Brooke N.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic searches were used to reconstruct the putative carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Four genes for putative phytoene desaturases were identified. A colorless mutant was obtained by transposon mutagenesis, and the insertion was shown to be in one of the putative phytoene desaturase genes. Mutations in the other three did not affect color. The tetracycline marker was removed from the original transposon mutant, resulting in a pigment-free strain with wild-type growth properties useful as a tool for future experiments. PMID:14660416

  18. Genetic characterization of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and isolation of a colorless mutant.

    PubMed

    Van Dien, Stephen J; Marx, Christopher J; O'Brien, Brooke N; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2003-12-01

    Genomic searches were used to reconstruct the putative carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Four genes for putative phytoene desaturases were identified. A colorless mutant was obtained by transposon mutagenesis, and the insertion was shown to be in one of the putative phytoene desaturase genes. Mutations in the other three did not affect color. The tetracycline marker was removed from the original transposon mutant, resulting in a pigment-free strain with wild-type growth properties useful as a tool for future experiments.

  19. Chromosome and mitotic spindle dynamics in fission yeast kinesin-8 mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapo, Ammon M.; Gergley, Zachary R.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Betterton, M. D.

    2014-03-01

    Fission yeast proteins Klp5p and Klp6p are plus-end directed motors of the kinesin-8 family which promote microtubule (MT) depolymerization and also affect chromosome segregation, but the mechanism of these activities is not well understood. Using live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of fission yeast wild-type (WT) and klp5/6 mutant strains, we quantify and compare the dynamics of kinetochore motion and mitotic spindle length in 3D. In WT cells, the spindle, once formed, remains a consistent size and chromosomes are correctly organized and segregated. In kinesin-8 mutants, spindles undergo large length fluctuations of several microns. Kinetochore motions are also highly fluctuating, with kinetochores frequently moving away from the spindle rather than toward it. We observe transient pushing of chromosomes away from the spindle by as much as 10 microns in distance.

  20. Relationships between starch synthase I and branching enzyme isozymes determined using double mutant rice lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important carbohydrate in plant storage tissues. Multiple isozymes in at least four enzyme classes are involved in starch biosynthesis. Some of these isozymes are thought to interact and form complexes for efficient starch biosynthesis. Of these enzyme classes, starch synthases (SSs) and branching enzymes (BEs) play particularly central roles. Results We generated double mutant lines (ss1/be1 and ss1 L /be2b) between SSI (the largest component of total soluble SS activity) and BEI or BEIIb (major BEs in developing rice endosperm) to explore the relationships among these isozymes. The seed weight of ss1/be1 was comparable to that of wild type, although most ss1/be2b seeds were sterile and no double recessive plants were obtained. The seed weight of the double recessive mutant line ss1 L /be2b, derived from the leaky ss1 mutant (ss1 L ) and be2b, was higher than that of the single be2b mutant. Analyses of the chain-length distribution of amylopectin in ss1/be1 endosperm revealed additive effects of SSI and BEI on amylopectin structure. Chain-length analysis indicated that the BEIIb deficiency significantly reduced the ratio of short chains in amylopectin of ss1 L /be2b. The amylose content of endosperm starch of ss1/be1 and ss1 L /be2b was almost the same as that of wild type, whereas the endosperm starch of be2b contained more amylose than did that of wild type. SSI, BEI, and BEIIb deficiency also affected the extent of binding of other isozymes to starch granules. Conclusions Analysis of the chain-length distribution in amylopectin of the double mutant lines showed that SSI and BEI or BEIIb primarily function independently, and branching by BEIIb is followed by SSI chain elongation. The increased amylose content in be2b was because of reduced amylopectin biosynthesis; however, the lower SSI activity in this background may have enhanced amylopectin biosynthesis as a result of a correction of imbalance between the branching and

  1. Relationships between starch synthase I and branching enzyme isozymes determined using double mutant rice lines.

    PubMed

    Abe, Natsuko; Asai, Hiroki; Yago, Hikari; Oitome, Naoko F; Itoh, Rumiko; Crofts, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-03-26

    Starch is the most important carbohydrate in plant storage tissues. Multiple isozymes in at least four enzyme classes are involved in starch biosynthesis. Some of these isozymes are thought to interact and form complexes for efficient starch biosynthesis. Of these enzyme classes, starch synthases (SSs) and branching enzymes (BEs) play particularly central roles. We generated double mutant lines (ss1/be1 and ss1L/be2b) between SSI (the largest component of total soluble SS activity) and BEI or BEIIb (major BEs in developing rice endosperm) to explore the relationships among these isozymes. The seed weight of ss1/be1 was comparable to that of wild type, although most ss1/be2b seeds were sterile and no double recessive plants were obtained. The seed weight of the double recessive mutant line ss1L/be2b, derived from the leaky ss1 mutant (ss1L) and be2b, was higher than that of the single be2b mutant. Analyses of the chain-length distribution of amylopectin in ss1/be1 endosperm revealed additive effects of SSI and BEI on amylopectin structure. Chain-length analysis indicated that the BEIIb deficiency significantly reduced the ratio of short chains in amylopectin of ss1L/be2b. The amylose content of endosperm starch of ss1/be1 and ss1L/be2b was almost the same as that of wild type, whereas the endosperm starch of be2b contained more amylose than did that of wild type. SSI, BEI, and BEIIb deficiency also affected the extent of binding of other isozymes to starch granules. Analysis of the chain-length distribution in amylopectin of the double mutant lines showed that SSI and BEI or BEIIb primarily function independently, and branching by BEIIb is followed by SSI chain elongation. The increased amylose content in be2b was because of reduced amylopectin biosynthesis; however, the lower SSI activity in this background may have enhanced amylopectin biosynthesis as a result of a correction of imbalance between the branching and elongation found in the single mutant. The fact

  2. Impaired Object Recognition but Normal Social Behavior and Ultrasonic Communication in Cofilin1 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, A. Özge; Stemmler, Lea; Wöhr, Markus; Rust, Marco B.

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and intellectual disability (ID) show a remarkable overlap in symptoms, including impairments in cognition, social behavior and communication. Human genetic studies revealed an enrichment of mutations in actin-related genes for these disorders, and some of the strongest candidate genes control actin dynamics. These findings led to the hypotheses: (i) that ASD, SCZ and ID share common disease mechanisms; and (ii) that, at least in a subgroup of affected individuals, defects in the actin cytoskeleton cause or contribute to their pathologies. Cofilin1 emerged as a key regulator of actin dynamics and we previously demonstrated its critical role for synaptic plasticity and associative learning. Notably, recent studies revealed an over-activation of cofilin1 in mutant mice displaying ASD- or SCZ-like behavioral phenotypes, suggesting that dysregulated cofilin1-dependent actin dynamics contribute to their behavioral abnormalities, such as deficits in social behavior. These findings let us hypothesize: (i) that, apart from cognitive impairments, cofilin1 mutants display additional behavioral deficits with relevance to ASD or SCZ; and (ii) that our cofilin1 mutants represent a valuable tool to study the underlying disease mechanisms. To test our hypotheses, we compared social behavior and ultrasonic communication of juvenile mutants to control littermates, and we did not obtain evidence for impaired direct reciprocal social interaction, social approach or social memory. Moreover, concomitant emission of ultrasonic vocalizations was not affected and time-locked to social activity, supporting the notion that ultrasonic vocalizations serve a pro-social communicative function as social contact calls maintaining social proximity. Finally, cofilin1 mutants did not display abnormal repetitive behaviors. Instead, they performed weaker in novel object recognition, thereby demonstrating that cofilin1 is relevant not only for

  3. Isolation and characterization of a mutant defective in triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-09-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG), a major source of biodiesel production, accumulates in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, the metabolic pathway of starch-to-TAG conversion remains elusive because an enzyme that affects the starch degradation is unknown. Here, we isolated a new class of mutant bgal1, which expressed an overaccumulation of starch granules and defective photosynthetic growth. The bgal1 was a null mutant of a previously uncharacterized β-galactosidase-like gene (Cre02.g119700), which decreased total β-galactosidase activity 40% of the wild type. Upon nitrogen starvation, the bgal1 mutant showed decreased TAG accumulation mainly due to the reduced flux of de novo TAG biosynthesis evidenced by increased unsaturation of fatty acid composition in TAG and reduced TAG accumulation by additional supplementation of acetate to the culture media. Metabolomic analysis of the bgal1 mutant showed significantly reduced levels of metabolites following the hydrolysis of starch and substrates for TAG accumulation, whereas metabolites in TCA cycle were unaffected. Upon nitrogen starvation, while levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA remained lower, most of the other metabolites in glycolysis were increased but those in the TCA cycle were decreased, supporting TAG accumulation. We suggest that BGAL1 may be involved in the degradation of starch, which affects TAG accumulation in nitrogen-starved C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Brown Midrib Sorghum Mutants as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for 2,3-Butanediol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guragain, Yadhu N; Srinivasa Rao, P; Vara Prasad, P V; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2017-11-01

    Three sorghum backgrounds [Atlas, Early Hegari (EH), and Kansas Collier (KC)] and two bmr mutants (bmr6 and bmr12) of each line were evaluated and compared for grain and biomass yield, biomass composition, and 2,3-butanediol production from biomass. The data showed that the bmr6 mutation in EH background led to a significant decrease in stover yield and increase in grain yield, whereas the stover yield was increased by 64% without affecting grain yield in KC background. The bmr mutants had 10 to 25% and 2 to 9% less lignin and structural carbohydrate contents, respectively, and 24 to 93% more non-structural sugars than their parents in all sorghum lines, except EH bmr12. The total fermentable sugars released were 22 to 36% more in bmr mutants than in parents for Atlas and KC, but not for EH. The bmr6 mutation in KC background produced the most promising feedstock, among the evaluated bmr mutants, for 2,3-butanediol production without affecting grain yield, followed by KC bmr12 and Atlas bmr6, but the bmr mutation had an adverse effect in EH background. This indicated that the genetic background of the parent line and type of bmr mutation significantly affect the biomass quality as a feedstock for biochemical production.

  5. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, E.D.; Baird, M.L.; Chapman, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, $gamma$-carotene; and one yellow mutant, $beta$-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange- yellow, respectively. The whitemore » mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants. (auth)« less

  6. NRAS-mutant melanoma: current challenges and future prospect

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Adelantado, Ester Zamora; Ortiz, Carolina; García, Jesús Soberino; Perez-Garcia, José

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most common cutaneous cancers worldwide. Activating mutations in RAS oncogenes are found in a third of all human cancers and NRAS mutations are found in 15%–20% of melanomas. The NRAS-mutant subset of melanoma is more aggressive and associated with poorer outcomes, compared to non-NRAS-mutant melanoma. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for BRAF-mutant melanoma are transforming the treatment of metastatic melanoma, the ideal treatment for NRAS-mutant melanoma remains unknown. Despite promising preclinical data, current therapies for NRAS-mutant melanoma remain limited, showing a modest increase in progression-free survival but without any benefit in overall survival. Combining MEK inhibitors with agents inhibiting cell cycling and the PI3K–AKT pathway appears to provide additional benefit; in particular, a strategy of MEK inhibition and CDK4/6 inhibition is likely to be a viable treatment option in the future. Patients whose tumors had NRAS mutations had better response to immunotherapy and better outcomes than patients whose tumors had other genetic subtypes, suggesting that immune therapies – especially immune checkpoint inhibitors – may be particularly effective as treatment options for NRAS-mutant melanoma. Improved understanding of NRAS-mutant melanoma will be essential to develop new treatment strategies for this subset of patients with melanoma. PMID:28860801

  7. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  8. Characterization of Synthetic-Lethal Mutants Reveals a Role for the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Cdc24p in Vacuole Function and Na(+) Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    White, W. H.; Johnson, D. I.

    1997-01-01

    Cdc24p is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42p GTPase, which controls cell polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify new genes that may affect cell polarity, we characterized six UV-induced csl (CDC24 synthetic-lethal) mutants that exhibited synthetic-lethality with cdc24-4(ts) at 23°. Five mutants were not complemented by plasmid-borne CDC42, RSR1, BUD5, BEM1, BEM2, BEM3 or CLA4 genes, which are known to play a role in cell polarity. The csl3 mutant displayed phenotypes similar to those observed with calcium-sensitive, Pet(-) vma mutants defective in vacuole function. CSL5 was allelic to VMA5, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit C, and one third of csl5 cdc24-4(ts) cells were elongated or had misshapen buds. A cdc24-4(ts) Δvma5::LEU2 double mutant did not exhibit synthetic lethality, suggesting that the csl5/vma5 cdc24-4(ts) synthetic-lethality was not simply due to altered vacuole function. The cdc24-4(ts) mutant, like Δvma5::LEU2 and csl3 mutants, was sensitive to high levels of Ca(2+) as well as Na(+) in the growth media, which did not appear to be a result of a fragile cell wall because the phenotypes were not remedied by 1 M sorbitol. Our results indicated that Cdc24p was required in one V-ATPase mutant and another mutant affecting vacuole morphology, and also implicated Cdc24p in Na(+) tolerance. PMID:9286667

  9. Transcriptomic profiling-based mutant screen reveals three new transcription factors mediating menadione resistance in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jufen; Yu, Xinxu; Xie, Baogui; Gu, Xiaokui; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Shaojie

    2013-06-01

    To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of oxidative stress responses in filamentous fungi, the genome-wide transcriptional response of Neurospora crassa to menadione was analysed by digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, which identified 779 upregulated genes and 576 downregulated genes. Knockout mutants affecting 130 highly-upregulated genes were tested for menadione sensitivity, which revealed that loss of the transcription factor siderophore regulation (SRE) (a transcriptional repressor for siderophore biosynthesis), catatase-3, cytochrome c peroxidase or superoxide dismutase 1 copper chaperone causes hypersensitivity to menadione. Deletion of sre dramatically increased transcription of the siderophore biosynthesis gene ono and the siderophore iron transporter gene sit during menadione stress, suggesting that SRE is required for repression of iron uptake under oxidative stress conditions. Contrary to its phenotype, the sre deletion mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers than wild type during menadione stress, which implies that the mutant suffers a higher level of oxidative stress than wild type. Uncontrolled iron uptake in the sre mutant might exacerbate cellular oxidative stress. This is the first report of a negative regulator of iron assimilation participating in the fungal oxidative stress response. In addition to SRE, eight other transcription factor genes were also menadione-responsive but their single gene knockout mutants showed wild-type menadione sensitivity. Two of them, named as mit-2 (menadione induced transcription factor-2) and mit-4 (menadione induced transcription factor-4), were selected for double mutant analysis. The double mutant was hypersensitive to menadione. Similarly, the double mutation of mit-2 and sre also had additive effects on menadione sensitivity, suggesting multiple transcription factors mediate oxidative stress resistance in an additive manner

  10. An Analysis of Interactions between Fluorescently-Tagged Mutant and Wild-Type SOD1 in Intracellular Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, David A.; Crosby, Keith; Brown, Hilda; Borchelt, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Background By mechanisms yet to be discerned, the co-expression of high levels of wild-type human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) with variants of hSOD1 encoding mutations linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) hastens the onset of motor neuron degeneration in transgenic mice. Although it is known that spinal cords of paralyzed mice accumulate detergent insoluble forms of WT hSOD1 along with mutant hSOD1, it has been difficult to determine whether there is co-deposition of the proteins in inclusion structures. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we use cell culture models of mutant SOD1 aggregation, focusing on the A4V, G37R, and G85R variants, to examine interactions between WT-hSOD1 and misfolded mutant SOD1. In these studies, we fuse WT and mutant proteins to either yellow or red fluorescent protein so that the two proteins can be distinguished within inclusions structures. Conclusions/Significance Although the interpretation of the data is not entirely straightforward because we have strong evidence that the nature of the fused fluorophores affects the organization of the inclusions that form, our data are most consistent with the idea that normal dimeric WT-hSOD1 does not readily interact with misfolded forms of mutant hSOD1. We also demonstrate the monomerization of WT-hSOD1 by experimental mutation does induce the protein to aggregate, although such monomerization may enable interactions with misfolded mutant SOD1. Our data suggest that WT-hSOD1 is not prone to become intimately associated with misfolded mutant hSOD1 within intracellular inclusions that can be generated in cultured cells. PMID:24391857

  11. Research on the ultrafast fluorescence property of thylakoid membranes of the wild-type and mutant rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao-Yu; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shui-Cai; Xin, Yue-Yong; He, Jun-Fang; Hou, Xun

    2003-10-01

    A high yielding rice variety mutant (Oryza sativa L., Zhenhui 249) with low chlorophyll b (Chl b) has been discovered in natural fields. It has a quality character controlled by a pair of recessive genes (nuclear gene). The partial loss of Chl b in content affects the efficiency of light harvest in a light harvest complex (LHC), thus producing the difference of the exciting energy transfer and the efficiency of photochemistry conversion between the mutant and wild-type rice in photosynthetic unit. The efficiency of utilizing light energy is higher in the mutant than that in the wild-type rice relatively. For further discussion of the above-mentioned difference and learning about the mechanism of the increase in the photochemical efficiency of the mutant, the pico-second resolution fluorescence spectrum measurement with delay-frame-scanning single photon counting technique is adopted. Thylakoid membranes of the mutant and the wild-type rice are excited by an Ar+ laser with a pulse width of 120 ps, repetition rate of 4 MHz and wavelength of 514 nm. Compared with the time and spectrum property of exciting fluorescence, conclusions of those ultrafast dynamic experiments are: 1) The speeds of the exciting energy transferred in photo-system I are faster than that in photo-system II in both samples. 2) The speeds of the exciting energy transfer of mutant sample are faster than those of the wild-type. This might be one of the major reasons why the efficiency of photosynthesis is higher in mutant than that in the wild-type rice.

  12. NMR studies of structure, hydrogen exchange, and main-chain dynamics in a disrupted-core mutant of thioredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    De Lorimier, R.; Hellinga, H. W.; Spicer, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Core-packing mutants of proteins often approach molten globule states, and hence may have attributes of folding intermediates. We have studied a core-packing mutant of thioredoxin, L78K, in which a leucine residue is substituted by lysine, using 15N heteronuclear two- and three-dimensional NMR. Chemical shift differences between the mutant and wild-type main-chain resonances reveal that structural changes caused by the mutation are localized within 12 A of the altered side chain. The majority of resonances are unchanged, as are many 1H-1H NOEs indicative of the main-chain fold, suggesting that the structure of L78K is largely similar to wild type. Hydrogen exchange studies reveal that residues comprising the central beta-sheet of both mutant and wild-type proteins constitute a local unfolding unit, but with the unfolding/folding equilibrium approximately 12 times larger in L78K. The dynamics of main-chain NH bonds in L78K were studied by 15N spin relaxation and compared with a previous study of wild type. Order parameters for angular motion of NH bonds in the mutant are on average lower than in wild type, suggesting greater spatial freedom on a rapid time scale, but may also be related to different rotational correlation times in the two proteins. There is also evidence of greater conformational exchange in the mutant. Differences between mutant and wild type in hydrogen exchange and main-chain dynamics are not confined to the vicinity of the mutation. We infer that mispacking of the protein core in one location affects local dynamics and stability throughout. PMID:8976564

  13. Identification and Characterization of Non-Cellulose-Producing Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Generated by Tn5 Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The acs operon of Gluconacetobacter is thought to encode AcsA, AcsB, AcsC, and AcsD proteins that constitute the cellulose synthase complex, required for the synthesis and secretion of crystalline cellulose microfibrils. A few other genes have been shown to be involved in this process, but their precise role is unclear. We report here the use of Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify and characterize six non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. The genes disrupted were acsA, acsC, ccpAx (encoding cellulose-complementing protein [the subscript “Ax” indicates genes from organisms formerly classified as Acetobacter xylinum]), dgc1 (encoding guanylate dicyclase), and crp-fnr (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase transcriptional regulator). Protein blot analysis revealed that (i) AcsB and AcsC were absent in the acsA mutant, (ii) the levels of AcsB and AcsC were significantly reduced in the ccpAx mutant, and (iii) the level of AcsD was not affected in any of the Cel− mutants. Promoter analysis showed that the acs operon does not include acsD, unlike the organization of the acs operon of several strains of closely related Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Complementation experiments confirmed that the gene disrupted in each Cel− mutant was responsible for the phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR and protein blotting results suggest that the transcription of bglAx (encoding β-glucosidase and located immediately downstream from acsD) was strongly dependent on Crp/Fnr. A bglAx knockout mutant, generated via homologous recombination, produced only ∼16% of the wild-type cellulose level. Since the crp-fnr mutant did not produce any cellulose, Crp/Fnr may regulate the expression of other gene(s) involved in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:24013627

  14. Synthetic Lethality of a Novel Small Molecule Against Mutant KRAS-Expressing Cancer Cells Involves AKT-Dependent ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Yadav, Sanjiv Kumar; Foo, Chuan Han Jonathan; Sethi, Gautam; Qiang, Yu; Bellot, Gregory L; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2016-05-10

    We recently reported the death-inducing activity of a small-molecule compound, C1, which triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent autophagy-associated apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In this study, we examine the ability of the compound to specifically target cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS with minimal activity against wild-type (WT) RAS-expressing cells. HCT116 cells expressing mutated KRAS are susceptible, while the WT-expressing HT29 cells are resistant. Interestingly, C1 triggers activation of mutant RAS, which results in the downstream phosphorylation and activation of AKT/PKB. Gene knockdown of KRAS or AKT or their pharmacological inhibition resulted in the abrogation of C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony-forming ability. We also made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout (KO) cells, which express only a single WT KRAS allele. Exposure of KO cells to C1 failed to increase mitochondrial ROS and cell death, unlike the parental cells harboring mutant KRAS. Similarly, mutant KRAS-transformed prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1-RAS) were more sensitive to the ROS-producing and death-inducing effects of C1 than the vector only expressing RWPE-1 cells. An in vivo model of xenograft tumors generated with HCT116 KRAS(WT/MUT) or KRAS(WT/-) cells showed the efficacy of C1 treatment and its ability to affect the relative mitotic index in tumors harboring KRAS mutant. These data indicate a synthetic lethal effect against cells carrying mutant KRAS, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of KRAS-specific chemotherapeutic strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 781-794.

  15. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers suppress mutant huntingtin expression and attenuate neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Marque, Leonard O.; Cordner, Zachary; Pruitt, Jennifer L.; Bhat, Manik; Li, Pan P.; Kannan, Geetha; Ladenheim, Ellen E.; Moran, Timothy H.; Margolis, Russell L.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Disease pathogenesis derives, at least in part, from the long polyglutamine tract encoded by mutant HTT. Therefore, considerable effort has been dedicated to the development of therapeutic strategies that significantly reduce the expression of the mutant HTT protein. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to the CAG repeat region of HTT transcripts have been of particular interest due to their potential capacity to discriminate between normal and mutant HTT transcripts. Here, we focus on phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), ASOs that are especially stable, highly soluble and non-toxic. We designed three PMOs to selectively target expanded CAG repeat tracts (CTG22, CTG25 and CTG28), and two PMOs to selectively target sequences flanking the HTT CAG repeat (HTTex1a and HTTex1b). In HD patient–derived fibroblasts with expanded alleles containing 44, 77 or 109 CAG repeats, HTTex1a and HTTex1b were effective in suppressing the expression of mutant and non-mutant transcripts. CTGn PMOs also suppressed HTT expression, with the extent of suppression and the specificity for mutant transcripts dependent on the length of the targeted CAG repeat and on the CTG repeat length and concentration of the PMO. PMO CTG25 reduced HTT-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and suppressed mutant HTT expression in vivo in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model. Finally, CTG28 reduced mutant HTT expression and improved the phenotype of HdhQ7/Q150 knock-in HD mice. These data demonstrate the potential of PMOs as an approach to suppressing the expression of mutant HTT. PMID:25035419

  16. Understanding the Basis of Drug Resistance of the Mutants of αβ-Tubulin Dimer via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Kathiresan; Senapati, Sanjib

    2012-01-01

    The vital role of tubulin dimer in cell division makes it an attractive drug target. Drugs that target tubulin showed significant clinical success in treating various cancers. However, the efficacy of these drugs is attenuated by the emergence of tubulin mutants that are unsusceptible to several classes of tubulin binding drugs. The molecular basis of drug resistance of the tubulin mutants is yet to be unraveled. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations, protein-ligand docking, and MMPB(GB)SA analyses to examine the binding of anticancer drugs, taxol and epothilone to the reported point mutants of tubulin - T274I, R282Q, and Q292E. Results suggest that the mutations significantly alter the tubulin structure and dynamics, thereby weaken the interactions and binding of the drugs, primarily by modifying the M loop conformation and enlarging the pocket volume. Interestingly, these mutations also affect the tubulin distal sites that are associated with microtubule building processes. PMID:22879949

  17. The spatial profiles and metabolic capabilities of microbial populations impact the growth of antibiotic-resistant mutants

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Karishma S.; Ratnayeke, Nalin; Katira, Parag; Gordon, Vernita D.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance adversely affects clinical and public health on a global scale. Using the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we show that increasing the number density of bacteria, on agar containing aminoglycoside antibiotics, can non-monotonically impact the survival of antibiotic-resistant mutants. Notably, at high cell densities, mutant survival is inhibited. A wide range of bacterial species can inhibit antibiotic-resistant mutants. Inhibition results from the metabolic breakdown of amino acids, which results in alkaline by-products. The consequent increase in pH acts in conjunction with aminoglycosides to mediate inhibition. Our work raises the possibility that the manipulation of microbial population structure and nutrient environment in conjunction with existing antibiotics could provide therapeutic approaches to combat antibiotic resistance. PMID:25972434

  18. A dinoflagellate mutant with higher frequency of multiple fission.

    PubMed

    Lam, C M; Chong, C; Wong, J T

    2001-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Biecheler propagates by both binary and multiple fission. By a newly developed mutagenesis protocol based on using ethyl methanesulfonate and a cell size screening method, a cell cycle mutant, mf2, was isolated with giant cells which predominantly divide by multiple fission. The average cell size of the mutant mf2 is larger than the control C. cohnii. Cell cycle synchronization experiments suggest that mutant mf2, when compared with the control strain, has a prolonged G1 phase with a corresponding delay of the G2 + M phase.

  19. Cancer-Associated Mutants of RNA Helicase DDX3X Are Defective in RNA-Stimulated ATP Hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Epling, Leslie B.; Grace, Christy R.; Lowe, Brandon R.; ...

    2015-02-25

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3X is frequently mutated in pediatric medulloblastoma. We dissect how these mutants affect DDX3X function with structural, biochemical, and genetic experiments. We identify an N-terminal extension (“ATP-binding loop”, ABL) that is critical for the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by RNA. We present crystal structures suggesting that the ABL interacts dynamically with ATP and confirming that the interaction occurs in solution by NMR chemical shift perturbation and isothermal titration calorimetry. DEAD-box helicases require interaction between two conserved RecA-like helicase domains, D1 and D2 for function. We use NMR chemical shift perturbation to show that DDX3X interacts specificallymore » with double-stranded RNA through its D1 domain, with contact mediated by residues G302 and G325. Mutants of these residues, G302V and G325E, are associated with pediatric medulloblastoma. These mutants are defective in RNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis. We show that DDX3X complements the growth defect in a ded1 temperature-sensitive strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but the cancer-associated mutants G302V and G325E do not complement and exhibit protein expression defects. In conclusion, taken together, our results suggest that impaired translation of important mRNA targets by mutant DDX3X represents a key step in the development of medulloblastoma.« less

  20. Characterization and gene cloning of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) dwarf and narrow-leaf mutant dnl3.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Wei, X J; Adedze, Y M N; Sheng, Z H; Tang, S Q; Hu, P S; Wang, J L

    2016-09-16

    The dwarf and narrow-leaf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant dnl3 was isolated from the Japonica cultivar Zhonghua 11 (wild-type). dnl3 exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects. The narrow-leaf phenotype resulted from a marked reduction in the number of vascular bundles, while the dwarf stature was caused by the formation of foreshortened internodes and a reduced number of parenchyma cells. The suggestion that cell division is impaired in the mutant was consistent with the transcriptional behavior of various genes associated with cell division. The mutant was less responsive to exogenously supplied gibberellic acid than the wild-type, and profiling the transcription of genes involved in gibberellin synthesis and response revealed that a lesion in the mutant affected gibberellin signal transduction. The dnl3 phenotype was inherited as a single-dominant gene, mapping within a 19.1-kb region of chromosome 12, which was found to harbor three open reading frames. Resequencing the open reading frames revealed that the mutant carried an allele at one of the three genes that differed from the wild-type sequence by 2-bp deletions; this gene encoded a cellulose synthase-like D4 (CSLD4) protein. Therefore, OsCSLD4 is a candidate gene for DNL3. DNL3 was expressed in all of the rice organs tested at the heading stage, particularly in the leaves, roots, and culms. These results suggest that DNL3 plays important roles in rice leaf morphogenesis and vegetative development.

