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Sample records for a315t transgenic mice

  1. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Lim, Nastasia K. H.; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-Xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R.; Crouch, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 A315T mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 A315T mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 A315T mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 A315T in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 A315T mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive

  2. A high-fat jelly diet restores bioenergetic balance and extends lifespan in the presence of motor dysfunction and lumbar spinal cord motor neuron loss in TDP-43A315T mutant C57BL6/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Karen S.; Halang, Luise; Woods, Ina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transgenic transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mice expressing the A315T mutation under control of the murine prion promoter progressively develop motor function deficits and are considered a new model for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, premature sudden death resulting from intestinal obstruction halts disease phenotype progression in 100% of C57BL6/J congenic TDP-43A315T mice. Similar to our recent results in SOD1G93A mice, TDP-43A315T mice fed a standard pellet diet showed increased 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation at postnatal day (P)80, indicating elevated energetic stress during disease progression. We therefore investigated the effects of a high-fat jelly diet on bioenergetic status and lifespan in TDP-43A315T mice. In contrast to standard pellet-fed mice, mice fed high-fat jelly showed no difference in AMPK activation up to P120 and decreased phosphorylation of acetly-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at early-stage time points. Exposure to a high-fat jelly diet prevented sudden death and extended survival, allowing development of a motor neuron disease phenotype with significantly decreased body weight from P80 onward that was characterised by deficits in Rotarod abilities and stride length measurements. Development of this phenotype was associated with a significant motor neuron loss as assessed by Nissl staining in the lumbar spinal cord. Our work suggests that a high-fat jelly diet improves the pre-clinical utility of the TDP-43A315T model by extending lifespan and allowing the motor neuron disease phenotype to progress, and indicates the potential benefit of this diet in TDP-43-associated ALS. PMID:27491077

  3. A high-fat jelly diet restores bioenergetic balance and extends lifespan in the presence of motor dysfunction and lumbar spinal cord motor neuron loss in TDP-43A315T mutant C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Karen S; Halang, Luise; Woods, Ina; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mice expressing the A315T mutation under control of the murine prion promoter progressively develop motor function deficits and are considered a new model for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, premature sudden death resulting from intestinal obstruction halts disease phenotype progression in 100% of C57BL6/J congenic TDP-43(A315T) mice. Similar to our recent results in SOD1(G93A) mice, TDP-43(A315T) mice fed a standard pellet diet showed increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation at postnatal day (P)80, indicating elevated energetic stress during disease progression. We therefore investigated the effects of a high-fat jelly diet on bioenergetic status and lifespan in TDP-43(A315T) mice. In contrast to standard pellet-fed mice, mice fed high-fat jelly showed no difference in AMPK activation up to P120 and decreased phosphorylation of acetly-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at early-stage time points. Exposure to a high-fat jelly diet prevented sudden death and extended survival, allowing development of a motor neuron disease phenotype with significantly decreased body weight from P80 onward that was characterised by deficits in Rotarod abilities and stride length measurements. Development of this phenotype was associated with a significant motor neuron loss as assessed by Nissl staining in the lumbar spinal cord. Our work suggests that a high-fat jelly diet improves the pre-clinical utility of the TDP-43(A315T) model by extending lifespan and allowing the motor neuron disease phenotype to progress, and indicates the potential benefit of this diet in TDP-43-associated ALS.

  4. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  5. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  6. Relative transgene expression frequencies in homozygous versus hemizygous transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Ping; Opsahl, Margaret L; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Morley, Steven D; West, John D

    2013-12-01

    We have used a simple binomial model of stochastic transgene inactivation at the level of the chromosome or transgene, rather than the cellular level, for the analysis of two mouse transgenic lines that show variegated patterns of expression. This predicts the percentages of cells that express one, both or neither alleles of the transgene in homozygotes from the observed percentages of cells, which express the transgene in hemizygotes. It adequately explained the relationship between the numbers of cells expressing the transgene in hemizygous and homozygous mosaic 21OH/LacZ mouse adrenals and mosaic BLG/7 mouse mammary glands. The binomial model also predicted that a small proportion of cells in mosaic mammary glands of BLG/7 homozygotes would express both BLG/7 alleles but published data indicated that all cells expressing the transgene showed monoallelic expression. Although it didn't fit all of the BLG/7 data as precisely as a more complex model, which used several ad hoc assumptions to explain these results, the simple binomial model was able to explain the relationship in observed transgene expression frequencies between hemizygous and homozygous mosaic tissues for both 21OH/LacZ and BLG/7 mice. It may prove to be a useful general model for analysing other transgenic animals showing mosaic transgene expression.

  7. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyhum, W.; Hautot, D.; Dobson, J.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls.

  8. Acute acetaminophen toxicity in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic glutathione.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, S J; Bounous, D I; Jones, D P; Brackett, B G

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that elevation of hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentrations protect against acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity in mice. Employing transgenic mice overexpressing glutathione synthetase, this study was conducted to determine if sustained elevation of hepatic GSH concentrations could ameliorate or prevent APAP toxicity. International Cancer Research transgenic mouse males and matched (ie same strain, sex, and age) control nontransgenic mice were pretreated ip with GSH synthetase substrate gamma-glutamylcysteinyl ethyl ester (gamma-GCE) or with saline. After a 16-h fast, mice received a single dose of 500 mg APAP/kg bw in saline ip and were sacrificed 4 h later. Other mice similarly pretreated were killed without APAP challenge. The elevated GSH concentrations in transgenic mice livers did not lessen APAP hepatotoxicity. Instead higher degrees of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in transgenic mice than in controls as indicated by higher serum alanine aminotransferase activity and more severe histopathological lesions in transgenic mice livers and kidneys. Pretreatment with gamma-GCE did not affect either initial or post-APAP treatment tissue GSH concentrations or observed degrees of toxicity. Detection of a higher level of serum APAP in transgenic mice and the histopathological lesions found in transgenic mice kidneys together with no observable nephrotoxicity in control mice indicated early kidney damage in transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that high levels of GSH-APAP conjugates resulting from increased GSH concentrations in the livers of transgenic mice caused rapid kidney damage. Compromised excretory ability may have caused retention of APAP, which, in effect, elicited higher hepatotoxicity than that observed in nontransgenic mice.

  9. Craniosynostosis in transgenic mice overexpressing Nell-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinli; Kuroda, Shun’ichi; Carpenter, Dale; Nishimura, Ichiro; Soo, Chia; Moats, Rex; Iida, Keisuke; Wisner, Eric; Hu, Fei-Ya; Miao, Steve; Beanes, Steve; Dang, Catherine; Vastardis, Heleni; Longaker, Michael; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kanayama, Norihiro; Saito, Naoaki; Ting, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we reported NELL-1 as a novel molecule overexpressed during premature cranial suture closure in patients with craniosynostosis (CS), one of the most common congenital craniofacial deformities. Here we describe the creation and analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing Nell-1. Nell-1 transgenic animals exhibited CS-like phenotypes that ranged from simple to compound synostoses. Histologically, the osteogenic fronts of abnormally closing/closed sutures in these animals revealed calvarial overgrowth and overlap along with increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, anomalies were restricted to calvarial bone, despite generalized, non-tissue-specific overexpression of Nell-1. In vitro, Nell-1 overexpression accelerated calvarial osteoblast differentiation and mineralization under normal culture conditions. Moreover, Nell-1 overexpression in osteoblasts was sufficient to promote alkaline phosphatase expression and micronodule formation. Conversely, downregulation of Nell-1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In summary, Nell-1 overexpression induced calvarial overgrowth resulting in premature suture closure in a rodent model. Nell-1, therefore, has a novel role in CS development, perhaps as part of a complex chain of events resulting in premature suture closure. On a cellular level, Nell-1 expression may modulate and be both sufficient and required for osteoblast differentiation. PMID:12235118

  10. Efficient Generation of Mice with Consistent Transgene Expression by FEEST

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Jiang, Yonghua; Mu, Libing; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Aiqun; Tang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Luo, Minmin; Yu, Lei; Gao, Shaorong; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are widely used in biomedical research; however, current techniques for producing transgenic mice are limited due to the unpredictable nature of transgene expression. Here, we report a novel, highly efficient technique for the generation of transgenic mice with single-copy integration of the transgene and guaranteed expression of the gene-of-interest (GOI). We refer to this technique as functionally enriched ES cell transgenics, or FEEST. ES cells harboring an inducible Cre gene enabled the efficient selection of transgenic ES cell clones using hygromycin before Cre-mediated recombination. Expression of the GOI was confirmed by assaying for the GFP after Cre recombination. As a proof-of-principle, we produced a transgenic mouse line containing Cre-activatable tTA (cl-tTA6). This tTA mouse model was able to induce tumor formation when crossed with a transgenic mouse line containing a doxycycline-inducible oncogene. We also showed that the cl-tTA6 mouse is a valuable tool for faithfully recapitulating the clinical course of tumor development. We showed that FEEST can be easily adapted for other genes by preparing a transgenic mouse model of conditionally activatable EGFR L858R. Thus, FEEST is a technique with the potential to generate transgenic mouse models at a genome-wide scale. PMID:26573149

  11. [Development of a hepatitis B virus carrier transgenic mice model].

    PubMed

    Caner, Müge; Arat, Sezen; Bircan, Rifat

    2008-01-01

    The studies for the development of transgenic mice models which provide important profits for the studies concerning immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are in progress since 20 years. For this purpose different lineages bearing whole HBV genome or selected viral genes have been developed and their usage in clarifying the HBV replication and pathogenesis mechanisms have been emphasized. The aim of this study was to develop and breed a HBV carrier mice model. In the study the full HBV genome has been transferred to mouse embryos by microinjection procedure. Following transgenic manipulation, the HBV carriers among the daughter mice have been detected by molecular methods in which HBV-DNA replication and expression have been shown. The manipulations for transgene transfers have been performed in TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Transgene Laboratory, Gebze, Istanbul. The HBV-DNA carrier mice have been demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the DNA samples obtained from tail tissues and also by dot-blot hybridization of the mice sera. Integrated HBV-DNA has been detected by applying in-situ hybridization to the liver tissue sections. HBV-DNA expression has been shown by reverse transcriptase PCR method with total RNA molecules that have been isolated from the liver tissues of the HBV-DNA carrier mice. HBsAg has been detected in the liver by immunohistochemical method, and HBsAg and HBeAg have additionally been demonstrated by ELISA. HBV genome, expression of the genome and the expression products have been determined in approximately 10% of the mice of which HBV-DNA have been transferred. By inbreeding heterozygote carrier mice, homozygote HBV transgenic mice line have been obtained. These HBV transgenic mice are the first lineages developed in our country. It is hopefully thought that this HBV carrier transgenic mouse model may contribute to the studies on the pathogenesis of HBV infections which are important health problems in the

  12. Enhanced malignant tumorigenesis in Cdk4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-03-11

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.

  13. Auto-reactive B cells in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Soulas-Sprauel, Pauline; Korganow, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    In order to understand how the natural occurrence of autoreactive B cells is controlled in normal individuals, and how self reactive B cells can escape this control during diverse clinical situations, many different transgenic mice have been generated expressing self reactive antibodies. In this review, we focus our attention on disease-associated self reactive transgenic models which show the variety of the tolerization mechanisms. The same transgenic lines are also used to analyse the effects of the autoimmune genetic background on the self reactive B cell fate, as well as to study the influence of infectious agents on the behaviour of the auto-reactive transgenic B cells.

  14. CCK Response Deficiency in Synphilin-1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wanli W; Smith, Megan; Yang, Dejun; Choi, Pique P; Moghadam, Alexander; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel role for the cytoplasmic protein, synphilin-1(SP1), in the controls of food intake and body weight in both mice and Drosophila. Ubiquitous overexpression of human SP1 in brain neurons in transgenic mice results in hyperphagia expressed as an increase in meal size. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of SP1 remain to be determined. Here we investigate a potential role for altered gut feedback signaling in the effects of SP1 on food intake. We examined responses to peripheral administration of cholecytokinin (CCK), amylin, and the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK at doses ranging from 1-10 nmol/kg significantly reduced glucose intake in wild type (WT) mice, but failed to affect intake in SP1 transgenic mice. Moreover, there was a significant attenuation of CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex in SP1 transgenic mice. In contrast, WT and SP1 transgenic mice were similarly responsive to both amylin and exendin-4 treatment. These studies demonstrate that SP1 results in a CCK response deficiency that may contribute to the increased meal size and overall hyperphagia in synphillin-1 transgenic mice.

  15. Accelerated hepatocellular carcinoma development in CUL4B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jupeng; Jiang, Baichun; Zhang, Aizhen; Qian, Yanyan; Tan, Haining; Gao, Jiangang; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2015-06-20

    Cullin 4B (CUL4B) is a component of the Cullin 4B-Ring E3 ligase (CRL4B) complex that functions in proteolysis and in epigenetic regulation. CUL4B possesses tumor-promoting properties and is markedly upregulated in many types of human cancers. To determine the role of CUL4B in liver tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice that expressed human CUL4B in livers and other tissues and evaluated the development of spontaneous and chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinomas. We observed that CUL4B transgenic mice spontaneously developed liver tumors at a high incidence at old ages and exhibited enhanced DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. There was a high proliferation rate in the livers of CUL4B transgenic mice that was accompanied by increased levels of Cdk1, Cdk4 and cyclin D1 and decreased level of p16. The transgenic mice also exhibited increased compensatory proliferation after DEN-induced liver injury, which was accompanied by activation of Akt, Erk, p38 and NF-κB. We also found that Prdx3 was downregulated and that DEN induced a higher level of reactive oxygen species in the livers of transgenic mice. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of CUL4B in hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

  16. Skeletal defects in Osterix-Cre transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2015-02-01

    Cre/loxP recombination is a powerful strategy widely used for in vivo conditional gene targeting. This technique has made possible many important discoveries of gene function in normal and disease biology. However, due to the transgenic nature of most Cre mouse strains undesired phenotypes occasionally occur in Cre mice. Here we report skeletal defects in Osterix-Cre (Osx-Cre) transgenic mice including delayed calvarial ossification and fracture calluses at multiple skeletal sites. These data suggest that Osx-Cre containing controls should be used for both in vivo and in vitro skeletal analyses of conditional knockout mice generated with this Osx-Cre mouse strain.

  17. Transgenic, inducible RNAi in megakaryocytes and platelets in mice

    PubMed Central

    TAKIGUCHI, M.; JAMES, C.; JOSEFSSON, E. C.; CARMICHAEL, C. L.; PREMSRIRUT, P. K.; LOWE, S. W.; HAMILTON, J. R.; HUANG, D. C. S.; KILE, B. T.; DICKINS, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene function. The tetracycline (tet)-regulated expression system has recently been adapted to allow inducible RNAi in mice, however its efficiency in a particular cell type in vivo depends on a transgenic tet transactivator expression pattern and is often highly variable. Objective We aimed to establish a transgenic strategy that allows efficient and inducible gene knockdown in particular hematopoietic lineages in mice. Methods and results Using a tet-regulated reporter gene strategy, we found that transgenic mice expressing the rtTA (tet-on) transactivator under control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (CMV-rtTA mice) display inducible reporter gene expression with unusual and near-complete efficiency in megakaryocytes and platelets. To test whether the CMV-rtTA transgene can drive inducible and efficient gene knockdown within this lineage, we generated a novel mouse strain harboring a tet-regulated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Bcl-xL, a pro-survival Bcl-2 family member known to be essential for maintaining platelet survival. Doxycycline treatment of adult mice carrying both transgenes induces shRNA expression, depletes Bcl-xL in megakaryocytes and triggers severe thrombocytopenia, whereas doxycycline withdrawal shuts off shRNA expression, normalizes Bcl-xL levels and restores platelet numbers. These effects are akin to those observed with drugs that target Bcl-xL, clearly demonstrating that this transgenic system allows efficient and inducible inhibition of genes in megakaryocytes and platelets. Conclusions We have established a novel transgenic strategy for inducible gene knockdown inmegakaryocytes and platelets that will be useful for characterizing genes involved in platelet production and function in adult mice. PMID:21138522

  18. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  19. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia; Yaworsky, Paul J; Muller, Yunhua L; Salbaum, J Michael

    2013-04-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development.

  20. Neurologic and motor dysfunctions in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Robert; Fukuchi, Ken-ichiro; Strazielle, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations underlying autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease has enabled researchers to reproduce several hallmarks of this disorder in transgenic mice, notably the formation of Aβ plaques in brain and cognitive deficits. APP transgenic mutants have also been investigated with respect to survival rates, neurologic functions, and motor coordination, which are all susceptible to alteration in Alzheimer dementia. Several transgenic lines expressing human mutated or wild-type APP had higher mortality rates than non-transgenic controls with or without the presence of Aβ plaques. Mortality rates were also elevated in APP transgenic mice with vascular amyloid accumulation, thereby implicating cerebrovascular factors in the precocious death observed in all APP transgenic models. In addition, myoclonic jumping has been described in APP mutants, together with seizure activity, abnormal limb-flexion and paw-clasping reflexes, and motor coordination deficits. The neurologic signs resemble the myoclonic movements, epileptic seizures, pathological reflexes, and gait problems observed in late-stage Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23089603

  1. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Joel C.; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Middleton, Lefkos; Dexter, David T.; Gentleman, Steve M.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations, which become self-propagating. Increasing evidence argues that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Although TgM83+/+ mice homozygous for a mutant A53T α-synuclein transgene begin developing CNS dysfunction spontaneously at ∼10 mo of age, uninoculated TgM83+/− mice (hemizygous for the transgene) remain healthy. To determine whether MSA brains contain α-synuclein prions, we inoculated the TgM83+/− mice with brain homogenates from two pathologically confirmed MSA cases. Inoculated TgM83+/− mice developed progressive signs of neurologic disease with an incubation period of ∼100 d, whereas the same mice inoculated with brain homogenates from spontaneously ill TgM83+/+ mice developed neurologic dysfunction in ∼210 d. Brains of MSA-inoculated mice exhibited prominent astrocytic gliosis and microglial activation as well as widespread deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein that were proteinase K sensitive, detergent insoluble, and formic acid extractable. Our results provide compelling evidence that α-synuclein aggregates formed in the brains of MSA patients are transmissible and, as such, are prions. The MSA prion represents a unique human pathogen that is lethal upon transmission to Tg mice and as such, is reminiscent of the prion causing kuru, which was transmitted to chimpanzees nearly 5 decades ago. PMID:24218576

  2. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing cobra venom factor.

    PubMed

    Andrä, Jörg; Halter, Roman; Kock, Michael A; Niemann, Heiner; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Paul, Dieter

    2002-10-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF), the anticomplementary protein in cobra venom, activates the alternative complement pathway, eventually leading to complement consumption. Here, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse model for CVF. We generated a DNA construct containing the full-length cDNA for single-chain pre-pro-CVF. Expression of CVF was controlled by the alpha(1)-antitrypsin promoter to achieve liver-specific expression. Linearized DNA was microinjected into murine ovary cells (strain CD(2)F(1) (BALB/cxDBA/2J)) and the newborn mice were analyzed for stable integration of CVF DNA. After establishing the transgene, mice were propagated in a BALB/c background. The CVF mRNA was detected in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidney. CVF protein was detected in small amounts in the serum. Serum complement hemolytic activity in CVF-transgenic mice was virtually absent. The concentration of plasma C3 was significantly reduced. The CVF-transgenic animals show no unusual phenotype. They provide an animal model to study the effect of long-term complement depletion by continued activation, as well as the role of complement in host immune response and pathogenesis of disease.

  3. Primary demyelination in transgenic mice expressing interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Mcgavern, Dorian B.; Rodriguez, Moses; Oldstone, Michael B.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the use of interferon-γ to treat patients with multiple sclerosis resulted in enhanced disease, the role of IFN-γ in demyelinatlon has been under question. To address this issue directly, transgenic mice were generated that expressed the cDNA of murlne IFN-γ in the central nervous system by using an oligodendrocyte-specific promoter. Expression of the transgene occurred after 8 weeks of age, at which time the murlne immune and central nervous systems are both fully developed. Directly associated with transgene expression, primary demyelination occurred and was accompanied by clinical abnormalities consistent with CNS disorders. Additionally, multiple hallmarks of immune-mediated CNS disease were observed including upregulation of MHC molecules, gliosis and lymphocytlc infiltration. These results demonstrate a direct role for IFN-γ as an Inducer of CNS demyellnatlon leading to disease and provide new opportunities for dissecting the mechanism of demyelinatlon. PMID:9288735

  4. Calcineurin transgenic mice have mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Sayen, M R; Gustafsson, Asa B; Sussman, Mark A; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2003-02-01

    Introduction of the constitutively active calcineurin gene into neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by adenovirus resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05). Infection of H9c2 cells with calcineurin adenovirus resulted in increased superoxide production (P < 0.001). Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a constitutively active calcineurin cDNA (CalTG mice) exhibit a two- to threefold increase in heart size that progresses to heart failure. We prepared mitochondria enriched for the subsarcolemmal population from the hearts of CalTG mice and transgene negative littermates (control). Intact, well-coupled mitochondria prepared from one to two mouse hearts at a time yielded sufficient material for functional studies. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured with a Clark-type oxygen electrode with substrates for mitochondrial complex II (succinate) and complex IV [tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD)/ascorbate]. CalTG mice exhibited a maximal rate of electron transfer in heart mitochondria that was reduced by approximately 50% (P < 0.002) without a loss of respiratory control. Mitochondrial respiration was unaffected in tropomodulin-overexpressing transgenic mice, another model of cardiomyopathy. Western blotting for mitochondrial electron transfer subunits from mitochondria of CalTG mice revealed a 20-30% reduction in subunit 3 of complex I (ND3) and subunits I and IV of cytochrome oxidase (CO-I, CO-IV) when normalized to total mitochondrial protein or to the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) and compared with littermate controls (P < 0.002). Impaired mitochondrial electron transport was associated with high levels of superoxide production in the CalTG mice. Taken together, these data indicate that calcineurin signaling affects mitochondrial energetics and superoxide production. The excessive production of superoxide may contribute to the development of cardiac failure.

  5. Spi-1/PU.1 transgenic mice develop multistep erythroleukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Gachelin, F; Wendling, F; Molina, T; Denis, N; Titeux, M; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Vainchenker, W; Tavitian, A

    1996-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of the spi-1 gene is associated with the emergence of malignant proerythroblasts during Friend virus-induced acute erythroleukemia. To determine the role of spi-1/PU.1 in the genesis of leukemia, we generated spi-1 transgenic mice. In one founder line the transgene was overexpressed as an unexpected-size transcript in various mouse tissues. Homozygous transgenic animals gave rise to live-born offspring, but 50% of the animals developed a multistep erythroleukemia within 1.5 to 6 months of birth whereas the remainder survived without evidence of disease. At the onset of the disease, mice became severely anemic. Their hematopoietic tissues were massively invaded with nontumorigenic proerythroblasts that express a high level of Spi-1 protein. These transgenic proerythroblasts are partially blocked in differentiation and strictly dependent on erythropoietin for their proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. A complete but transient regression of the disease was observed after erythrocyte transfusion, suggesting that the constitutive expression of spi-1 is related to the block of the differentiation of erythroid precursors. At relapse, erythropoietin-independent malignant proerythroblasts arose. Growth factor autonomy could be partially explained by the autocrine secretion of erythropoietin; however, other genetic events appear to be necessary to confer the full malignant phenotype. These results reveal that overexpression of spi-1 is essential for malignant erythropoiesis and does not alter other hematopoietic lineages. PMID:8628313

  6. Evaluating cerebellar functions using optogenetic transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, John P.; Turecek, Josef; Turner, Eric E.

    2013-03-01

    We employed a transgenic mouse having conditional expression of ChR2(H134R) in neurons of the inferior olive to facilitate understanding of the role of electrical coupling and oscillation in central nervous system function. Two-photon excitation of ChR2-expressing neurons using 64 laser beams restricted to single inferior olive cell bodies depolarized neurons and evoked voltage deflections in neighboring neurons demonstrating electrical coupling. Broader illumination of neuronal ensembles using blue light induced an optical clamp of endogenous electrical rhythms in the inferior olive of acutely-prepared brain slices, which when applied in vivo directly modulated the local field potential activity and induced tremor. The experiments demonstrate novel methods to optically manipulate electrically coupled potentials and rhythmogenesis within a neuronal ensemble. From a functional perspective, the experiments shed light on the cellular and circuitry mechanisms of essential tremor, a prevalent neurological condition, by indicating time- and frequencydependence of tremor upon varying rhythms of inferior olive stimulation. The experiments indicate analog control of a brain rhythm that may be used to enhance our understanding of the functional consequences of central rhythmogenesis.

  7. Immunological Prevention of Spontaneous Mammary Carcinoma in Transgenic Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    developed more slowly by transgenic FVB Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale S.S. Annunziata, Via Valignani, 66100 female mice carrying the wild-type proto...coopted (Pezzella et al., 1997). Anatomia Patologica. Ospedale SS. Annunziata, Via Valignani, 66100 Chieti, Italy. Fax: 39 0871 330471. E-mail: musiani...lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; and Reprints: Piero Musiani, G. d’ Annunzio University of Chieti, Anatomia Department of Experimental

  8. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  9. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions.

  10. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions. PMID:23100369

  11. Cutaneous lymphoproliferation and lymphomas in interleukin 7 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the role of interleukin 7 (IL-7) in the development of the lymphoid system, we have generated two lines of transgenic mice carrying an IL-7 cDNA fused to an immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter and enhancer. This transgene is expressed in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and skin provoking a perturbation of T cell development characterized by a marked reduction of CD4+ CD8+ (double- positive) thymocytes. Quite unexpectedly, however, both lines also develop a progressive cutaneous disorder involving a dermal lymphoid infiltrate that results in progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and exfoliation. Although the infiltrate is primarily composed of T lineage cells, its development is not impeded in the athymic nu/nu background. Furthermore, the phenotype can be transmitted horizontally by transplanting lymphoid tissues or skin to syngeneic wild-type mice. Thus, the phenotype is conveyed by skin-homing, mobile cells (presumably the infiltrating lymphocytes) in a cell-autonomous fashion. In addition to the skin phenotype, this transgene also provokes the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder that induces B and T cell lymphomas within the first 4 mo of life. These findings suggest potential physiologic actions of IL-7 in T cell development and in cutaneous immunity. They also demonstrate that IL-7 can act as an oncogene in the living organism. PMID:7678850

  12. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  13. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  14. Simple and rapid determination of homozygous transgenic mice via in vivo fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolin; Jia, Junshuang; Qin, Yujuan; Lin, Xia; Li, Wei; Xiao, Gaofang; Li, Yanqing; Xie, Raoying; Huang, Hailu; Zhong, Lin; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Huang, Wenhua; Yao, Kaitai; Xiao, Dong; Sun, Yan

    2015-11-17

    Setting up breeding programs for transgenic mouse strains require to distinguish homozygous from the heterozygous transgenic animals. The combinational use of the fluorescence reporter transgene and small animal in-vivo imaging system might allow us to rapidly and visually determine the transgenic mice homozygous for transgene(s) by the in vivo fluorescence imaging. RLG, RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice ubiquitously express red fluorescent protein (RFP). To identify homozygous RLG transgenic mice, whole-body fluorescence imaging for all of newborn F2-generation littermates produced by mating of RFP-positive heterozygous transgenic mice (F1-generation) derived from the same transgenic founder was performed. Subsequently, the immediate data analysis of the in vivo fluorescence imaging was carried out, which greatly facilitated us to rapidly and readily distinguish RLG transgenic individual(s) with strong fluorescence from the rest of F2-generation littermates, followed by further determining this/these RLG individual(s) showing strong fluorescence to be homozygous, as strongly confirmed by mouse mating. Additionally, homozygous RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice were also rapidly and precisely distinguished by the above-mentioned optical approach. This approach allowed us within the shortest time period to obtain 10, 8 and 2 transgenic mice homozygous for RLG, RCLG and Rm17LG transgene, respectively, as verified by mouse mating, indicating the practicality and reliability of this optical method. Taken together, our findings fully demonstrate that the in vivo fluorescence imaging offers a visual, rapid and reliable alternative method to the traditional approaches (i.e., mouse mating and real-time quantitative PCR) in identifying homozygous transgenic mice harboring fluorescence reporter transgene under the control of a ubiquitous promoter in the situation mentioned in this study.

  15. Sex-linked behavioural differences in mice expressing a human insulin transgene in the medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Douhet, P; Bertaina, V; Durkin, T; Calas, A; Destrade, C

    1997-12-01

    We previously reported that a human insulin transgene was specifically expressed in the medial habenula of the adult mouse brain, and that this expression was ascribed to the delta-168 transgene. The present study analyses the possible behavioural consequences of this insulin transgene expression using measures of food intake, spontaneous activity, emotional reactivity, learning and extinction performance of an operant task. The delta-168 transgenic mice did not differ from the C57BL/6 control mice as concerns food intake, behaviour in the open field, or emotional response in an elevated plus maze. On the other hand, measures of locomotor activity in a circular corridor revealed a significantly faster decline of spontaneous locomotor activity in male as compared to female delta-168 transgenic mice. Moreover, as compared to female transgenic mice, male transgenic mice exhibited a deficit in the rate of acquisition and an acceleration of the rate of extinction of a bar press response in a Skinner box. In contrast, the behaviour of female transgenic mice did not differ from either male or female C57BL/6 control mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that the behavioural modifications observed in delta-168 transgenic mice are sex-linked and suggest that these behavioural differences result from changes in the interaction (interface) between motivational and motor mechanisms mediated via the striato-habenulo-mesencephalic system.