  1. Cancer-Associated Mutants of RNA Helicase DDX3X Are Defective in RNA-Stimulated ATP Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Epling, Leslie B.; Grace, Christy R.; Lowe, Brandon R.

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3X is frequently mutated in pediatric medulloblastoma. We dissect how these mutants affect DDX3X function with structural, biochemical, and genetic experiments. We identify an N-terminal extension (“ATP-binding loop”, ABL) that is critical for the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by RNA. We present crystal structures suggesting that the ABL interacts dynamically with ATP and confirming that the interaction occurs in solution by NMR chemical shift perturbation and isothermal titration calorimetry. DEAD-box helicases require interaction between two conserved RecA-like helicase domains, D1 and D2 for function. We use NMR chemical shift perturbation to show that DDX3X interacts specificallymore » with double-stranded RNA through its D1 domain, with contact mediated by residues G302 and G325. Mutants of these residues, G302V and G325E, are associated with pediatric medulloblastoma. These mutants are defective in RNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis. We show that DDX3X complements the growth defect in a ded1 temperature-sensitive strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but the cancer-associated mutants G302V and G325E do not complement and exhibit protein expression defects. In conclusion, taken together, our results suggest that impaired translation of important mRNA targets by mutant DDX3X represents a key step in the development of medulloblastoma.« less

  2. A Population of Deletion Mutants and an Integrated Mapping and Exome-seq Pipeline for Gene Discovery in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Morton, Kyla; Avoles-Kianian, Penny; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David

    2016-01-01

    To better understand maize endosperm filling and maturation, we used γ-irradiation of the B73 maize reference line to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes, and created a population of 1788 lines including 39 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we developed a novel functional genomics platform that combined bulked segregant RNA and exome sequencing (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. To exemplify the utility of the mutants and provide proof-of-concept for the bioinformatics platform, we present detailed characterization of line 937, an opaque mutant harboring a 6203 bp in-frame deletion covering six exons within the Opaque-1 gene. In addition, we describe mutant line 146 which contains a 4.8 kb intragene deletion within the Sugary-1 gene and line 916 in which an 8.6 kb deletion knocks out a Cyclin A2 gene. The publically available algorithm developed in this work improves the identification of causative deletions and its corresponding gaps within mapping peaks. This study demonstrates the utility of γ-irradiation for forward genetics in large nondense genomes such as maize since deletions often affect single genes. Furthermore, we show how this classical mutagenesis method becomes applicable for functional genomics when combined with state-of-the-art genomics tools. PMID:27261000

  3. A low, adaptive dose of gamma-rays reduced the number and altered the spectrum of S1- mutants in human-hamster hybrid AL cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, A. M.; Vannais, D. B.; Gustafson, D. L.; Wong, J. C.; Waldren, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effects of a low, adaptive dose of 137Cs-gamma-irradiation (0.04 Gy) on the number and kinds of mutants induced in AL human-hamster hybrid cells by a later challenge dose of 4 Gy. The yield of S1- mutants was significantly less (by 53%) after exposure to both the adaptive and challenge doses compared to the challenge dose alone. The yield of hprt- mutants was similarly decreased. Incubation with cycloheximide (CX) or 3-aminobenzamide largely negated the decrease in mutant yield. The adaptive dose did not perturb the cell cycle, was not cytotoxic, and did not of itself increase the mutant yield above background. The adaptive dose did, however, alter the spectrum of S1- mutants from populations exposed only to the adaptive dose, as well as affecting the spectrum of S1- mutants generated by the challenge dose. The major change in both cases was a significant increase in the proportion of complex mutations compared to small mutations and simple deletions.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide and Aldoheptose Biosynthesis in Transketolase Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Eidels, L.; Osborn, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence that sedoheptulose-7-phosphate is an obligatory precursor of the L-glycero-D-mannoheptose residues of the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella was obtained by isolation and characterization of transketolase-negative mutants of Salmonella typhimurium. These mutants, which are defective in synthesis of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, were found to produce an incomplete heptose-deficient lipopolysaccharide, and were also sensitive to bile salts, a characteristic property of heptose-deficient mutants. Phenotypic repair of the defect in lipopolysaccharide synthesis was obtained by addition of exogenous sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to growing cultures of the mutant strains. Characterization of revertants isolated either as transketolase-positive or heptose-positive provided further evidence that the heptose deficiency resulted from mutation at the transketolase locus. On the basis of these findings a possible pathway for conversion of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to L-glycero-D-mannoheptose is proposed. PMID:4942911

  5. [Biosorption ability of mutants of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UCM Y-1776].

    PubMed

    Mamieieva, O H; Kasatkina, T P; Lavrinchuk, V Ia

    2007-01-01

    Twenty stable mutants with various coloration intensity have been allocated in carotene-synthesizing natural strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UCM Y-1776 (wild type) after nitrosoguanidine action. Two brightly orange mutants 4L and 11 and one non-pigmented mutant 2 were chosen for the further researches. The ultraviolet was inefficient as a mutagen. Resistance to high concentration of copper ions (up to 200 mg/g), high sorption ability (Qmax = 9.1 mmol/g) was characteristic of R. mucilaginosa UCM Y-1776. Concentration of copper ions 50 mg/l was toxic for mutants 4L, 11 and 2, which sorption ability was lower in comparison with carotene pigmented R. mucilaginosa UCM Y-1776. It was shown, for the first time that there was a direct dependence between the presence of carotenoid pigments, resistance to high concentration of copper ions and sorption ability for yeast R. mucilaginosa UCM Y-1776.

  6. Altered sexual and social behaviors in trp2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Leypold, Bradley G.; Yu, C. Ron; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Kim, Michelle M.; Zufall, Frank; Axel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We have used gene targeting to generate mice with a homozygous deficiency in trp2, a cation channel expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Trp2 mutant animals reveal a striking reduction in the electrophysiological response to pheromones in the VNO, suggesting that trp2 plays a central role in mediating the pheromone response. These mutants therefore afford the opportunity to examine the role of the VNO in the generation of innate sexual and social behaviors in mice. Trp2 mutant males and nursing females are docile and fail to initiate aggressive attacks on intruder males. Male–female sexual behavior appears normal, but trp2 mutant males also vigorously mount other males. These results suggest that the cation channel trp2 is required in the VNO to detect male-specific pheromones that elicit aggressive behaviors and dictate the choice of sexual partners. PMID:11972034

  7. Cortex content of asporogenous mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Imae, Y; Strominger, J L

    1976-01-01

    A method for the measurement of muramic lactam, which is specifically located in the cortical peptidoglycan of bacterial spores, was developed as a quantitative assay method for spore cortex content. During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis 168, muramic lactam (i.e., spore cortex) began to appear at state IV of sporulation and continued to increase over most of the late stages of sporulation. Spore cortex contents of various spo mutants of B. subitils were surveyed. Cortex was not detected in mutants in which sporulation was blocked earlier than stage II sporulation. Spores of spo IV mutant had about 40% of the cortex content of the wild-type spores. One spo III mutant had a low amount of cortex, but four others had none. PMID:1262319

  8. Mutant Kras copy number defines metabolic reprogramming and therapeutic susceptibilities

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Emma; Gaude, Edoardo; Turrell, Frances; Frezza, Christian; Martins, Carla P

    2016-01-01

    Summary The RAS/MAPK-signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), often through KRAS activating mutations1-3. A single endogenous mutant Kras allele is sufficient to promote lung tumour formation in mice but malignant progression requires additional genetic alterations4-7. We recently showed that advanced lung tumours from KrasG12D/+;p53-null mice frequently exhibit KrasG12D allelic enrichment (KrasG12D/Kraswild-type>1)7, implying that mutant Kras copy gains are positively selected during progression. Through a comprehensive analysis of mutant Kras homozygous and heterozygous MEFs and lung cancer cells we now show that these genotypes are phenotypically distinct. In particular, KrasG12D/G12D cells exhibit a glycolytic switch coupled to increased channelling of glucose-derived metabolites into the TCA cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in enhanced glutathione-mediated detoxification. This metabolic rewiring is recapitulated in mutant KRAS homozygous NSCLC cells and in vivo, in spontaneous advanced murine lung tumours (which display a high frequency of KrasG12D copy gain), but not in the corresponding early tumours (KrasG12D heterozygous). Finally, we demonstrate that mutant Kras copy gain creates unique metabolic dependences that can be exploited to selectively target these aggressive mutant Kras tumours. Our data demonstrate that mutant Kras lung tumours are not a single disease but rather a heterogeneous group comprised of two classes of tumours with distinct metabolic profiles, prognosis and therapeutic susceptibility, which can be discriminated based on their relative mutant allelic content. We also provide the first in vivo evidence of metabolic rewiring during lung cancer malignant progression. PMID:26909577

  9. Mapping Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation in BRCA1 Mutant Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Transformation in BRCA1 Mutant Mice PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerburg M. Wulf CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical...REPORT NUMBER Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, MA 02215 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...and whether it allowed us to analyze the early steps of tumor formation. For this purpose transgenic and conditional knock-out mice (mutant p53 or

  10. Mutant Enrichment in the Colonial Alga, EUDORINA ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Toby, A. L.; Kemp, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    An enrichment procedure has been developed that results in at least a 200x increase in mutation frequency in the colonial alga, Eudorina elegans. A period of nitrogen starvation followed by treatment with 8-azaguanine results in the death of wild-type cells and the maintenance of mutants. N'-nitro-N-nitro-soguanidine-induced acetate, p-aminobenzoic acid and reduced nitrogen requiring mutants have been isolated by this procedure. PMID:1205128

  11. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation <30 days, iii) infection incubation is assumed to last about 2 months, the results provide evidence of mutant circulation from Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of protein mutant stability using classification and regression tool.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Tsung; Saraboji, K; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Hwang, Shiow-Fen; Ponnuswamy, M N; Gromiha, M Michael

    2007-02-01

    Prediction of protein stability upon amino acid substitutions is an important problem in molecular biology and the solving of which would help for designing stable mutants. In this work, we have analyzed the stability of protein mutants using two different datasets of 1396 and 2204 mutants obtained from ProTherm database, respectively for free energy change due to thermal (DeltaDeltaG) and denaturant denaturations (DeltaDeltaG(H(2)O)). We have used a set of 48 physical, chemical energetic and conformational properties of amino acid residues and computed the difference of amino acid properties for each mutant in both sets of data. These differences in amino acid properties have been related to protein stability (DeltaDeltaG and DeltaDeltaG(H(2)O)) and are used to train with classification and regression tool for predicting the stability of protein mutants. Further, we have tested the method with 4 fold, 5 fold and 10 fold cross validation procedures. We found that the physical properties, shape and flexibility are important determinants of protein stability. The classification of mutants based on secondary structure (helix, strand, turn and coil) and solvent accessibility (buried, partially buried, partially exposed and exposed) distinguished the stabilizing/destabilizing mutants at an average accuracy of 81% and 80%, respectively for DeltaDeltaG and DeltaDeltaG(H(2)O). The correlation between the experimental and predicted stability change is 0.61 for DeltaDeltaG and 0.44 for DeltaDeltaG(H(2)O). Further, the free energy change due to the replacement of amino acid residue has been predicted within an average error of 1.08 kcal/mol and 1.37 kcal/mol for thermal and chemical denaturation, respectively. The relative importance of secondary structure and solvent accessibility, and the influence of the dataset on prediction of protein mutant stability have been discussed.

  13. Defining New Treatment Approaches for KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    mutant NSCLC , a challenge we must meet to make progress in this clinically challenging NSCLC subset. Mutant KRAS, like ALK or EGFR, is a bone fide NSCLC ...required for KRAS G12D-driven NSCLC . Specific Aim 1. To identify gene products specifically essential for KRAS-driven NSCLC , we will perform a shRNA...screen of thousands of mouse genes, looking for essentiality in multiple independent cell lines derived from two NSCLC GEMMs: one RAF- dependent and

  14. Biomass productivities in wild type and pigment mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom).

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Hausmann, Tom S; Bartha, Richard; Aksoy, M; Weissman, Joseph C; Benemann, John R

    2009-06-01

    intensity (1,000 micromol/m(2) s). Similarly, the biomass productivities measured in outdoor ponds were significantly lower for the mutant than for the wild type. Given that these mutants have not been completely characterized in these initial studies, the exact reasons for their poor performance are not known. Most likely, it is possible that the mutation procedure affected other photosynthetic or metabolic processes. This hypothesis was partially validated by the observation that the pigment mutant had a longer lag period following inoculation, a lower maximum specific growth rate, and poorer stability than the wild type.

  15. A distinct class of dominant negative Ras mutants: cytosolic GTP-bound Ras effector domain mutants that inhibit Ras signaling and transformation and enhance cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fiordalisi, James J; Holly, Stephen P; Johnson, Ronald L; Parise, Leslie V; Cox, Adrienne D

    2002-03-29

    Cytosolic GTP-bound Ras has been shown to act as a dominant negative (DN) inhibitor of Ras by sequestering Raf in non-productive cytosolic complexes. Nevertheless, this distinct class of DN mutants has been neither well characterized nor extensively used to analyze Ras signaling. In contrast, DN Ras17N, which functions by blocking Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors, has been well characterized and is widely used. Cytosolic GTP-bound Ras mutants could be used to inhibit particular Ras effectors by introducing additional mutations (T35S, E37G or Y40C) that permit them to associate selectively with and inhibit Raf, RalGDS, or phosphoinositide 3-kinase, respectively. When the wild-type Ras effector binding region is used, cytosolic Ras should associate with all Ras effectors, even those that are not yet identified, making these DN Ras mutants effective inhibitors of multiple Ras functions. We generated cytosolic GTP-bound H-, N-, and K-Ras, and we assessed their ability to inhibit Ras-induced phenotypes. In fibroblasts, cytosolic H-, N-, and K-Ras inhibited Ras-induced Elk-1 activation and focus formation, induced a flattened cell morphology, and increased adhesion to fibronectin through modulation of a beta(1)-subunit-containing integrin, thereby demonstrating that DN activity is not limited to a subset of Ras isoforms. We also generated cytosolic GTP-bound Ras effector domain mutants (EDMs), each of which reduced the ability of cytosolic GTP-bound Ras proteins to inhibit Elk-1 activation and to induce cell flattening, implicating multiple pathways in these phenotypes. In contrast, Ras-induced focus formation, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-, or Ras-induced phospho-Akt levels and cell adhesion to fibronectin were affected by T35S and Y40C EDMs, whereas PDGF- or Ras-induced phospho-Erk levels were affected only by the T35S EDM, implying that a more limited set of Ras-mediated pathways participate in these phenotypes. These data constitute the first

  16. Abnormal photoreceptor outer segment development and early retinal degeneration in kif3a mutant zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Rakesh K; Zhang, Xun; Alhasani, Reem H; Zhou, Xinzhi; Mullin, Margaret; Reilly, James; Li, Wenchang; Liu, Mugen; Shu, Xinhua

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors are highly specialized sensory neurons that possess a modified primary cilium called the outer segment. Photoreceptor outer segment formation and maintenance require highly active protein transport via a process known as intraflagellar transport. Anterograde transport in outer segments is powered by the heterotrimeric kinesin II and coordinated by intraflagellar transport proteins. Here, we describe a new zebrafish model carrying a nonsense mutation in the kinesin II family member 3A (kif3a) gene. Kif3a mutant zebrafish exhibited curved body axes and kidney cysts. Outer segments were not formed in most parts of the mutant retina, and rhodopsin was mislocalized, suggesting KIF3A has a role in rhodopsin trafficking. Both rod and cone photoreceptors degenerated rapidly between 4 and 9 days post fertilization, and electroretinography response was not detected in 7 days post fertilization mutant larvae. Loss of KIF3A in zebrafish also resulted in an intracellular transport defect affecting anterograde but not retrograde transport of organelles. Our results indicate KIF3A plays a conserved role in photoreceptor outer segment formation and intracellular transport. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Biofilm formation ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acrAB mutants.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kisluk, Guy; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies offer contradictory findings about the role of multidrug efflux pumps in bacterial biofilm development. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the AcrAB efflux pump in biofilm formation by investigating the ability of AcrB and AcrAB null mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce biofilms. Three models were used to compare the ability of S. Typhimurium wild-type and its mutants to form biofilms: formation of biofilm on polystyrene surfaces; production of biofilm (mat model) on the air/liquid interface; and expression of curli and cellulose on Congo red-supplemented agar plates. All three investigated genotypes formed biofilms with similar characteristics. However, upon exposure to chloramphenicol, formation of biofilms on solid surfaces as well as the production of curli were either reduced or were delayed more significantly in both mutants, whilst there was no visible effect on pellicle formation. It can be concluded that when no selective pressure is applied, S. Typhimurium is able to produce biofilms even when the AcrAB efflux pumps are inactivated, implying that the use of efflux pump inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation is not a general solution and that combined treatments might be more efficient. Other factors that affect the ability to produce biofilms depending on efflux pump activity are yet to be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of parafluorophenylalanine-resistant mutants from HeLa cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, L.K.; Stuart, W.D.

    This report describes a method to isolate temperature-conditional phenylalanine transport mutants from the transformed human cell line HeLa. Using ultraviolet light as a mutagenic agent and DL-parafluorophenylalanine (PFPA), a poisonous analogue of L-phenylalanine, as a selective agent, mutagenized cells were selected for survival in the presence of PFPA at a temperature of 39 degrees C. Survivors of the mutagenesis and selection procedures were removed from the culture dishes by trypsin and cloned at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Seven of these lines isolated demonstrated continued resistance to PFPA at 39 degrees C. These lines were tested for uptake ofmore » L-phenylalanine at an external concentration of 100 microM and for continued resistance to PFPA at two concentrations. Cells were tested at 35 and at 39 degrees C. The data were compared to those obtained for the parental HeLa cell line under identical conditions. The seven mutant cell lines demonstrated varying resistances to PFPA and varying levels of accumulation of L-phenylalanine when tested at 35 and 39 degrees C. Three mutant lines were additionally tested for L-phenylalanine tRNA charging levels and for transport of L-arginine. The lines had parental cell levels of tRNA charging and L-arginine transport which suggest that the induced genetic defect affects a specific L-phenylalanine transport system.« less

  19. Molecular structure of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Källman, Anna; Myers, Alan M; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2013-10-16

    Molecular structures of starches from dull1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were characterized and compared with the wild type. Amylose content with altered structure was higher in the nonwaxy mutants (25.4-30.2%) compared to the wild type maize (21.5%) as revealed by gel permeation chromatography. Superlong chains of the amylopectin component were found in all nonwaxy samples. Unit chain length distribution of amylopectins and their φ,β-limit dextrins (reflecting amylopectin internal structure) from dull1 mutants were also characterized by anion-exchange chromatography after debranching. Deficiency of SSIII led to an increased amount of short chains (DP ≤36 in amylopectin), whereas the content of long chains decreased from 8.4% to between 3.1 and 3.7% in both amylopectin and φ,β-limit dextrins. Moreover, both the external and internal chain lengths decreased, suggesting a difference in their cluster structures. Whereas the molar ratio of A:B-chains was similar in all samples (1.1-1.2), some ratios of chain categories were affected by the absence of SSIII, notably the ratio of "fingerprint" A-chains to "clustered" A-chains. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and the internal molecular structure of maize starch.

  20. Cln6 mutants associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis are degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Kristina; Mueller, Britta; Tortorella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    NCLs (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses), a group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that predominantly affect children, are the result of autosomal recessive mutations within one of the nine cln genes. The wild-type cln gene products are composed of membrane and soluble proteins that localize to the lysosome or the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). However, the destiny of the Cln variants has not been fully characterized. To explore a possible link between ER quality control and processing of Cln mutants, we investigated the fate of two NCL-related Cln6 mutants found in patient samples (Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T)) in neuronal-derived human cells. The point mutations are predicted to be in the putative transmembrane domains and most probably generate misfolded membrane proteins that are subjected to ER quality control. Consistent with this paradigm, both mutants underwent rapid proteasome-mediated degradation and complexed with components of the ER extraction apparatus, Derlin-1 and p97. In addition, knockdown of SEL1L [sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (Caenorhabditis elegans)], a member of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in ER protein extraction, rescued significant amounts of Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T) polypeptides. The results implicate ER quality control in the instability of the Cln variants that probably contributes to the development of NCL.

  1. A Clonal Genetic Screen for Mutants Causing Defects in Larval Tracheal Morphogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Magdalena M.; Bilstein, Andreas; Leptin, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The initial establishment of the tracheal network in the Drosophila embryo is beginning to be understood in great detail, both in its genetic control cascades and in its cell biological events. By contrast, the vast expansion of the system during larval growth, with its extensive ramification of preexisting tracheal branches, has been analyzed less well. The mutant phenotypes of many genes involved in this process are probably not easy to reveal, as these genes may be required for other functions at earlier developmental stages. We therefore conducted a screen for defects in individual clonal homozygous mutant cells in the tracheal network of heterozygous larvae using the mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) system to generate marked, recombinant mitotic clones. We describe the identification of a set of mutants with distinct phenotypic effects. In particular we found a range of defects in terminal cells, including failure in lumen formation and reduced or extensive branching. Other mutations affect cell growth, cell shape, and cell migration. PMID:17603107

  2. Characterization of the growth and auxin physiology of roots of the tomato mutant, diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Lomax, T. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Roots of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant (diageotropica (dgt) exhibit an altered phenotype. These roots are agravitropic and lack lateral roots. Relative to wild-type (VFN8) roots, dgt roots are less sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenously applied IAA and auxin transport inhibitors (phytotropins), and the roots exhibit a reduction in maximal growth inhibition in response to ethylene. However, IAA transport through roots, binding of the phytotropin, tritiated naphthylphthalamic acid ([3H]NPA), to root microsomal membranes, NPA-sensitive IAA uptake by root segments, and uptake of [3H]NPA into root segments are all similar in mutant and wild-type roots. We speculate that the reduced sensitivity of dgt root growth to auxin-transport inhibitors and ethylene is an indirect result of the reduction in sensitivity to auxin in this single gene, recessive mutant. We conclude that dgt roots, like dgt shoots, exhibit abnormalities indicating they have a defect associated with or affecting a primary site of auxin perception or action.

  3. The zebrafish mutant vps18 as a model for vesicle-traffic related hypopigmentation diseases.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ernesto; Hernandez, Fabiola; Lozano, Carlos; Castro, Marta E; Navarro, Rosa E

    2006-08-01

    Hypopigmentation is a characteristic of several diseases associated with vesicle traffic defects, like the Hermansky-Pudlak, Chediak-Higashi, and Griscelli syndromes. Hypopigmentation is also a characteristic of the zebrafish mutant vps18(hi2499A), which is affected in the gene vps18, a component of the homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex that is involved in tethering during vesicular traffic. Vps18, as part of this complex, participates in the formation of early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Here, we show that Vps18 is also involved in the formation of melanosomes. In the zebrafish mutant vps18(hi2499A) the retroviral insertion located at exon 4 of vps18, leads to the formation of two abnormal splicing variants lacking the coding sequence for the clathrin repeat and the RING finger conserved domains. A deficiency of Vps18 in zebrafish larvae results in hepatomegaly and skin hypopigmentation. We also observed a drastic reduction in the number of melanosomes in the eye's retinal pigmented epithelium along with the accumulation of immature melanosomes. A significant reduction in the vps18(hi2499A) larvae visual system capacity was found using the optokinetic response assay. We propose that the insertional mutant vps18(hi2499A) can be used as a model for studying hypopigmentation diseases in which vesicle traffic problems exist.

  4. Further studies on cortical tangential migration in wild type and Pax-6 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, D; López-Mascaraque, L; de Carlos, J A; Valverde, F

    2002-01-01

    In this study we present new data concerning the tangential migration from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences (MGE and LGE) to the cerebral cortex during development. We have used Calbindin as a useful marker to follow the itinerary of tangential migratory cells during early developmental stages in wild-type and Pax-6 homozygous mutant mice. In the wild-type mice, at early developmental stages, migrating cells advance through the intermediate zone (IZ) and preplate (PP). At more advanced stages, migrating cells were present in the subplate (SP) and cortical plate (CP) to reach the entire developing cerebral cortex. We found that, in the homozygous mutant mice (Pax-6(Sey-Neu)/Pax-6(Sey-Neu)), this tangential migration is severely affected at early developmental stages: migrating cells were absent in the IZ, which were only found some days later, suggesting that in the mutant mice, there is a temporal delay in tangential migration. We have also defined some possible mechanisms to explain certain migratory routes from the basal telencephalon to the cerebral cortex. We describe the existence of two factors, which we consider to be essential for the normal migration; the first one is the cell adhesion molecule PSA-NCAM, whose role in other migratory systems is well known. The second factor is Robo-2, whose expression delimits a channel for the passage of migratory cells from the basal telencephalon to the cerebral cortex.

  5. Cell Transformation by PTP1B Truncated Mutants Found in Human Colon and Thyroid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wenhan; Wang, Kemin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Expression of wild-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B may act either as a tumor suppressor by dysregulation of protein tyrosine kinases or a tumor promoter through Src dephosphorylation at Y527 in human breast cancer cells. To explore whether mutated PTP1B is involved in human carcinogenesis, we have sequenced PTP1B cDNAs from human tumors and found splice mutations in ~20% of colon and thyroid tumors. The PTP1BΔE6 mutant expressed in these two tumor types and another PTP1BΔE5 mutant expressed in colon tumor were studied in more detail. Although PTP1BΔE6 revealed no phosphatase activity compared with wild-type PTP1B and the PTP1BΔE5 mutant, its expression induced oncogenic transformation of rat fibroblasts without Src activation, indicating that it involved signaling pathways independent of Src. The transformed cells were tumourigenic in nude mice, suggesting that the PTP1BΔE6 affected other molecule(s) in the human tumors. These observations may provide a novel therapeutic target for colon and thyroid cancer.

  6. Cysteine Inhibits Mercury Methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA Mutant Δ omcBESTZ

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Xia; Liang, Liyuan; ...

    2015-04-21

    For cysteine enhances Hg uptake and methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA wild type (WT) strain in short-term assays. The prevalence of this enhancement in other strains remains poorly understood. We examined the influence of cysteine concentration on time-dependent Hg(II) reduction, sorption and methylation by PCA-WT and its c-type cytochrome-deficient mutant ( omcBESTZ) in phosphate buffered saline. Without cysteine, the mutant methylated twice as much Hg(II) as the PCA-WT, whereas addition of cysteine inhibited Hg methylation, regardless of the reaction time. PCA-WT, but, exhibited both time-dependent and cysteine concentration-dependent methylation. In 144 hour assay, nearly complete sorption of the Hg(II) bymore » PCA-WT occurred in the presence of 1 mM cysteine, resulting in our highest observed methylmercury production. Moreover, the chemical speciation modeling and experimental data suggest that uncharged Hg(II) species are more readily taken up, and that this uptake is kinetic limiting, thereby affecting Hg methylation by both mutant and WT.« less

  7. Convergent mechanisms favor fast amyloid formation in two lambda 6a Ig light chain mutants.

    PubMed

    Valdés-García, Gilberto; Millán-Pacheco, César; Pastor, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients. Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation. To look into the structural and dynamical differences in the native state of these proteins, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Despite the structural similarity of the germline protein and the mutants, we found differences in their dynamical signatures that explain the mutants' increased tendency to form amyloids. The contact network alterations caused by the mutations, though different, converge in affecting two anti-aggregation motifs present in light chain variable domains, suggesting a different starting point for aggregation in lambda chains compared to kappa chains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PML clastosomes prevent nuclear accumulation of mutant ataxin-7 and other polyglutamine proteins

    PubMed Central

    Janer, Alexandre; Martin, Elodie; Muriel, Marie-Paule; Latouche, Morwena; Fujigasaki, Hiroto; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Trottier, Yvon; Sittler, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 and other neurodegenerative polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders correlates with the aberrant accumulation of toxic polyQ-expanded proteins in the nucleus. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies are often present in polyQ aggregates, but their relation to pathogenesis is unclear. We show that expression of PML isoform IV leads to the formation of distinct nuclear bodies enriched in components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These bodies recruit soluble mutant ataxin-7 and promote its degradation by proteasome-dependent proteolysis, thus preventing the aggregate formation. Inversely, disruption of the endogenous nuclear bodies with cadmium increases the nuclear accumulation and aggregation of mutant ataxin-7, demonstrating their role in ataxin-7 turnover. Interestingly, β-interferon treatment, which induces the expression of endogenous PML IV, prevents the accumulation of transiently expressed mutant ataxin-7 without affecting the level of the endogenous wild-type protein. Therefore, clastosomes represent a potential therapeutic target for preventing polyQ disorders. PMID:16818720

  9. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 ( eal1 ) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene ( enhancer of eal1 ) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis .

  10. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. PMID:27746791

  11. Ozone-Sensitive Arabidopsis Mutants with Deficiencies in Photorespiratory Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Saji, Shoko; Bathula, Srinivas; Kubo, Akihiro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Sano, Tomoharu; Tobe, Kazuo; Timm, Stefan; Bauwe, Hermann; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Saji, Hikaru

    2017-05-01

    An ozone-sensitive mutant was isolated from T-DNA-tagged lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. The T-DNA was inserted at a locus on chromosome 3, where two genes encoding glycolate oxidases, GOX1 and GOX2, peroxisomal enzymes involved in photorespiration, reside contiguously. The amounts of the mutant's foliar transcripts for these genes were reduced, and glycolate oxidase activity was approximately 60% of that of the wild-type plants. No difference in growth and appearance was observed between the mutant and the wild-type plants under normal conditions with ambient air under a light intensity of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1. However, signs of severe damage, such as chlorosis and ion leakage from the tissue, rapidly appeared in mutant leaves in response to ozone treatment at a concentration of 0.2 µl l-1 under a higher light intensity of 350 µmol photons m-2 s-1 that caused no such symptoms in the wild-type plant. The mutant also exhibited sensitivity to sulfur dioxide and long-term high-intensity light. Arabidopsis mutants with deficiencies in other photorespiratory enzymes such as glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase also exhibited ozone sensitivities. Therefore, photorespiration appears to be involved in protection against photooxidative stress caused by ozone and other abiotic factors under high-intensity light. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Leptin gene promoter DNA methylation in WNIN obese mutant rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has become an epidemic in worldwide population. Leptin gene defect could be one of the causes for obesity. Two mutant obese rats WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GROb, isolated at National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences (NCLAS), Hyderabad, India, were found to be leptin resistant. The present study aims to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying the resistance by promoter DNA methylation of leptin gene in these mutant obese rats. Methods Male obese mutant homozygous, carrier and heterozygous rats of WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GROb strain of 6 months old were studied to check the leptin gene expression (RT-PCR) and promoter DNA methylation (MassARRAY Compact system, SEQUENOM) of leptin gene by invivo and insilico approach. Results Homozygous WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GROb showed significantly higher leptin gene expression compared to carrier and lean counterparts. Leptin gene promoter DNA sequence region was analyzed ranging from transcription start site (TSS) to-550 bp length and found four CpGs in this sequence among them only three CpG loci (-309, -481, -502) were methylated in these WNIN mutant rat phenotypes. Conclusion The increased percentage of methylation in WNIN mutant lean and carrier phenotypes is positively correlated with transcription levels. Thus genetic variation may have effect on methylation percentages and subsequently on the regulation of leptin gene expression which may lead to obesity in these obese mutant rat strains. PMID:24495350

  13. CHO-cell mutant with a defect in cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Lindl, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    In a selection procedure designed to enrich for temperature-sensitive mutant cells blocked in mitosis a CHO-cell mutant was isolated which has a defect in cytokinesis as the basis of its temperature-sensitive phenotype. Cultures of the mutant had an abnormally high percentage (ie, 34 percent) of polyploid cells at the permissive temperature of 34/sup 0/C and showed further increased frequencies of polyploidy as well as many multinucleated cells at 38.5/sup 0/ and 39.5/sup 0/. When the mutant cells were synchronized in metaphase by Colcemid arrest and then placed into fresh medium at nonpermissive temperature, they did not divide although the completionmore » of mitosis appeared cytologically normal. Ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy of such synchronized cells at telophase revealed no specific defects in cellular components other than failure of development of a normal midbody. The sensitivity of the mutant to cytochalasin B and to Colcemid was the same as for wild-type cells. This mutation behaved as recessive in tetraploid cell hybrids constructed by fusing the mutant with a CHO strain which was wild-type with respect to temperature sensitivity.« less

  14. The tomato mutant ars1 (altered response to salt stress 1) identifies an R1-type MYB transcription factor involved in stomatal closure under salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juan F; Cara, Beatriz; Pérez-Martín, Fernando; Pineda, Benito; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Capel, Juan; Moreno, Vicente; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael; Bolarin, Maria C

    2016-06-01

    A screening under salt stress conditions of a T-DNA mutant collection of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) led to the identification of the altered response to salt stress 1 (ars1) mutant, which showed a salt-sensitive phenotype. Genetic analysis of the ars1 mutation revealed that a single T-DNA insertion in the ARS1 gene was responsible of the mutant phenotype. ARS1 coded for an R1-MYB type transcription factor and its expression was induced by salinity in leaves. The mutant reduced fruit yield under salt acclimation while in the absence of stress the disruption of ARS1 did not affect this agronomic trait. The stomatal behaviour of ars1 mutant leaves induced higher Na(+) accumulation via the transpiration stream, as the decreases of stomatal conductance and transpiration rate induced by salt stress were markedly lower in the mutant plants. Moreover, the mutation affected stomatal closure in a response mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The characterization of tomato transgenic lines silencing and overexpressing ARS1 corroborates the role of the gene in regulating the water loss via transpiration under salinity. Together, our results show that ARS1 tomato gene contributes to reduce transpirational water loss under salt stress. Finally, this gene could be interesting for tomato molecular breeding, because its manipulation could lead to improved stress tolerance without yield penalty under optimal culture conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Catalytic properties of thimet oligopeptidase H600A mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, Mauricio F.M.; Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Rioli, Vanessa

    2010-04-02

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15, TOP) is a metallo-oligopeptidase that participates in the intracellular metabolism of peptides. Predictions based on structurally analogous peptidases (Dcp and ACE-2) show that TOP can present a hinge-bend movement during substrate hydrolysis, what brings some residues closer to the substrate. One of these residues that in TOP crystallographic structure are far from the catalytic residues, but, moves toward the substrate considering this possible structural reorganization is His{sup 600}. In the present work, the role of His{sup 600} of TOP was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. TOP H600A mutant was characterized through analysis of S{sub 1} and S{submore » 1}' specificity, pH-activity profile and inhibition by JA-2. Results showed that TOP His{sup 600} residue makes important interactions with the substrate, supporting the prediction that His{sup 600} moves toward the substrate due to a hinge movement similar to the Dcp and ACE-2. Furthermore, the mutation H600A affected both K{sub m} and k{sub cat}, showing the importance of His{sup 600} for both substrate binding and/or product release from active site. Changes in the pH-profile may indicate also the participation of His{sup 600} in TOP catalysis, transferring a proton to the newly generated NH{sub 2}-terminus or helping Tyr{sup 605} and/or Tyr{sup 612} in the intermediate oxyanion stabilization.« less

  16. Tissue-specific oxidative stress and loss of mitochondria in CoQ-deficient Pdss2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Quinzii, Catarina M; Garone, Caterina; Emmanuele, Valentina; Tadesse, Saba; Krishna, Sindu; Dorado, Beatriz; Hirano, Michio

    2013-02-01

    Primary human CoQ(10) deficiencies are clinically heterogeneous diseases caused by mutations in PDSS2 and other genes required for CoQ(10) biosynthesis. Our in vitro studies of PDSS2 mutant fibroblasts, with <20% CoQ(10) of control cells, revealed reduced activity of CoQ(10)-dependent complex II+III and ATP synthesis, without amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), markers of oxidative damage, or antioxidant defenses. In contrast, COQ2 and ADCK3 mutant fibroblasts, with 30-50% CoQ(10) of controls, showed milder bioenergetic defects but significantly increased ROS and oxidation of lipids and proteins. We hypothesized that absence of oxidative stress markers and cell death in PDSS2 mutant fibroblasts were due to the extreme severity of CoQ(10) deficiency. Here, we have investigated in vivo effects of Pdss2 deficiency in affected and unaffected organs of CBA/Pdss2(kd/kd) mice at presymptomatic, phenotypic-onset, and end-stages of the disease. Although Pdss2 mutant mice manifest widespread CoQ(9) deficiency and mitochondrial respiratory chain abnormalities, only affected organs show increased ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA depletion, and reduced citrate synthase activity, an index of mitochondrial mass. Our data indicate that kidney-specific loss of mitochondria triggered by oxidative stress may be the cause of renal failure in Pdss2(kd/kd) mice.

  17. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants. PMID:25037213

  18. Simulated space radiation-induced mutants in the mouse kidney display widespread genomic change

    PubMed Central

    Grygoryev, Dmytro; Lasarev, Michael; Ohlrich, Anna; Rwatambuga, Furaha A.; Johnson, Sorrel; Dan, Cristian; Eckelmann, Bradley; Hryciw, Gwen; Mao, Jian-Hua; Snijders, Antoine M.; Gauny, Stacey; Kronenberg, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions), as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm) in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus. The Aprt locus, located on chromosome 8, was used to select induced and spontaneous mutants. To fully define the mutagenic effects, we used multiple endpoints including mutant frequencies, mutation spectrum for chromosome 8, translocations involving chromosome 8, and mutations affecting non-selected chromosomes. The results demonstrate mutagenic effects that often affect multiple chromosomes for all Fe ion doses tested. For comparison with the most abundant sparsely ionizing particle found in space, we also examined the mutagenic effects of high-energy protons (1 GeV, 0.24 keV/μm) at 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. Similar doses of protons were not as mutagenic as Fe ions for many assays, though genomic effects were detected in Aprt mutants at these doses. Considered as a whole, the data demonstrate that Fe ions are highly mutagenic at the low doses and fluences of relevance to human spaceflight, and that cells with considerable genomic mutations are readily induced by these exposures and persist in the kidney epithelium. The level of genomic change produced by low fluence exposure to heavy ions is reminiscent of the extensive rearrangements seen in tumor genomes suggesting a potential initiation step in radiation carcinogenesis. PMID:28683078

  19. Simulated space radiation-induced mutants in the mouse kidney display widespread genomic change.

    PubMed

    Turker, Mitchell S; Grygoryev, Dmytro; Lasarev, Michael; Ohlrich, Anna; Rwatambuga, Furaha A; Johnson, Sorrel; Dan, Cristian; Eckelmann, Bradley; Hryciw, Gwen; Mao, Jian-Hua; Snijders, Antoine M; Gauny, Stacey; Kronenberg, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions), as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm) in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus. The Aprt locus, located on chromosome 8, was used to select induced and spontaneous mutants. To fully define the mutagenic effects, we used multiple endpoints including mutant frequencies, mutation spectrum for chromosome 8, translocations involving chromosome 8, and mutations affecting non-selected chromosomes. The results demonstrate mutagenic effects that often affect multiple chromosomes for all Fe ion doses tested. For comparison with the most abundant sparsely ionizing particle found in space, we also examined the mutagenic effects of high-energy protons (1 GeV, 0.24 keV/μm) at 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. Similar doses of protons were not as mutagenic as Fe ions for many assays, though genomic effects were detected in Aprt mutants at these doses. Considered as a whole, the data demonstrate that Fe ions are highly mutagenic at the low doses and fluences of relevance to human spaceflight, and that cells with considerable genomic mutations are readily induced by these exposures and persist in the kidney epithelium. The level of genomic change produced by low fluence exposure to heavy ions is reminiscent of the extensive rearrangements seen in tumor genomes suggesting a potential initiation step in radiation carcinogenesis.

  20. Serum response factor: positive and negative regulation of an epithelial gene expression network in the destrin mutant cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami-Schulz, Sharolyn V.; Verdoni, Angela M.; Sattler, Shannon G.; Jessen, Erik; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Ikeda, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Increased angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation are hallmarks of diseased tissues, and in vivo models of these disease phenotypes can provide insight into disease pathology. Dstncorn1 mice, deficient for the actin depolymerizing factor destrin (DSTN), display an increase of serum response factor (SRF) that results in epithelial hyperproliferation, inflammation, and neovascularization in the cornea. Previous work demonstrated that conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium of Dstncorn1 mice returns the cornea to a wild-type (WT) like state. This result implicated SRF as a major regulator of genes that contributes to abnormal phenotypes in Dstncorn1 cornea. The purpose of this study is to identify gene networks that are affected by increased expression of Srf in the Dstncorn1 cornea. Microarray analysis led to characterization of gene expression changes that occur when conditional knockout of Srf rescues mutant phenotypes in the cornea of Dstncorn1 mice. Comparison of gene expression values from WT, Dstncorn1 mutant, and Dstncorn1 rescued cornea identified >400 differentially expressed genes that are downstream from SRF. Srf ablation had a significant effect on genes associated with epithelial cell-cell junctions and regulation of actin dynamics. The majority of genes affected by SRF are downregulated in the Dstncorn1 mutant cornea, suggesting that increased SRF negatively affects transcription of SRF gene targets. ChIP-seq analysis on Dstncorn1 mutant and WT tissue revealed that, despite being present in higher abundance, SRF binding is significantly decreased in the Dstncorn1 mutant cornea. This study uses a unique model combining genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that are regulated by SRF. These findings expand current understanding of the role of SRF in both normal and abnormal tissue homeostasis. PMID:24550211

  1. Revisiting PC1/3 Mutants: Dominant-Negative Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Retained Mutants.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Elias H; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lindberg, Iris

    2015-10-01

    Prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), encoded by the gene PCSK1, is critical for peptide hormone synthesis. An increasing number of studies have shown that inactivating mutations in PCSK1 are correlated with endocrine pathologies ranging from intestinal dysfunction to morbid obesity, whereas the common nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6232 (N221D) and rs6234-rs6235 (Q665E-S690T) are highly associated with obesity risk. In this report, we revisited the biochemical and cellular properties of PC1/3 variants in the context of a wild-type PC1/3 background instead of the S357G hypermorph background used for all previous studies. In the wild-type background the PC1/3 N221D variant exhibited 30% lower enzymatic activity in a fluorogenic assay than wild-type PC1/3; this inhibition was greater than that detected in an equivalent experiment using the PC1/3 S357G background. A PC1/3 variant with the linked carboxyl-terminal polymorphisms Q665E-S690T did not show this difference. We also analyzed the biochemical properties of 2 PC1/3 mutants, G209R and G593R, which are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and studied their effects on wild-type PC1/3. The expression of ER-retained mutants induced ER stress markers and also resulted in dominant-negative blockade of wild-type PC1/3 prodomain cleavage and decreased expression of wild-type PC1/3, suggesting facilitation of the entry of wild-type protein to a degradative proteasomal pathway. Dominant-negative effects of PC1/3 mutations on the expression and maturation of wild-type protein, with consequential effects on PC1/3 availability, add a new element which must be considered in population and clinical studies of this gene.

  2. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  3. Exploring the Mechanism of Zanamivir Resistance in a Neuraminidase Mutant: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nanyu; Liu, Xuewei; Mu, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to understand the molecular basis of the drug resistance of influenza viruses to efficiently treat this infectious disease. Recently, H1N1 strains of influenza A carrying a mutation of Q136K in neuraminidase were found. The new strain showed a strong Zanamivir neutralization effect. In this study, normal molecular dynamics simulations and metadynamics simulations were employed to explore the mechanism of Zanamivir resistance. The wild-type neuraminidase contained a 310 helix before the 150 loop, and there was interaction between the 150 and 430 loops. However, the helix and the interaction between the two loops were disturbed in the mutant protein due to interaction between K136 and nearby residues. Hydrogen-bond network analysis showed weakened interaction between the Zanamivir drug and E276/D151 on account of the electrostatic interaction between K136 and D151. Metadynamics simulations showed that the free energy landscape was different in the mutant than in the wild-type neuraminidase. Conformation with the global minimum of free energy for the mutant protein was different from the wild-type conformation. While the drug fit completely into the active site of the wild-type neuraminidase, it did not match the active site of the mutant variant. This study indicates that the altered hydrogen-bond network and the deformation of the 150 loop are the key factors in development of Zanamivir resistance. Furthermore, the Q136K mutation has a variable effect on conformation of different N1 variants, with conformation of the 1918 N1 variant being more profoundly affected than that of the other N1 variants studied in this paper. This observation warrants further experimental investigation. PMID:22970161

  4. Steroid catechol degradation: disecoandrostane intermediates accumulated by Pseudomonas transposon mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Leppik, R A

    1989-07-01

    Eleven transposon mutant strains affected in bile acid catabolism were each found to form yellow, muconic-like intermediates from bile acids. To characterize these unstable intermediates, media from the growth of one of these mutants with deoxycholic acid was treated with ammonia, then the crude product was methylated with diazomethane. Four compounds were subsequently isolated; spectral evidence suggested that they were methyl 12 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-23,24-dinorchola-1,4-dien-22-oate, methyl 4-aza-12 beta-hydroxy-9(10)-secoandrosta-1,3,5-triene-9,17-dione-3-carboxyl ate, 4-aza-9 alpha, 12 beta-dihydroxy-9(10)-secoandrosta-1,3,5-trien-17-one-3- methyl carboxylate and 4 alpha-[3'-propionic acid]-5-amino-7 beta-hydroxy-7 alpha beta-methyl- 3a alpha, 4,7,7a-tetrahydro-1-indanone-delta-lactam. It is proposed that the mutants are blocked in the utilization of such muconic-like compounds as the 3,12 beta-dihydroxy-5,9,17-trioxo-4(5),9(10)- disecoandrostal (10),2-dien-4-oic acid formed from deoxycholic acid. A further mutant was examined, which converted deoxycholic acid to 12 alpha-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione, but accumulated yellow products from steroids which lacked a 12 alpha-hydroxy function, such as chenodeoxycholic acid. The products from the latter acid were treated as above; spectral evidence suggested that the two compounds isolated were methyl 4-aza-7-hydroxy-9(10)-secoandrosta-1,3,5- triene-9,17-dione-3-carboxylate and 4 alpha-[1'alpha-hydroxy-3'-propionic acid]-5-amino-7a beta-methyl-3a alpha,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-1-indanone-delta-lactam.

  5. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the mechanism of zanamivir resistance in a neuraminidase mutant: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Han, Nanyu; Liu, Xuewei; Mu, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to understand the molecular basis of the drug resistance of influenza viruses to efficiently treat this infectious disease. Recently, H1N1 strains of influenza A carrying a mutation of Q136K in neuraminidase were found. The new strain showed a strong Zanamivir neutralization effect. In this study, normal molecular dynamics simulations and metadynamics simulations were employed to explore the mechanism of Zanamivir resistance. The wild-type neuraminidase contained a 3(10) helix before the 150 loop, and there was interaction between the 150 and 430 loops. However, the helix and the interaction between the two loops were disturbed in the mutant protein due to interaction between K136 and nearby residues. Hydrogen-bond network analysis showed weakened interaction between the Zanamivir drug and E276/D151 on account of the electrostatic interaction between K136 and D151. Metadynamics simulations showed that the free energy landscape was different in the mutant than in the wild-type neuraminidase. Conformation with the global minimum of free energy for the mutant protein was different from the wild-type conformation. While the drug fit completely into the active site of the wild-type neuraminidase, it did not match the active site of the mutant variant. This study indicates that the altered hydrogen-bond network and the deformation of the 150 loop are the key factors in development of Zanamivir resistance. Furthermore, the Q136K mutation has a variable effect on conformation of different N1 variants, with conformation of the 1918 N1 variant being more profoundly affected than that of the other N1 variants studied in this paper. This observation warrants further experimental investigation.

  7. Genetic analysis of rice mutants responsible for narrow leaf phenotype and reduced vein number.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Fumika Clara; Yasui, Yukiko; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Sato, Yutaka; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-03-17

    Leaves are a major site for photosynthesis and a key determinant of plant architecture. Rice produces thin and slender leaves, which consist of the leaf blade and leaf sheath separated by the lamina joint. Two types of vasculature, the large and small vascular bundles, run in parallel, together with a strong structure, the midrib. In this paper, we examined the function of four genes that regulate the width of the leaf blade and the vein number: NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), NAL2, NAL3 and NAL7. We backcrossed original mutants of these genes with the standard wild-type rice, Taichung 65. We then compared the effect of each mutation on similar genetic backgrounds and examined genetic interactions of these genes. The nal1 single mutation and the nal2 nal3 double mutation showed a severe effect on leaf width, resulting in very narrow leaves. Although vein number was also reduced in the nal1 and nal2 nal3 mutants, the small vein number was more strongly reduced than the large vein number. In contrast, the nal7 mutation showed a milder effect on leaf width and vein number, and both the large and small veins were similarly affected. Thus, the genes responsible for narrow leaf phenotype seem to play distinct roles. The nal7 mutation showed additive effects on both leaf width and vein number, when combined with the nal1 single or the nal2 nal3 double mutation. In addition, observations of inner tissues revealed that cell differentiation was partially compromised in the nal2 nal3 nal7 mutant, consistent with the severe reduction in leaf width in this triple mutant.

  8. Development and characterisation of highly antibiotic resistant Bartonella bacilliformis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37.3 and 10.6 passages) to be selected, respectively. All mutants but one selected with chloramphenicol achieved high resistance levels. All rifampicin, one azithromycin and one ciprofloxacin mutants did not totally revert when cultured without antibiotic pressure. Azithromycin resistance was related to L4 substitutions Gln-66 → Lys or Gly-70 → Arg; L4 deletion Δ62–65 (Lys-Met-Tyr-Lys) or L22 insertion 83::Val-Ser-Glu-Ala-His-Val-Gly-Lys-Ser; in two chloramphenicol-resistant mutants the 23S rRNA mutation G2372A was detected. GyrA Ala-91 → Val and Asp-95 → Gly and GyrB Glu474 → Lys were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. RpoB substitutions Gln-527 → Arg, His-540 → Tyr and Ser-545 → Phe plus Ser-588 → Tyr were detected in rifampicin-resistant mutants. In 5 mutants the effect of efflux pumps on resistance was observed. Antibiotic resistance was mainly related to target mutations and overexpression of efflux pumps, which might underlie microbiological failures during treatments. PMID:27667026

  9. Zebrafish aussicht mutant embryos exhibit widespread overexpression of ace (fgf8) and coincident defects in CNS development.

    PubMed

    Heisenberg, C P; Brennan, C; Wilson, S W

    1999-05-01

    During the development of the zebrafish nervous system both noi, a zebrafish pax2 homolog, and ace, a zebrafish fgf8 homolog, are required for development of the midbrain and cerebellum. Here we describe a dominant mutation, aussicht (aus), in which the expression of noi and ace is upregulated. In aus mutant embryos, ace is upregulated at many sites in the embryo, while noi expression is only upregulated in regions of the forebrain and midbrain which also express ace. Subsequent to the alterations in noi and ace expression, aus mutants exhibit defects in the differentiation of the forebrain, midbrain and eyes. Within the forebrain, the formation of the anterior and postoptic commissures is delayed and the expression of markers within the pretectal area is reduced. Within the midbrain, En and wnt1 expression is expanded. In heterozygous aus embryos, there is ectopic outgrowth of neural retina in the temporal half of the eyes, whereas in putative homozygous aus embryos, the ventral retina is reduced and the pigmented retinal epithelium is expanded towards the midline. The observation that aus mutant embryos exhibit widespread upregulation of ace raised the possibility that aus might represent an allele of the ace gene itself. However, by crossing carriers for both aus and ace, we were able to generate homozygous ace mutant embryos that also exhibited the aus phenotype. This indicated that aus is not tightly linked to ace and is unlikely to be a mutation directly affecting the ace locus. However, increased Ace activity may underly many aspects of the aus phenotype and we show that the upregulation of noi in the forebrain of aus mutants is partially dependent upon functional Ace activity. Conversely, increased ace expression in the forebrain of aus mutants is not dependent upon functional Noi activity. We conclude that aus represents a mutation involving a locus normally required for the regulation of ace expression during embryogenesis.

  10. Mutant FGF-23 responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets is resistant to proteolytic cleavage and causes hypophosphatemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takashi; Muto, Takanori; Urakawa, Itaru; Yoneya, Takashi; Yamazaki, Yuji; Okawa, Katsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Yamashita, Takeyoshi

    2002-08-01

    FGF-23 is involved in the pathogenesis of two similar hypophosphatemic diseases, autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (ADHR) and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). We have shown that the overproduction of FGF-23 by tumors causes TIO. In contrast, ADHR derives from missense mutations in FGF-23 gene. However, it has been unclear how those mutations affect phosphate metabolism. Therefore, we produced mutant as well as wild-type FGF-23 proteins and examined their biological activity. Western blot analysis using site-specific antibodies showed that wild-type FGF-23 secreted into conditioned media was partially cleaved between Arg(179) and Ser(180). In addition, further processing of the cleaved N-terminal portion was observed. In constrast, mutant FGF-23 proteins found in ADHR were resistant to the cleavage. In order to clarify which molecule has the biological activity to induce hypophosphatemia, we separated full-length protein, the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of wild-type FGF-23. When the activity of each fraction was examined in vivo, only the full-length FGF-23 decreased serum phosphate. Mutant FGF-23 protein that was resistant to the cleavage also retained the activity to induce hypophosphatemia. The extent of hypophosphatemia induced by the single administration of either wild-type or the mutant full-length FGF-23 protein was similar. In addition, implantation of CHO cells expressing the mutant FGF-23 protein caused hypophosphatemia and the decrease of bone mineral content. We conclude that ADHR is caused by hypophosphatemic action of mutant full-length FGF-23 proteins that are resistant to the cleavage between Arg(179) and Ser(180).

  11. A proteome analysis of the response of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxyR mutant to iron limitation.

    PubMed

    Vinckx, Tiffany; Wei, Qing; Matthijs, Sandra; Noben, Jean-Paul; Daniels, Ruth; Cornelis, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the response to oxidative stress is orchestrated by the LysR regulator OxyR by activation of the transcription of two catalase genes (katA and katB), of the alkyl-hydroxyperoxidases ahpCF and ahpB. Next to the expected high sensitivity to oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS: H(2)O(2), O(2)(-)), the oxyR mutant shows a defective growth under conditions of iron limitation (Vinckx et al. 2008). Although production and uptake of the siderophore pyoverdine is not affected by the absence of oxyR, the mutant is unable to satisfy its need for iron when grown under iron limiting conditions. In order to get a better insight into the effects caused by iron limitation on the physiological response of the oxyR mutant we decided to compare the proteomes of the wild type and the mutant grown in the iron-poor casamino acids medium (CAA), in CAA plus H(2)O(2), and in CAA plus the strong iron chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA). Especially in the presence of hydrogen peroxide the oxyR cells increase the production of stress proteins (Dps and IbpA). The superoxide dismutase SodM is produced in higher amounts in the oxyR mutant grown in CAA plus H(2)O(2). The PchB protein, a isochorismate-pyruvate lyase involved in the siderophore pyochelin biosynthesis is not detectable in the extracts from the oxyR mutant grown in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. When cells were grown in the presence of EDDHA, we observed a reduction of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), and an increase in the two subunits of the succinyl-CoA synthetase and the fumarase FumC1.

  12. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. Brassinosteroid-Insensitive Dwarf Mutants of Arabidopsis Accumulate Brassinosteroids1

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Shozo; Choe, Sunghwa; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Yuan, Heng; Feldmann, Kenneth A.; Tax, Frans E.