  16. Spontaneous generation of anchorless prions in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Jan; Watts, Joel C; Legname, Giuseppe; Oehler, Abby; Lemus, Azucena; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B; Sussman, Joshua; Wille, Holger; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B; Giles, Kurt

    2011-12-27

    Some prion protein mutations create anchorless molecules that cause Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease. To model GSS, we generated transgenic mice expressing cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) lacking the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor, denoted PrP(ΔGPI). Mice overexpressing PrP(ΔGPI) developed a late-onset, spontaneous neurologic dysfunction characterized by widespread amyloid deposition in the brain and the presence of a short protease-resistant PrP fragment similar to those found in GSS patients. In Tg(PrP,ΔGPI) mice, disease onset could be accelerated either by inoculation with brain homogenate prepared from spontaneously ill animals or by coexpression of membrane-anchored, full-length PrP(C). In contrast, coexpression of N-terminally truncated PrP(Δ23-88) did not affect disease progression. Remarkably, disease from ill Tg(PrP,ΔGPI) mice transmitted to mice expressing wild-type PrP(C), indicating the spontaneous generation of prions.

  17. N-glycans and metastasis in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    More, Shyam K; Srinivasan, Nithya; Budnar, Srikanth; Bane, Sanjay M; Upadhya, Archana; Thorat, Rahul A; Ingle, Arvind D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2015-05-01

    Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) on N-glycans facilitate lung specific metastasis of melanoma cells by serving as high affinity ligands for galectin-3, expressed in highest amounts in the lungs, on almost all its tissue compartments including on the surface of vascular endothelium. PolyLacNAc not only aids in initial arrest on the organ endothelium but in all the events of extravasation. Inhibition of polyLacNAc synthesis, or competitive inhibition of its interaction with galectin-3 all inhibited these processes and experimental metastasis. Transgenic galectin-3 mice, viz., gal-3(+/+) (wild type), gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and gal-3(-/-) (null) have been used to prove that galectin-3/polyLacNAc interactions are indeed critical for lung specific metastasis. Gal-3(+/-) mice which showed <50% expression of galectin-3 on the lungs also showed proportionate decrease in the number of B16F10 melanoma metastatic colonies affirming that galectin-3 and polyLacNAc interactions are indeed key determinants of lung metastasis. However, surprisingly, the number and size of metastatic colonies in gal-3(-/-) mice was very similar as that seen in gal-3(+/+) mice. The levels of lactose binding lectins on the lungs and the transcripts of other galectins (galectin-1, -8 and -9) which are expressed on lungs and have similar sugar binding specificities as galectins-3, remain unchanged in gal-3(+/+) and gal-3(-/-) mice. Further, inhibition of N-glycosylation with Swainsonine (SW) which drastically reduces metastasis of B16F10 cells in gal-3(+/+) mice, did not affect lung metastasis when assessed in gal-3(-/-) mice. Together, these results rule out the possibility of some other galectin taking over the function of galectin-3 in gal-3(-/-) mice. Chimeric mice generated to assess if absence of any effect on metastasis is due to compromised tumor immunity by replacing bone marrow of gal-3(-/-) mice with that from gal-3(+/+) mice, also failed to impact melanoma metastasis. As galectin-3

  18. Pathogenesis of Chronic Wasting Disease in Cervidized Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Davis M.; Mason, Gary L.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, endemic prion disease of wild and captive cervids, including deer, elk, and moose. Typical of prion diseases, CWD is characterized by the conversion of the native, protease-sensitive protein PrPC to a protease-resistant isoform, denoted as PrPRES. Here we have studied the expression of cervid PrPC and the pathogenesis of CWD infection in transgenic mice expressing the normal cervid prion protein (Tg[CerPrP] mice). Using tissue-based in situ immunohistochemistry protocols, we first identified cervid PrPC expression in the lymphoid, nervous, hemopoietic, endocrine, and certain epithelial tissues of Tg[CerPrP] mice. Tg[CerPrP] mice were then inoculated with CWD via one of four routes (intracerebral, intravenous, intraperitoneal, or oral); all groups developed spongiform encephalopathy, although the oral route required a larger infecting dose. Incubation periods were 184 ± 13, 218 ± 15, 200 ± 7, and 350 ± 27 days after inoculation, respectively. In longitudinal studies, we tracked the appearance of PrPRES in the brain, spleen, Peyer’s patches, lymph nodes, pancreatic islets of Langerhans, bone marrow, and salivary glands of preclinical and terminal mice. In addition, we documented horizontal transmission of CWD from inoculated mice and to un-inoculated cohabitant cage-mates. This work documents the multiroute susceptibility, pathogenesis, and lateral transmission of CWD infection in Tg[CerPrP] mice, affirming this model as a robust system to study this cervid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:20395435

  19. Multiple Cystic Sweat Gland Tumors in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Nadine; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Zhang, Fanmao; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Hamir, Amir N

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe gross and microscopic sweat gland tumors found in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, which had transforming growth factor α under the control of mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV–TGFα). Initially, 20% of the mice in the colony were affected. Cystic lesions formed on the phalanges, palmar surfaces of the metacarpals, and plantar surfaces of the metatarsals. The lesions were multifocal and nonulcerated with straw-colored fluid, ranging in size from 1 to 30 mm at the largest dimension. The colony was monitored for 6 mo; during that time, the prevalence of lesions increased to 52% of the mice. Histologically, in most cases the cyst walls were lined by 1 or 2 layers of normal-appearing epithelial cells that resembled basal cells, indicating adenoma. However, 2 cysts from 2 different mice had papillary proliferative projections and extensive disorganized glandular structures that protruded into the cyst cavities, indicating adenocarcinoma. In these 2 cases, the neoplastic cells revealed architectural and cytologic atypia with rare mitoses. Similar findings have previously been observed in sweat gland tumors; however, multiple sweat-gland tumors have not been reported in mice. PMID:22330648

  20. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wen-Ta; Li, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shen-Kao; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chen, Hung-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that β-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through β-catenin signaling pathway.

  1. Spontaneous generation of infectious prion disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan-María; Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrP(C) causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrP(C) sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrP(C) sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrP(C) mutations.

  2. Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Joaquín; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adan, Alfonso; Andréoletti, Olivier; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Arroba, Ana-Isabel; Parra-Arrondo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Isidro; Manzanares, Jorge; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations. PMID:24274622

  3. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice.

  4. Photoacoustic imaging of vascular networks in transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, J. G.; Cleary, J. O.; Zhang, E. Z.; Lythgoe, M. F.; Beard, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    The preferential absorption of near infrared light by blood makes photoacoustic imaging well suited to visualising vascular structures in soft tissue. In addition, the spectroscopic specificity of tissue chromophores can be exploited by acquiring images at multiple excitation wavelengths. This allows the quantification of endogenous chromophores, such as oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, and hence blood oxygenation, and the detection of exogenous chromophores, such as functionalised contrast agents. More importantly, this approach has the potential to visualise the spatial distribution of low concentrations of functionalised contrast agents against the strong background absorption of the endogenous chromophores. This has a large number of applications in the life sciences. One example is the structural and functional phenotyping of transgenic mice for the study of the genetic origins of vascular malformations, such as heart defects. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos have been acquired to study the development of the vasculature following specific genetic knockouts.

  5. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  6. Memory deficits correlating with acetylcholinesterase splice shift and amyloid burden in doubly transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tina M; Berson, Amit; Sklan, Ella H; Younkin, Linda; Younkin, Steven; Brimijoin, Stephen; Soreq, Hermona

    2005-07-01

    Current mouse models of Alzheimer's disease show brain pathology that correlates to a degree with memory impairment, but underlying molecular mechanisms remained unknown. Here we report studies with three lines of transgenic mice: animals that doubly express mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) and human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE); and animals transgenic for only the APPswe or the hAChE. Among these genotypes, variations were observed in expression of mRNA for presenilin-1, which was highest in singly transgenic hAChE mice, and the stress-inducible form of AChE, which was elevated when both transgenes were present. At the age of nine months, both double and single transgenic mice displayed working memory impairment in a radial arm water maze. However, as compared with mice expressing amyloid alone, the double transgenic animals exhibited more numerous plaques and greater amyloid burden in brain (both by histochemistry and by ELISA of amyloid protein). Moreover, the amyloid burden in double transgenics was tightly correlated with memory impairment as measured by total maze errors (r2= 0.78, p = .002). This correlation was markedly stronger than observed in mice with amyloid alone. These new findings support the notion of cholinergic-amyloid interrelationships and highlight the double transgenic mice as a promising alternative for testing Alzheimer's therapies.

  7. Chronic estrogen-induced cervical and vaginal squamous carcinogenesis in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, J M; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1996-04-02

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including type 16, have been identified as factors in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the presence and expression of the virus per se appear to be insufficient for carcinogenesis. Rather, cofactors most likely are necessary in addition to viral gene expression to initiate neoplasia. One candidate cofactor is prolonged exposure to sex hormones. To examine the possible effects of estrogen on HPV-associated neoplasia, we treated transgenic mice expressing the oncogenes of HPV16 under control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14-HPV16 transgenic mice) and nontransgenic control mice with slow release pellets of 17beta-estradiol. Squamous carcinomas developed in a multistage pathway exclusively in the vagina and cervix of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice. Estrogen-induced carcinogenesis was accompanied by an incremental increase in the incidence and distribution of proliferating cells solely within the cervical and vaginal squamous epithelium of K14-HPV16 mice. Expression of the HPV transgenes in untreated transgenic mice was detectable only during estrus; estrogen treatment resulted in transgene expression that was persistent but not further upregulated, remaining at low levels at all stages of carcinogenesis. The data demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergistic cooperation between chronic estrogen exposure and the oncogenes of HPV16 that coordinates squamous carcinogenesis in the female reproductive tract of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

  8. Early Axonopathy Preceding Neurofibrillary Tangles in Mutant Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Karelle; Bretteville, Alexis; Schindowski, Katharina; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Yilmaz, Zehra; Buée, Luc; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by brain and spinal cord involvement often show widespread accumulations of tau aggregates. We have generated a transgenic mouse line (Tg30tau) expressing in the forebrain and the spinal cord a human tau protein bearing two pathogenic mutations (P301S and G272V). These mice developed age-dependent brain and hippocampal atrophy, central and peripheral axonopathy, progressive motor impairment with neurogenic muscle atrophy, and neurofibrillary tangles and had decreased survival. Axonal spheroids and axonal atrophy developed early before neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary inclusions developed in neurons at 3 months and were of two types, suggestive of a selective vulnerability of neurons to form different types of fibrillary aggregates. A first type of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the forebrain, were composed of ribbon-like 19-nm-wide filaments and twisted paired helical filaments. A second type of tau and neurofilament-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the spinal cord and the brainstem, were composed of 10-nm-wide neurofilaments and straight 19-nm filaments. Unbiased stereological analysis indicated that total number of pyramidal neurons and density of neurons in the lumbar spinal cord were not reduced up to 12 months in Tg30tau mice. This Tg30tau model thus provides evidence that axonopathy precedes tangle formation and that both lesions can be dissociated from overt neuronal loss in selected brain areas but not from neuronal dysfunction. PMID:17690183

  9. Expression profiling of microRNAs in optineurin (E50K) mutant transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Jiang, B O; Lei, Dawei; Zhou, Xinrong; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-02-01

    An E50K substitution in the transcription factor optineurin (OPTN) induces primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To explore the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in E50K OPTN-induced POAG, miRNA expression profiling was performed on retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic and wild-type mice. The retinas were collected from 30 transgenic and 30 wild-type mice, and miRNA expression was evaluated using a genome-wide miRNA microarray. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice were identified and validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additional gene ontology and signaling pathway analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. A total of 48 miRNAs exhibited increased or decreased expression in the retinas from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice when compared with the expression in the retinas from wild-type mice. A total of 5 miRNAs with increased expression in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice could be grouped into one cluster as they belong to the miR-8 family and may act as regulators in the development of POAG in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice. RT-qPCR results confirmed significantly increased expression of miR-141 in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these results show that certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice and may play roles in the pathogenesis of POAG induced by OPTN (E50K).

  10. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  11. Neuropathological changes in transgenic mice carrying copies of a transcriptionally activated Mos protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Propst, F; Rosenberg, M P; Cork, L C; Kovatch, R M; Rauch, S; Westphal, H; Khillan, J; Schulz, N T; Vande Woude, G F; Neumann, P E; Newmann, P E

    1990-12-01

    Independent transgenic mouse lines carrying the mouse Mos protooncogene linked to a retroviral transcriptional control sequence display behavioral abnormalities including circling, head tilting, and head bobbing. This dominant phenotype shows various degrees of penetrance in different transgenic founder animals and lines. Neuronal and axonal degeneration, gliosis, and inflammatory infiltrates are found in all transgenic mouse lines in which behavioral traits are present. Recordings of auditory-evoked potentials in mice of one of these lines demonstrate that transgenic mice are deaf; in these mice spiral ganglia degenerate and most of the cochlear hair cells are absent. By using an S1 nuclease protection assay, we have detected RNA expression of the transgene in all tissues examined and, in particular, at high levels in brain. In situ hybridization experiments show that Mos expression can be detected in specific areas of the central nervous system. Lesions are present in areas with demonstrable overexpression of Mos.

  12. Overexpression of apolipoprotein AII in transgenic mice converts high density lipoproteins to proinflammatory particles.

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, L W; Navab, M; Van Lenten, B J; Hedrick, C C; Hama, S Y; Goto, A M; Fogelman, A M; Lusis, A J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transgenic mice overexpressing either apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) or apolipoprotein AII (apoAII), the major proteins of HDL, exhibited elevated levels of HDL cholesterol, but, whereas the apoAI-transgenic mice were protected against atherosclerosis, the apoAII-transgenic mice had increased lesion development. We now examine the basis for this striking functional heterogeneity. HDL from apoAI transgenics exhibited an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages, but HDL from apoAII transgenics and nontransgenics were not discernibly different in efflux studies. In contrast with HDL from nontransgenics and apoAI transgenics, HDL from the apoAII transgenics were unable to protect against LDL oxidation in a coculture model of the artery wall. Furthermore, HDL taken from apoAII-transgenic mice, but not HDL taken from either the apoAI transgenics or nontransgenic littermate controls, by itself stimulated lipid hydroperoxide formation in artery wall cells and induced monocyte transmigration, indicating that the apoAII-transgenic HDL were in fact proinflammatory. This loss in the ability of the apoAII-transgenic HDL to function as an antioxidant/antiinflammatory agent was associated with a decreased content of paraoxonase, an enzyme that protects against LDL oxidation. Reconstitution of the apoAII transgenic HDL with purified paraoxonase restored both paraoxonase activity and the ability to protect against LDL oxidation. We conclude that overexpression of apoAII converts HDL from an anti- to a proinflammatory particle and that paraoxonase plays a role in this transformation. PMID:9218525

  13. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  14. The construction and expression of lysine-rich gene in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2012-08-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEO(r) was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.

  15. Enhanced UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in transgenic mice overexpressing proprotein convertases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Bassi, Daniel E; Zhang, Jirong; Li, Tianyu; Cai, Kathy Q; Testa, Courtney Lyons; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Klein-Szanto, Andres J

    2013-02-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin and PACE4 process numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We have previously shown that PCs increase the susceptibility to chemical skin carcinogenesis. Because of the human relevancy of UV radiation in the etiopathogenesis of human skin cancer, we investigated whether or not transgenic mice overexpressing either furin alone or both furin and PACE4 show increased susceptibility to UV carcinogenesis. After backcrossing our previously described furin and PACE4 transgenic lines, targeted to the epidermis, into a SKH-1 background, we exposed both single and double transgenic mice to UV radiation for 34 weeks. The results showed an increase in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) multiplicity of approximately 70% in the single furin transgenic mouse line SF47 (P < .002) and a 30% increase in the other single transgenic line SF49 when compared to wild-type (WT) SKH-1 mice. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the percentage of high histologic grade SCCs in the transgenic lines compared to the WT mice, i.e., WT = 9%, SF47 = 15%, and SF49 = 26% (P < .02). Targeting both furin and PACE4 to the epidermis in double transgenic mice did not have an additive effect on tumor incidence/multiplicity but did enhance the tumor histopathologic grade, i.e., a significant increase in higher grade SCCs was seen in the bigenic mouse line SPF47 (P < .02). Thus, we observed an increased susceptibility to UV in single furin transgenic mice that was not substantially enhanced in the double furin/PACE4 transgenic mice.

  16. Insulitis in transgenic mice expressing tumor necrosis factor beta (lymphotoxin) in the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Picarella, D E; Kratz, A; Li, C B; Ruddle, N H; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta) (lymphotoxin) may play an important role in the immune response and pathologic inflammatory diseases. Insulitis is an important early step in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To understand better the role of TNF-beta in the regulation of inflammation and type 1 diabetes, we produced transgenic mice in which the murine TNF-beta gene was regulated by the rat insulin II promoter. The transgene was expressed in the pancreas, kidney, and skin of transgenic mice. The expression of TNF-beta in the pancreas of transgenic mice resulted in a leukocytic inflammatory infiltrate consisting primarily of B220+ IgM+ B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The insulitis is reminiscent of the early stages of diabetes, though the mice did not progress to diabetes. Images PMID:1279667

  17. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  18. Robust generation of transgenic mice by simple hypotonic solution mediated delivery of transgene in testicular germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Abul; Ganguli, Nirmalya; Jain, Subodh K; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Sarkar, Rajesh Kumar; Choubey, Mayank; Shukla, Mansi; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to decipher gene sequences has increased enormously with the advent of modern sequencing tools, but the ability to divulge functions of new genes have not increased correspondingly. This has caused a remarkable delay in functional interpretation of several newly found genes in tissue and age specific manner, limiting the pace of biological research. This is mainly due to lack of advancements in methodological tools for transgenesis. Predominantly practiced method of transgenesis by pronuclear DNA-microinjection is time consuming, tedious, and requires highly skilled persons for embryo-manipulation. Testicular electroporation mediated transgenesis requires use of electric current to testis. To this end, we have now developed an innovative technique for making transgenic mice by giving hypotonic shock to male germ cells for the gene delivery. Desired transgene was suspended in hypotonic Tris-HCl solution (pH 7.0) and simply injected in testis. This resulted in internalization of the transgene in dividing germ-cells residing at basal compartment of tubules leading to its integration in native genome of mice. Such males generated transgenic progeny by natural mating. Several transgenic animals can be generated with minimum skill within short span of time by this easily adaptable novel technique. PMID:27933305

  19. Developmental abnormalities in mice transgenic for bovine oncostatin M.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, N; Haugen, H S; Modrell, B; Shoyab, M; Clegg, C H

    1995-01-01

    Oncostatin M belongs to the subfamily of hematopoietin cytokines that binds a receptor complex containing gp130. To date, only the human form of oncostatin M has been identified, and its evolutionary conservation is unresolved. We have isolated a bovine gene whose open reading frame encodes a precursor protein that is 58% identical to human oncostatin M. A comparison of the bovine and human amino acid sequences predicts significant similarity, including the four-alpha-helical-bundle structure and the placement of disulfide bridges. As with the human protein, bovine oncostatin M binds specific receptors on human H2981 cells and inhibits the proliferation of human A375 tumor cells and mouse M1 leukemia cells. To identify activities regulated in vivo, we injected bovine oncostatin M fusion genes containing various tissue-specific promoters into mouse embryos. The frequencies of transgenic mice were reduced significantly, suggesting that overexpression of the bovine cytokine is detrimental to normal mouse development. In addition to deaths associated with expression in neurons and keratinized epithelia, bovine oncostatin M caused abnormalities in bone growth and spermatogenesis, stimulated fibrosis surrounding islets in the pancreas, and disrupted normal lymphoid tissue development. This work establishes the existence of a nonprimate oncostatin M gene and provides the first demonstration that this cytokine can function in a pleiotropic manner in vivo. Information regarding bovine oncostatin M may help characterize the structure and function of this cytokine in other vertebrate species. PMID:7739518

  20. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, M.J.; Stoltzfus, L.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Lawn, R.M.

    1994-03-15

    The atherogenic macromolecule lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has resisted in vivo analyses partly because it is found in a limited number of experimental animals. Although transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] have previously been described, they failed to assemble Lp(a) particles because of the inability of human apo(a) to associate with mouse apolipoprotein B (apoB). The authors isolated a 90-kilobase P1 phagemid containing the human apoB gene and with this DNA generated 13 lines of transgenic mice of which 11 expressed human apoB. The human apoB transcript was expressed and edited in the liver of the transgenic mice. Plasma concentrations of human apoB, as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL), were related to transgene copy number; the transgenic line with the most copies of human apoB had a >4-fold increase in LDL cholesterol compared with nontransgenics and a lipoprotein profile similar to that of humans. When human apoB and apo(a) transgenic mice were bred together, plasma apo(a) in mice expressing both human proteins was tightly associated with lipoproteins in the LDL density region. These studies demonstrate the successful expression of human apoB and the efficient assembly of Lp(a) in mice.

  1. Unstable expression of transgene is associated with the methylation of CAG promoter in the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Qin-Kai; Jiang, Ying; Xu, Deng-Gao; Zhang, Min; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic animals have been established for studying gene function, improving animals' production traits, and providing organ models for the exploration of human diseases. However, the stability of inheritance and transgene expression in transgenic animals has gained extensive attention. The unstable expression of transgene through DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) targeting to the methylation of transgenic DNA such as CAG promoter and Egfp coding region in homozygous transgenic animals is still unknown. In the present study, the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice carrying ubiquitously expressed enhanced green fluorescence protein driven by CMV early enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter was observed to have unstable expression of transgene Egfp, quantitative PCR, western blot and bisulfite sequencing were conducted to quantify the expressional characteristics and methylation levels in various tissues. The correlation between transgene expression and methylation was analyzed. We have found that transgene expression is dependent on the methylation of CAG promoter, but not Egfp coding region. We have also characterized the correlation between the methylation of CAG promoter and DNMT, and found that only Dnmt3b expression is correlated with the methylation of CAG promoter. In conclusion, Dnmt3b-related methylation of CAG promoter can inhibit the transgene expression and may result in the unstable expression of transgene in the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice.

  2. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice.

  3. High blood pressure in transgenic mice carrying the rat angiotensinogen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, S; Mullins, J J; Bunnemann, B; Metzger, R; Hilgenfeldt, U; Zimmermann, F; Jacob, H; Fuxe, K; Ganten, D; Kaling, M

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated by injecting the entire rat angiotensinogen gene into the germline of NMRI mice. The resulting transgenic animals were characterized with respect to hemodynamics, parameters of the renin angiotension system, and expression of the transgene. The transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)123 developed hypertension with a mean arterial blood pressure of 158 mmHg in males and 132 mmHg in females. In contrast, the transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)92 was not hypertensive. Rat angiotensinogen was detectable only in plasma of animals of line 123. Total plasma angiotensinogen and plasma angiotensin II concentrations were about three times as high as those of negative control mice. In TGM(rAOGEN)123 the transgene was highly expressed in liver and brain. Transcripts were also detected in heart, kidney and testis. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the brain was the main expressing organ. In situ hybridization revealed an mRNA distribution in the brain of TGM(rAOGEN)123 similar to the one in rat. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the expression pattern in the brain was aberrant. These data indicate that overexpression of the angiotensinogen gene in liver and brain leads to the development of hypertension in transgenic mice. The TGM(rAOGEN)123 constitutes a high angiotensin II type of hypertension and may provide a new experimental animal model to study the kinetics and function of the renin angiotensin system. Images PMID:1547785

  4. Metabolic effects of transgenic melanocyte-stimulating hormone overexpression in lean and obese mice.

    PubMed

    Savontaus, Eriika; Breen, Tracy L; Kim, Andrea; Yang, Lucy M; Chua, Streamson C; Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2004-08-01

    The proopiomelanocortin-derived peptide, alpha-MSH, inhibits feeding via melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus and genetic defects inactivating the melanocortin system have been shown to lead to obesity in experimental animals and humans. To determine whether long-term melanocortinergic activation has significant effects on body weight and composition and insulin sensitivity, transgenic mice overexpressing N-terminal proopiomelanocortin, including alpha- and gamma(3)-MSH, under the control of the cytomegalovirus-promoter were generated. The transgene was expressed in multiple tissues including the hypothalamus, in which both alpha-MSH and gamma(3)-MSH levels were increased approximately 2-fold, compared with wild-type controls. Transgene homozygous mice were also crossed with obese leptin receptor-deficient db(3J) and obese yellow A(y) mice. MSH overexpression led to uniform, dose- dependent darkening of coat color. MSH overexpression reduced weight gain and adiposity and improved glucose tolerance in lean male mice. In female transgenic mice, there was no significant effect on body weight, but there was a significant decrease in insulin levels. Obesity was attenuated in obese db(3J)/db(3J) male and female mice, but there was no improvement in glucose metabolism. In contrast, the MSH transgene improved glucose tolerance in male A(y) mice. These results support the hypothesis that long-term melanocortinergic activation could serve as a potential strategy for anti-obesity and/or antidiabetic therapy.

  5. Transgenic mice expressing a human mutant beta1 thyroid receptor are hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive.

    PubMed

    Siesser, W B; Zhao, J; Miller, L R; Cheng, S-Y; McDonald, M P

    2006-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. We have found that a transgenic mouse bearing a human mutant thyroid receptor (TRbeta1) expresses all of the defining symptoms of ADHD--inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity--as well as a 'paradoxical' response to methylphenidate (MPH). As with ADHD, the behavioral phenotypes expressed by the TRbeta transgenic mice are dynamic and sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, stress, and reinforcement. TRbeta transgenic mice are euthyroid except for a brief period during postnatal development, but the behavioral phenotypes, elevated dopamine turnover, and paradoxical response to MPH persist into adulthood. Thus, like the vast majority of children with ADHD, the TRbeta transgenic mice exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in the complete absence of thyroid abnormalities. This suggests that even transient perturbations in developmental thyroid homeostasis can have long-lasting behavioral and cognitive consequences, including producing the full spectrum of symptoms of ADHD.

  6. Effect of maternal aging on transgene heritability in transgenic founder mice derived from zygotes microinjected with retroviral long terminal repeat-containing recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, T H; Yang, W K; Hoyt, P R; Ch'ang, L Y; Savin, T J

    1993-05-01

    To determine the stability of artificially introduced recombinant DNA in the mouse germline throughout the reproductive life, founder mice derived from fertilized eggs injected with retroviral long-terminal-repeat-containing recombinant DNAs were mated with congenic FVB/N mice. Tail DNA of all progeny were screened and restriction fragment patterns of the transgenes were examined. Litter size and percentage of transgene transmission at various reproductive age periods were analyzed. Microinjection of 1737 eggs with four different recombinant DNAs resulted in 12 female and 11 male transgenic mice; 2 males were sterile and the remaining 21 mice served as founders to produce 1087 F1 progeny. With increasing parental age, litter size decreased generally. The percentage of progeny inheriting the transgenes declined markedly with increasing aging of 4 female founders; this aging effect was not observed in male founders (p < 0.005). No apparent change in transgenes was detected in progeny from late reproductive stages.

  7. Lower skeletal muscle mass in male transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of myostatin.

    PubMed

    Reisz-Porszasz, Suzanne; Bhasin, Shalender; Artaza, Jorge N; Shen, Ruoqing; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Hogue, Aimee; Fielder, Thomas J; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in the myostatin gene are associated with hypermuscularity, suggesting that myostatin inhibits skeletal muscle growth. We postulated that increased tissue-specific expression of myostatin protein in skeletal muscle would induce muscle loss. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress myostatin protein selectively in the skeletal muscle, with or without ancillary expression in the heart, utilizing cDNA constructs in which a wild-type (MCK/Mst) or mutated muscle creatine kinase (MCK-3E/Mst) promoter was placed upstream of mouse myostatin cDNA. Transgenic mice harboring these MCK promoters linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressed the reporter protein only in skeletal and cardiac muscles (MCK) or in skeletal muscle alone (MCK-3E). Seven-week-old animals were genotyped by PCR of tail DNA or by Southern blot analysis of liver DNA. Myostatin mRNA and protein, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, were significantly higher in gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior of MCK/Mst-transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Male MCK/Mst-transgenic mice had 18-24% lower hind- and forelimb muscle weight and 18% reduction in quadriceps and gastrocnemius fiber cross-sectional area and myonuclear number (immunohistochemistry) than wild-type male mice. Male transgenic mice with mutated MCK-3E promoter showed similar effects on muscle mass. However, female transgenic mice with either type of MCK promoter did not differ from wild-type controls in either body weight or skeletal muscle mass. In conclusion, increased expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle is associated with lower muscle mass and decreased fiber size and myonuclear number, decreased cardiac muscle mass, and increased fat mass in male mice, consistent with its role as an inhibitor of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanism of gender specificity remains to be clarified.