    1999-01-01

    Seven dwarf mutants resembling brassinosteroid (BR)-biosynthetic dwarfs were isolated that did not respond significantly to the application of exogenous BRs. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that these were novel alleles of BRI1 (Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1), which encodes a receptor kinase that may act as a receptor for BRs or be involved in downstream signaling. The results of morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these represent a range of alleles from weak to null. The endogenous BRs were examined from 5-week-old plants of a null allele (bri1-4) and two weak alleles (bri1-5 and bri1-6). Previous analysis of endogenous BRs in several BR-biosynthetic dwarf mutants revealed that active BRs are deficient in these mutants. However, bri1-4 plants accumulated very high levels of brassinolide, castasterone, and typhasterol (57-, 128-, and 33-fold higher, respectively, than those of wild-type plants). Weaker alleles (bri1-5 and bri1-6) also accumulated considerable levels of brassinolide, castasterone, and typhasterol, but less than the null allele (bri1-4). The levels of 6-deoxoBRs in bri1 mutants were comparable to that of wild type. The accumulation of biologically active BRs may result from the inability to utilize these active BRs, the inability to regulate BR biosynthesis in bri1 mutants, or both. Therefore, BRI1 is required for the homeostasis of endogenous BR levels. PMID:10557222

  14. Corticostriatal circuit defects in Hoxb8 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Naveen; Jones, Bryan W.; West, Peter J.; Marc, Robert; Capecchi, Mario R.

    2018-01-01

    Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the OCD-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. Since, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural, and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and post-synaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects. Hoxb8 mutants also exhibit hyperanxiety and social behavioral deficits similar to mice with neuronal mutations in Sapap3, Slitrk5 and Shank3, reported models of OCD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD’s). Long-term treatment of Hoxb8 mutants with fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), reduces excessive grooming, hyperanxiety and social behavioral impairments. These studies provide linkage between the neuronal defects induced by defective Hoxb8-microglia, and neuronal dysfunctions directly generated by mutations in synaptic components that result in mice that display similar pathological grooming, hyperanxiety and social impairment deficits. Our results shed light on Hoxb8 microglia driven circuit-specific defects and therapeutic approaches that will become essential to developing novel therapies for neuropsychiatric diseases such as OCD and ASD’s with Hoxb8-microglia being the central target. PMID:28948967

  15. Regulatory Mutants at the his1 Locus of Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lax, Carol; Fogel, Seymour; Cramer, Carole

    1979-01-01

    The his1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for phosphoribosyl transferase, an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the initial step in histidine biosynthesis. Mutants that specifically alter the feedback regulatory function were isolated by selecting his1 prototrophic revertants that overproduce and excrete histidine. The prototrophs were obtained from diploids homoallelic for his1–7 and heterozygous for the flanking markers thr3 and arg6. Among six independently derived mutant isolates, three distinct levels of histidine excretion were detected. The mutants were shown to be second-site alterations mapping at the his1 locus by recovery of the original auoxtrophic parental alleles. The double mutants, HIS1–7e, are dominant with respect to catalytic function but recessive in regulatory function. When removed from this his1–7 background, the mutant regulatory site (HIS1–e) still confers prototrophy but not histidine excretion. To yield the excretion phenotype, the primary and altered secondary sites are required in cis array. Differences in histidine excretion levels correlate with resistance to the histidine analogue, triazoalanine. PMID:385447

  16. Analysis of AtCry1 and Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Derek; Purvis, Adam; Ahmad, Margaret; Link, Justin J.; Engle, Dorothy

    Cryptochrome is an incredibly versatile protein that influences numerous biological processes such as plant growth, bird migration, and sleep cycles. Due to the versatility of this protein, understanding the mechanism would allow for advances in numerous fields such as crop growth, animal behavior, and sleep disorders. It is known that cryptochrome requires blue light to function, but the exact processes in the regulation of biological activity are still not fully understood. It is believed that the c-terminal domain of the protein undergoes a conformational change when exposed to blue light which allows for biological function. Three different non-functioning mutants were tested during this study to gain insight on the mechanism of cryptochrome. Absorbance spectra showed a difference between two of the mutants and the wild type with one mutant showing little difference. Immunoprecipitation experiments were also conducted to identify the different c-terminal responses of the mutants. By studying non functioning mutants of this protein, the mechanism of the protein can be further characterized. This two-month research experience in Paris allowed us to experience international and interdisciplinary collaborations in science and immerse in a different culture. The Borcer Fund for Student Research, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, and John Hauck Foundation.

  17. A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manchado, Eusebio; Weissmueller, Susann; Morris, John P.; Chen, Chi-Chao; Wullenkord, Ramona; Lujambio, Amaia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Poirier, John T.; Gainor, Justin F.; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Rudin, Charles M.; Rosen, Neal; Lowe, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma represents a major goal of clinical oncology. KRAS itself has proven difficult to inhibit, and the effectiveness of agents that target key KRAS effectors has been thwarted by activation of compensatory or parallel pathways that limit their efficacy as single agents. Here we take a systematic approach towards identifying combination targets for trametinib, an FDA-approved MEK inhibitor that acts downstream of KRAS to suppress signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Informed by a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, we show that trametinib provokes a compensatory response involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) that leads to signaling rebound and adaptive drug resistance. As a consequence, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 in combination with trametinib enhances tumor cell death in vitro and in vivo. This compensatory response shows distinct specificities – it is dominated by FGFR1 in KRAS mutant lung and pancreatic cancer cells, but is not activated or involves other mechanisms in KRAS wild-type lung and KRAS-mutant colon cancer cells. Importantly, KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells and patient tumors treated with trametinib show an increase in FRS2 phosphorylation, a biomarker of FGFR activation; this increase is abolished by FGFR1 inhibition and correlates with sensitivity to trametinib and FGFR inhibitor combinations. These results demonstrate that FGFR1 can mediate adaptive resistance to trametinib and validate a combinatorial approach for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer. PMID:27338794

  18. EMMA—mouse mutant resources for the international scientific community

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Phil; Sengerova, Jitka; Matteoni, Raffaele; Chen, Chao-Kung; Soulat, Gaetan; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Fessele, Sabine; Hagn, Michael; Massimi, Marzia; Pickford, Karen; Butler, Richard H.; Marschall, Susan; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Pickard, Amanda; Raspa, Marcello; Scavizzi, Ferdinando; Fray, Martin; Larrigaldie, Vanessa; Leyritz, Johan; Birney, Ewan; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Brown, Steve; Herault, Yann; Montoliu, Lluis; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Smedley, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier animal model for studying human disease and thousands of mutants have been identified or produced, most recently through gene-specific mutagenesis approaches. High throughput strategies by the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are producing mutants for all protein coding genes. Generating a knock-out line involves huge monetary and time costs so capture of both the data describing each mutant alongside archiving of the line for distribution to future researchers is critical. The European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) is a leading international network infrastructure for archiving and worldwide provision of mouse mutant strains. It operates in collaboration with the other members of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe), EMMA being the European component. Additionally EMMA is one of four repositories involved in the IKMC, and therefore the current figure of 1700 archived lines will rise markedly. The EMMA database gathers and curates extensive data on each line and presents it through a user-friendly website. A BioMart interface allows advanced searching including integrated querying with other resources e.g. Ensembl. Other resources are able to display EMMA data by accessing our Distributed Annotation System server. EMMA database access is publicly available at http://www.emmanet.org. PMID:19783817

  19. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction precedes neurodegeneration in mahogunin (Mgrn1) mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kaihua; Johnson, Brian S.; Gunn, Teresa M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress, ubiquitination defects and mitochondrial dysfunction are commonly associated with neurodegeneration. Mice lacking mahogunin ring finger-1 (MGRN1) or attractin (ATRN) develop age-dependent spongiform neurodegeneration through an unknown mechanism. It has been suggested that they act in a common pathway. As MGRN1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, proteomic analysis of Mgrn1 mutant and control brains was performed to explore the hypothesis that loss of MGRN1 causes neurodegeneration via accumulation of its substrates. Many mitochondrial proteins were reduced in Mgrn1 mutants. Subsequent assays confirmed significantly reduced mitochondrial complex IV expression and activity as well as increased oxidative stress in mutant brains. Mitochondrial dysfunction was obvious many months before onset of vacuolation, implicating this as a causative factor. Compatible with the hypothesis that ATRN and MGRN1 act in the same pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress were also observed in the brains of Atrn mutants. Our results suggest that the study of Mgrn1 and Atrn mutant mice will provide insight into a causative molecular mechanism common to many neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17720281

  1. Processing of intervening sequences: a new yeast mutant which fails to excise intervening sequences from precursor tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hopper, A K; Schultz, L D; Shapiro, R A

    1980-03-01

    By using conditional loss of suppression an an assay, we have been successful in screening for a yeast mutant which is defective in tRNA processing. The los1-1 mutation causes an accumulation of a subset of precursor tRNAs at the nonpermissive temperature. These pre-tRNAs are like those which accumulate in the yeast mutant ts 136 (rna1) in that they have transcribed intervening sequences. The mutations at los1-1 and rna1 complement and segregate independently of each other. The los1-1 mutation affects the expression of all 8 tyrosine-inserting suppressor loci, but does not seem to affect rRNA or mRNA synthesis.

  2. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  3. Dynamic features of carboxy cytoglobin distal mutants investigated by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2016-04-01

    Cytoglobin (Cgb) is a member of hemoprotein family with roles in NO metabolism, fibrosis, and tumourigenesis. Similar to other hemoproteins, Cgb structure and functions are markedly influenced by distal key residues. The sixth ligand His(81) (E7) is crucial to exogenous ligand binding, heme pocket conformation, and physiological roles of this protein. However, the effects of other key residues on heme pocket and protein biological functions are not well known. In this work, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of two single mutants in CO-ligated Cgb (L46FCgbCO and L46VCgbCO) and two double mutants (L46FH81QCgbCO and L46VH81QCgbCO) was conducted to explore the effects of the key distal residues Leu(46)(B10) and His(81)(E7) on Cgb structure and functions. Results indicated that the distal mutation of B10 and E7 affected CgbCO dynamic properties on loop region fluctuation, internal cavity rearrangement, and heme motion. The distal conformation change was reflected by the distal key residues Gln(62) (CD3) and Arg(84)(E10). The hydrogen bond between heme propionates with CD3 or E10 residues were evidently influenced by B10/E7 mutation. Furthermore, heme pocket rearrangement was also observed based on the distal pocket volume and occurrence rate of inner cavities. The mutual effects of B10 and E7 residues on protein conformational rearrangement and other dynamic features were expressed in current MD studies of CgbCO and its distal mutants, suggesting their crucial role in heme pocket stabilization, ligand binding, and Cgb biological functions. The mutation of distal B10 and E7 residues affects the dynamic features of carboxy cytoglobin.

  4. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  5. Characterization of a Null Allelic Mutant of the Rice NAL1 Gene Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Fang, Jingjing; Lou, Lamei; Zhao, Jinfeng; Yuan, Shoujiang; Yin, Liang; Sun, Wei; Peng, Lixiang; Guo, Baotai; Li, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1) show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogenous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division. PMID:25658704

  6. Proanthocyanidin oxidation of Arabidopsis seeds is altered in mutant of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.7

    PubMed Central

    David, Laure C.; Dechorgnat, Julie; Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    NRT2.7 is a seed-specific high-affinity nitrate transporter controlling nitrate content in Arabidopsis mature seeds. The objective of this work was to analyse further the consequences of the nrt2.7 mutation for the seed metabolism. This work describes a new phenotype for the nrt2.7-2 mutant allele in the Wassilewskija accession, which exhibited a distinctive pale-brown seed coat that is usually associated with a defect in flavonoid oxidation. Indeed, this phenotype resembled those of tt10 mutant seeds defective in the laccase-like enzyme TT10/LAC15, which is involved in the oxidative polymerization of flavonoids such as the proantocyanidins (PAs) (i.e. epicatechin monomers and PA oligomers) and flavonol glycosides. nrt2.7-2 and tt10-2 mutant seeds displayed the same higher accumulation of PAs, but were partially distinct, since flavonol glycoside accumulation was not affected in the nrt2.7-2 seeds. Moreover, measurement of in situ laccase activity excluded a possibility of the nrt2.7-2 mutation affecting the TT10 enzymic activity at the early stage of seed development. Functional complementation of the nrt2.7-2 mutant by overexpression of a full-length NRT2.7 cDNA clearly demonstrated the link between the nrt2.7 mutation and the PA phenotype. However, the PA-related phenotype of nrt2.7-2 seeds was not strictly correlated to the nitrate content of seeds. No correlation was observed when nitrate was lowered in seeds due to limited nitrate nutrition of plants or to lower nitrate storage capacity in leaves of clca mutants deficient in the vacuolar anionic channel CLCa. All together, the results highlight a hitherto-unknown function of NRT2.7 in PA accumulation/oxidation. PMID:24532452

  7. Comprehensive MALDI-TOF biotyping of the non-redundant Harvard Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 transposon insertion mutant library.

    PubMed

    Oumeraci, Tonio; Jensen, Vanessa; Talbot, Steven R; Hofmann, Winfried; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; von Neuhoff, Nils; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitously present in the aerobic biosphere. As an antibiotic-resistant facultative pathogen, it is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its rapid and accurate identification is crucial in clinical and therapeutic environments. In a large-scale MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based screen of the Harvard transposon insertion mutant library of P. aeruginosa strain PA14, intact-cell proteome profile spectra of 5547 PA14 transposon mutants exhibiting a plethora of different phenotypes were acquired and analyzed. Of all P. aeruginosa PA14 mutant profiles 99.7% were correctly identified as P. aeruginosa with the Biotyper software on the species level. On the strain level, 99.99% of the profiles were mapped to five different individual P. aeruginosa Biotyper database entries. A principal component analysis-based approach was used to determine the most important discriminatory mass features between these Biotyper groups. Although technical replicas were consistently categorized to specific Biotyper groups in 94.2% of the mutant profiles, biological replicas were not, indicating that the distinct proteotypes are affected by growth conditions. The PA14 mutant profile collection presented here constitutes the largest coherent P. aeruginosa MALDI-TOF spectral dataset publicly available today. Transposon insertions in thousands of different P. aeruginosa genes did not affect species identification from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, clearly demonstrating the robustness of the approach. However, the assignment of the individual spectra to sub-groups proved to be non-consistent in biological replicas, indicating that the differentiation between biotyper groups in this nosocomial pathogen is unassured.

  8. Production and characterization of streptomycin dependent mutants of Pasteurella multocida from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, M C; Carter, G R; Chengappa, M M

    1980-01-01

    A large number of streptomycin dependent mutants were produced from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia strains of Pasteurella multocida. The mutants required a minimum concentration of 25-50 microgram/mL streptomycin for growth and tolerated a concentration of 200 mg/mL. These mutants were avirulent to mice, when inoculated alone, but some mutants killed mice when inoculated with streptomycin. Biochemically all mutants were uniform and similar to the wild type. Most mutants were stable, but a few produced streptomycin independent revertants. The rate of reversion varied with each mutant. Most revertants were highly virulent for mice, some totally avirulant and a few relatively avirulent. PMID:6778598

  9. Spatial constraints govern competition of mutant clones in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M D; Lynch, C N S; Craythorne, E; Liakath-Ali, K; Mallipeddi, R; Barker, J N; Watt, F M

    2017-10-24

    Deep sequencing can detect somatic DNA mutations in tissues permitting inference of clonal relationships. This has been applied to human epidermis, where sun exposure leads to the accumulation of mutations and an increased risk of skin cancer. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relative importance of positive selection and neutral drift in clonal evolution. Here, we sequenced larger areas of skin than previously, focusing on cancer-prone skin spanning five decades of life. The mutant clones identified were too large to be accounted for solely by neutral drift. Rather, using mathematical modelling and computational lattice-based simulations, we show that observed clone size distributions can be explained by a combination of neutral drift and stochastic nucleation of mutations at the boundary of expanding mutant clones that have a competitive advantage. These findings demonstrate that spatial context and cell competition cooperate to determine the fate of a mutant stem cell.

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  11. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected. PMID:27129737

  12. Phenotypic analysis of a novel chordin mutant in medaka.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Shimada, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yokoi, Hayato; Narita, Takanori; Jindo, Tomoko; Kage, Takahiro; Kitagawa, Tadao; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Sekimizu, Koshin; Miyake, Akimitsu; Setiamarga, Davin H E; Murakami, Ryohei; Tsuda, Sachiko; Ooki, Shinya; Kakihara, Ken; Hojo, Motoki; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Yuji; Araki, Kazuo; Saga, Yumiko; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2007-08-01

    We have isolated and characterized a ventralized mutant in medaka (the Japanese killifish; Oryzias latipes), which turned out to have a mutation in the chordin gene. The mutant exhibits ventralization of the body axis, malformation of axial bones, over-bifurcation of yolk sac blood vessels, and laterality defects in internal organs. The mutant exhibits variability of phenotypes, depending on the culture temperature, from embryos with a slightly ventralized phenotype to those without any head and trunk structures. Taking advantages of these variable and severe phenotypes, we analyzed the role of Chordin-dependent tissues such as the notochord and Kupffer's vesicle (KV) in the establishment of left-right axis in fish. The results demonstrate that, in the absence of the notochord and KV, the medaka lateral plate mesoderm autonomously and bilaterally expresses spaw gene in a default state. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  14. Elevated Cell Wall Serine in Pleiotropic Staphylococcal Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Ruth Z.

    1966-01-01

    Korman, Ruth Z. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.). Elevated cell wall serine in pleiotropic staphylococcal mutants. J. Bacteriol. 92:762–768. 1966.—Physically purified cell walls were prepared from two staphylococcal strains and from pleiotropic variants derived from them. The quantitative amino acid and amino sugar content of these walls is reported. The pleiotypes, which are identified culturally by their failure to elaborate coagulase, their resistance to bacteriophage, and their sensitivity to mannitol, have altered molar ratios of amino acids and amino sugars in their cell walls. In comparison with lysine content, the serine content of the mutant wall is elevated and the glycine content is reduced. The glucosamine content is reduced also. It is postulated that the pleiotropic mutants possess an altered cell wall biosynthetic pathway. Images PMID:5922547

  15. Examining Escherichia coli glycolytic pathways, catabolite repression, and metabolite channeling using Δpfk mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinshead, Whitney D.; Rodriguez, Sarah; Martin, Hector Garcia

    Background: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. Results: Overexpression of edd and eda in E. coli to enhance EDP activity resulted in only a small shift in the flux directed through the EDP (~20 % of glycolysis flux). Disrupting the EMPP bymore » phosphofructokinase I (pfkA) knockout increased flux through OPPP (~60 % of glycolysis flux) and the native EDP (~14 % of glycolysis flux), while overexpressing edd and eda in this ΔpfkA mutant directed ~70 % of glycolytic flux through the EDP. The downregulation of EMPP via the pfkA deletion significantly decreased the growth rate, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant failed to improve its growth rates due to metabolic burden. However, the reorganization of E. coli glycolytic strategies did reduce glucose catabolite repression. The ΔpfkA mutant in glucose medium was able to cometabolize acetate via the citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant repressed acetate flux toward gluconeogenesis. Moreover, 13C-pulse experiments in the ΔpfkA mutants showed unsequential labeling dynamics in glycolysis intermediates, possibly suggesting metabolite channeling (metabolites in glycolysis are pass from enzyme to enzyme without fully equilibrating within the cytosol medium). Conclusions: We engineered E. coli to redistribute its native glycolytic flux. The replacement of EMPP by EDP did not improve E. coli glucose utilization or biomass growth, but alleviated catabolite repression. More importantly, our results supported the hypothesis of channeling in the

  16. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1.

    PubMed

    Keisa, Anete; Kanberga-Silina, Krista; Nakurte, Ilva; Kunga, Laura; Rostoks, Nils

    2011-04-15

    Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR), retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance-related physiological markers and non-host resistance in barley

  17. Physiological Basis and Transcriptional Profiling of Three Salt-Tolerant Mutant Lines of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Concha; Lalanne, Eric; Catalá, María M.; Pla, Eva; Reig-Valiente, Juan L.; Talón, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a complex trait that affects growth and productivity in many crops, including rice. Mutation induction, a useful tool to generate salt tolerant plants, enables the analysis of plants with similar genetic background, facilitating the understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work, we generated three salt tolerant mutant lines by irradiation of a salt-sensitive cultivar plants and screened M2 plants at seedling stage in the presence of high salinity. These three lines, SaT20, SaS62, and SaT58, showed different responses to salinity, but exhibited similar phenotype to wild type plants, except SaT20 that displayed shorter height when grown in the absence of salt. Under salt conditions, all three mutants and the parental line showed similar reduction in yield, although relevant differences in other physiological parameters, such as Na+ accumulation in healthy leaves of SaT20, were registered. Microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in roots revealed the occurrence of common and specific responses in the mutants. The three mutants showed up-regulation of responsive genes, the activation of oxido-reduction process and the inhibition of ion transport. The participation of jasmonate in the plant response to salt was evident by down-regulation of a gene coding for a jasmonate O-methyltransferase. Genes dealing with lipid transport and metabolism were, in general, up-regulated except in SaS62, that also exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in ion transport and Ca2+ signal transduction. The two most tolerant varieties, SaS62 and SaT20, displayed lower levels of transcripts involved in K+ uptake. The physiological study and the description of the expression analysis evidenced that the three lines showed different responses to salt: SaT20 showed a high Na+ content in leaves, SaS62 presented an inhibition of lipid metabolism and ion transport and SaT58 differs in both features in the response to salinity. The analysis of these salt

  18. Effects of Ethanol on Phosphorylation Site Mutants of Recombinant NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Minfu; Smothers, Corigan T.; Woodward, John J.

    2010-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. These channels are highly expressed by brain neurons and are critically involved in excitatory synaptic transmission. Results from previous studies show that both native and recombinant NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol at concentrations associated with signs of behavioral impairment and intoxication. Given the important role that NMDA receptors play in synaptic transmission and brain function, it is important to understand the factors that regulate the ethanol inhibition of these receptors. One dynamic mechanism for regulating ethanol action may be via phosphorylation of NMDA subunits by serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases. Both NR1 and NR2 subunits contain multiple sites of phosphorylation and in the NR1 subunit, most of these are contained within the C1 domain, a carboxy-terminal cassette that is subject to alternative splicing. While results from our previous studies suggest that single phosphorylation sites do not greatly affect ethanol sensitivity of NMDA receptors, it is likely that in vivo, these subunits are phosphorylated at multiple sites by different kinases. In the present study, we constructed a series of NMDA receptor mutants at serine (S) or threonine (T) residues proposed to be sites of phosphorylation by PKA and various isoforms of PKC. Ethanol (100 mM) inhibited currents from wild-type NR1/2A and NR1/2B receptors expressed in HEK293 cells by approximately 25% and 30% respectively. This inhibition was not different in single site mutants expressing alanine (A) or aspartate/glutamate (D/E) at positions T879, S896 or T900. The mutant NR1(S890D) showed greater ethanol inhibition than NR1(890A) containing receptors although this was only observed when it was combined with the NR2A subunit. Ethanol inhibition was not altered by aspartate substitution at four serines (positions 889, 890, 896, 897) or when T879D was added to the four

  19. Examining Escherichia coli glycolytic pathways, catabolite repression, and metabolite channeling using Δpfk mutants

    DOE PAGES

    Hollinshead, Whitney D.; Rodriguez, Sarah; Martin, Hector Garcia; ...

    2016-10-10

    Background: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. Results: Overexpression of edd and eda in E. coli to enhance EDP activity resulted in only a small shift in the flux directed through the EDP (~20 % of glycolysis flux). Disrupting the EMPP bymore » phosphofructokinase I (pfkA) knockout increased flux through OPPP (~60 % of glycolysis flux) and the native EDP (~14 % of glycolysis flux), while overexpressing edd and eda in this ΔpfkA mutant directed ~70 % of glycolytic flux through the EDP. The downregulation of EMPP via the pfkA deletion significantly decreased the growth rate, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant failed to improve its growth rates due to metabolic burden. However, the reorganization of E. coli glycolytic strategies did reduce glucose catabolite repression. The ΔpfkA mutant in glucose medium was able to cometabolize acetate via the citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant repressed acetate flux toward gluconeogenesis. Moreover, 13C-pulse experiments in the ΔpfkA mutants showed unsequential labeling dynamics in glycolysis intermediates, possibly suggesting metabolite channeling (metabolites in glycolysis are pass from enzyme to enzyme without fully equilibrating within the cytosol medium). Conclusions: We engineered E. coli to redistribute its native glycolytic flux. The replacement of EMPP by EDP did not improve E. coli glucose utilization or biomass growth, but alleviated catabolite repression. More importantly, our results supported the hypothesis of channeling in the

  20. Overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant proteins renders glioma cells more sensitive to radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sichen; Chou, Arthur P; Chen, Weidong; Chen, Ruihuan; Deng, Yuzhong; Phillips, Heidi S; Selfridge, Julia; Zurayk, Mira; Lou, Jerry J; Everson, Richard G; Wu, Kuan-Chung; Faull, Kym F; Cloughesy, Timothy; Liau, Linda M; Lai, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 2 (IDH2) are found in a subset of gliomas. Among the many phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type IDH1/2 gliomas, the most salient is that IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients demonstrate markedly improved survival compared with IDH1/2 wild-type glioma patients. To address the mechanism underlying the superior clinical outcome of IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients, we investigated whether overexpression of the IDH1(R132H) protein could affect response to therapy in the context of an isogenic glioma cell background. Stable clonal U87MG and U373MG cell lines overexpressing IDH1(WT) and IDH1(R132H) were generated, as well as U87MG cell lines overexpressing IDH2(WT) and IDH2(R172K). In vitro experiments were conducted to characterize baseline growth and migration and response to radiation and temozolomide. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured under various conditions. U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, U373MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, and U87MG-IDH2(R172K) cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to radiation but not to temozolomide. Radiosensitization of U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells was accompanied by increased apoptosis and accentuated ROS generation, and this effect was abrogated by the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Interestingly, U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells also displayed decreased growth at higher cell density and in soft agar, as well as decreased migration. Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) and IDH2(R172K) mutant protein in glioblastoma cells resulted in increased radiation sensitivity and altered ROS metabolism and suppression of growth and migration in vitro. These findings provide insight into possible mechanisms contributing to the improved outcomes observed in patients with IDH1/2 mutant gliomas.

  1. Bending patterns of chlamydomonas flagella: III. A radial spoke head deficient mutant and a central pair deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, C J; Luck, D J

    1985-01-01

    Flash photomicrography at frequencies up to 300 Hz and computer-assisted image analysis have been used to obtain parameters describing the flagellar bending patterns of mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All strains contained the uni1 mutation, to facilitate photography. The radial spoke head deficient mutant pf17, and the central pair deficient mutant, pf15, in combination with suppressor mutations that restore motility without restoring the ultrastructural or biochemical deficiencies, both generate forward mode bending patterns with increased shear amplitude and decreased asymmetry relative to the "wild-type" uni1 flagella described previously. In the reverse beating mode, the suppressed pf17 mutants generate reverse bending patterns with large shear amplitudes. Reverse beating of the suppressed pf15 mutants is rare. There is a reciprocal relationship between increased shear amplitude and decreased beat frequency, so that the velocity of sliding between flagellar microtubules is not increased by an increase in shear amplitude. The suppressor mutations alone cause decreased frequency and sliding velocity in both forward and reverse mode beating, with little change in shear amplitude or symmetry.