  8. Reduction of Abeta amyloid pathology in APPPS1 transgenic mice in the absence of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harach, T; Marungruang, N; Duthilleul, N; Cheatham, V; Mc Coy, K D; Frisoni, G; Neher, J J; Fåk, F; Jucker, M; Lasser, T; Bolmont, T

    2017-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in the western world, however there is no cure available for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Despite clinical and experimental evidence implicating the intestinal microbiota in a number of brain disorders, its impact on Alzheimer's disease is not known. To this end we sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA from fecal samples of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse model and found a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota as compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice. Subsequently we generated germ-free APP transgenic mice and found a drastic reduction of cerebral Aβ amyloid pathology when compared to control mice with intestinal microbiota. Importantly, colonization of germ-free APP transgenic mice with microbiota from conventionally-raised APP transgenic mice increased cerebral Aβ pathology, while colonization with microbiota from wild-type mice was less effective in increasing cerebral Aβ levels. Our results indicate a microbial involvement in the development of Abeta amyloid pathology, and suggest that microbiota may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Effect of Vandetanib on Lung Tumorigenesis in Transgenic Mice Carrying an Activating Egfr Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masahiro; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Kubo, Toshio; Ichihara, Eiki; Takata, Saburo; Takigawa, Nagio; Takata, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Vandetanib (ZactimaTM) is a novel, orally available inhibitor of both vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. In the present study, a line of transgenic mice with a mouse Egfr gene mutation (delE748-A752) corresponding to a human EGFR mutation (delE746-A750) was established. The transgenic mice developed atypical adenomatous hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma of the lung at around 5 weeks of age and died of lung tumors at approximately 17 weeks of age. In the mice treated with vandetanib (6mg/kg/day), these lung tumors disappeared and the phosphorylations of EGFR and VEGFR-2 were reduced in lung tissues to levels comparable to those of non-transgenic control mice. The median overall survival time of the transgenic mice was 28 weeks in the vandetanib-treated group and 17 weeks in the vehicle-treated group. Vandetanib significantly prolonged the survival of the transgenic mice (log-rank test, p< 0.01); resistance to vandetanib occurred at 20 weeks of age and the animals died from their lung tumors at about 28 weeks of age. These data suggest that vandetanib could suppress the progression of tumors harboring an activating EGFR mutation.

  10. Reduction of Abeta amyloid pathology in APPPS1 transgenic mice in the absence of gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Harach, T.; Marungruang, N.; Duthilleul, N.; Cheatham, V.; Mc Coy, K. D.; Frisoni, G.; Neher, J. J.; Fåk, F.; Jucker, M.; Lasser, T.; Bolmont, T.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in the western world, however there is no cure available for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Despite clinical and experimental evidence implicating the intestinal microbiota in a number of brain disorders, its impact on Alzheimer’s disease is not known. To this end we sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA from fecal samples of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse model and found a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota as compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice. Subsequently we generated germ-free APP transgenic mice and found a drastic reduction of cerebral Aβ amyloid pathology when compared to control mice with intestinal microbiota. Importantly, colonization of germ-free APP transgenic mice with microbiota from conventionally-raised APP transgenic mice increased cerebral Aβ pathology, while colonization with microbiota from wild-type mice was less effective in increasing cerebral Aβ levels. Our results indicate a microbial involvement in the development of Abeta amyloid pathology, and suggest that microbiota may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28176819

  11. Increased liver pathology in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, Victor V.; Lerat, Herve; Madden, Charles R.; Finegold, Milton J.; McGarvey, Michael J.; Mohammed, Essam M.A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Grona, Shala J.; Hollinger, F. Blaine; Slagle, Betty L. . E-mail: bslagle@bcm.edu

    2006-04-10

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified in 21% of HCV/ATX mice, but in none of the single transgenic animals. Analysis of 8-mo animals revealed that, relative to HCV/WT mice, HCV/ATX mice had more severe steatosis, greater liver-to-body weight ratios, and a significant increase in the percentage of hepatocytes staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes from HCV, ATX, and HCV/ATX transgenic mice were more resistant to fas-mediated apoptosis than hepatocytes from nontransgenic littermates. These results indicate that HBx expression contributes to increased liver pathogenesis in HCV transgenic mice by a mechanism that involves an imbalance in hepatocyte death and regeneration within the context of severe steatosis.

  12. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  13. An Abd transgene prevents diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice by inducing regulatory T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, S M; Tisch, R; Yang, X D; McDevitt, H O

    1993-01-01

    Susceptibility to the human autoimmune disease insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with particular haplotypes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Similarly, in a spontaneous animal model of this disease, the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, the genes of the MHC play an important role in the development of diabetes. We have produced transgenic NOD mice that express the class II MHC molecule I-Ad in addition to the endogenous I-Ag7 molecules in order to study the role of these molecules in the disease process. Although the inflammatory lesions within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas appear similar in transgenic and nontransgenic animals, transgenic mice develop diabetes with greatly diminished frequency compared to their nontransgenic littermates (10% of transgenic females by 30 weeks of age compared to 45% of nontransgenic females). Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments show that T cells present in the transgenic mice are able to interfere with the diabetogenic process caused by T cells from nontransgenic mice. Thus, the mechanism by which I-Ad molecules protect mice from diabetes includes selecting in the thymus and/or inducing in the periphery T cells capable of inhibiting diabetes development. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8415742

  14. The beta 1 integrin distal promoter is developmentally regulated in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, E; Balzac, F; Pastore, C; Tarone, G; Silengo, L; Altruda, F

    1993-12-01

    Transgenic mice harbouring 5' flanking sequences of the human beta 1 integrin gene linked to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene have been generated to examine spatial and temporal distribution of the promoter activity during development. Our previous data showed that this regulatory region is composed by two promoters, called distal and proximal, located closely on the human genome. To determine the role of each promoter region during development we generated transgenic mice using these two sequences linked to the lacZ reporter gene. Their analysis shows that these two sequences, as determined by in vitro studies, have different efficiencies in promoting transcription. Actually mice carrying the proximal promoter region exhibit a weak lacZ expression resulting in an undetectable beta-galactosidase activity in both embryonic and adult tissues. On the other hand, transgenic mice carrying the distal promoter express beta-galactosidase at high efficiency during embryonic development. The pattern of transgene expression is consistent with the localization of beta 1 protein on mouse embryos evidenced by immunohistochemistry. Moreover the distal promoter is subjected to a temporal modulation since in adult transgenic mice lacZ expression decreases to a level detected only by RT-PCR analysis. We have determined a similar down-regulation analysing by Northern blot beta 1 mRNA in adult and embryonic organs such as heart and gut.

  15. Transgenic knockout mice with exclusively human sickle hemoglobinand sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paszty, C.; Brion, C.; Manci, E.; Witkowska, E.; Stevens, M.; Narla, M.; Rubin, E.

    1997-06-13

    To create mice expressing exclusively human sicklehemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, andbeta[S]-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that haddeletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cellmice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia,multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, assuch, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development ofimproved therapies for this common genetic disease.

  16. Increased B cell proliferation and reduced Ig production in DREAM transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Savignac, Magali; Mellström, Britt; Bébin, Anne-Gaëlle; Oliveros, Juan C; Delpy, Laurent; Pinaud, Eric; Naranjo, Jose R

    2010-12-15

    DREAM/KChIP-3 is a calcium-dependent transcriptional repressor highly expressed in immune cells. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant active DREAM mutant show reduced serum Ig levels. In vitro assays show that reduced Ig secretion is an intrinsic defect of transgenic B cells that occurs without impairment in plasma cell differentiation, class switch recombination, or Ig transcription. Surprisingly, transgenic B cells show an accelerated entry in cell division. Transcriptomic analysis of transgenic B cells revealed that hyperproliferative B cell response could be correlated with a reduced expression of Klf9, a cell-cycle regulator. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that the defect in Ig production is associated with reduced translation rather than with increased protein degradation. Importantly, transgenic B cells showed reduced expression of the Eif4g3 gene, which encodes a protein related to protein translation. Our results disclose, to our knowledge, a novel function of DREAM in proliferation and Ig synthesis in B lymphocytes.

  17. Human umbilical cord blood cells ameliorate Alzheimer's disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ende, N; Chen, R; Ende-Harris, D

    2001-01-01

    Having had success in extending the life of mice with a transgene for amyotropic lateral sclerosis (SOD1) mice and Huntington's disease (Hdexon1), we administered megadoses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to mice with Alzheimer's disease. These mice have an over-expression of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), die early and develop a CNS disorder that includes neophobia. When given 110 x 10(6) human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, these mice (HuAPP 695.SWE) had considerable extension of life with a p value of 0.001 when compared to control animals.

  18. Overexpression of Thioredoxin in Transgenic Mice Attenuates Focal Ischemic Brain Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasushi; Mitsui, Akira; Nishiyama, Akira; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroshi; Gon, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Yodoi, Junji

    1999-03-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) plays important biological roles both in intra- and extracellular compartments, including in regulation of various intracellular molecules via thiol redox control. We produced TRX overexpressing mice and confirmed that there were no anatomical and physiological differences between wild-type (WT) mice and TRX transgenic (Tg) mice. In the present study we subjected mice to focal brain ischemia to shed light on the role of TRX in brain ischemic injury. At 24 hr after middle cerebral artery occlusion, infarct areas and volume were significantly smaller in Tg mice than in WT mice. Moreover neurological deficit was ameliorated in Tg mice compared with WT mice. Protein carbonyl content, a marker of cellular protein oxidation, in Tg mice showed less increase than did that of WT mice after the ischemic insult. Furthermore, c-fos expression in Tg mice was stronger than in WT mice 1 hr after ischemia. Our results suggest that transgene expression of TRX decreased ischemic neuronal injury and that TRX and the redox state modified by TRX play a crucial role in brain damage during stroke.

  19. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  20. Tumor prevention in HPV8 transgenic mice by HPV8-E6 DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Awerkiew, Sabine; Hufbauer, Martin; Schädlich, Lysann; Gissmann, Lutz; Eming, Sabine; Pfister, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    The genus beta human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in individuals with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Immunosuppressed transplant recipients are prone to harbor particularly high betapapillomavirus DNA loads, which may contribute to their highly increased risk of SCC. Tumor induction in HPV8 transgenic mice correlates with increased expression of viral oncogenes E6 and E2. In an attempt to prevent skin tumor development, we evaluated an HPV8-E6-DNA vaccine, which was able to stimulate a detectable HPV8-E6-specific cell-mediated immune response in 8/15 immunized mice. When skin of HPV8 transgenic mice was grafted onto non-transgenic littermates, the grafted HPV8 transgenic tissue was not rejected and papillomas started to grow within 14 days all over the transplant of 9/9 non-vaccinated and 7/15 not successfully vaccinated mice. In contrast, no papillomas developed in 6/8 successfully vaccinated mice. In the other two of these eight mice, a large ulcerative lesion developed within the initial papilloma growth or papilloma development was highly delayed. As the vaccine completely or partially prevented papilloma development without rejecting the transplanted HPV8 positive skin, the immune system appears to attack only keratinocytes with increased levels of E6 protein, which would give rise to papillomas.

  1. Neurologic disease induced in transgenic mice by cerebral overexpression of interleukin 6.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, I L; Abraham, C R; Masliah, E; Kemper, P; Inglis, J D; Oldstone, M B; Mucke, L

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines are thought to be important mediators in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). To explore this hypothesis, transgenic mice were generated in which the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), under the regulatory control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene promoter, was overexpressed in the CNS. A number of transgenic founder mice and their offspring exhibited a neurologic syndrome the severity of which correlated with the levels of cerebral IL-6 expression. Transgenic mice with high levels of IL-6 expression developed severe neurologic disease characterized by runting, tremor, ataxia, and seizure. Neuropathologic manifestations included neuro-degeneration, astrocytosis, angiogenesis, and induction of acute-phase-protein production. These findings indicate that cytokines such as IL-6 can have a direct pathogenic role in inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative CNS diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7694279

  2. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Juri; E-mail: juri-f@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2005-07-22

    Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have recently reported that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) could differentiate into mesenchymal lineages in vitro. In this study, we performed neural induction using ASCs from GFP transgenic mice and were able to induce these ASCs into neuronal and glial cell lineages. Most of the neurally induced cells showed bipolar or multipolar appearance morphologically and expressed neuronal markers. Electron microscopy revealed their neuronal morphology. Some cells also showed glial phenotypes, as shown immunocytochemically. The present study clearly shows that ASCs derived from GFP transgenic mice differentiate into neural lineages in vitro, suggesting that these cells might provide an ideal source for further neural stem cell research with possible therapeutic application for neurological disorders.

  3. Double transgenic mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus develop somatic, metabolic and vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Radu, D L; Georgescu, Adriana; Stavaru, Crina; Carale, Alina; Popov, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The double transgenic mice (dTg) were obtained by mating: (i) transgenic mice expressing the hemagglutinin of influenza virus under the insulin promoter with (ii) transgenic mice expressing specific T lymphocytes with receptor for the immunodominant epitope of the same virus. In this study we show that dTg mice developed type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with hyperglycemia, low level of plasma insulin, glucosuria, weight loss and approximately 90% mortality (at 3 months biological age). The membrane of red blood cells was more sensitive to osmotic shock in diabetic mice, compared to non-diabetic mice, assessing systemic oxidative stress. Both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation of the renal arteries decreased significantly in diabetic mice (compared to the control group of non-diabetic mice) related to the phenotypic change of endothelium and smooth muscle cells within the artery wall. This animal model, may be used in developing various strategies to study pancreatic beta-cell function, as well as for a better metabolic control conducting to a reduced risk of vascular complications.

  4. Hyperactive hypothalamus, motivated and non-distractible chronic overeating in ADAR2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Akubuiro, A; Bridget Zimmerman, M; Boles Ponto, L L; Walsh, S A; Sunderland, J; McCormick, L; Singh, M

    2013-04-01

    ADAR2 transgenic mice misexpressing the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 (Adenosine Deaminase that act on RNA) show characteristics of overeating and experience adult onset obesity. Behavioral patterns and brain changes related to a possible addictive overeating in these transgenic mice were explored as transgenic mice display chronic hyperphagia. ADAR2 transgenic mice were assessed in their food preference and motivation to overeat in a competing reward environment with ad lib access to a running wheel and food. Metabolic activity of brain and peripheral tissue were assessed with [(18) F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and RNA expression of feeding related genes, ADAR2, dopamine and opiate receptors from the hypothalamus and striatum were examined. The results indicate that ADAR2 transgenic mice exhibit, (1) a food preference for diets with higher fat content, (2) significantly increased food intake that is non-distractible in a competing reward environment, (3) significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of ADAR2, serotonin 2C receptor (5HT2C R), D1, D2 and mu opioid receptors and no change in corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs and significantly reduced ADAR2 protein expression in the hypothalamus, (4) significantly increased D1 receptor and altered bioamines with no change in ADAR2, mu opioid and D2 receptor mRNA expression in the striatum and (5) significantly greater glucose metabolism in the hypothalamus, brain stem, right hippocampus, left and right mid brain regions and suprascapular peripheral tissue than controls. These results suggest that highly motivated and goal-oriented overeating behaviors of ADAR2 transgenic mice are associated with altered feeding, reward-related mRNAs and hyperactive brain mesolimbic region.

  5. Transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing fluorescent proteins for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In the adult mice, many organs brightly expressed GFP, including the spleen, heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum as well as the circulatory system. The liver expressed GFP at a lesser level. The red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, liver, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescence signals of all internal organs, which vary in intensity. The GFP, RFP, and CFP nude mice when transplanted with cancer cells of another color are powerful models for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) at the cellular level.

  6. Somatic generation of hybrid antibody H chain genes in transgenic mice via interchromosomal gene conversion

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed lines of mice with transgenes containing an antibody heavy (H) chain variable region (VHDJH) gene and various amounts of natural immunoglobulin (Ig) and plasmid flanking DNA. In these lines, recombination of the transgene and the endogenous Igh locus takes place in B cells, leading to the expression of functional H chains partially encoded by the transgenic VHDJH gene. Here, we demonstrate that the transgenic VHDJH gene, and various amounts of flanking sequence are recombined with Igh locus DNA via interchromosomal gene conversion. The structures of the resulting "hybrid" transgene-Igh H chain loci are consistent with the 3' end of the conversion occurring in regions of sequence identity, and the 5' end taking place between regions of little or no homology. This mode of antibody transgene recombination with the Igh locus is fundamentally different from the previously reported "trans H chain class switching" that results in reciprocal translocations. In contrast, this recombination resembles events previously observed in mammalian tissue culture cells between adjacent homologous chromosomal sequences, or transfected DNA and a homologous chromosomal target. Our data indicate that this recombination takes place at a low frequency, and that the frequency is influenced by both the length and extent of homology between the transgene and the Igh locus, but is not greatly affected by transgene copy number. This recombination pathway provides a novel approach for the subtle alteration of the clonal composition of the mouse B cell compartment in vivo using VH genes with defined structures and functions. PMID:8270869

  7. Degeneration of proprioceptive sensory nerve endings in mice harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sydney K; Kemp, Zachary; Hatzipetros, Theo; Vieira, Fernando; Valdez, Gregorio

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily targets the motor system. Although much is known about the effects of ALS on motor neurons and glial cells, little is known about its effect on proprioceptive sensory neurons. This study examines proprioceptive sensory neurons in mice harboring mutations associated with ALS, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. In both transgenic lines, we found fewer proprioceptive sensory neurons containing fluorescently tagged cholera toxin in their soma five days after injecting this retrograde tracer into the tibialis anterior muscle. We asked whether this is due to neuronal loss or selective degeneration of peripheral nerve endings. We found no difference in the total number and size of proprioceptive sensory neuron soma between symptomatic SOD1(G93A) and control mice. However, analysis of proprioceptive nerve endings in muscles revealed early and significant alterations at Ia/II proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Although these changes occur alongside those at α-motor axons in SOD1(G93A) mice, Ia/II sensory nerve endings degenerate in the absence of obvious alterations in α-motor axons in TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. We next asked whether proprioceptive nerve endings are similarly affected in the spinal cord and found that nerve endings terminating on α-motor neurons are affected during the symptomatic phase and after peripheral nerve endings begin to degenerate. Overall, we show that Ia/II proprioceptive sensory neurons are affected by ALS-causing mutations, with pathological changes starting at their peripheral nerve endings.

  8. Non-Motor and Motor Features in LRRK2 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bichler, Zoë; Lim, Han Chi; Zeng, Li; Tan, Eng King

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models. Objective Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms. Methodology We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction), and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls. Conclusions LRRK2R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated. PMID:23936174

  9. Effect of Hypertriglyceridemia on Beta Cell Mass and Function in ApoC3 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Zi; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ting; Lee, Sojin; Yamauchi, Jun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Gittes, George; Qu, Shen; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Dong, H Henry

    2016-07-08

    Hypertriglyceridemia results from increased production and decreased clearance of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins, a pathological condition that accounts for heightened risk of ischemic vascular diseases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite its intimate association with insulin resistance, whether hypertriglyceridemia constitutes an independent risk for beta cell dysfunction in diabetes is unknown. Answering this fundamental question is stymied by the fact that hypertriglyceridemia is intertwined with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. To circumvent this limitation, we took advantage of apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3)-transgenic mice, a model with genetic predisposition to hypertriglyceridemia. We showed that ApoC3-transgenic mice, as opposed to age/sex-matched wild-type littermates, develop hypertriglyceridemia with concomitant elevations in plasma cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Anti-insulin and anti-glucagon dual immunohistochemistry in combination with morphometric analysis revealed that ApoC3-transgenic and wild-type littermates had similar beta cell and alpha cell masses as well as islet size and architecture. These effects correlated with similar amplitudes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and similar degrees of postprandial glucose excursion in ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. Oil Red O histology did not visualize lipid infiltration into islets, correlating with the lack of ectopic triglyceride and cholesterol depositions in the pancreata of ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. ApoC3-transgenic mice, despite persistent hypertriglyceridemia, maintained euglycemia under both fed and fasting conditions without manifestation of insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia. Thus, hypertriglyceridemia per se is not an independent risk factor for beta cell dysfunction in ApoC3 transgenic mice.

  10. Time-Dependent Increase of Chitinase1 in APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Shi, Rui; Yang, Wenxiu; Zou, Yan; Du, Yinshi; Zhang, Man; Yu, Weihua; Lü, Yang

    2016-07-01

    It is reported that chitinase1 increases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the alteration of chitinase1 in the progress of AD is still unclear. Thus, we designed the present study to detect chitinase1 level in different stages of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. Experimental models were APP/PS1 double transgenic mice with 4, 12 and 22 months. Cognitive function was detected by Morris water maze test in APP/PS1 mice as well as controls. ELISA and the quantitative RT-PCR were used to detect chitinase1 level in different groups. The study displayed that expression of chitinase1 gradually increased in a time-dependent manner in APP/PS1 mice, while there were no statistical differences among the wild-type mice in varies ages. Moreover, chitnase1 increased significantly in APP/PS1 mice aged 12 and 22 months compared with the age matched wild-type group, respectively. However, no difference of chitnase1 was found between 4 months-old APP/PS1 mice and wild-type mice. Comparing with the age matched wild type group, the consequences of mRNA on the increase in chitnase1 is in accordance with protein in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, Morris water maze showed that 4 months-old APP/PS1 mice have normal spatial learning and impaired spatial memory; both spatial learning and spatial memory in 12 and 22 months-old APP/PS1 mice were declined. Time-dependent increase of chitnase1 in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice indicates that the level of chitinase1 is associated with decline of cognition. Therefore, chitinase1 might be a biomarker of disease progression in AD.

  11. Tiam1 Transgenic Mice Display Increased Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Potential of Colorectal Cancer after 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Xin; Hua, Xing; Cui, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Nian-Jie; Liao, Wen-Ting; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a potential modifier of tumor development and progression. Our previous study in vitro and in nude mice suggested a promotion role of Tiam1 on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice to investigate the tumorigenetic, invasive and metastatic alterations in the colon and rectum of wild-type and Tiam1 transgenic mice under 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment. Methods Transgenic mice were produced by the method of pronuclear microinlectlon. Whole-body fluorescence imaging (Lighttools, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) were applied sequentially to identify the transgenic mice. The carcinogen DMH (20 mg/kg) was used to induce colorectal tumors though intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections once a week for 24 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on Tiam1 transgenic or non-transgenic mice. Results We successfully generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice and induced primary tumors in the intestine of both wild type and Tiam1 transgenic mice by DMH treatment. In addition, Tiam1 transgenic mice developed larger and more aggressive neoplasm than wild-type mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed that upregulation of Tiam1 was correlated with increased expression of β-Catenin and Vimentin, and downregulation of E-Cadherin in these mice. Conclusions Our study has provided in vivo evidence supporting that Tiam1 promotes invasion and metastasis of CRC, most probably through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in a Tiam1 transgenic mouse model. PMID:24069171

  12. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  13. Negative regulation in correct tissue-specific expression of mouse mammary tumor virus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, S R; Hsu, C L; Choi, Y; Mok, E; Dudley, J P

    1990-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is an endogenous murine retrovirus that is expressed in the epithelial cells of the mammary and salivary glands, lungs, kidneys, and seminal vesicles and in the lymphoid cells of the spleen and thymus. Several studies have shown that the long terminal repeat (LTR) of this virus can direct the expression of reporter genes to the same tissues in transgenic mice. To determine whether multiple regulatory elements within the LTR are involved in this tissue-specific expression, we have established lines of transgenic mice containing transgenes that have deletions in the MMTV LTR. Deletions of all LTR sequences upstream of -364 or of LTR sequences from -165 to -665 both result in the expression of linked reporter genes such as the simian virus 40 early region or the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in novel sites, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle; expression of endogenous MMTV and transgenes containing the full-length LTR is not detected in these organs. Negative regulation appears to involve more than one region, since deletion of sequences between either -201 and -471 or -201 and -344, as well as sequences upstream of -364, results in inappropriate expression in heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Therefore, a negative regulatory element(s) in the MMTV LTR can suppress transcription from the viral promoter in several different organs. This represents the first example of generalized negative regulatory elements that act in many different tissues in transgenic mice to prevent inappropriate expression of a gene. Images PMID:1700274

  14. Genetically-directed Sparse Neuronal Labeling in BAC Transgenic Mice through Mononucleotide Repeat Frameshift

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Hong; Yang, X. William

    2017-01-01

    Mosaicism with Repeat Frameshift (MORF) allows a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgene to direct sparse labeling of genetically-defined neuronal populations in mice. The BAC transgene drives cell-type-specific transcription of an out-of-frame mononucleotide repeat that is placed between a translational start codon and a membrane-bound fluorescent protein lacking its start codon. The stochastic frameshift of the unstable repeat DNA in a subset of BAC-expressing neurons results in the in-frame translation of the reporter protein hence the sparse neuronal labeling. As a proof-of-concept, we generated D1-dopamine receptor (D1) BAC MORF mice that label about 1% striatal D1-expressing medium spiny neurons and allow visualization of their dendrites. These mice enable the study of D1-MSN dendrite development in wildtype mice, and its degeneration in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease. PMID:28272512

  15. B cell tolerance in mice transgenic for anti-CD8 immunoglobulin mu chain

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    To analyze in vivo the induction of B cell tolerance against a T cell surface antigen, we generated transgenic mice expressing an anti-CD8.2 mu heavy chain gene. We show that self-specific B cells are efficiently tolerized if they express the membrane-bound form of the transgenic mu chain on their surface but that they can escape tolerization if they express only the secreted form. In the latter, we find an enhanced expression of anti-CD8.2 antibodies after polyclonal B cell activation. As a result, transgenic anti-CD8.2 antibodies bind to the CD8+ T cells but they did not induce their elimination. Furthermore, we observed the preferential expression of a limited subset of endogenous light chains with the transgenic mu chain. This suggests a positive or negative selection for particular heavy and light chain combinations in B lymphocytes. PMID:1744576

  16. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  17. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  18. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C), is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH analysis and F2 transmission in pigs. Furthermore, expression of the transgene is demonstrated in 61% (35/57) of transgenic pigs (F0 generation). Conclusions Our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in many different species. PMID:11964188

  19. Susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative human keratin 18 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Michie, S A; Soetikno, R M; Resurreccion, E Z; Broome, R L; Oshima, R G; Omary, M B

    1996-01-01

    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/18) are intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins that are expressed preferentially in simple-type epithelia. We recently described transgenic mice that express point-mutant human K18 (Ku, N.-O., S. Michie, R.G. Oshima, and M.B. Omary. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:1303-1314) and develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocyte fragility in association with hepatocyte keratin filament disruption. Here we show that mutant K18 expressing transgenic mice are highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity after acute administration of acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) or chronic ingestion of griseofulvin (1.25% wt/wt of diet). The predisposition to hepatotoxicity results directly from the keratin mutation since nontransgenic or transgenic mice that express normal human K18 are more resistant. Hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant difference in lethality, liver histopathology, and biochemical serum testing. Keratin glycosylation decreased in all griseofulvin-fed mice, whereas keratin phosphorylation increased dramatically preferentially in mice expressing normal K18. The phosphorylation increase in normal K18 after griseofulvin feeding appears to involve sites that are different to those that increase after partial hepatectomy. Our results indicate that hepatocyte intermediate filament disruption renders mice highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity, and raises the possibility that K18 mutations may predispose to drug hepatotoxicity. The dramatic phosphorylation increase in nonmutant keratins could provide survival advantage to hepatocytes. PMID:8770877

  20. Pkd1 transgenic mice: adult model of polycystic kidney disease with extrarenal and renal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kurbegovic, Almira; Côté, Olivier; Couillard, Martin; Ward, Christopher J.; Harris, Peter C.; Trudel, Marie

    2010-01-01

    While high levels of Pkd1 expression are detected in tissues of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), it is unclear whether enhanced expression could be a pathogenetic mechanism for this systemic disorder. Three transgenic mouse lines were generated from a Pkd1-BAC modified by introducing a silent tag via homologous recombination to target a sustained wild-type genomic Pkd1 expression within the native tissue and temporal regulation. These mice specifically overexpressed the Pkd1 transgene in extrarenal and renal tissues from ∼2- to 15-fold over Pkd1 endogenous levels in a copy-dependent manner. All transgenic mice reproducibly developed tubular and glomerular cysts leading to renal insufficiency. Interestingly, Pkd1TAG mice also exhibited renal fibrosis and calcium deposits in papilla reminiscent of nephrolithiasis as frequently observed in ADPKD. Similar to human ADPKD, these mice consistently displayed hepatic fibrosis and ∼15% intrahepatic cysts of the bile ducts affecting females preferentially. Moreover, a significant proportion of mice developed cardiac anomalies with severe left-ventricular hypertrophy, marked aortic arch distention and/or valvular stenosis and calcification that had profound functional impact. Of significance, Pkd1TAG mice displayed occasional cerebral lesions with evidence of ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms. This Pkd1TAG mouse model demonstrates that overexpression of wild-type Pkd1 can trigger the typical adult renal and extrarenal phenotypes resembling human ADPKD. PMID:20053665

  1. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  2. {alpha}-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Naseem, R. Haris; Park, Byung-Hyun; Garry, Daniel J.; Richardson, James A.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Unger, Roger H. . E-mail: roger.unger@utsouthwestern.edu

    2006-05-26

    {alpha}-Lipoic acid ({alpha}-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, {alpha}-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, {alpha}-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In {alpha}-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} cofactor-1{alpha} mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that {alpha}-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity.