  2. Quinolone-resistant gyrase mutants demonstrate decreased susceptibility to triclosan.

    PubMed

    Webber, Mark A; Buckner, Michelle M C; Redgrave, Liam S; Ifill, Gyles; Mitchenall, Lesley A; Webb, Carly; Iddles, Robyn; Maxwell, Anthony; Piddock, Laura J V

    2017-10-01

    Cross-resistance between antibiotics and biocides is a potentially important driver of MDR. A relationship between susceptibility of Salmonella to quinolones and triclosan has been observed. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the mechanism underpinning this; (ii) determine whether the phenotype is conserved in Escherichia coli; and (iii) evaluate the potential for triclosan to select for quinolone resistance. WT E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and gyrA mutants were used. These were characterized by determining antimicrobial susceptibility, DNA gyrase activity and sensitivity to inhibition. Expression of stress response pathways (SOS, RpoS, RpoN and RpoH) was measured, as was the fitness of mutants. The potential for triclosan to select for quinolone resistance was determined. All gyrase mutants showed increased triclosan MICs and altered supercoiling activity. There was no evidence for direct interaction between triclosan and gyrase. Identical substitutions in GyrA had different impacts on supercoiling in the two species. For both, there was a correlation between altered supercoiling and expression of stress responses. This was more marked in E. coli, where an Asp87Gly GyrA mutant demonstrated greatly increased fitness in the presence of triclosan. Exposure of parental strains to low concentrations of triclosan did not select for quinolone resistance. Our data suggest gyrA mutants are less susceptible to triclosan due to up-regulation of stress responses. The impact of gyrA mutation differs between E. coli and Salmonella. The impacts of gyrA mutation beyond quinolone resistance have implications for the fitness and selection of gyrA mutants in the presence of non-quinolone antimicrobials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Interaction of metronidazole with DNA repair mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yeung, T C; Beaulieu, B B; McLafferty, M A; Goldman, P

    1984-01-01

    It has been proposed that one of metronidazole's partially reduced intermediates interacts either with DNA to exert a bactericidal effect or with water to form acetamide. To test this hypothesis we have examined the effect of metronidazole on several mutants of Escherichia coli that are defective in DNA repair. UV-susceptible RecA- and UvrB- point mutants have an increased susceptibility to metronidazole as manifested by both a decreased minimal inhibitory concentration and a greater bactericidal response to metronidazole in resting cultures. By these criteria, however, we find that UvrB- deletion mutants, which lack the ability to reduce nitrate and chlorate, are no more susceptible to metronidazole than is the wild type. We find, however, that these deletion mutants also lack the ability to reduce metronidazole and thus possibly to form its reactive species. When metronidazole's bactericidal effect is expressed in terms of the concurrent accumulation of acetamide derived from metronidazole, then all RecA- and UvrB- mutants are killed more efficiently than their wild types. The data are consistent, therefore, with metronidazole's lethal effect being mediated by a partially reduced intermediate on the metabolic pathway between metronidazole and acetamide. Defects in other aspects of the DNA repair system do not confer this increased susceptibility to the proposed intermediate. A Tag- mutant, for example, which is defective in 3-methyl-adenine-DNA glycosylase, does not have this increased susceptibility to the presumed precursor of acetamide. Thus, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that the bactericidal effect of metronidazole is mediated by a partially reduced intermediate in the metabolic conversion of metronidazole to acetamide and suggest that this intermediate interacts with DNA to produce a lesion similar to that caused by UV light.

  4. Interaction of metronidazole with DNA repair mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, T C; Beaulieu, B B; McLafferty, M A; Goldman, P

    1984-01-01

    It has been proposed that one of metronidazole's partially reduced intermediates interacts either with DNA to exert a bactericidal effect or with water to form acetamide. To test this hypothesis we have examined the effect of metronidazole on several mutants of Escherichia coli that are defective in DNA repair. UV-susceptible RecA- and UvrB- point mutants have an increased susceptibility to metronidazole as manifested by both a decreased minimal inhibitory concentration and a greater bactericidal response to metronidazole in resting cultures. By these criteria, however, we find that UvrB- deletion mutants, which lack the ability to reduce nitrate and chlorate, are no more susceptible to metronidazole than is the wild type. We find, however, that these deletion mutants also lack the ability to reduce metronidazole and thus possibly to form its reactive species. When metronidazole's bactericidal effect is expressed in terms of the concurrent accumulation of acetamide derived from metronidazole, then all RecA- and UvrB- mutants are killed more efficiently than their wild types. The data are consistent, therefore, with metronidazole's lethal effect being mediated by a partially reduced intermediate on the metabolic pathway between metronidazole and acetamide. Defects in other aspects of the DNA repair system do not confer this increased susceptibility to the proposed intermediate. A Tag- mutant, for example, which is defective in 3-methyl-adenine-DNA glycosylase, does not have this increased susceptibility to the presumed precursor of acetamide. Thus, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that the bactericidal effect of metronidazole is mediated by a partially reduced intermediate in the metabolic conversion of metronidazole to acetamide and suggest that this intermediate interacts with DNA to produce a lesion similar to that caused by UV light. PMID:6367636

  5. Whole organ, venation and epidermal cell morphological variations are correlated in the leaves of Arabidopsis mutants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Dhondt, Stijn; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2011-12-01

    Despite the large number of genes known to affect leaf shape or size, we still have a relatively poor understanding of how leaf morphology is established. For example, little is known about how cell division and cell expansion are controlled and coordinated within a growing leaf to eventually develop into a laminar organ of a definite size. To obtain a global perspective of the cellular basis of variations in leaf morphology at the organ, tissue and cell levels, we studied a collection of 111 non-allelic mutants with abnormally shaped and/or sized leaves, which broadly represent the mutational variations in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf morphology not associated with lethality. We used image-processing techniques on these mutants to quantify morphological parameters running the gamut from the palisade mesophyll and epidermal cells to the venation, whole leaf and rosette levels. We found positive correlations between epidermal cell size and leaf area, which is consistent with long-standing Avery's hypothesis that the epidermis drives leaf growth. In addition, venation parameters were positively correlated with leaf area, suggesting that leaf growth and vein patterning share some genetic controls. Positional cloning of the genes affected by the studied mutations will eventually establish functional links between genotypes, molecular functions, cellular parameters and leaf phenotypes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Anti-H-Y responses of H-2b mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Simpson, E; Gordon, R D; Chandler, P R; Bailey, D

    1978-10-01

    Two strains of H-2b mutant mice, H-2ba and H-2bf, in which the mutational event took place at H-2K, make anti-H-Y cytotoxic T cell responses which are H-2-restricted, Db-associated and indistinguishable in target cell specificity from those of H-2b mice. Thus, alteration of the H-2K molecule affects neither the Ir gene controlling the response, nor the associative antigen. On the other hand, one H-2Db mutant strain, H-2bo, although it makes a good anti-H-Y cytotoxic response, shows target cell specificity restricted to its own Dbo antigen(s), and neither H-2b, H-2ba or H-2bf anti-H-Y cytotoxic cells kill H-2bo male target cells. Thus, the alteration of the H-2Db molecule does not affect the Ir gene of H-2b mice, but it does alter the H-2Db-associative antigen.

  7. User Guide for the LORE1 Insertion Mutant Resource.

    PubMed

    Mun, Terry; Małolepszy, Anna; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U

    2017-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume used in the study of plant-microbe interactions, especially in the field of biological nitrogen fixation due to its ability to enter into a symbiotic relationship with a soil bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti. The LORE1 mutant population is a valuable resource for reverse genetics in L. japonicus due to its non-transgenic nature, high tagging efficiency, and low copy count. Here, we outline a workflow for identifying, ordering, and establishing homozygous LORE1 mutant lines for a gene of interest, LjFls2, including protocols for growth and genotyping of a segregating LORE1 population.

  8. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  9. Analysis of isoniazid-resistant transposon mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Billman-Jacobe, H; Sloan, J; Coppel, R L

    1996-10-15

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has renewed interest in the study of drug resistance in mycobacteria with the objective of improved chemotherapy. The genetic basis of isoniazid resistance in a model mycobacterium was studied. Eleven isoniazid-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis were created using transposon mutagenesis. Genetic and enzymatic characterisation of the mutants showed that katG, encoding T-catalase, was inactivated. The nucleotide sequence of M. smegmatis katG was determined and the mutation sites mapped demonstrating that both the amino and carboxyl halves of T-catalase are important for enzymatic activity.

  10. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  11. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  12. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  13. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  14. The Breeding of a Pigment Mutant Strain of Steroid Hydroxylation Aspergillus Flavus by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Ma, Jingming; Feng, Chun; Cheng, Ying; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2009-02-01

    In the process of the fermentation of steroid C11α-hydroxylgenation strain Aspergillus flavus AF-ANo208, a red pigment is derived, which will affect the isolation and purification of the target product. Low energy ion beam implantation is a new tool for breeding excellent mutant strains. In this study, the ion beam implantation experiments were performed by infusing two different ions: argon ion (Ar+) and nitrogen ion (N+). The results showed that the optimal ion implantation was N+ with an optimum dose of 2.08 × 1015 ions/cm2, with which the mutant strain AF-ANm16 that produced no red pigment was obtained. The strain had high genetic stability and kept the strong capacity of C11α-hydroxylgenation, which could be utilized in industrial fermentation. The differences between the original strain and the mutant strain at a molecular level were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results indicated that the frequency of variation was 7.00%, which would establish the basis of application investigation into the breeding of pigment mutant strains by low energy ion implantation.

  15. Developmental Loss of Photosystem II Activity and Structure in a Chloroplast-Encoded Tobacco Mutant, Lutescens-11

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Catherine P.; Duesing, John H.; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Lutescens-1, a tobacco mutant with a maternally inherited dysfunction, displayed an unusual developmental phenotype. In vivo measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence revealed deterioration in photosystem II (PSII) function as leaves expanded. Analysis of thylakoid membrane proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated the physical loss of nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded polypeptides comprising the PSII core complex concomitant with loss of activity. Freeze fracture electron micrographs of mutant thylakoids showed a reduced density, compared to wild type, of the EFs particles which have been shown previously to be the structural entity containing PSII core complexes and associated pigment-proteins. The selective loss of PSII cores from thylakoids resulted in a higher ratio of antenna chlorophyll to reaction centers and an altered 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra; these data are interpreted to indicate functional isolation of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complexes in the absence of PSII centers. Examination of PSII reaction centers (which were present at lower levels in mutant membranes) by monitoring the light-dependent phosphorylation of PSII polypeptides and flash-induced O2 evolution patterns demonstrated that the PSII cores which were assembled in mutant thylakoids were functionally identical to those of wild type. We conclude that the lutescens-1 mutation affected the correct stoichiometry of PSII centers, in relation to other membrane constituents, by disrupting the proper assembly and maintenance of PSII complexes in lutescens-1 thylakoid membranes. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664990

  16. Role of ELA region in auto-activation of mutant KIT receptor: a molecular dynamics simulation insight.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-01-01

    KIT receptor is the prime target in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GISTs) therapy. Second generation inhibitor, Sunitinib, binds to an inactivated conformation of KIT receptor and stabilizes it in order to prevent tumor formation. Here, we investigated the dynamic behavior of wild type and mutant D816H KIT receptor, and emphasized the extended A-loop (EAL) region (805-850) by conducting molecular dynamics simulation (∼100 ns). We analyzed different properties such as root mean square cutoff or deviation, root mean square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent-accessible surface area, hydrogen bonding network analysis, and essential dynamics. Apart from this, clustering and cross-correlation matrix approach was used to explore the conformational space of the wild type and mutant EAL region of KIT receptor. Molecular dynamics analysis indicated that mutation (D816H) was able to alter intramolecular hydrogen bonding pattern and affected the structural flexibility of EAL region. Moreover, flexible secondary elements, specially, coil and turns were dominated in EAL region of mutant KIT receptor during simulation. This phenomenon increased the movement of EAL region which in turn helped in shifting the equilibrium towards the active kinase conformation. Our atomic investigation of mutant KIT receptor which emphasized on EAL region provided a better insight into the understanding of Sunitinib resistance mechanism of KIT receptor and would help to discover new therapeutics for KIT-based resistant tumor cells in GIST therapy.

  17. The parkin Mutant Phenotype in the Fly Is Largely Rescued by Metal-Responsive Transcription Factor (MTF-1) ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nidhi; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The gene for Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is mutated in some familial forms of Parkinson's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disorder. A homozygous mutant of the Drosophila ortholog of human parkin is viable but results in severe motoric impairment including an inability to fly, female and male sterility, and a decreased life span. We show here that a double mutant of the genes for Parkin and the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) is not viable. MTF-1, which is conserved from insects to mammals, is a key regulator of heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification and plays additional roles in other stress conditions, notably oxidative stress. In contrast to the synthetic lethality of the double mutant, elevated expression of MTF-1 dramatically ameliorates the parkin mutant phenotype, as evidenced by a prolonged life span, motoric improvement including short flight episodes, and female fertility. At the cellular level, muscle and mitochondrial structures are substantially improved. A beneficial effect is also seen with a transgene encoding human MTF-1. We propose that Parkin and MTF-1 provide complementary functions in metal homeostasis, oxidative stress and other cellular stress responses. Our findings also raise the possibility that MTF-1 gene polymorphisms in humans could affect the severity of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21383066

  18. Escherichia coli pleiotropic mutant that reduces amounts of several periplasmic and outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Wanner, B L; Sarthy, A; Beckwith, J

    1979-10-01

    We have isolated a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 that is reduced from 6- to 10-fold in the amount of alkaline phosphatase found in the periplasmic space. The reduced synthesis is not due to effects at the level of transcription regulation of the phoA gene, the structural gene for the enzyme. In addition, the mutation (termed perA) responsible for this phenotype results in reduced amounts of possibly six or more other periplasmic proteins and at least three outer membrane proteins. One of the outer membrane proteins affected is protein IA (D. L. Diedrich, A. O. Summers, and C. A. Schnaitman, J. Bacteriol. 131:598-607, 1977). Although other possibilities exist, one explanation for the phenotype of the perA mutation is that it affects the cell's secretory apparatus.

  19. Characterization of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of a protein S mutant identified in a family of quantitative protein S deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Nagamitsu, Hiroshi; Koide, Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    Misfolded and unassembled glycoproteins are eliminated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). We previously identified a Tyr595Cys (Y595C) mutation of protein S (PS) in a family of a quantitative PS deficiency. The mutation causes intracellular degradation and decreased secretion of the Y595C mutant PS. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the molecular basis of the intracellular degradation of the mutant. We stably expressed the mutant in mammalian cells, and analyzed the intracellular localization of the protein. The intracellular degradation pathway was determined by pulse-chase analyses in the presence of various inhibitors of ERAD. Endoglycosidase H digestion and immunofluorescence staining revealed the mutant being retained in the ER. Epoxomicin, a potent and specific proteasome inhibitor, and Ala-Ala-Phe-CH(2)Cl (AAF), an inhibitor of tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), suppressed the intracellular degradation of the mutant by about 65% and 50%, respectively. When epoxomicin was combined with AAF, the inhibitory effect was substantially enhanced. Although castanospermine, an inhibitor of glucosidases I and II, did not affect the degradation, kifunensine, an inhibitor of ER mannosidase I, suppressed it. Thus, it appears that the Y595C mutant is degraded through more than one pathway of ERAD, including the proteasome-dependent pathway and an alternate proteasome-independent pathway where proteases such as TPPII may be involved. Production of the critical B isoform of Man(8)GlcNAc(2) targets the mutant for ERAD, however, the interaction with calnexin/calreticulin through monoglucosylated oligosaccharides may not be required for the degradation of the mutant.

  20. Characterization of a New Pink-Fruited Tomato Mutant Results in the Identification of a Null Allele of the SlMYB12 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Mutant Profilin Suppresses Mutant Actin-dependent Mitochondrial Phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Stokasimov, Ema; Rubenstein, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-profilin interface, Ala167 of the actin barbed end W-loop and His372 near the C terminus form a clamp around a profilin segment containing residue Arg81 and Tyr79. Modeling suggests that altering steric packing in this interface regulates actin activity. An actin A167E mutation could increase interface crowding and alter actin regulation, and A167E does cause growth defects and mitochondrial dysfunction. We assessed whether a profilin Y79S mutation with its decreased mass could compensate for actin A167E crowding and rescue the mutant phenotype. Y79S profilin alone caused no growth defect in WT actin cells under standard conditions in rich medium and rescued the mitochondrial phenotype resulting from both the A167E and H372R actin mutations in vivo consistent with our model. Rescue did not result from effects of profilin on actin nucleotide exchange or direct effects of profilin on actin polymerization. Polymerization of A167E actin was less stimulated by formin Bni1 FH1-FH2 fragment than was WT actin. Addition of WT profilin to mixtures of A167E actin and formin fragment significantly altered polymerization kinetics from hyperbolic to a decidedly more sigmoidal behavior. Substitution of Y79S profilin in this system produced A167E behavior nearly identical to that of WT actin. A167E actin caused more dynamic actin cable behavior in vivo than observed with WT actin. Introduction of Y79S restored cable movement to a more normal phenotype. Our studies implicate the importance of the actin-profilin interface for formin-dependent actin and point to the involvement of formin and profilin in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and function. PMID:21956104

  2. Effects of gravity on growth phenotype in MAPs mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Sayoko; Kumasaki, Saori; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hoson, Takayuki

    Hypergravity suppresses elongation growth and promotes lateral expansion of stem organs in various plants. It has been shown that cortical microtubules are involved in gravity-induced modifications of growth and development. Because microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are important in dynamics of microtubules, they may also play a role in the gravity response. In the present study, the roles of MAPs (MOR1, SPR1, SPR2, MAP65, and KTN1) in hypergravityinduced changes in growth and development were examined in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. The expression of MOR1, SPR1, SPR2 , and MAP65 genes was down-regulated, whereas that of KTN1 gene was increased transiently by hypergravity. We analyzed the growth behavior of MAPs mutants (mor1/rid5, spr1-2 , spr2-2, and katanin mutants) under hypergravity conditions. Hypergravity inhibited elongation growth of hypocotyls in spr1-2 as in wild-type. On the other hand, elongation growth of hypocotyls in mor1/rid5, spr2-2, and katanin mutants was suppressed as compared with wild-type under 1 g conditions, and was not affected further by hypergravity stimuli. Hypocotyls of mor1/rid5, spr1-2 , and spr2-2 also showed helical growth even under 1 g conditions, and in mor1/rid5 such a phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions. The alignment of cell line was abnormal in hypocotyls of katanin mutants under both 1 g and hypergravity conditions. The orientation of cortical microtubules in wildtype hypocotyls was changed from transverse direction to longitudinal or random directions by hypergravity stimuli. In mor1/rid5 hypocotyls, the orientation of microtubules was random even under 1 g condition, which was not affected by hypergravity. Furthermore, partial disruption of cortical microtubules was observed in mor1/rid5 hypocotyls. These results suggest that MAPs, especially MOR1, play an important role in maintenance of normal growth phenotype against gravity in plants probably via stabilization of microtubule structure.

  3. FUdR extends the lifespan of the short-lived AP endonuclease mutant in Caenorhabditis elegans in a fertility-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuichi; Miyaji, Masahiro; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2017-03-17

    The anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its metabolite 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) inhibit thymidylate synthase and induce uracil bases in DNA. FUdR is commonly used for inhibiting fertility when measuring the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, it is not known whether DNA damage induced by FUdR affects lifespan. EXO-3 is an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in C. elegans, and we reported previously that deletion of the exo-3 gene causes reproductive abnormalities and decreased lifespan. In this study, we found that FUdR extended the lifespan of exo-3 mutants. We measured the lifespan of multiple germline mutants to examine whether this lifespan extension effect was dependent on fertility. In the presence of a fem-1 mutation, which causes a deficiency in sperm production, FUdR did not extend the lifespan of the exo-3 mutant. In glp-1 mutants, which do not develop gonads, the exo-3 mutant was not short-lived, and FUdR did not extend its lifespan. These results suggest that the lifespan extension effect of FUdR depends on fertility and the presence of gonads. fem-3 mutants, which do not produce oocytes, had increased lifespan in the presence of FUdR, independent of the exo-3 mutation. It is possible that the fem-3 mutant was susceptible to the lifespan extension effect of FUdR. From these results, we suggest that FUdR affects the lifespan of C. elegans in two ways: by interfering with fertility, which extends lifespan, and by inducing DNA base damage, which reduces lifespan.

  4. Prognostic role of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma.

    PubMed

    Karsy, Michael; Guan, Jian; Huang, L Eric

    2018-03-16

    OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis. METHODS Genomic and clinical data in patients with lower-grade glioma (WHO grades II and III) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and hazards modeling. Validation was conducted with additional data sets, including glioblastoma. RESULTS A total of 286 patients with lower-grade glioma (mean age 42.7 ± 13.5 years, 55.6% males) included 54 cases of IDH-wild type (18.9%); 140 cases of IDH-mutant, 1p19q-intact (49.0%); and 85 cases of IDH-mutant, 1p19q-codeleted (29.7%) tumors. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that an MPC1 z-score > 0 distinguished better survival, particularly in IDH-mutant (p < 0.01) but not IDH-wild type tumors. Conversely, an MPC2 z-score > 0 identified worsened survival, particularly in IDH-mutant (p < 0.01) but not IDH-wild type tumors. Consistently, neither MPC1 nor MPC2 was predictive in a glioblastoma data set containing 5% IDH-mutant cases. Within the IDH-stratified lower-grade glioma data set, MPC1 status distinguished improved survival in 1p19q-codeleted tumors (p < 0.05), whereas MPC2 expression delineated worsened survival in 1p19q-intact tumors (p < 0.01). A hazards model identified IDH and 1p19q status, age (p = 0.01, HR = 1.03), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p = 0.03, HR = 0.97), and MPC1 (p = 0.003, HR = 0.52) but not MPC2 (p = 0.38) as key variables affecting overall survival. Further validation confirmed MPC1 as an independent

  5. Proteostasis and ageing: insights from long-lived mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; Page, Melissa M; Selman, Colin

    2017-10-15

    The global increase in life expectancy is creating significant medical, social and economic challenges to current and future generations. Consequently, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms underlying the ageing process. This knowledge should help develop realistic interventions capable of combatting age-related disease, and thus improving late-life health and vitality. While several mechanisms have been proposed as conserved lifespan determinants, the loss of proteostasis - where proteostasis is defined here as the maintenance of the proteome - appears highly relevant to both ageing and disease. Several studies have shown that multiple proteostatic mechanisms, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, appear indispensable for longevity in many long-lived invertebrate mutants. Similarly, interspecific comparisons suggest that proteostasis may be an important lifespan determinant in vertebrates. Over the last 20 years a number of long-lived mouse mutants have been described, many of which carry single-gene mutations within the growth-hormone, insulin/IGF-1 or mTOR signalling pathways. However, we still do not know how these mutations act mechanistically to increase lifespan and healthspan, and accordingly whether mechanistic commonality occurs between different mutants. Recent evidence supports the premise that the successful maintenance of the proteome during ageing may be linked to the increased lifespan and healthspan of long-lived mouse mutants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  6. Mutations and Misconceptions: The Isolation and Study of Mutant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes simple, inexpensive activities for teaching students about mutants and mutations in bacteria. Explains how to isolate bacteria from soil and leaves and how to grow bacteria on agar or in broth. Describes how to construct a gradient plate for finding the minimum inhibitory concentration of a substance and how to use this set up to find…

  7. Modeling dynamics of mutants in heterogeneous stem cell niche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriyari, L.; Mahdipour-Shirayeh, A.

    2017-02-01

    Studying the stem cell (SC) niche architecture is a crucial step for investigating the process of oncogenesis and obtaining an effective stem cell therapy for various cancers. Recently, it has been observed that there are two groups of SCs in the SC niche collaborating with each other to maintain tissue homeostasis: border stem cells (BSCs), which are responsible in controlling the number of non-stem cells as well as stem cells, and central stem cells (CeSCs), which regulate the SC niche. Here, we develop a bi-compartmental stochastic model for the SC niche to study the spread of mutants within the niche. The analytic calculations and numeric simulations, which are in perfect agreement, reveal that in order to delay the spread of mutants in the SC niche, a small but non-zero number of SC proliferations must occur in the CeSC compartment. Moreover, the migration of BSCs to CeSCs delays the spread of mutants. Furthermore, the fixation probability of mutants in the SC niche is independent of types of SC division as long as all SCs do not divide fully asymmetrically. Additionally, the progeny of CeSCs have a much higher chance than the progeny of BSCs to take over the entire niche.

  8. Genetic characterization of glossy-leafed mutant broccoli lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glossy mutants of Brassica oleracea L. have reduced or altered epicuticular wax on the surface of their leaves as compared to wild-type plants, conveying a shiny green appearance. Mutations conferring glossiness are common and have been found in most B. oleracea crop varieties, including cauliflower...

  9. Disturbed secretion of mutant adiponectin associated with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Nagaretani, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Tanaka, Sachiyo; Maeda, Norikazu; Nagasawa, Azumi; Hibuse, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Kumada, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2003-06-20

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, consists of collagen-like fibrous and complement C1q-like globular domains, and circulates in human plasma in a multimeric form. The protein exhibits anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic activities. However, adiponectin plasma concentrations are low in obese subjects, and hypoadiponectinemia is associated with the metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We have recently reported a missense mutation in the adiponectin gene, in which isoleucine at position 164 in the globular domain is substituted with threonine (I164T). Subjects with this mutation showed markedly low level of plasma adiponectin and clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the molecular characteristics of the mutant protein associated with a genetic cause of hypoadiponectinemia. The current study revealed (1) the mutant protein showed an oligomerization state similar to the wild-type as determined by gel filtration chromatography and, (2) the mutant protein exhibited normal insulin-sensitizing activity, but (3) pulse-chase study showed abnormal secretion of the mutant protein from adipose tissues. Our results suggest that I164T mutation is associated with hypoadiponectinemia through disturbed secretion into plasma, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Modelling the Evolution and Spread of HIV Immune Escape Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Helen R.; Frater, John; Duda, Anna; Roberts, Mick G.; Phillips, Rodney E.; McLean, Angela R.

    2010-01-01

    During infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), immune pressure from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) selects for viral mutants that confer escape from CTL recognition. These escape variants can be transmitted between individuals where, depending upon their cost to viral fitness and the CTL responses made by the recipient, they may revert. The rates of within-host evolution and their concordant impact upon the rate of spread of escape mutants at the population level are uncertain. Here we present a mathematical model of within-host evolution of escape mutants, transmission of these variants between hosts and subsequent reversion in new hosts. The model is an extension of the well-known SI model of disease transmission and includes three further parameters that describe host immunogenetic heterogeneity and rates of within host viral evolution. We use the model to explain why some escape mutants appear to have stable prevalence whilst others are spreading through the population. Further, we use it to compare diverse datasets on CTL escape, highlighting where different sources agree or disagree on within-host evolutionary rates. The several dozen CTL epitopes we survey from HIV-1 gag, RT and nef reveal a relatively sedate rate of evolution with average rates of escape measured in years and reversion in decades. For many epitopes in HIV, occasional rapid within-host evolution is not reflected in fast evolution at the population level. PMID:21124991

  11. Let-7 Sensitizes KRAS Mutant Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Ying; Tan, Chalet

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. Let-7 is a family of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are frequently suppressed in solid tumors, where KRAS mutations are highly prevalent. In this study, we investigated the potential use of let-7 as a chemosensitizer. We found that let-7b repletion selectively sensitized KRAS mutant tumor cells to the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Transfection of let-7b mimic downregulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of let-7b mimic with paclitaxel or gemcitabine diminished MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling concurrently, triggered the onset of apoptosis, and reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in KRAS mutant tumor cells. In addition, let-7b repletion downregulated the expression of β-tubulin III and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2, two proteins known to mediate tumor resistance to paclitaxel and gemcitabine, respectively. Let-7 may represent a new class of chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors. PMID:25946136

  12. Searching and Mining Visually Observed Phenotypes of Maize Mutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are thousands of maize mutants, which are invaluable resources for plant research. Geneticists use them to study underlying mechanisms of biochemistry, cell biology, cell development, and cell physiology. To streamline the understanding of such complex processes, researchers need the most curr...

  13. Some Experiments with Respiratory Deficient Mutants of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are described for the induction and identification of respiratory deficient mutants in yeast. Practical schemes are given to enable students to obtain dose-response information for physical and chemical mutagens such as heat, ultraviolet light, or acriflavine. A simple test for environmental mutagens is described. (Author/MA)

  14. Active site-directed double mutants of dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Ercikan-Abali, E A; Mineishi, S; Tong, Y; Nakahara, S; Waltham, M C; Banerjee, D; Chen, W; Sadelain, M; Bertino, J R

    1996-09-15

    Variants of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which confer resistance to antifolates, are used as dominant selectable markers in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in the context of gene therapy. To identify improved mutant human DHFRs with increased catalytic efficiency and decreased binding to methotrexate, we constructed by site-directed mutagenesis four variants with substitutions at both Leu22 and Phe31 (i.e., Phe22-Ser31, Tyr22-Ser31, Phe22-Gly31, and Tyr22-Gly31). Antifolate resistance has been observed previously when individual changes are made at these active-site residues. Substrate and antifolate binding properties of these "double" mutants revealed that each have greatly diminished affinity for antifolates (> 10,000-fold) yet only slightly reduced substrate affinity. Comparison of in vitro measured properties with those of single-residue variants indicates that double mutants are indeed significantly superior. This was verified for one of the double mutants that provided high-level methotrexate resistance following retrovirus-mediated gene transfer in NIH3T3 cells.