  3. Endogenous murine Aβ increases amyloid deposition in APP23 but not in APPPS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Jasmin; Morales-Corraliza, Jose; Stolz, Julia; Skodras, Angelos; Radde, Rebecca; Duma, Carmen C; Eisele, Yvonne S; Mazzella, Matthew J; Wong, Harrison; Klunk, William E; Nilsson, K Peter R; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Mathews, Paul M; Jucker, Mathias; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous murine amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is expressed in most Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease but its contribution to β-amyloidosis remains unclear. We demonstrate ∼ 35% increased cerebral Aβ load in APP23 transgenic mice compared with age-matched APP23 mice on an App-null background. No such difference was found for the much faster Aβ-depositing APPPS1 transgenic mouse model between animals with or without the murine App gene. Nevertheless, both APP23 and APPPS1 mice codeposited murine Aβ, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed a tight association of murine Aβ with human Aβ fibrils. Deposition of murine Aβ was considerably less efficient compared with the deposition of human Aβ indicating a lower amyloidogenic potential of murine Aβ in vivo. The amyloid dyes Pittsburgh Compound-B and pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid did not differentiate between amyloid deposits consisting of human Aβ and deposits of mixed human-murine Aβ. Our data demonstrate a differential effect of murine Aβ on human Aβ deposition in different APP transgenic mice. The mechanistically complex interaction of human and mouse Aβ may affect pathogenesis of the models and should be considered when models are used for translational preclinical studies.

  4. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2017-01-15

    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83(+/+)) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83(+/-)) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83(+/-) mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration.

  5. Propagation of ovine prions from "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates in ovine PrP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Thackray, Alana M; Hopkins, Lee; Lockey, Richard; Spiropoulos, John; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Ovine prion strains have typically been identified by their transmission properties, which include incubation time and lesion profile, in wild type mice. The existence of scrapie isolates that do not propagate in wild type mice, defined here as "poor" transmitters, are problematic for conventional prion strain typing studies as no incubation time or neuropathology can be recorded. This may arise because of the presence of an ovine prion strain within the original inoculum that does not normally cross the species barrier into wild type mice or the presence of a low dose of an infectious ovine prion strain that does. Here we have used tg59 and tg338 mouse lines, which are transgenic for ovine ARQ or VRQ PrP, respectively, to strain type "poor" transmitter ovine scrapie isolates. ARQ and VRQ homozygous "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates were successfully propagated in both ovine PrP transgenic mouse lines. We have used secondary passage incubation time, PrPSc immunohistochemistry and molecular profile, to show that different prion strains can be isolated from different "poor" transmitter samples during serial passage in ovine PrP transgenic mice. Our observations show that poor or inadequate transmissibility of some classical scrapie isolates in wild type mice is associated with unique ovine prion strains in these particular sheep scrapie samples. In addition, the analysis of the scrapie isolates used here revealed that the tg338 mouse line was more versatile and more robust at strain typing ovine prions than tg59 mice. These novel observations in ovine PrP transgenic mice highlight a new approach to ovine prion strain typing.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Body Composition of Bovine Growth Hormone Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda J.; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O.; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2009-01-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted. PMID:18948397

  7. Comparison of acetaminophen toxicity in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice with different appolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Mezera, V; Kucera, O; Moravcova, A; Peterova, E; Rousar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Sobotka, O; Cervinkova, Z

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, important for combating electrophilic and oxidative stress in the liver and other organs. This encompasses detoxification of hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP). Recently, an association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and Nrf2 expression was described. We compared the toxicity of APAP on primary culture hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice carrying two different human ApoE alleles and wild-type controls. The cells were exposed to APAP in concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mM for up to 24 hours. APAP led to a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity from 1 mM after 16 h exposure in all mice tested. The toxicity was higher in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls and most pronounced in ApoE3 mice. Concurrently, there was a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in ApoE3 hepatocytes. The formation of reactive oxygen species was increased after 24 hours with 2.5 mM APAP in hepatocytes of all strains tested, with the highest increase being in the ApoE3 genotype. The activity of caspases 3 and 7 did not differ among groups and was minimal after 24 hour incubation with 4 mM APAP. We observed higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls. The expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was higher in ApoE3 than in ApoE4 hepatocytes and some of these genes were induced by APAP treatment. In conclusion, transgenic mice with ApoE4 and ApoE3 alleles displayed higher susceptibility to acute APAP toxicity in vitro than wild-type mice. Of the two transgenic genotypes tested, ApoE3 allele carriers were more prone to injury.

  8. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  9. The PSORS1 locus gene CCHCR1 affects keratinocyte proliferation in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tiala, Inkeri; Wakkinen, Janica; Suomela, Sari; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Tammi, Raija; Forsberg, Sofi; Rollman, Ola; Kainu, Kati; Rozell, Björn; Kere, Juha; Saarialho-Kere, Ulpu; Elomaa, Outi

    2008-04-01

    The CCHCR1 gene (Coiled-Coil alpha-Helical Rod protein 1) within the major psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS1 is a plausible candidate gene for the risk effect. We have previously generated transgenic mice overexpressing either the psoriasis-associated risk allele CCHCR1*WWCC or the normal allele of CCHCR1. All transgenic CCHCR1 mice appeared phenotypically normal, but exhibited altered expression of genes relevant to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, including upregulation of hyperproliferation markers keratins 6, 16 and 17. Here, we challenged the skin of CCHCR1 transgenic mice with wounding or 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA), treatments able to induce epidermal hyperplasia and proliferation that both are hallmarks of psoriasis. These experiments revealed that CCHCR1 regulates keratinocyte proliferation. Early wound healing on days 1 and 4 was delayed, and TPA-induced epidermal hyperproliferation was less pronounced in mice with the CCHCR1*WWCC risk allele than in mice with the normal allele or in wild-type animals. Finally, we demonstrated that overexpression of CCHCR1 affects basal keratinocyte proliferation in mice; CCHCR1*WWCC mice had less proliferating keratinocytes than the non-risk allele mice. Similarly, keratinocytes isolated from risk allele mice proliferated more slowly in culture than wild-type cells when measured by BrdU labeling and ELISA. Our data show that CCHCR1 may function as a negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, aberrant function of CCHCR1 may lead to abnormal keratinocyte proliferation which is a key feature of psoriatic epidermis.

  10. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  11. Oral immunization of mice using transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein from enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Fu; Chang, Meng-Huei; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2006-04-05

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease associated with fatal neurological complications in young children, and several major outbreaks have occurred recently. This study developed an effective antiviral agent by transforming the gene for VP1 protein, a previously defined epitope and also a coat protein of EV71, into tomato plant. VP1 protein was first fused with sorting signals to enable it to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of tomato plant, and its expression level increased to 27 microg/g of fresh tomato fruit. Transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein was then used as an oral vaccine, and the development of VP1-specific fecal IgA and serum IgG were observed in BALB/c mice. Additionally, serum from mice fed transgenic tomato could neutralize the infection of EV71 to rhabdomyosarcoma cells, indicating that tomato fruit expressing VP1 was successful in orally immunizing mice. Moreover, the proliferation of spleen cells from orally immunized mice was stimulated by VP1 protein, and provided further evidence of both humoral and cellular immunity. Results of this study not only demonstrate the feasibility of using transgenic tomato as an oral vaccine to generate protective immunity in mice against EV71, but also suggest the probability of enterovirus vaccine development.

  12. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed.

  13. Improved long-term bone-implant integration. Experiments in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Morberg, P H; Isaksson, O G; Johansson, C B; Sandstedt, J; Törnell, J

    1997-08-01

    Several recent studies have investigated the effects of growth hormone (GH) on the healing of fractures and bone ingrowth, but with conflicting results. The negative results may be due to antibody formation against injected GH or because some experimental models are able to prove only positive GH effects. In this study, we wanted to investigate the effect of GH on implant integration in bone. To avoid potential formation of antibodies against injected GH, we used a model with transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH (bGH). Titanium implants were inserted in the forehead of the mice. 4 months after insertion, the implants were cut out en bloc with the surrounding bone. The calcified specimens were cut and ground to a thickness of approximately 10 microns. Histomorphometry demonstrated significantly more direct bone-to-metal contact in the transgenic mice than in the nontransgenic littermates. Our findings indicate that systemic administration of GH in humans may improve implant integration in bone.

  14. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To define the physiologic role of beta1 integrin in bone formation and mechanical loading, transgenic mice were generated by expressing the cytoplasmic tall and transmembrane domain of Beta1 integrin under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. In cultured cells, this truncated fragment of Beta1 can act as a dominant negative. Previously, the matrix of calvariae was shown to be abnormal in transgenic (TG) compared to wildtype (WT) mice. In this study, we analyzed appendicular bone in TG and WT, male and female mice at 14, 35, 63, 90 and 365 days old (n=8-12/gp). To assess beta1 integrin function in mechanical loading, a pilot study using hindlimb unloading by tail suspension was performed. 35d old TG and WT females were hindlimb unloaded for 4 wks (n=3-5). Body mass, bone mineral content, histomorphometric (distal femur) and biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Statistical significance (P less than.05) was defined by ANOVA using the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. We confirmed transgene expression by immunoprecipitating then immunoblotting bone lysates using an antibody against the beta1 tail. Body masses of TG mice at 63, 90 and 365d old were greater (16-25%) than WT. Some TG female mice at 365d appeared obese; mean abdominal fat mass was 415% greater in TG than WT mice. Tibiae were longer (5-7%) in TG than WT mice at 63 and 90d. Tibial mineral mass of 35d males was 7% lower in TG than WT mice, but at 63d was 21% higher. The % osteoblast surface in 35d TG mice was 20% higher than WT, and at 63d was 17% lower, while % osteoclast surface did not differ. In 365d mice, cancellous bone volume (125%) and endocortical mineral apposition rate (40%) were greater in TG than WT males but not females. In WT mice, hindlimb unloading caused a reduction in mineral mass of tibiae (-20%) and lumbar vertebrae (-22%) relative to normally loaded controls. Surprisingly, hindlimb unloading also caused a relative reduction (-13%) in humerus mass. The effects of hindlimb unloading on

  15. Chronic hypertension and altered baroreflex responses in transgenic mice containing the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, D C; Thompson, M W; Carney, C L; Granwehr, B P; Schlager, G; Robillard, J E; Sigmund, C D

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a transgenic model consisting of both the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes to study further the role played by the renin-angiotensin system in regulating arterial pressure. Transgenic mice containing either gene alone were normotensive, whereas mice containing both genes were chronically hypertensive. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels were both markedly elevated in the double transgenic mice compared with either single transgenic or nontransgenic controls. The elevation in blood pressure caused by the human transgenes was independent of the genotype at the endogenous renin locus and was equal in mice homozygous for the Ren-1c allele or in mice containing one copy each of Ren-1c, Ren-1d, or Ren-2. Chronic overproduction of angiotensin II in the double transgenic mice resulted in a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to a higher pressure without significantly changing the gain or sensitivity of the reflex. Moreover, this change was not due to the effects of elevated pressure itself since angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition had minimal effects on the baroreflex in spontaneously hypertensive BPH-2 control mice, which exhibit non-renin-dependent hypertension. This double transgenic model should provide an excellent tool for further studies on the mechanisms of hypertension initiated by the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:8613528

  16. Relationship between expression of epidermal growth factor and simian virus 40 T antigen in a line of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lafond, R E; Giammalvo, J T; Norkin, L C

    1995-09-01

    The pattern of expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen gene and resultant dysplasia were re-examined in a line of transgenic mice in which the T antigen gene was under the control of the SV40 early promoter. We found that T antigen expression in the kidney, and resulting dysplastic lesions, occurred exclusively in the distal convoluted tubules and the ascending limbs of Henle. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the kidney of normal mice was similarly immunolocalized. The correlation between high EGF immunoreactivity in normal mouse tissues and T antigen expression in the transgenic counterpart was also seen in the choroid plexus epithelium and in the submandibular glands of male mice. T antigen was not found in the submandibular gland of transgenic females. Similarly, EGF was only rarely detected in the normal female submandibular gland. In contrast to the correlation between T antigen expression in the transgenic mice and EGF expression in the corresponding tissues of the normal mice, within the dysplastic lesions of the transgenic mice EGF expression was severely diminished. Adenocarcinomas of the male submandibular gland from another line of transgenic mice that expresses the Int-1 transgene, showed similarly reduced levels of immunostaining for EGF. Thus, reduced expression of EGF might be a general feature of dysplasia and tumorigenesis in those tissues that normally express EGF.

  17. Ectopic expression of gamma interferon in the eye protects transgenic mice from intraocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infections.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, K; Howes, E L; Sarvetnick, N

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic (rho gamma) mice provide a model for studying the influence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) produced in the eye on ocular and cerebral viral infection. To establish this model, we injected BALB/c- and C57BL/6-derived transgenic and nontransgenic mice of different ages intravitreally with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain F. Eye and brain tissues of these mice were assessed for pathological and immunocytochemical changes. HSV-1 infection induced severe retinitis of the injected eyes and infection of the brain in all mice. In transgenic mice inoculated with HSV-1, the left, nontreated eyes were protected from retinitis, whereas nontransgenic mice developed bilateral retinitis. Additional intravitreal injection of IFN-gamma with the virus protected the noninoculated eyes of nontransgenic mice. Three-week-old nontransgenic mice died from HSV-1 infection, whereas transgenic mice of the same age and nontransgenic mice intravitreally treated with IFN-gamma survived. Ocular IFN-gamma production increased the extent of inflammation in transgenic mice but did not have a significant influence on the growth of HSV-1 until day 3 after inoculation and did not influence the neuroinvasion of this virus. Thus, the effects of IFN-gamma were not caused by an early block of viral replication. Possible mechanisms of IFN-gamma action include activation of the immune response, alteration of the properties of the virus, and direct protection of neurons. Images PMID:8057437

  18. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  19. Multiple mechanisms of tumorigenesis in E mu-myc transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sidman, C L; Denial, T M; Marshall, J D; Roths, J B

    1993-04-01

    Transgenic mice bearing a c-myc oncogene under control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (E mu-myc mice) reproducibly develop and die from tumors of the B lymphocyte lineage (J.M. Adams, A.W. Harris, C.A. Pinkert, L.M. Corcoran, W.S. Alexander, S. Cory, R.D. Palmiter, and R.L. Brinster, Nature (Lond.), 318: 533-538, 1985; W.Y. Langdon, A. W. Harris, S. Cory, and J.M. Adams, Cell 47: 11-18, 1986; A.W. Harris, C.A. Pinkert, M. Crawford, W.Y. Langdon, R.L. Brinster, and J.M. Adams, J. Exp. Med., 167: 353-371, 1988; reviewed in S. Cory and J.M. Adams, Annu. Rev. Immunol., 6: 25-48, 1988). Analysis of lymphocytes obtained by serial sampling of peripheral blood from individual hemizygous (E mu-myc/0) and homozygous (E mu-myc/E mu-myc) transgenic mice indicates that proliferation in the original host and transplantability into histocompatible recipients are distinct properties that can be acquired independently and in either order. These two types of transgenic mice differ in that homozygous mice have about one-fourth the life span of hemizygous mice and develop polyclonal, non-transplantable tumors in comparison to the oligoclonal, highly transplantable malignancies seen in hemizygous animals. In conclusion, the overall concept of malignancy is best viewed as an aggregate of the separable parameters of cellular proliferation, clonality, tissue invasiveness, metastasis, and (experimental) transplantability. The E mu-myc transgenic mouse represents an attractive model in which to investigate the multistep nature and alternative pathways of tumorigenesis.