  15. Study the Expression of ompf Gene in Esherichia coli Mutants.

    PubMed

    Jaktaji, R Pourahmad; Heidari, F

    2013-09-01

    The outer membrane porin proteins are the major factors in controlling the permeability of cell membrane. OmpF is an example of porin proteins in Esherichia coli. In normal growth condition a large amount of this protein is synthesised, but under stress condition, such as the presence of antibiotics in environment its expression is decreased inhibiting the entrance of antibiotics into cell. The expression of ompF is inhibited by antisense RNA transcribed from micF. In normal condition the expression of micF is low, but in the presence of antibiotics its expression is increased and causes multiple resistances to irrelevant antibiotics. The aims of this research were to study first, the intactness of micF and then quantify the expression of ompF in ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistant mutants of E. coli. For this purpose the 5' end of micF was amplified and then sequenced. None of these mutants except one and its clone has a mutation in this gene. Then the relative expression of ompF in these mutants was quantified by real time PCR. There was no significant difference between ompF transcription of mutants and wild type strain. Based on this study and previous study it is concluded that low to intermediate levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline does not decrease ompF transcription.

  16. Study the Expression of ompf Gene in Esherichia coli Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Jaktaji, R. Pourahmad; Heidari, F.

    2013-01-01

    The outer membrane porin proteins are the major factors in controlling the permeability of cell membrane. OmpF is an example of porin proteins in Esherichia coli. In normal growth condition a large amount of this protein is synthesised, but under stress condition, such as the presence of antibiotics in environment its expression is decreased inhibiting the entrance of antibiotics into cell. The expression of ompF is inhibited by antisense RNA transcribed from micF. In normal condition the expression of micF is low, but in the presence of antibiotics its expression is increased and causes multiple resistances to irrelevant antibiotics. The aims of this research were to study first, the intactness of micF and then quantify the expression of ompF in ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistant mutants of E. coli. For this purpose the 5’ end of micF was amplified and then sequenced. None of these mutants except one and its clone has a mutation in this gene. Then the relative expression of ompF in these mutants was quantified by real time PCR. There was no significant difference between ompF transcription of mutants and wild type strain. Based on this study and previous study it is concluded that low to intermediate levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline does not decrease ompF transcription. PMID:24403654

  17. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  18. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  19. Enhanced cellulase producing mutants developed from heterokaryotic Aspergillus strain.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljit; Oberoi, H S; Chadha, B S

    2014-03-01

    A heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis (Dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) as selection marker. The derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, FPase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. The sequence analysis of PCR amplified β-glucosidase gene from wild and mutant showed nucleotide deletion/substitution. The mutants showed highly catalytic efficient β-glucosidase as evident from low Km and high Vmax values. The expression profiling through zymogram analysis also indicated towards over-expression of cellulases. The up/down regulated expressed proteins observed through SDS-PAGE were identified by Peptide mass fingerprinting The cellulase produced by mutants in conjunction with cellulase free xylanase derived from Thermomyces lanuginosus was used for efficient utilization of alkali treated rice straw for obtaining xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paradigms for pharmacological characterization of C. elegans synaptic transmission mutants.

    PubMed

    Locke, Cody; Berry, Kalen; Kautu, Bwarenaba; Lee, Kyle; Caldwell, Kim; Caldwell, Guy

    2008-08-18

    The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, has become an expedient model for studying neurotransmission. C. elegans is unique among animal models, as the anatomy and connectivity of its nervous system has been determined from electron micrographs and refined by pharmacological assays. In this video, we describe how two complementary neural stimulants, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, called aldicarb, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist, called pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), may be employed to specifically characterize signaling at C. elegans neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and facilitate our understanding of antagonistic neural circuits. Of 302 C. elegans neurons, nineteen GABAergic D-type motor neurons innervate body wall muscles (BWMs), while four GABAergic neurons, called RMEs, innervate head muscles. Conversely, thirty-nine motor neurons express the excitatory neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), and antagonize GABA transmission at BWMs to coordinate locomotion. The antagonistic nature of GABAergic and cholinergic motor neurons at body wall NMJs was initially determined by laser ablation and later buttressed by aldicarb exposure. Acute aldicarb exposure results in a time-course or dose-responsive paralysis in wild-type worms. Yet, loss of excitatory ACh transmission confers resistance to aldicarb, as less ACh accumulates at worm NMJs, leading to less stimulation of BWMs. Resistance to aldicarb may be observed with ACh-specific or general synaptic function mutants. Consistent with antagonistic GABA and ACh transmission, loss of GABA transmission, or a failure to negatively regulate ACh release, confers hypersensitivity to aldicarb. Although aldicarb exposure has led to the isolation of numerous worm homologs of neurotransmission genes, aldicarb exposure alone cannot efficiently determine prevailing roles for genes and pathways in specific C. elegans motor neurons. For this purpose, we have introduced a complementary experimental approach, which

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Mms-Sensitive Mutants of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    1977-01-01

    We have isolated mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alleles of rad1, rad4, rad6, rad52, rad55 and rad57 were found among these mms mutants. Twenty-nine of the mms mutants which complement the existing radiation-sensitive (rad and rev ) mutants belong to 22 new complementation groups. Mutants from five complementation groups are sensitive only to MMS. Mutants of 11 complementation groups are sensitive to UV or X rays in addition to MMS, mutants of six complementation groups are sensitive to all three agents. The cross-sensitivities of these mms mutants to UV and X rays are discussed in terms of their possible involvement in DNA repair. Sporulation is reduced or absent in homozygous diploids of mms mutants from nine complementation groups. PMID:195865

  2. Mutant matrix metalloproteinase-9 reduces postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Atta, Hussein; El-Rehany, Mahmoud; Roeb, Elke; Abdel-Ghany, Hend; Ramzy, Maggie; Gaber, Shereen

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions continue to be a major source of morbidity and occasional mortality. Studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are decreased postoperatively which may limits matrix degradation and participate in the development of peritoneal adhesions. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the effect of gene therapy with catalytically inactive mutant MMP-9 on postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats. Adenovirus encoding mutant MMP-9 (Ad-mMMP-9) or saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity after cecal and parietal peritoneal injury in rats. Expression of mutant MMP-9 transcript was verified by sequencing. Adenovirus E4 gene expression, adhesion scores, MMP-9, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression were evaluated at sacrifice one week after treatment. Both mutant MMP-9 transcripts and adenovirus E4 gene were expressed in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions. Adhesions severity decreased significantly (p = 0.036) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated compared with saline-treated adhesions. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were elevated (p = 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions. While tPA levels were increased (p = 0.02) in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions, TGF-β1 and PAI-1 levels were decreased (p = 0.017 and p = 0.042, respectively). No difference in mortality were found between groups (p = 0.64). Mutant MMP-9 gene therapy effectively transduced peritoneal adhesions resulting in reduction of severity of primary peritoneal adhesions. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-Pore Channels: Lessons from Mutant Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Margarida; Galione, Antony; Parrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in two-pore channels (TPCs) has resulted in a variety of studies dealing with the functional role and mechanism of action of these endo-lysosomal proteins in diverse physiological processes. With the availability of mouse lines harbouring mutant alleles for Tpcnl and/or Tpcn2 genes, several studies have made use of them to validate, consolidate and discover new roles for these channels not only at the cellular level but, importantly, also at the level of the whole organism. The different mutant mouse lines that have been used were derived from distinct genetic manipulation strategies, with the aim of knocking out expression of TPC proteins. However, the expression of different residual TPC sequences predicted to occur in these mutant mouse lines, together with the varied degree to which the effects on Tpcn expression have been studied, makes it important to assess the true knockout status of some of the lines. In this review we summarize these Tpcn mutant mouse lines with regard to their predicted effect on Tpcn expression and the extent to which they have been characterized. Additionally, we discuss how results derived from studies using these Tpcn mutant mouse lines have consolidated previously proposed roles for TPCs, such as mediators of NAADP signalling, endo-lysosomal functions, and pancreatic β cell physiology. We will also review how they have been instrumental in the assignment of new physiological roles for these cation channels in processes such as membrane electrical excitability, neoangiogenesis, viral infection and brown adipose tissue and heart function, revealing, in some cases, a specific contribution of a particular TPC isoform. PMID:27330869

  4. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    DOE PAGES

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, inmore » Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.« less

  5. Targeting Autophagy Sensitizes BRAF-Mutant Thyroid Cancer to Vemurafenib

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weibin; Kang, Helen; Zhao, Yinu; Min, Irene; Wyrwas, Brian; Moore, Maureen; Teng, Lisong; Zarnegar, Rasa; Jiang, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Context: The RAF inhibitor vemurafenib has provided a major advance for the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. However, BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer is relatively resistant to vemurafenib, and the reason for this disparity remains unclear. Anticancer therapy–induced autophagy can trigger adaptive drug resistance in a variety of cancer types and treatments. To date, role of autophagy during BRAF inhibition in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Objective: In this study, we investigate if autophagy is activated in vemurafenib-treated BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cells, and whether autophagy inhibition improves or impairs the treatment efficacy of vemurafenib. Design: Autophagy level was determined by western blot assay and transmission electron microscopy. The combined effects of autophagy inhibitor and vemurafenib were assessed in terms of cell viability in vitro and tumor growth rate in vivo. Whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was in response to vemurafenib-induced autophagy was also analyzed. Results: Vemurafenib induced a high level of autophagy in BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either a pharmacological inhibitor or interfering RNA knockdown of essential autophagy genes augmented vemurafenib-induced cell death. Vemurafenib-induced autophagy was independent of MAPK signaling pathway and was mediated through the ER stress response. Finally, administration of vemurafenib with the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine promoted more pronounced tumor suppression in vivo. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that vemurafenib induces ER stress response–mediated autophagy in thyroid cancer and autophagy inhibition may be a beneficial strategy to sensitize BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer to vemurafenib. PMID:27754804

  6. Targeting Autophagy Sensitizes BRAF-Mutant Thyroid Cancer to Vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weibin; Kang, Helen; Zhao, Yinu; Min, Irene; Wyrwas, Brian; Moore, Maureen; Teng, Lisong; Zarnegar, Rasa; Jiang, Xuejun; Fahey, Thomas J

    2017-02-01

    The RAF inhibitor vemurafenib has provided a major advance for the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. However, BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer is relatively resistant to vemurafenib, and the reason for this disparity remains unclear. Anticancer therapy-induced autophagy can trigger adaptive drug resistance in a variety of cancer types and treatments. To date, role of autophagy during BRAF inhibition in thyroid cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigate if autophagy is activated in vemurafenib-treated BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cells, and whether autophagy inhibition improves or impairs the treatment efficacy of vemurafenib. Autophagy level was determined by western blot assay and transmission electron microscopy. The combined effects of autophagy inhibitor and vemurafenib were assessed in terms of cell viability in vitro and tumor growth rate in vivo. Whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was in response to vemurafenib-induced autophagy was also analyzed. Vemurafenib induced a high level of autophagy in BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either a pharmacological inhibitor or interfering RNA knockdown of essential autophagy genes augmented vemurafenib-induced cell death. Vemurafenib-induced autophagy was independent of MAPK signaling pathway and was mediated through the ER stress response. Finally, administration of vemurafenib with the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine promoted more pronounced tumor suppression in vivo. Our data demonstrate that vemurafenib induces ER stress response-mediated autophagy in thyroid cancer and autophagy inhibition may be a beneficial strategy to sensitize BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer to vemurafenib. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  7. The Analysis of Pendolino (peo) Mutants Reveals Differences in the Fusigenic Potential among Drosophila Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Marzullo, Marta; Raffa, Grazia D.; Morciano, Patrizia; Raimondo, Domenico; Burla, Romina; Saggio, Isabella; Gatti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila telomeres are sequence-independent structures that are maintained by transposition to chromosome ends of three specialized retroelements (HeT-A, TART and TAHRE; collectively designated as HTT) rather than telomerase activity. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex (HOAP-HipHop-Moi-Ver) that localizes and functions exclusively at telomeres and by non-terminin proteins that do not serve telomere-specific functions. Although all Drosophila telomeres terminate with HTT arrays and are capped by terminin, they differ in the type of subtelomeric chromatin; the Y, XR, and 4L HTT are juxtaposed to constitutive heterochromatin, while the XL, 2L, 2R, 3L and 3R HTT are linked to the TAS repetitive sequences; the 4R HTT is associated with a chromatin that has features common to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. Here we show that mutations in pendolino (peo) cause telomeric fusions (TFs). The analysis of several peo mutant combinations showed that these TFs preferentially involve the Y, XR and 4th chromosome telomeres, a TF pattern never observed in the other 10 telomere-capping mutants so far characterized. peo encodes a non-terminin protein homologous to the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The Peo protein directly interacts with the terminin components, but peo mutations do not affect telomeric localization of HOAP, Moi, Ver and HP1a, suggesting that the peo-dependent telomere fusion phenotype is not due to loss of terminin from chromosome ends. peo mutants are also defective in DNA replication and PCNA recruitment. However, our results suggest that general defects in DNA replication are unable to induce TFs in Drosophila cells. We thus hypothesize that DNA replication in Peo-depleted cells results in specific fusigenic lesions concentrated in heterochromatin-associated telomeres. Alternatively, it is possible that Peo plays a dual function being independently required for DNA replication and telomere capping. PMID:26110638

  8. A Simultaneous Genetic Screen for Zygotic and Sterile Mutants in a Hermaphroditic Vertebrate (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

    PubMed Central

    Sucar, Sofia; Moore, Ginger L.; Ard, Melissa E.; Ring, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is unique among vertebrates due to its self-fertilizing mode of reproduction involving an ovotestis. As a result, it constitutes a simplistic and desirable vertebrate model for developmental genetics as it is easily maintained, reaches sexual maturity in about 100 days, and provides a manageable number of relatively clear embryos. After the establishment and characterization of an initial mutagenesis pilot screen using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a three-generation genetic screen was performed to confirm zygotic mutant allele heritability and simultaneously score for homozygous recessive mutant sterile F2 fish. From a total of 307 F2 fish screened, 10 were found to be 1° males, 16 were sterile, 92 wild-type, and the remaining 189, carriers of zygotic recessive alleles. These carriers produced 25% progeny exhibiting several zygotic phenotypes similar to those previously described in zebrafish and in the aforementioned pilot screen, as expected. Interestingly, new phenotypes such as golden yolk, no trunk, and short tail were observed. The siblings of sterile F2 mutants were used to produce an F3 generation in order to confirm familial sterility. Out of the 284 F3 fish belonging to 10 previously identified sterile families, 12 were found to be 1° males, 69 were wild-type, 83 sterile, and 120 were classified as */+ (either wild-type or carriers) with undefined genotypes. This screen provides proof of principle that K. marmoratus is a powerful vertebrate model for developmental genetics and can be used to identify mutations affecting fertility. PMID:26801648

  9. Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase and Putative Active Site Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moomaw, Ellen W.; Hoffer, Eric; Moussatche, Patricia; Salerno, John C.; Grant, Morgan; Immelman, Bridget; Uberto, Richard; Ozarowski, Andrew; Angerhofer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase (CsOxOx) is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes manganese-dependent oxidation of oxalate. In previous work, we have shown that the dominant contribution to catalysis comes from the monoprotonated form of oxalate binding to a form of the enzyme in which an active site carboxylic acid residue must be unprotonated. CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC) and the 241-244DASN region of the N-terminal Mn binding domain of CsOxOx is analogous to the lid region of OxDC that has been shown to determine reaction specificity. We have prepared a series of CsOxOx mutants to probe this region and to identify the carboxylate residue implicated in catalysis. The pH profile of the D241A CsOxOx mutant suggests that the protonation state of aspartic acid 241 is mechanistically significant and that catalysis takes place at the N-terminal Mn binding site. The observation that the D241S CsOxOx mutation eliminates Mn binding to both the N- and C- terminal Mn binding sites suggests that both sites must be intact for Mn incorporation into either site. The introduction of a proton donor into the N-terminal Mn binding site (CsOxOx A242E mutant) does not affect reaction specificity. Mutation of conserved arginine residues further support that catalysis takes place at the N-terminal Mn binding site and that both sites must be intact for Mn incorporation into either site. PMID:23469254

  10. Structure of the Dominant Negative S17N Mutant of Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, N.; Singh, K; Garcia-Diaz, M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the dominant negative mutant of Ras has been crucial in elucidating the cellular signaling of Ras in response to the activation of various membrane-bound receptors. Although several point mutants of Ras exhibit a dominant negative effect, the asparagine to serine mutation at position 17 (S17N) remains the most popular and the most effective at inhibiting the activation of endogenous Ras. It is now widely accepted that the dominant negative effect is due to the ability of the mutant to sequester upstream activators and its inability to activate downstream effectors. Here, we present the crystal structure of RasS17Nmore » in the GDP-bound form. In the three molecules that populate the asymmetric unit, the Mg{sup 2+} ion that normally coordinates the {beta}-phosphate is absent because of steric hindrance from the Asn17 side chain. Instead, a Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinating the {alpha}-phosphate. Also absent from one molecule is electron density for Phe28, a conserved residue that normally stabilizes the nucleotide's guanine base. Except for Phe28, the nucleotide makes conserved interactions with Ras. Combined, the inability of Phe28 to stabilize the guanine base and the absence of a Mg{sup 2+} ion to neutralize the negative charges on the phosphates explain the weaker affinity of GDP for Ras. Our data suggest that the absence of the Mg{sup 2+} should also dramatically affect GTP binding to Ras and the proper positioning of Thr35 necessary for the activation of switch 1 and the binding to downstream effectors, a prerequisite for the triggering of signaling pathways.« less

  11. Tissue-specific and time-dependent clonal expansion of ENU-induced mutant cells in gpt delta mice.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takafumi; Sawai, Tomoko; Masuda, Ikuko; Kaneko, Shinya; Yamauchi, Kazumi; Blyth, Benjamin J; Shimada, Yoshiya; Tachibana, Akira; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2017-10-01

    DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment. The gpt mutations were passengers of the mutant cell of origin and its daughter cells and thus could be used as neutral markers of clones that arose and persisted in the tissues. Female B6C3F1 mice exposed for 1 month to 200 ppm ENU in the drinking water developed early thymic lymphomas and late liver and lung tumors. To assay gpt mutations, we sampled the thymus, liver, lung, and small intestine of female gpt delta mice at 3 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after the end of ENU exposure. Our results reveal that, in all four tissues, the ENU-induced gpt mutations persisted for weeks after the end of mutagen exposure. Clonal expansion of mutant cells was observed in the thymus and small intestine, with the thymus showing larger clone sizes. These results indicate that the clearance of mutant cells and the potential for clonal expansion during normal tissue growth depends on tissue type and that these factors may affect the sensitivity of different tissues to carcinogenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:592-606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutant libraries reveals loci-dependent transcription biases and strategies to novel mutant discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and it has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. The generation of comprehensive random mutant banks by transposon mutagenesis is a fundamental wide genomic technology utilized...

  14. A genetic screen for vascular mutants in zebrafish reveals dynamic roles for Vegf/Plcg1 signaling during artery development.

    PubMed

    Covassin, L D; Siekmann, A F; Kacergis, M C; Laver, E; Moore, J C; Villefranc, J A; Weinstein, B M; Lawson, N D

    2009-05-15

    In this work we describe a forward genetic approach to identify mutations that affect blood vessel development in the zebrafish. By applying a haploid screening strategy in a transgenic background that allows direct visualization of blood vessels, it was possible to identify several classes of mutant vascular phenotypes. Subsequent characterization of mutant lines revealed that defects in Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) signaling specifically affected artery development. Comparison of phenotypes associated with different mutations within a functional zebrafish Vegf receptor-2 ortholog (referred to as kdr-like, kdrl) revealed surprisingly varied effects on vascular development. In parallel, we identified an allelic series of mutations in phospholipase c gamma 1 (plcg1). Together with in vivo structure-function analysis, our results suggest a requirement for Plcg1 catalytic activity downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We further find that embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic plcg1 display more severe defects in artery differentiation but are otherwise similar to zygotic mutants. Finally, we demonstrate through mosaic analysis that plcg1 functions autonomously in endothelial cells. Together our genetic analyses suggest that Vegf/Plcg1 signaling acts at multiple time points and in different signaling contexts to mediate distinct aspects of artery development.

  15. A genetic screen for vascular mutants in zebrafish reveals dynamic roles for Vegf/Plcg1 signaling during artery development

    PubMed Central

    Covassin, L. D.; Siekmann, A. F.; Kacergis, M. C.; Laver, E.; Moore, J. C.; Villefranc, J. A.; Weinstein, B. M.; Lawson, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we describe a forward genetic approach to identify mutations that affect blood vessel development in the zebrafish. By applying a haploid screening strategy in a transgenic background that allows direct visualization of blood vessels, it was possible to identify several classes of mutant vascular phenotypes. Subsequent characterization of mutant lines revealed that defects in Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) signaling specifically affected artery development. Comparison of phenotypes associated with different mutations within a functional zebrafish Vegf receptor-2 ortholog (referred to as kdr-like, kdrl) revealed surprisingly varied effects on vascular development. In parallel, we identified an allelic series of mutations in phospholipase c gamma 1 (plcg1). Together with in vivo structure-function analysis, our results suggest a requirement for Plcg1 catalytic activity downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We further find that embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic plcg1 display more severe defects in artery differentiation but are otherwise similar to zygotic mutants. Finally, we demonstrate through mosaic analysis that plcg1 functions autonomously in endothelial cells. Together our genetic analyses suggest that Vegf/Plcg1 signaling acts at multiple time points and in different signaling contexts to mediate distinct aspects of artery development. PMID:19269286

  16. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, SR; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha VL

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  17. Altered gravitropic response, amyloplast sedimentation and circumnutation in the Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism 5 mutant are associated with reduced starch levels.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Mimi; Tremblay, Reynald; Colasanti, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    Plants have developed sophisticated gravity sensing mechanisms to interpret environmental signals that are vital for optimum plant growth. Loss of SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (SGR5) gene function has been shown to affect the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. SGR5 is a member of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) zinc finger protein family of putative transcription factors. As part of an ongoing functional analysis of Arabidopsis IDD genes (AtIDD) we have extended the characterisation of SGR5, and show that gravity sensing amyloplasts in the shoot endodermis of sgr5 mutants sediment more slowly than wild type, suggesting a defect in gravity perception. This is correlated with lower amyloplast starch levels, which may account for the reduced gravitropic sensitivity in sgr5. Further, we find that sgr5 mutants have a severely attenuated stem circumnutation movement typified by a reduced amplitude and an decreased periodicity. adg1-1 and sex1-1 mutants, which contain no starch or increased starch, respectively, also show alterations in the amplitude and period of circumnutation. Together these results suggest that plant growth movement may depend on starch levels and/or gravity sensing. Overall, we propose that loss of SGR5 regulatory activity affects starch accumulation in Arabidopsis shoot tissues and causes decreased sensitivity to gravity and diminished circumnutational movements.

  18. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Govinda; Karki, Shanta; Thakur, Vivek; Wanchana, Samart; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Dionora, Jacque; Sheehy, John E; Furbank, Robert; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Quick, William Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33) with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT). The back-cross (BC1F1) progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air) and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used in the

  19. Mutant Analysis Reveals Allosteric Regulation of ClpB Disaggregase

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Kamila B.; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The members of the hexameric AAA+ disaggregase of E. coli and S. cerevisiae, ClpB, and Hsp104, cooperate with the Hsp70 chaperone system in the solubilization of aggregated proteins. Aggregate solubilization relies on a substrate threading activity of ClpB/Hsp104 fueled by ATP hydrolysis in both ATPase rings (AAA-1, AAA-2). ClpB/Hsp104 ATPase activity is controlled by the M-domains, which associate to the AAA-1 ring to downregulate ATP hydrolysis. Keeping M-domains displaced from the AAA-1 ring by association with Hsp70 increases ATPase activity due to enhanced communication between protomers. This communication involves conserved arginine fingers. The control of ClpB/Hsp104 activity is crucial, as hyperactive mutants with permanently dissociated M-domains exhibit cellular toxicity. Here, we analyzed AAA-1 inter-ring communication in relation to the M-domain mediated ATPase regulation, by subjecting a conserved residue of the AAA-1 domain subunit interface of ClpB (A328) to mutational analysis. While all A328X mutants have reduced disaggregation activities, their ATPase activities strongly differed. ClpB-A328I/L mutants have reduced ATPase activity and when combined with the hyperactive ClpB-K476C M-domain mutation, suppress cellular toxicity. This underlines that ClpB ATPase activation by M-domain dissociation relies on increased subunit communication. The ClpB-A328V mutant in contrast has very high ATPase activity and exhibits cellular toxicity on its own, qualifying it as novel hyperactive ClpB mutant. ClpB-A328V hyperactivity is however, different from that of M-domain mutants as M-domains stay associated with the AAA-1 ring. The high ATPase activity of ClpB-A328V primarily relies on the AAA-2 ring and correlates with distinct conformational changes in the AAA-2 catalytic site. These findings characterize the subunit interface residue A328 as crucial regulatory element to control ATP hydrolysis in both AAA rings. PMID:28275610

  20. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Shanta; Thakur, Vivek; Wanchana, Samart; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Dionora, Jacque; Sheehy, John E.; Furbank, Robert; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Quick, William Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium’s efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33) with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT). The back-cross (BC1F1) progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air) and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used in the

  1. An Azole-Tolerant Endosomal Trafficking Mutant of Candida albicans Is Susceptible to Azole Treatment in a Mouse Model of Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian M.; Luna-Tapia, Arturo; Tournu, Hélène; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently reported that a Candida albicans endosomal trafficking mutant continues to grow after treatment with the azole antifungals. Herein, we report that the vps21Δ/Δ mutant does not have a survival advantage over wild-type isolates after fluconazole treatment in a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, loss of VPS21 does not synergize with established mechanisms of azole resistance, such as overexpression of efflux pumps or of Erg11p, the target enzyme of the azoles. In summary, although loss of VPS21 function enhances C. albicans survival after azole treatment in vitro, it does not seem to affect azole susceptibility in vivo. PMID:28348159

  2. Mutant glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease recruits Hsp27 to the Hsp90 chaperone complex for proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Zhu, Dongwang; Hong, Christopher S.; Dmitriev, Pauline; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yan; Ikejiri, Barbara; Brady, Roscoe O.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by mutations of the GBA1 gene, which encodes the lysosomal anchored gluococerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations commonly result in protein misfolding, abnormal chaperone recognition, and premature degradation, but are less likely to affect catalytic activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Hsp90/HOP/Cdc37 complex recruits Hsp27 after recognition of GCase mutants with subsequent targeting of GCase mutant peptides to degradation mechanisms such as VCP and the 26S proteasome. Inhibition of Hsp27 not only increased the quantity of enzyme but also enhanced GCase activity in fibroblasts derived from patients with Gaucher disease. These findings provide insight into a possible therapeutic strategy for protein misfolding diseases by correcting chaperone binding and altering subsequent downstream patterns of protein degradation. PMID:25583479

  3. Mutant glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher disease recruits Hsp27 to the Hsp90 chaperone complex for proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Zhu, Dongwang; Hong, Christopher S; Dmitriev, Pauline; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yan; Ikejiri, Barbara; Brady, Roscoe O; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-01-27

    Gaucher disease is caused by mutations of the GBA1 gene, which encodes the lysosomal anchored gluococerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations commonly result in protein misfolding, abnormal chaperone recognition, and premature degradation, but are less likely to affect catalytic activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Hsp90/HOP/Cdc37 complex recruits Hsp27 after recognition of GCase mutants with subsequent targeting of GCase mutant peptides to degradation mechanisms such as VCP and the 26S proteasome. Inhibition of Hsp27 not only increased the quantity of enzyme but also enhanced GCase activity in fibroblasts derived from patients with Gaucher disease. These findings provide insight into a possible therapeutic strategy for protein misfolding diseases by correcting chaperone binding and altering subsequent downstream patterns of protein degradation.

  4. Wing Defects in Drosophila xenicid Mutant Clones Are Caused by C-Terminal Deletion of Additional Sex Combs (Asx)

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Kara; Ballew, Anna C.; Simon, Michael A.; O'Reilly, Alana M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The coordinated action of genes that control patterning, cell fate determination, cell size, and cell adhesion is required for proper wing formation in Drosophila. Defects in any of these basic processes can lead to wing aberrations, including blisters. The xenicid mutation was originally identified in a screen designed to uncover regulators of adhesion between wing surfaces [1]. Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that expression of the βPS integrin or the patterning protein Engrailed are not affected in developing wing imaginal discs in xenicid mutants. Instead, expression of the homeotic protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is strongly increased in xenicid mutant cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of Ubx transforms cells from a wing blade fate to a haltere fate, and that the presence of haltere cells within the wing blade is the primary defect leading to the adult wing phenotypes observed. PMID:19956620

  5. Studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Indicate Pyoverdine as the Central Factor in Inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Sass, Gabriele; Nazik, Hasan; Penner, John; Shah, Hemi; Ansari, Shajia Rahman; Clemons, Karl V; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Visca, Paolo; Haas, Hubertus; Déziel, Eric; Stevens, David A

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are common opportunistic bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. They often coexist in airways of immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis, where they form biofilms and cause acute and chronic illnesses. Hence, the interactions between them have long been of interest and it is known that P. aeruginosa can inhibit A. fumigatus in vitro We have approached the definition of the inhibitory P. aeruginosa molecules by studying 24 P. aeruginosa mutants with various virulence genes deleted for the ability to inhibit A. fumigatus biofilms. The ability of P. aeruginosa cells or their extracellular products produced during planktonic or biofilm growth to affect A. fumigatus biofilm metabolism or planktonic A. fumigatus growth was studied in agar and liquid assays using conidia or hyphae. Four mutants, the pvdD pchE , pvdD , lasR rhlR , and lasR mutants, were shown to be defective in various assays. This suggested the P. aeruginosa siderophore pyoverdine as the key inhibitory molecule, although additional quorum sensing-regulated factors likely contribute to the deficiency of the latter two mutants. Studies of pure pyoverdine substantiated these conclusions and included the restoration of inhibition by the pyoverdine deletion mutants. A correlation between the concentration of pyoverdine produced and antifungal activity was also observed in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates derived from lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. The key inhibitory mechanism of pyoverdine was chelation of iron and denial of iron to A. fumigatus IMPORTANCE Interactions between human pathogens found in the same body locale are of vast interest. These interactions could result in exacerbation or amelioration of diseases. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa affects the growth of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Both pathogens form biofilms that are resistant to therapeutic drugs and host immunity. P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of a Premature Leaf Senescence Mutant of Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Lichao; Dong, Chunhao; Liu, Xu; Kong, Xiuying

    2018-01-01

    Leaf senescence is an important agronomic trait that affects both crop yield and quality. In this study, we characterized a premature leaf senescence mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) obtained by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, named m68. Genetic analysis showed that the leaf senescence phenotype of m68 is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. We compared the transcriptome of wheat leaves between the wild type (WT) and the m68 mutant at four time points. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis revealed many genes that were closely related to senescence genes. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that transcription factors and protein transport genes might function in the beginning of leaf senescence, while genes that were associated with chlorophyll and carbon metabolism might function in the later stage. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the genes that are involved in plant hormone signal transduction were significantly enriched. Through expression pattern clustering of DEGs, we identified 1012 genes that were induced during senescence, and we found that the WRKY family and zinc finger transcription factors might be more important than other transcription factors in the early stage of leaf senescence. These results will not only support further gene cloning and functional analysis of m68, but also facilitate the study of leaf senescence in wheat. PMID:29534430

  7. Interaction of root gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis wild-type and starchless mutants.

    PubMed

    Vitha, S; Zhao, L; Sack, F D

    2000-02-01

    Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototropism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects gravitropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototropism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an extended period, indicating that the relationship between the two tropisms is more complex than previously reported. Root phototropism significantly influenced the time course of gravitropic curvature and the two measures of sensitivity. Light from above during horizontal exposure overestimated all three parameters for all three genotypes except the wild-type perception time. At the irradiance used (80 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), the shortest periods of illumination found to exaggerate gravitropism were 45 min of continuous illumination and 2-min doses of intermittent illumination. By growing roots in circumlateral light or by gravistimulating in the dark, corrected values were obtained for each gravitropic parameter. Roots of both starchless mutants were determined to be about three times less sensitive than prior estimates. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for phototropism in the design of root gravitropism experiments in Arabidopsis.

  8. Interaction of Root Gravitropism and Phototropism in Arabidopsis Wild-Type and Starchless Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Vitha, Stanislav; Zhao, Liming; Sack, Fred David

    2000-01-01

    Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototropism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects gravitropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototropism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an extended period, indicating that the relationship between the two tropisms is more complex than previously reported. Root phototropism significantly influenced the time course of gravitropic curvature and the two measures of sensitivity. Light from above during horizontal exposure overestimated all three parameters for all three genotypes except the wild-type perception time. At the irradiance used (80 μmol m−2 s−1), the shortest periods of illumination found to exaggerate gravitropism were 45 min of continuous illumination and 2-min doses of intermittent illumination. By growing roots in circumlateral light or by gravistimulating in the dark, corrected values were obtained for each gravitropic parameter. Roots of both starchless mutants were determined to be about three times less sensitive than prior estimates. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for phototropism in the design of root gravitropism experiments in Arabidopsis. PMID:10677438

  9. Learning defects in Drosophila growth restricted chico mutants are caused by attenuated adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Naganos, Shintaro; Ueno, Kohei; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2016-04-06

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is a major cause of symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), an impairment in cell proliferation during prenatal development that results in global growth defects and mental retardation. In Drosophila, chico encodes the only insulin receptor substrate. Similar to other animal models of IUGR, chico mutants have defects in global growth and associative learning. However, the physiological and molecular bases of learning defects caused by chico mutations, and by symmetrical IUGR, are not clear. In this study, we found that chico mutations impair memory-associated synaptic plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs), neural centers for olfactory learning. Mutations in chico reduce expression of the rutabaga-type adenylyl cyclase (rut), leading to decreased cAMP synthesis in the MBs. Expressing a rut (+) transgene in the MBs restores memory-associated plasticity and olfactory associative learning in chico mutants, without affecting growth. Thus chico mutations disrupt olfactory learning, at least in part, by reducing cAMP signaling in the MBs. Our results suggest that some cognitive defects associated with reduced IIS may occur, independently of developmental defects, from acute reductions in cAMP signaling.

  10. Selection of mutants tolerant of oxidative stress from respiratory cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum C17.

    PubMed

    Zotta, T; Ianniello, R G; Guidone, A; Parente, E; Ricciardi, A

    2014-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium involved in the production of many fermented foods. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that aerobic or respiratory metabolism in this species leads to improved technological and stress response properties. We investigated respiratory growth, metabolite production and stress resistance of Lact. plantarum C17 during batch, fed-batch and chemostat cultivations under respiratory conditions. Sixty mutants were selected for their ability to tolerate oxidative stress using H2 O2 and menadione as selective agents and further screened for their capability to growth under anaerobic, respiratory and oxidative stress conditions. Dilution rate clearly affected the physiological state of cells and, generally, slow-growing cultures had improved survival to stresses, catalase production and oxygen uptake. Most mutants were more competitive in terms of biomass production and ROS degradation compared with wild-type strain (wt) C17 and two of these (C17-m19 and C17-m58) were selected for further experiments. This work confirms that, in Lact. plantarum, respiration and low growth rates confer physiological and metabolic advantages compared with anaerobic cultivation. Our strategy of natural selection successfully provides a rapid and inexpensive screening for a large number of strains and represents a food-grade approach of practical relevance in the production of starter and probiotic cultures. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Molecular typing of a novel canine parvovirus type 2a mutant circulating in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mira, Francesco; Dowgier, Giulia; Purpari, Giuseppa; Vicari, Domenico; Di Bella, Santina; Macaluso, Giusi; Gucciardi, Francesca; Randazzo, Vincenzo; Decaro, Nicola; Guercio, Annalisa

    2018-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the etiological agent of a severe viral disease of dogs. After its emergence in late 1970s, the CPV original type (CPV-2) was rapidly and totally replaced by three antigenic variants named CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. CPV has an evolutionary rate nearest to those of RNA viruses, with consequences on disease diagnosis and epidemiology. This paper reports the molecular characterization of eight CPV-2a strains collected from dogs in Italy in 2016-2017. Genetic analysis was conducted on a CPV genomic region encompassing both open reading frames (ORFs) encoding for nonstructural (NS1-NS2) and structural proteins (VP1-VP2). Sequence analysis indicates new and unreported sequence changes, mainly affecting the VP2 gene, which included the mutation Tyr324Leu. This study represents the first evidence of a new CPV-2a mutant (VP2 324Leu) and illustrates the importance of a continuous molecular survey in order to obtain more information on effective spread of new CPV mutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural signatures of DRD4 mutants revealed using molecular dynamics simulations: Implications for drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Nidhi; Thukral, Lipi; Latha, N

    2016-01-01

    Human Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) orchestrates several neurological functions and represents a target for many psychological disorders. Here, we examined two rare variants in DRD4; V194G and R237L, which elicit functional alterations leading to disruption of ligand binding and G protein coupling, respectively. Using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we provide in-depth analysis to reveal structural signatures of wild and mutant complexes with their bound agonist and antagonist ligands. We constructed intra-protein network graphs to discriminate the global conformational changes induced by mutations. The simulations also allowed us to elucidate the local side-chain dynamical variations in ligand-bound mutant receptors. The data suggest that the mutation in transmembrane V (V194G) drastically disrupts the organization of ligand binding site and causes disorder in the native helical arrangement. Interestingly, the R237L mutation leads to significant rewiring of side-chain contacts in the intracellular loop 3 (site of mutation) and also affects the distant transmembrane topology. Additionally, these mutations lead to compact ICL3 region compared to the wild type, indicating that the receptor would be inaccessible for G protein coupling. Our findings thus reveal unreported structural determinants of the mutated DRD4 receptor and provide a robust framework for design of effective novel drugs.

  13. Trafficking of cholinesterases and neuroligins mutant proteins. An association with autism.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Comoletti, Davide; King, Charles C; Taylor, Palmer

    2008-09-25

    Autism encompasses a wide spectrum of disorders arising during brain development. Recent studies reported that sequence polymorphisms in neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) and neuroligin-4 (NLGN4) genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders indicating neuroligin genes as candidate targets in brain disorders. We have characterized a single mutation found in two affected brothers that substituted Arg451 to Cys in NL3. Our data show that the exposed Cys causes retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed in HEK-293 cells. To examine whether the introduction of a Cys in the C-terminal region of other alpha/beta-hydrolase fold proteins could promote the same cellular phenotype, we made homologous mutations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and found a similar processing deficiency and intracellular retention (De Jaco et al., J Biol Chem. 2006, 281:9667-76). NL3, AChE and BChE mutant proteins are recognized as misfolded in the ER, and degraded via the proteasome pathway. A 2D electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based approach was used to analyze proteins co-immunoprecipitating with NL3 and show differential expression of factors interacting with wild type and mutant NL3. We identified several proteins belonging to distinct ER resident chaperones families, including calnexin, responsible for playing a role in the folding steps of the AChE and NLs.

  14. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Michael; Kocijancic, Dino; Rohde, Manfred; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Bueno, Emilio; Cava, Felipe; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Curtiss, Roy; Häussler, Susanne; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. PMID:27601574

  15. Optimization of biotransformation from phytosterol to androstenedione by a mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Peng, Yong; Su, Zhong-rui; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2013-02-01

    Biotransformation of phytosterol (PS) by a newly isolated mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08 to produce androstenedione has been investigated in this paper. The parameters of the biotransformation process were optimized using fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Androstenedione was the sole product in the fermentation broth catalyzed by the mutant M. neoaurum ZJUVN-08 strain. Results showed that molar ratio of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to PS and substrate concentrations were the two most significant factors affecting androstenedione production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, the optimal process conditions were observed at 0.1 g/L inducer, pH 7.0, molar ratio of HP-β-CD to PS 1.92:1, 8.98 g/L PS, and at 120 h of incubation time. Under these conditions, the maximum androstenedione yield was 5.96 g/L and nearly the same with the non-optimized (5.99 g/L), while the maximum PS conversion rate was 94.69% which increased by 10.66% compared with the non-optimized (84.03%). The predicted optimum conditions from the mathematical model were in agreement with the verification experimental results. It is considered that response surface methodology was a powerful and efficient method to optimize the parameters of PS biotransformation process.

  16. Optimization of biotransformation from phytosterol to androstenedione by a mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Peng, Yong; Su, Zhong-rui; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Biotransformation of phytosterol (PS) by a newly isolated mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08 to produce androstenedione has been investigated in this paper. The parameters of the biotransformation process were optimized using fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Androstenedione was the sole product in the fermentation broth catalyzed by the mutant M. neoaurum ZJUVN-08 strain. Results showed that molar ratio of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to PS and substrate concentrations were the two most significant factors affecting androstenedione production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, the optimal process conditions were observed at 0.1 g/L inducer, pH 7.0, molar ratio of HP-β-CD to PS 1.92:1, 8.98 g/L PS, and at 120 h of incubation time. Under these conditions, the maximum androstenedione yield was 5.96 g/L and nearly the same with the non-optimized (5.99 g/L), while the maximum PS conversion rate was 94.69% which increased by 10.66% compared with the non-optimized (84.03%). The predicted optimum conditions from the mathematical model were in agreement with the verification experimental results. It is considered that response surface methodology was a powerful and efficient method to optimize the parameters of PS biotransformation process. PMID:23365012

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Flooding-Tolerance Mechanism in Mutant and Abscisic Acid-Treated Soybean.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Nishimura, Minoru; Hajika, Makita; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-03

    Flooding negatively affects the growth of soybean, and several flooding-specific stress responses have been identified; however, the mechanisms underlying flooding tolerance in soybean remain unclear. To explore the initial flooding tolerance mechanisms in soybean, flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants were analyzed. In the mutant and ABA-treated soybeans, 146 proteins were commonly changed at the initial flooding stress. Among the identified proteins, protein synthesis-related proteins, including nascent polypeptide-associated complex and chaperonin 20, and RNA regulation-related proteins were increased in abundance both at protein and mRNA expression. However, these proteins identified at the initial flooding stress were not significantly changed during survival stages under continuous flooding. Cluster analysis indicated that glycolysis- and cell wall-related proteins, such as enolase and polygalacturonase inhibiting protein, were increased in abundance during survival stages. Furthermore, lignification of root tissue was improved even under flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that protein synthesis- and RNA regulation-related proteins play a key role in triggering tolerance to the initial flooding stress in soybean. Furthermore, the integrity of cell wall and balance of glycolysis might be important factors for promoting tolerance of soybean root to flooding stress during survival stages.

  18. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function.more » We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.« less

  19. Hajdu Cheney Mouse Mutants Exhibit Osteopenia, Increased Osteoclastogenesis, and Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Canalis, Ernesto; Schilling, Lauren; Yee, Siu-Pok; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Zanotti, Stefano

    2016-01-22

    Notch receptors are determinants of cell fate and function and play a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Hajdu Cheney syndrome, a disease characterized by osteoporosis and fractures, is associated with NOTCH2 mutations resulting in a truncated stable protein and gain-of-function. We created a mouse model reproducing the Hajdu Cheney syndrome by introducing a 6955C→T mutation in the Notch2 locus leading to a Q2319X change at the amino acid level. Notch2(Q2319X) heterozygous mutants were smaller and had shorter femurs than controls; and at 1 month of age they exhibited cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia. As the mice matured, cancellous bone volume was restored partially in male but not female mice, whereas cortical osteopenia persisted in both sexes. Cancellous bone histomorphometry revealed an increased number of osteoclasts and bone resorption, without a decrease in osteoblast number or bone formation. Osteoblast differentiation and function were not affected in Notch2(Q2319X) cells. The pre-osteoclast cell pool, osteoclast differentiation, and bone resorption in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in vitro were increased in Notch2(Q2319X) mutants. These effects were suppressed by the γ-secretase inhibitor LY450139. In conclusion, Notch2(Q2319X) mice exhibit cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia, enhanced osteoclastogenesis, and increased bone resorption. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in adult +/+ and +/- BDNF mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, D E; Gao, X; Story, G M; Anderson, L I; Kucera, J; Walro, J M

    2001-07-01

    Deletion of a single copy of the BDNF gene has been shown to affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of young adult BDNF mice. In the present report we evaluated various indices of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function between 9-month-old wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/-) BDNF mutant mice. Performance in a sensorimotor beam walking task was significantly decreased in +/- mice as indicated by increased times required to traverse both a wide (21 mm) and narrow (6 mm) beam. No differences in spontaneous locomotor behavior were observed between the +/+ and +/- mice. Amphetamine-stimulated (5 mg/kg) locomotor behavior was increased to a greater degree in the +/- mice, with the number of movements performed by these mice being significantly greater than their +/+ controls. Corpus striatal dopamine concentrations were significantly greater in the +/- BDNF mice. The absence of any significant differences for dopamine concentrations within the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb of these mice, as well as an absence of any difference in striatal norepinephrine concentrations, suggested a relative specificity of these effects to the corpus striatum. Both the +/- and +/+ mice showed similar reductions in striatal dopamine concentrations in response to a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine (20 mg/kg). Collectively these data show increased levels of striatal dopamine concentrations associated with altered behavioral responses involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system within the heterozygous BDNF mutant mice. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Interaction of root gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis wild-type and starchless mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitha, S.; Zhao, L.; Sack, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototropism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects gravitropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototropism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an extended period, indicating that the relationship between the two tropisms is more complex than previously reported. Root phototropism significantly influenced the time course of gravitropic curvature and the two measures of sensitivity. Light from above during horizontal exposure overestimated all three parameters for all three genotypes except the wild-type perception time. At the irradiance used (80 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), the shortest periods of illumination found to exaggerate gravitropism were 45 min of continuous illumination and 2-min doses of intermittent illumination. By growing roots in circumlateral light or by gravistimulating in the dark, corrected values were obtained for each gravitropic parameter. Roots of both starchless mutants were determined to be about three times less sensitive than prior estimates. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for phototropism in the design of root gravitropism experiments in Arabidopsis.

  2. Developmental alterations in anxiety and cognitive behavior in serotonin transporter mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Hall, F Scott; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2014-10-01

    A promoter variant of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene is known to affect emotional and cognitive regulation. In particular, the "short" allelic variant is implicated in the etiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Heterozygous (SERT(+/-)) and homozygous (SERT(-/-)) SERT mutant mice are valuable tools for understanding the mechanisms of altered SERT levels. Although these genetic effects are well investigated in adulthood, the developmental trajectory of altered SERT levels for behavior has not been investigated. We assessed anxiety-like and cognitive behaviors in SERT mutant mice in early adolescence and adulthood to examine the developmental consequences of reduced SERT levels. Spine density of pyramidal neurons was also measured in corticolimbic brain regions. Adult SERT(-/-) mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior, but these differences were not observed in early adolescent SERT(-/-) mice. Conversely, SERT(+/-) and SERT(-/-) mice did display higher spontaneous alternation during early adolescence and adulthood. SERT(+/-) and SERT(-/-) also exhibited greater neuronal spine densities in the orbitofrontal but not the medial prefrontal cortices. Adult SERT(-/-) mice also showed an increased spine density in the basolateral amygdala. Developmental alterations of the serotonergic system caused by genetic inactivation of SERT can have different influences on anxiety-like and cognitive behaviors through early adolescence into adulthood, which may be associated with changes of spine density in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. The altered maturation of serotonergic systems may lead to specific age-related vulnerabilities to psychopathologies that develop during adolescence.

  3. A Ca sup 2+ influx associated with exocytosis is specifically abolished in a Paramecium exocytotic mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Kerboeuf, D.; Cohen, J.

    1990-12-01

    A Paramecium possesses secretory organelles called trichocysts which are docked beneath the plasma membrane awaiting an external stimulus that triggers their exocytosis. Membrane fusion is the sole event provoked by the stimulation and can therefore be studied per se. Using 3 microM aminoethyl dextran as a vital secretagogue, we analyzed the movements of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) during the discharge of trichocysts. We showed that (a) external Ca{sup 2+}, at least at 3 X 10(-7) M, is necessary for AED to induce exocytosis; (b) a dramatic and transient influx of Ca{sup 2+} as measured from {sup 45}Ca uptake is induced bymore » AED; (c) this influx is independent of the well-characterized voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels of the ciliary membranes since it persists in a mutant devoid of these channels; and (d) this influx is specifically abolished in one of the mutants unable to undergo exocytosis, nd12. We propose that the Ca{sup 2+} influx induced by AED reflects an increase in membrane permeability through the opening of novel Ca{sup 2+} channel or the activation of other Ca{sup 2+} transport mechanism in the plasma membrane. The resulting rise in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration would in turn induce membrane fusion. The mutation nd12 would affect a gene product involved in the control of plasma membrane permeability to Ca{sup 2+}, specifically related to membrane fusion.« less

  4. Autoradiographic detection of diphtheria toxin resistant mutants in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.S.; Singh, B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure for the detection of diphtheria toxin (DT) resistant (Dip/sub R/) mutants in human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells has been developed. The assay is based on the observation that when HDFs from confluent cultures are seeded in medium containing 0.01 flocculating units/ml or higher concentration of DT, protein synthesis in sensitive cells is severely inhibited by 4-6 hr. If at this or later time, a radiolabeled protein precursor (eg, /sup 3/H-leucine) is added to the culture, it is almost exclusively incorporated into the resistant cells, which are then readily identified by autoradiography. These studies provide strong evidence thatmore » the labeled cells identified by autoradiography are bona fide Dip/sub R/ mutants. The detection of Dip/sub R/ cells by autoradiography is apparently not affected by the presence of the sensitive cells in the mixtures. The spontaneous frequency of Dip/sub R/ cells in HDFs has been found to be in the range of 1-5 x 10/sup -6/, and this increases in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. These results indicate that the autoradiographic assay could be used for quantitative mutagenesis. Since the autoradiographic assay does not depend on cell division, it may prove useful in estimating the incidence of pre-existing mutations in cell populations that either do not divide or have very limited growth potential (eg, lymphocytes, muscle cells, neurons, senescent fibroblasts, etc.).« less

  5. Culture adaptation of malaria parasites selects for convergent loss-of-function mutants.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Antoine; Affara, Muna; Assefa, Samuel A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Conway, David J

    2017-01-24

    Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1. To survey further for nonsense mutants associated with culture, genome sequences of eleven long-term laboratory-adapted parasite strains were examined, revealing four independently acquired nonsense mutations in two other ApiAP2 genes, and five in Epac. No mutants of these genes exist in a large database of parasite sequences from uncultured clinical samples. This implicates putative master regulator genes in which multiple independent stop codon mutations have convergently led to culture adaptation, affecting most laboratory lines of P. falciparum. Understanding the adaptive processes should guide development of experimental models, which could include targeted gene disruption to adapt fastidious malaria parasite species to culture.

  6. Anesthetic-resistant spontaneous mutant of Drosophila melanogaster: intensified response to /sup 60/Cobalt radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Gamo, S.; Nakashima-Tanaka, E.; Megumi, T.

    1985-02-25

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extent of acute damage by ionizing irradiation is closely related to the state of membrane orderliness. Decreased orderliness apparently protects organisms from ionizing irradiation. Because anesthetics decrease membrane orderliness, anesthesia is expected to affect damages caused by ionizing irradiation. The present study compared the effects of /sup 60/Co irradiation on Drosophila melanogaster between an anesthetic-resistant spontaneous mutant and an anesthetic-sensitive strain. An anesthetic-resistant mutant strain, Eth-29, of Drosophila melanogaster has previously been established. Eth-29 is resistant to diethyl-ether, chloroform and halothane. The anesthetic-resistant strain was found to be radiosensitive when evaluated by survival at themore » eighth day after irradiation or by dyskinesia (knock-down) at the second day. The results indicate that anesthetic resistance may be related to an increase in orderliness. The findings in reciprocal crosses between Eth-29 and the control strain indicate that the mechanism of survival is different from that of knock-down. Presumably, knock-down is the direct sequela of irradiation, and the present result suggests that membrane damage may be involved in inducing knock-down. 18 references, 3 figures.« less

  7. The chromoplasts of Or mutants of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    PubMed

    Paolillo, D J; Garvin, D F; Parthasarathy, M V

    2004-12-01

    The Or mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) leads to abnormal accumulations of beta-carotene in orange chromoplasts, in tissues in which leucoplasts are characteristic of wild-type plants. Or chromoplasts were investigated by light microscopy of fresh materials and electron microscopy of glutaraldehyde- and potassium permanganate-fixed materials. Carotenoid inclusions in Or chromoplasts resemble those found in carrot root chromoplasts in their optical activity and angular shape. Electron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are made up of parallel, membrane-bound compartments. These stacks of membranes are variously rolled and folded into three-dimensional objects. We classify Or chromoplasts as "membranous" chromoplasts. The Or mutation also limits plastid replication so that a single chromoplast constitutes the plastidome in most of the affected cells. There are one to two chromoplasts in each cell of a shoot apex. The ability of differentiated chromoplasts to divide in the apical meristems of Or mutant plants resembles the ability of proplastids to maintain plastid continuity from cell to cell in meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which plastid replication is drastically limited. The findings are used to discuss the number of levels of regulation involved in plastid replication.

  8. Analysis of a mutant exhibiting conditional sorting to dense core secretory granules in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Bowman, G R; Turkewitz, A P

    2001-12-01

    The formation of dense core granules (DCGs) requires both the sorting of granule contents from other secretory proteins and a postsorting maturation process. The Tetrahymena thermophila strain SB281 fails to synthesize DCGs, and previous analysis suggested that the defect lay at or near the sorting step. Because this strain represents one of the very few mutants in this pathway, we have undertaken a more complete study of the phenotype. Genetic epistasis analysis places the defect upstream of those in two other characterized Tetrahymena mutants. Using immunofluorescent detection of granule content proteins, as well as GFP tagging, we describe a novel cytoplasmic compartment to which granule contents can be sorted in growing SB281 cells. Cell fusion experiments indicate that this compartment is not a biosynthetic intermediate in DCG synthesis. Sorting in SB281 is strongly conditional with respect to growth. When cells are starved, the storage compartment is degraded and de novo synthesized granule proteins are rapidly secreted. The mutation in SB281 therefore appears to affect DCG synthesis at the level of both sorting and maturation.

  9. Analysis of a mutant exhibiting conditional sorting to dense core secretory granules in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, G R; Turkewitz, A P

    2001-01-01

    The formation of dense core granules (DCGs) requires both the sorting of granule contents from other secretory proteins and a postsorting maturation process. The Tetrahymena thermophila strain SB281 fails to synthesize DCGs, and previous analysis suggested that the defect lay at or near the sorting step. Because this strain represents one of the very few mutants in this pathway, we have undertaken a more complete study of the phenotype. Genetic epistasis analysis places the defect upstream of those in two other characterized Tetrahymena mutants. Using immunofluorescent detection of granule content proteins, as well as GFP tagging, we describe a novel cytoplasmic compartment to which granule contents can be sorted in growing SB281 cells. Cell fusion experiments indicate that this compartment is not a biosynthetic intermediate in DCG synthesis. Sorting in SB281 is strongly conditional with respect to growth. When cells are starved, the storage compartment is degraded and de novo synthesized granule proteins are rapidly secreted. The mutation in SB281 therefore appears to affect DCG synthesis at the level of both sorting and maturation. PMID:11779800

  10. Transcriptome profiling of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a constitutively activated Ras/cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Petty, J; Hoyle, D C; Hayes, A; Ragni, E; Popolo, L; Oliver, S G; Stateva, L I

    2003-12-16

    Often changes in gene expression levels have been considered significant only when above/below some arbitrarily chosen threshold. We investigated the effect of applying a purely statistical approach to microarray analysis and demonstrated that small changes in gene expression have biological significance. Whole genome microarray analysis of a pde2Delta mutant, constructed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference strain FY23, revealed altered expression of approximately 11% of protein encoding genes. The mutant, characterized by constitutive activation of the Ras/cAMP pathway, has increased sensitivity to stress, reduced ability to assimilate nonfermentable carbon sources, and some cell wall integrity defects. Applying the Munich Information Centre for Protein Sequences (MIPS) functional categories revealed increased expression of genes related to ribosome biogenesis and downregulation of genes in the cell rescue, defense, cell death and aging category, suggesting a decreased response to stress conditions. A reduced level of gene expression in the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR) was observed. Cell wall genes whose expression was affected by this mutation were also identified. Several of the cAMP-responsive orphan genes, upon further investigation, revealed cell wall functions; others had previously unidentified phenotypes assigned to them. This investigation provides a statistical global transcriptome analysis of the cellular response to constitutive activation of the Ras/cAMP pathway.

  11. Functional Properties of the Drosophila melanogaster Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sonal; Wang, Zhengnan; Tu, Huiping; Nair, Shalima; Mathew, M. K.; Hasan, Gaiti; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2004-01-01

    The inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is an intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release channel that plays a crucial role in cell signaling. In Drosophila melanogaster a single InsP3R gene (itpr) encodes a protein (DmInsP3R) that is ∼60% conserved with mammalian InsP3Rs. A number of itpr mutant alleles have been identified in genetic screens and studied for their effect on development and physiology. However, the functional properties of wild-type or mutant DmInsP3Rs have never been described. Here we use the planar lipid bilayer reconstitution technique to describe single-channel properties of embryonic and adult head DmInsP3R splice variants. The three mutants chosen in this study reside in each of the three structural domains of the DmInsP3R—the amino-terminal ligand binding domain (ug3), the middle-coupling domain (wc703), and the channel-forming region (ka901). We discovered that 1), the major functional properties of DmInsP3R (conductance, gating, and sensitivity to InsP3 and Ca2+) are remarkably conserved with the mammalian InsP3R1; 2), single-channel conductance of the adult head DmInsP3R isoform is 89 pS and the embryonic DmInsP3R isoform is 70 pS; 3), ug3 mutation affects sensitivity of the DmInsP3Rs to activation by InsP3, but not their InsP3-binding properties; 4), wc703 channels have increased sensitivity to modulation by Ca2+; and 5), homomeric ka901 channels are not functional. We correlated the results obtained in planar lipid bilayer experiments with measurements of InsP3-induced Ca2+ fluxes in microsomes isolated from wild-type and heterozygous itpr mutants. Our study validates the use of D. melanogaster as an appropriate model for InsP3R structure-function studies and provides novel insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the InsP3R function. PMID:15189860

  12. Energetic basis for drug resistance of HIV-1 protease mutants against amprenavir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Parimal; Knecht, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Amprenavir (APV) is a high affinity (0.15 nM) HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor. However, the affinities of the drug resistant protease variants V32I, I50V, I54V, I54M, I84V and L90M to amprenavir are decreased 3 to 30-fold compared to the wild-type. In this work, the popular molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method has been used to investigate the effectiveness of amprenavir against the wild-type and these mutated protease variants. Our results reveal that the protonation state of Asp25/Asp25' strongly affects the dynamics, the overall affinity and the interactions of the inhibitor with individual residues. We emphasize that, in contrast to what is often assumed, the protonation state may not be inferred from the affinities but requires pKa calculations. At neutral pH, Asp25 and Asp25' are ionized or protonated, respectively, as suggested from pKa calculations. This protonation state was thus mainly considered in our study. Mutation induced changes in binding affinities are in agreement with the experimental findings. The decomposition of the binding free energy reveals the mechanisms underlying binding and drug resistance. Drug resistance arises from an increase in the energetic contribution from the van der Waals interactions between APV and PR (V32I, I50V, and I84V mutant) or a rise in the energetic contribution from the electrostatic interactions between the inhibitor and its target (I54M and I54V mutant). For the V32I mutant, also an increased free energy for the polar solvation contributes to the drug resistance. For the L90M mutant, a rise in the van der Waals energy for APV-PR interactions is compensated by a decrease in the polar solvation free energy such that the net binding affinity remains unchanged. Detailed understanding of the molecular forces governing binding and drug resistance might assist in the design of new inhibitors against HIV-1 PR variants that are resistant against current drugs.

  13. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yuuichi; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2014-09-01

    A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms with shorter periods. We used a video-tracking method to monitor the movement of single flies, and clear ultradian rhythms were detected in the locomotor behaviour of wild type and clock mutant flies kept under constant dark conditions. In particular, the Pigment-dispersing factor mutant (Pdf 01) demonstrated a precise and robust ultradian rhythmicity, which was not temperature compensated. Our results suggest that Drosophila has an endogenous ultradian oscillator that is masked by circadian rhythmic behaviours.

  14. Salmonella DNA Adenine Methylase Mutants Confer Cross-Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Heithoff, Douglas M.; Enioutina, Elena Y.; Daynes, Raymond A.; Sinsheimer, Robert L.; Low, David A.; Mahan, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella isolates that lack or overproduce DNA adenine methylase (Dam) elicited a cross-protective immune response to different Salmonella serovars. The protection afforded by the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam vaccine was greater than that elicited in mice that survived a virulent infection. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam mutant strains exhibited enhanced sensitivity to mediators of innate immunity such as antimicrobial peptides, bile salts, and hydrogen peroxide. Also, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam− vaccines were not immunosuppressive; unlike wild-type vaccines, they failed to induce increased nitric oxide levels and permitted a subsequent robust humoral response to diptheria toxoid antigen in infected mice. Dam mutant strains exhibited a low-grade persistence which, coupled with the nonimmunosuppression and the ectopic protein expression caused by altered levels of Dam, may provide an expanded source of potential antigens in vaccinated hosts. PMID:11598044

  15. Properties of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigens encoded by SV40 mutants with deletions in gene A.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, C N; Tornow, J; Clark, R; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical properties of the large T antigens encoded by simian virus 40 (SV40) mutants with deletions at DdeI sites in the SV40 A gene were determined. Mutant large T antigens containing only the first 138 to 140 amino acids were unable to bind to the SV40 origin of DNA replication as were large T antigens containing at their COOH termini 96 or 97 amino acids encoded by the long open reading frame located between 0.22 and 0.165 map units (m.u.). All other mutant large T antigens were able to bind to the SV40 origin of replication. Mutants with in-phase deletions at 0.288 and 0.243 m.u. lacked ATPase activity, but ATPase activity was normal in mutants lacking origin-binding activity. The 627-amino acid large T antigen encoded by dlA2465, with a deletion at 0.219 m.u., was the smallest large T antigen displaying ATPase activity. Mutant large T antigens with the alternate 96- or 97-amino acid COOH terminus also lacked ATPase activity. All mutant large T antigens were found in the nuclei of infected cells; a small amount of large T with the alternate COOH terminus was also located in the cytoplasm. Mutant dlA2465 belonged to the same class of mutants as dlA2459. It was unable to form plaques on CV-1p cells at 37 or 32 degrees C but could form plaques on BSC-1 monolayers at 37 degrees C but not at 32 degrees C. It was positive for viral DNA replication and showed intracistronic complementation with any group A mutant whose large T antigen contained a normal carboxyl terminus. These findings and those of others suggest that both DNA binding and ATPase activity are required for the viral DNA replication function of large T antigen, that these two activities must be located on the same T antigen monomer, and that these two activities are performed by distinct domains of the polypeptide. These domains are distinct and separable from the domain affected by the mutation of dlA2465 and indicate that SV40 large T antigen is made up of at least three separate functional

  16. Bioconversion of glycerol to ethanol by a mutant Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop, by adaptive evolution, mutant strains of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 that are capable of withstanding high glycerol concentration as well as resisting ethanol-inhibition. The mutant will be used for high ethanol fermentation from glycerol feedstock. Ethanol production from pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol using the stock was evaluated. A six-tube-subculture-generations method was used for developing the mutant. This involved subculturing the organism six consecutive times in tubes containing the same glycerol and ethanol concentrations at the same culture conditions. Then, the glycerol and/or ethanol concentration was increased and the six subculture generations were repeated. A strain capable of growing in 200 g/L glycerol and 30 g/L ethanol was obtained. The ability of this mutant, vis-à-vis the original strain, in utilizing glycerol in a high glycerol containing medium, with the concomitant ethanol yield, was assessed. Tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) was used as the fermentation medium. Fermentation products were analyzed using HPLC. In a 20 g/L glycerol TSB, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048 converted 18.5 g/L P-glycerol and 17.8 g/L R-glycerol into 12 and 12.8 g/L ethanol, respectively. In a 50 g/L P-glycerol TSB, it utilized only 15.6 g/L glycerol; but the new strain used up 39 g/L, yielding 20 g/L ethanol after 120 h, an equivalence of 1.02 mol ethanol/mol-glycerol. This is the highest ethanol yield reported from glycerol bioconversion. The result of this P-glycerol fermentation can be duplicated using the R-glycerol from biodiesel production. PMID:22455837

  17. Targeting Palmitoyl Acyltransferases in Mutant NRAS-Driven Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    activation in melanoma cells using chemical biology and functional genomic approaches. In the first year of the study, we have developed more potent...post-translational modification by adding a 16-carbon palmitate) is required for N-RAS proper membrane localization and its oncogenic activities ...RAS regulation could be a novel strategy to treat N-RAS mutant melanoma. We have developed chemical probes that covalently label the active sites of

  18. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  19. Xylitol production by a Pichia stipitis D-xylulokinase mutant

    Treesearch

    Yong-Su Jin; Jose Cruz; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2005-01-01

    Xylitol production by Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30, a xyl3-Ä1 mutant that metabolizes xylose using an alternative metabolic pathway, was investigated under aerobic and oxygen-limited culture conditions. Under both culture conditions, FPL-YS30 (xyl3-Ä1) produced a negligible amount of ethanol and converted xylose mainly into xylitol with comparable yields (0.30 and 0.27 g...

  20. Poring over two-pore channel pore mutants

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christopher J.; Patel, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore channels are members of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. They localise to the endolysosomal system and are likely targets for the Ca2+ mobilising messenger NAADP. In this brief review, we relate mutagenesis of the TPC pore to a recently published homology model and discuss how pore mutants are informing us of TPC function. Molecular physiology of these ubiquitous proteins is thus emerging. PMID:27226934

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of pncA Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Morlock, Glenn P.; Crawford, Jack T.; Butler, W. Ray; Brim, Suzanne E.; Sikes, David; Mazurek, Gerald H.; Woodley, Charles L.; Cooksey, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the correlation of mutations in the pyrazinamidase (PZase) gene (pncA) with the pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance phenotype with 60 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. PZase activity was determined by the method of Wayne (L. G. Wayne, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 109:147–151, 1974), and the entire pncA nucleotide sequence, including the 74 bp upstream of the start codon, was determined. PZA susceptibility testing was performed by the method of proportions on modified Middlebrook and Cohn 7H10 medium. The PZA MICs were ≥100 μg/ml for 37 isolates, 34 of which had alterations in the pncA gene. These mutations included missense substitutions for 24 isolates, nonsense substitutions for 3 isolates, frameshifts by deletion for 4 isolates, a three-codon insertion for 1 isolate, and putative regulatory mutations for 2 isolates. Among 21 isolates for which PZA MICs were <100 μg/ml, 3 had the same mutation (Thr47→Ala) and 18 had the wild-type sequence. For the three Thr47→Ala mutants PZA MICs were 12.5 μg/ml by the method of proportions on 7H10 agar; two of these were resistant to 100 μg of PZA per ml and the third was resistant to 800 μg of PZA per ml by the BACTEC method. In all, 30 different pncA mutations were found among the 37 pncA mutants. No PZase activity was detected in 35 of 37 strains that were resistant to ≥100 μg of PZA per ml or in 34 of 37 pncA mutants. Reduced PZase activity was found in the three mutants with the Thr47→Ala mutation. This study demonstrates that mutations in the pncA gene may serve as a reliable indicator of resistance to ≥100 μg of PZA per ml. PMID:10952570

  2. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. CT features of HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sawan, Peter; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Li, Angela E; Li, Bob T; Drilon, Alexander; Capanu, Marinela; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2018-06-07

    To describe the radiological phenotype of HER2-mutant lung cancers on CT at presentation. Eligible patients with lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 mutations were stage-matched with two control groups (EGFR- and KRAS-mutant groups). Evaluated CT features of the primary tumor included size, location, consistency, contour, presence of pleural tags and pleural retractions. Presence of pleural effusions, lung metastases, adenopathy, chest wall invasion, and were also recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare continuous and categorical features, respectively. One hundred and fifty-four patients were identified: 50 (33%) harbored HER2 mutations, 56 (36%) harbored KRAS mutations, and 48 (31%) harbored EGFR mutations. Compared with KRAS, HER2 tumors presented as smaller lesions (2.3 cm versus 2.9 cm, p = 0.005 for length; 1.6 cm versus 2.1 cm, p = 0.002 for width) with the presence of pleural tags (74% vs. 52%, p = 0.03), pleural retractions (58% vs. 39%, p = 0.006), ipsilateral hilar (36% vs. 16%, p = 0.03) and scalene/supraclavicular N3 adenopathy (24% vs. 7%, p = 0.03). Compared with EGFR, pleural retractions were more prevalent among the HER2 tumors (58% vs. 37%, p = 0.05). Lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 gene mutation exhibit an aggressive behavior manifesting by higher incidence of local invasion, compared to KRAS and EGFR mutant controls, and a nodal metastatic spread compared to KRAS-mutant control. This is the first radiogenomics study of HER2 mutations in lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversible biofunctionalization of surfaces with a switchable mutant of avidin.

    PubMed

    Pollheimer, Philipp; Taskinen, Barbara; Scherfler, Andreas; Gusenkov, Sergey; Creus, Marc; Wiesauer, Philipp; Zauner, Dominik; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Ebner, Andreas; Tampé, Robert; Stutz, Hanno; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J

    2013-10-16

    Label-free biosensors detect binding of prey molecules (″analytes″) to immobile bait molecules on the sensing surface. Numerous methods are available for immobilization of bait molecules. A convenient option is binding of biotinylated bait molecules to streptavidin-functionalized surfaces, or to biotinylated surfaces via biotin-avidin-biotin bridges. The goal of this study was to find a rapid method for reversible immobilization of biotinylated bait molecules on biotinylated sensor chips. The task was to establish a biotin-avidin-biotin bridge which was easily cleaved when desired, yet perfectly stable under a wide range of measurement conditions. The problem was solved with the avidin mutant M96H which contains extra histidine residues at the subunit-subunit interfaces. This mutant was bound to a mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing biotin residues on 20% of the oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAM components. Various biotinylated bait molecules were bound on top of the immobilized avidin mutant. The biotin-avidin-biotin bridge was stable at pH ≥3, and it was insensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at neutral pH. Only the combination of citric acid (2.5%, pH 2) and SDS (0.25%) caused instantaneous cleavage of the biotin-avidin-biotin bridge. As a consequence, the biotinylated bait molecules could be immobilized and removed as often as desired, the only limit being the time span for reproducible chip function when kept in buffer (2-3 weeks at 25 °C). As expected, the high isolectric pH (pI) of the avidin mutant caused nonspecific adsorption of proteins. This problem was solved by acetylation of avidin (to pI < 5), or by optimization of SAM formation and passivation with biotin-BSA and BSA.

  5. Modulation of Global Transcriptional Regulatory Networks as a Strategy for Increasing Kanamycin Resistance of the Translational Elongation Factor-G Mutants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mogre, Aalap; Veetil, Reshma T.; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2017-01-01

    Evolve and resequence experiments have provided us a tool to understand bacterial adaptation to antibiotics. In our previous work, we used short-term evolution to isolate mutants resistant to the ribosome targeting antibiotic kanamycin, and reported that Escherichia coli develops low cost resistance to kanamycin via different point mutations in the translation Elongation Factor-G (EF-G). Furthermore, we had shown that the resistance of EF-G mutants could be increased by second site mutations in the genes rpoD/cpxA/topA/cyaA. Mutations in three of these genes had been discovered in earlier screens for aminoglycoside resistance. In this work, we expand our understanding of these second site mutations, the goal being to understand how these mutations affect the activities of the mutated gene products to confer resistance. We show that the mutation in cpxA most likely results in an active Cpx stress response. Further evolution of an EF-G mutant in a higher concentration of kanamycin than what was used in our previous experiments identified the cpxA locus as a primary target for a significant increase in resistance. The mutation in cyaA results in a loss of catalytic activity and probably results in resistance via altered CRP function. Despite a reduction in cAMP levels, the CyaAN600Y mutant has a transcriptome indicative of increased CRP activity, pointing to an unknown role for CyaA and / or cAMP in gene expression. From the transcriptomes of double and single mutants, we describe the epistasis between the mutation in EF-G and these second site mutations. We show that the large scale transcriptomic changes in the topoisomerase I (FusAA608E-TopAS180L) mutant likely result from increased negative supercoiling in the cell. Finally, genes with known roles in aminoglycoside resistance were present among the misregulated genes in the mutants. PMID:29046437

  6. Mechanism of phagocytosis in dictyostelium discoideum: phagocytosis is mediated by different recognition sites as disclosed by mutants with altered phagocytotic properties

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G; Thilo, L; Schwarz, H; Steinhart, R

    1980-01-01

    The recognition step in the phagocytotic process of the unicellular amoeba dictyostelium discoideum was examined by analysis of mutants defective in phagocytosis, Reliable and simple assays were developed to measure endocytotic uptake. For pinocytosis, FITC-dextran was found to be a suitable fluid-phase marker; FITC-bacteria, latex beads, and erythrocytes were used as phagocytotic substrates. Ingested material was isolated in one step by centrifuging through highly viscous poly(ethyleneglycol) solutions and was analyzed optically. A selection procedure for isolating mutants defective in phagocytosis was devised using tungsten beads as particulate prey. Nonphagocytosing cells were isolated on the basis of their lower density. Three mutant strains were found exhibiting a clear-cut phenotype directly related to the phagocytotic event. In contrast to the situation in wild-type cells, uptake of E. coli B/r by mutant cells is specifically and competitively inhibited by glucose. Mutant amoeba phagocytose latex beads normally but not protein-coated latex, nonglucosylated bacteria, or erythrocytes. Cohesive properties of mutant cells are altered: they do not form EDTA-sensitive aggregates, and adhesiveness to glass or plastic surfaces is greatly reduced. Based upon these findings, a model for recognition in phagocytosis is proposed: (a) A lectin-type receptor specifically mediates binding of particles containing terminal glucose (E. coli B/r). (b) A second class of "nonspecific" receptors mediate binding of a variety of particles by hydrophobic interaction. Nonspecific binding is affected by mutation in such a way that only strongly hydrophobic (latex) but not more hydrophilic particles (e.g., protein-coated latex, bacteria, erythrocytes) can be phagocytosed by mutant amoebae. PMID:6995464

  7. The Lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus BvrS/BvrR Mutants Contains Lipid A Modifications and Has Higher Affinity for Bactericidal Cationic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Manterola, Lorea; Moriyón, Ignacio; Moreno, Edgardo; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Weiss, David S.; Koch, Michel H. J.; Howe, Jörg; Brandenburg, Klaus; López-Goñi, Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    The two-component BvrS/BvrR system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction abrogates expression of some major outer membrane proteins and increases bactericidal peptide sensitivity. Here, we report that BvrS/BvrR mutants have increased surface hydrophobicity and susceptibility to killing by nonimmune serum. The bvrS and bvrR mutant lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) bound more polymyxin B, chimeras constructed with bvrS mutant cells and parental LPS showed augmented polymyxin B resistance, and, conversely, parental cells and bvrS mutant LPS chimeras were more sensitive and displayed polymyxin B-characteristic outer membrane lesions, implicating LPS as being responsible for the phenotype of the BvrS/BvrR mutants. No qualitative or quantitative changes were detected in other envelope and outer membrane components examined: periplasmic β(1-2) glucans, native hapten polysaccharide, and phospholipids. The LPS of the mutants was similar to parental LPS in O-polysaccharide polymerization and fine structure but showed both increased underacylated lipid A species and higher acyl-chain fluidity that correlated with polymyxin B binding. These lipid A changes did not alter LPS cytokine induction, showing that in contrast to other gram-negative pathogens, recognition by innate immune receptors is not decreased by these changes in LPS structure. Transcription of Brucella genes required for incorporating long acyl chains into lipid A (acpXL and lpxXL) or implicated in lipid A acylation control (bacA) was not affected. We propose that in Brucella the outer membrane homeostasis depends on the functioning of BvrS/BvrR. Accordingly, disruption of BvrS/BvrR damages the outer membrane, thus contributing to the severe attenuation manifested by bvrS and bvrR mutants. PMID:16077108

  8. Evaluation of Reduced Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Bisbiguanides in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Generated Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Furi, Leonardo; Ciusa, Maria Laura; Knight, Daniel; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Tocci, Nadia; Cirasola, Daniela; Aragones, Lluis; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Marchi, Emmanuela; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Northwood, John Blackman; Viti, Carlo; Borghi, Elisa; Orefici, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the biocides benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were determined against 1,602 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds showed unimodal MIC and MBC distributions (2 and 4 or 8 mg/liter, respectively) with no apparent subpopulation with reduced susceptibility. To investigate further, all isolates were screened for qac genes, and 39 of these also had the promoter region of the NorA multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pump sequenced. The presence of qacA, qacB, qacC, and qacG genes increased the mode MIC, but not MBC, to benzalkonium chloride, while only qacA and qacB increased the chlorhexidine mode MIC. Isolates with a wild-type norA promoter or mutations in the norA promoter had similar biocide MIC distributions; notably, not all clinical isolates with norA mutations were resistant to fluoroquinolones. In vitro efflux mutants could be readily selected with ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Multiple passages were necessary to select mutants with biocides, but these mutants showed phenotypes comparable to those of mutants selected by dyes. All mutants showed changes in the promoter region of norA, but these were distinct from this region of the clinical isolates. Still, none of the in vitro mutants displayed fitness defects in a killing assay in Galleria mellonella larvae. In conclusion, our data provide an in-depth comparative overview on efflux in S. aureus mutants and clinical isolates, showing also that plasmid-encoded efflux pumps did not affect bactericidal activity of biocides. In addition, current in vitro tests appear not to be suitable for predicting levels of resistance that are clinically relevant. PMID:23669380

  9. Inositol Depletion Restores Vesicle Transport in Yeast Phospholipid Flippase Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Yamagami, Kanako; Yamamoto, Takaharu; Sakai, Shota; Mioka, Tetsuo; Sano, Takamitsu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases. PMID:25781026

  10. Functional verification of a porcine myostatin propeptide mutant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dezun; Jiang, Shengwang; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Xiao, Gaojun; Yang, Jinzeng; Cui, Wentao

    2015-10-01

    Myostatin is a member of TGF-β superfamily that acts as a key negative regulator in development and growth of embryonic and postnatal muscles. In this study, the inhibitory activities of recombinant porcine myostatin propeptide and its mutated form (at the cleavage site of metalloproteinases of BMP-1/TLD family) against murine myostatin was evaluated in vivo by intraperitoneal injection into mice. Results showed that both wild type and mutated form of porcine propeptide significantly inhibited myostatin activity in vivo. The average body weight of mice receiving wild type propeptide or its mutated form increased by 12.5 % and 24.14%, respectively, compared to mice injected with PBS, implying that the in vivo efficacy of porcine propeptide mutant is greater than its wild type propeptide. Transgenic mice expressing porcine myostatin propeptide mutant were generated to further verify the results obtained from mice injected with recombinant porcine propeptide mutant. Compared with wild type (non-transgenic) mice, relative weight of gastrocnemius, rectusfemoris, and tibialis anterior increased by 22.14 %, 34.13 %, 25.37%, respectively, in transgenic male mice, and by 19.90 %, 42.47 %, 45.61%, respectively, in transgenic female mice. Our data also demonstrated that the mechanism by which muscle growth enhancement is achieved by these propeptides is due to an increase in fiber sizes, not by an increase in number of fiber cells.

  11. An Arabidopsis mutant showing reduced feedback inhibition of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Van Oosten, J J; Gerbaud, A; Huijser, C; Dijkwel, P P; Chua, N H; Smeekens, S C

    1997-11-01

    Many plant genes are responsive to sugars but the mechanisms used by plants to sense sugars are unknown. A genetic approach has been used in Arabidopsis to identify genes involved in perception and transduction of sugar signals. For this purpose, an in vivo reporter system was established consisting of the light- and sugar-regulated plastocyanin promoter, fused to the luciferase coding sequence (PC-LUC construct). At the seedling stage, expression of the PC-LUC gene is repressed by sucrose, and a number of sucrose-uncoupled (sun) mutants were selected in which sucrose is unable to repress the activity of the PC promoter. Three mutants have been characterized in more detail. The sugar analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) was used to repress whole plant photosynthesis, PC-LUC gene expression and total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate activity. It was found that the sun6 mutation makes plants unresponsive to these 2DG-induced effects. Moreover, unlike wild-type plants, sun6 mutants are insensitive to elevated levels of glucose in the growth medium. These findings suggest that the SUN6 gene is active in a hexose-activated signal transduction pathway.

  12. Virulence of Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Kinman, Loren; Han, Tony; Bunt, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria use acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) to activate specific sets of genes as a function of cell density. QS often controls the virulence of pathogenic species, and in fact a previous study indicated that QS was important for Burkholderia mallei mouse lung infections. To gain in-depth information on the role of QS in B. mallei virulence, we constructed and characterized a mutant of B. mallei strain GB8 that was unable to make acyl-homoserine lactones. The QS mutant showed virulence equal to that of its wild-type parent in an aerosol mouse infection model, and growth in macrophages was indistinguishable from that of the parent strain. Furthermore, we assessed the role of QS in B. mallei ATCC 23344 by constructing and characterizing a mutant strain producing AiiA, a lactonase enzyme that degrades acyl-homoserine lactones. Although acyl-homoserine lactone levels in cultures of this strain are very low, it showed full virulence. Contrary to the previous report, we conclude that QS is not required for acute B. mallei infections of mice. QS may be involved in some stage of chronic infections in the natural host of horses, or the QS genes may be remnants of the QS network in B. pseudomallei from which this host-adapted pathogen evolved. PMID:23429539

  13. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lea, P.

    1989-04-01

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO{sub 2} at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C) serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used tomore » show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein.« less

  14. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2006-04-01

    Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  15. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  16. Pollen embryogenesis to induce, detect, and analyze mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.J.

    The development of fully differentiated plants from individual pollen grains through a series of developmental phases that resemble embryogenesis beginning with the zygote was demonstrated during the mid-1960's. This technology opened the door to the use of haploid plants (sporophytes with the gametic number of chromosomes) for plant breeding and genetic studies, biochemical and metabolic studies, and the selection of mutations. Although pollen embryogenesis has been demonstrated successfully in numerous plant genera, the procedure cannot as yet be used routinely to generate large populations of plants for experiments. Practical results from use of the technology in genetic toxicology research tomore » detect mutations have failed to fully realize the theoretical potential; further developments of the technology could overcome the limitations. Pollen embryogenesis could be used to develop plants from mutant pollen grains to verify that genetic changes are involved. Through either spontaneous or induced chromosome doubling, these plants can be made homozygous and used to analyze genetically the mutants involved. The success of this approach will depend on the mutant frequency relative to the fraction of pollen grains that undergo embryogenesis; these two factors will dictate population size needed for success. Research effort is needed to further develop pollen embryogenesis for use in the detection of genotoxins under both laboratory and in situ conditions.« less

  17. Oncogenic Signaling by Leukemia-Associated Mutant Cbl Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Scott; An, Wei; Palermo, Nick; Feng, Dan; Ahmad, Gulzar; Dong, Lin; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.; Natarajan, Amarnath; Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Cbl protein family (Cbl, Cbl-b, and Cbl-c) are E3 ubiquitin ligases that have emerged as critical negative regulators of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling. This function reflects their ability to directly interact with activated PTKs and to target them as well as their associated signaling components for ubiquitination. Given the critical roles of PTK signaling in driving oncogenesis, recent studies in animal models and genetic analyses in human cancer have firmly established that Cbl proteins function as tumor suppressors. Missense mutations or small in-frame deletions within the regions of Cbl protein that are essential for its E3 activity have been identified in nearly 5% of leukemia patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders. Based on evidence from cell culture studies, in vivo models and clinical data, we discuss the potential signaling mechanisms of mutant Cbl-driven oncogenesis. Mechanistic insights into oncogenic Cbl mutants and associated animal models are likely to enhance our understanding of normal hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and provide avenues for targeted therapy of mutant Cbl-driven cancers. PMID:23997989

  18. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  19. Intragenic Mapping of Chemically Induced ad-7 Mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Loprieno, Nicola

    1967-01-01

    Thirty adenine-requiring ad-7 mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, induced by ethylmethanesulfonate, methyl-methanesulfonate, and hydroxylamine and exhibiting low spontaneous reversion frequencies, were located by intragenic recombination analysis. Their identification as ad-7 mutants was assessed in relation to two previously mapped ad-7 mutants. Each mutant was found to occupy a distinct mutational site; the smallest recombination fraction observed between the two closest mutational sites was of the order of 0.5 × 10−6. PMID:6051345