  20. Aspects of achondroplasia in the skulls of dwarf transgenic mice: a cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Melissa Wadler; Murakami, Shunichi; Cody, Dianna; Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, Pauline Jackie

    2006-03-01

    Achondroplasia, the most common short-limbed dwarfism in humans, results from a single nucleotide substitution in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). FGFR3 regulates bone growth in part via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK). To examine the role of this pathway in chondrocyte differentiation, a transgenic mouse was generated that expresses a constitutively active mutant of MEK1 in chondrocytes and exhibits dwarfing characteristics typical of human achondroplasia, i.e., shortened axial and appendicular skeletons, mid-facial hypoplasia, and dome-shaped cranium. In this study, cephalometrics of the MEK1 mutant skulls were assessed to determine if the MEK1 mice are a good model of achondroplasia. Skull length, arc of the cranial vault, and area, maximum and minimum diameters of the brain case were measured on digitized radiographs of skulls of MEK1 and control mice. Cranial base and nasal bone length and foramen magnum diameter were measured on midsagittal micro-CT sections. Data were normalized by dividing by the cube root of each animal's weight. Transgenic mice exhibited a domed skull, deficient midface, and (relatively) prognathic mandible and had a shorter cranial base and nasal bone than the wild-type. Skull length was significantly less in transgenic mice, but cranial arc was significantly greater. The brain case was larger and more circular and minimum diameter of the brain case was significantly greater in transgenic mice. The foramen magnum was displaced anteriorly but not narrowed. MEK1 mouse cephalometrics confirm these mice as a model for achondroplasia, demonstrating that the MAP kinase signaling pathway is involved in FGF signaling in skeletal development.

  1. GATA4 transgenic mice as an in vivo model of congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    HAN, HUA; CHEN, YU; LIU, GANG; HAN, ZENGQIANG; ZHAO, ZHOU; TANG, YIN

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that 8 patients from a family with a history of congenital heart disease had simple atrial septal defect (ASD) and carried the same mutation at codon 310 in the GATA4 gene. In the present study, to identify the functional defects caused by this mutation in an in vivo model, the transgene DNA constructs were microinjected into mice to generate a transgenic mouse model. The mice were genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Protein expression was measured by western blot analysis. qPCR was used to determine the copy number of the transgenes. The heart tissue was fixed and sectioned by conventional procedures. The Vevo 2000 system was used to perform echocardiography on the mice. The expression of GATA4 target genes was measured using the real-time PCR system. The incidence of ASD in the heterozygous transgenic mice was found to be greater than that in the wild-type control mice (P<0.05). In addition, the expression of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) in the heart tissues from the homozygous mice was lower than that in the heart tissues from their wild-type littermates (P<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the introduction of GATA4 M310V negatively affects the normal expression of α-MHC. In accordance with previous findings on GATA4 mutation screening and in vitro experiments, this study confirms that GATA4 M310V mutation may lead to the development of the congenital heart defect, ASD. PMID:25873328

  2. Autoreactive Human TCR Initiate Insulitis and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in HLA DR4 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gebe, John A.; Unrath, Kellee A.; Yue, Betty B.; Miyake, Tom; Falk, Ben A.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2008-01-01

    A human TcR derived from an autoreactive T cell specific for GAD65, from a subject at high risk for autoimmune diabetes, was introduced into HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The source of TCR was a CD4+ TH1+T cell clone which responded to an immunodominant epitope of the human islet protein GAD65, an epitope shared with both GAD65 and GAD67 in the mouse. The resulting HLA-DR4/GAD-TcR transgenic mice on a Rag2o/o/I-Abo/o/B6 background exhibited a CD4+ infiltrate into pancreatic islets that correlated with a loss of insulin in infiltrated islets. These mice also exhibited a subclinical impaired tolerance to exogenously fed glucose as assayed by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. T cells containing the GAD65/67 (555–567) responsive TcR undergo strong negative selection as evidenced by a 10-fold lower thymocyte cellularity compared to non-TcR transgenic mice, and clonotype peripheral T cells represented approximately 1 percent of CD4+ T cells in Rag2 sufficient mice. Upon in vitro stimulation, GAD65/67 555–567 responsive T cells secrete IFN-γ, minimal IL2 and TNFα and no IL4, IL5, IL10, or IL17, consistent with a TH1 profile. These data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells specific for a naturally processed epitope within GAD can specifically home to pancreatic islets and lead to impaired islet beta cell function in diabetes-associated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice on the relatively non-autoimmune C57BL/6 background. The relatively slow progression and patchy insulitis are reminiscent of the chronic pre-clinical phase similar to a majority of human at-risk subjects, and models these indolent features of human T1D. PMID:17949947

  3. Transcriptional insulation of the human keratin 18 gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Neznanov, N; Thorey, I S; Ceceña, G; Oshima, R G

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the 10-kb human keratin 18 (K18) gene in transgenic mice results in efficient and appropriate tissue-specific expression in a variety of internal epithelial organs, including liver, lung, intestine, kidney, and the ependymal epithelium of brain, but not in spleen, heart, or skeletal muscle. Expression at the RNA level is directly proportional to the number of integrated K18 transgenes. These results indicate that the K18 gene is able to insulate itself both from the commonly observed cis-acting effects of the sites of integration and from the potential complications of duplicated copies of the gene arranged in head-to-tail fashion. To begin to identify the K18 gene sequences responsible for this property of transcriptional insulation, additional transgenic mouse lines containing deletions of either the 5' or 3' distal end of the K18 gene have been characterized. Deletion of 1.5 kb of the distal 5' flanking sequence has no effect upon either the tissue specificity or the copy number-dependent behavior of the transgene. In contrast, deletion of the 3.5-kb 3' flanking sequence of the gene results in the loss of the copy number-dependent behavior of the gene in liver and intestine. However, expression in kidney, lung, and brain remains efficient and copy number dependent in these transgenic mice. Furthermore, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression is copy number dependent in transgenic mice when the gene is located between the distal 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of the K18 gene. Each adult transgenic male expressed the thymidine kinase gene in testes and brain and proportionally to the number of integrated transgenes. We conclude that the characteristic of copy number-dependent expression of the K18 gene is tissue specific because the sequence requirements for transcriptional insulation in adult liver and intestine are different from those for lung and kidney. In addition, the behavior of the transgenic thymidine kinase gene in testes and

  4. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  5. Pathology associated memory deficits in Swedish mutant genome-based amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hock, Brian J; Lattal, K Matthew; Kulnane, Laura Shapiro; Abel, Ted; Lamb, Bruce T

    2009-12-01

    To gain insight into the relationship between pathological alterations and memory deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a number of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic animal models have been generated containing familial AD mutations. The most commonly utilized method involves a cDNA-based approach, utilizing heterologous promoters to drive expression of specific APP isoforms. As a result of the assumptions inherent in the design of each model, the different cDNA-based transgenic mouse models have revealed different relationships between the biochemical, pathological and behavioral alterations observed in these models. Here we provide further characterization of a genomic-based, amyloid precursor protein yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of AD, R1.40, that makes few assumptions regarding disease pathogenesis to study the relationship between brain pathology and altered behavior. Aged R1.40 transgenic and control mice were tested for learning and memory in the Morris water maze and for working memory in the Y maze. Results from the water maze demonstrated intact learning in the both control and R1.40 mice, but impairments in the long-term retention of this information in the transgenic mice, but not controls. Interestingly, however, long-term memory deficits did not correlate with the presence of Abeta deposits within the group of animals examined. By contrast, age-related working memory impairments were also observed in the Y maze in the R1.40 mice, and these deficits correlated with the presence of Abeta deposits. Our results demonstrate unique behavioral alterations in the R1.40 mouse model of AD that are likely both dependent and independent of Abeta deposition.

  6. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II in β cells develop type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; George, Monica; Casellas, Alba; Pujol, Anna; Visa, Joana; Pelegrín, Mireia; Gros, Laurent; Bosch, Fatima

    2000-01-01

    During embryonic development, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) participates in the regulation of islet growth and differentiation. We generated transgenic mice (C57BL6/SJL) expressing IGF-II in β cells under control of the rat Insulin I promoter in order to study the role of islet hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to islets from control mice, islets from transgenic mice displayed high levels of IGF-II mRNA and protein. Pancreases from transgenic mice showed an increase in β-cell mass (about 3-fold) and in insulin mRNA levels. However, the organization of cells within transgenic islets was disrupted, with glucagon-producing cells randomly distributed throughout the core. We also observed enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose utilization in islets from transgenic mice. These mice displayed hyperinsulinemia, mild hyperglycemia, and altered glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and about 30% of these animals developed overt diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, transgenic mice obtained from the N1 backcross to C57KsJ mice showed high islet hyperplasia and insulin resistance, but they also developed fatty liver and obesity. These results indicate that local overexpression of IGF-II in islets might lead to type 2 diabetes and that islet hyperplasia and hypersecretion of insulin might occur early in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:10727441

  8. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically-induced multistep skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F.; Detmar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. Goals To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. Methods We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. Results TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. PMID:24507936

  9. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the heart is coupled with myocyte proliferation in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, K; Cheng, W; Ferber, A; Kajstura, J; Li, P; Li, B; Olivetti, G; Homcy, C J; Baserga, R; Anversa, P

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated in which the cDNA for the human insulin-like growth factor 1B (IGF-1B) was placed under the control of a rat alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. In mice heterozygous for the transgene, IGF-1B mRNA was not detectable in the fetal heart at the end of gestation, was present in modest levels at 1 day after birth, and increased progressively with postnatal maturation, reaching a peak at 75 days. Myocytes isolated from transgenic mice secreted 1.15 +/- 0.25 ng of IGF-1 per 10(6) cells per 24 hr versus 0.27 +/- 0.10 ng in myocytes from homozygous wild-type littermates. The plasma level of IGF-1 increased 84% in transgenic mice. Heart weight was comparable in wild-type littermates and transgenic mice up to 45 days of age, but a 42%, 45%, 62%, and 51% increase was found at 75, 135, 210, and 300 days, respectively, after birth. At 45, 75, and 210 days, the number of myocytes in the heart was 21%, 31%, and 55% higher, respectively, in transgenic animals. In contrast, myocyte cell volume was comparable in transgenic and control mice at all ages. In conclusion, overexpression of IGF-1 in myocytes leads to cardiomegaly mediated by an increased number of cells in the heart. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8710922

  10. Impaired tolerance to repetitive hypoxia in hippocampal slices of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Büchner, M; Li, H; Huber, R; Timmler, M; Sehrsam, I; Kasischke, K; Völkel, H; Ludolph, A C; Riepe, M W

    1999-12-03

    Energy metabolism is impaired in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The goal was to investigate tolerance against single and repetitive hypoxia in C57B6SJL-TgN(SOD1-G93A)1GUR mice (G93A mice). Posthypoxic recovery (15 min hypoxia, 45 min recovery) of population spike amplitude in hippocampal region CA1 was 38 +/- 29% (mean +/- SD) in controls and 67 +/- 41% (ns) in G93A mice at day 40. Upon in vivo pretreatment with 20 mg/kg 3-nitropropionate posthypoxic recovery increased to 82 +/- 32% (P < 0.01) in controls and decreased to 35 +/- 33% in G93A mice (P < 0.05 to pretreated controls). Results at day 80 and 110 were similar. We conclude that G93A mice show a long-lasting impairment to sustain repetitive hypoxic episodes whereas tolerance to a single hypoxic episode is comparable to controls.

  11. Generation of Cre Transgenic Mice with Postnatal RPE-Specific Ocular Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iacovelli, Jared; Zhao, Chen; Wolkow, Natalie; Veldman, Peter; Gollomp, Kandace; Ojha, Pallavi; Lukinova, Nina; King, Ayala; Feiner, Leonard; Esumi, Noriko; Zack, Donald J.; Pierce, Eric A.; Vollrath, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To generate and characterize a constitutively active, RPE-specific, cre-expressing transgenic mouse line. This line can be used to create RPE-specific knockouts by crossing with mice harboring loxP-flanked (floxed) genes. Methods. A transgene construct was assembled with the BEST1 promoter driving cre expression. Transgenic mice were generated on a C57BL/6 background. Cre expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Cre enzymatic activity was tested by crossing to three lines with floxed DNA regions and detecting deletion of the intervening sequences or through histochemical detection of lacZ activity. Potential cre-mediated toxicity was assessed by retinal histology up to 24 months of age and by electroretinography. Results. The BEST1-cre line with expression in the highest percentage of RPE cells displayed a patchy mosaic expression pattern, with 50% to 90% of RPE cells expressing cre. In mice outcrossed to a mixed B6/129 background, expression was consistently found in 90% of RPE cells. Within the eye, only the RPE cells were immunoreactive with an anti-cre antibody. Maximum cre expression quantified by Western blot analysis occurred at P28. Crosses with three lines containing floxed sequences revealed RPE-specific cre activity in the eye and extraocular expression limited to the testes. Histology and electroretinography showed no cre-mediated RPE toxicity. Conclusions. This BEST1-cre transgenic line enables generation of RPE-specific knockout mice. The mosaic expression pattern provides an internal control; the non–cre-expressing RPE cells continue to express the floxed genes. These mice should facilitate study of the multifunctional RPE and the generation of mouse models of human retinal disease. PMID:21212186

  12. Degeneration of oxidative muscle fibers in HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, M I; Wiley, C A

    1989-12-01

    The HTLV-1 tax gene under control of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) was introduced into transgenic mice. Previously tax protein expression in the muscle and peripheral nerves of three independent mouse lines was reported. Here the localization of this transgenic protein at a cellular and subcellular level is described. Tax protein was expressed in oxidative muscle fibers that developed severe progressive atrophy. It localized to the cytoplasma where it was associated with structures resembling degenerating Z bands. This pattern of muscle fiber involvement is similar to that observed in human retroviral associated myopathy. This transgenic mouse model suggests that preferential expression of the HTLV-1 viral promoter in oxidative muscle fibers may explain the productive infection of these fibers in HTLV-1 myopathy.

  13. Decreased early atherosclerotic lesions in hypertriglyceridemic mice expressing cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, T; Masucci-Magoulas, L; Jiang, X; Walsh, A; Rubin, E; Breslow, J L; Tall, A R

    1995-01-01

    The human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The activity of CETP results in a reduction in HDL cholesterol levels, but CETP may also promote reverse cholesterol transport. Thus, the net impact of CETP expression on atherogenesis is uncertain. The influence of hypertriglyceridemia and CETP on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta was assessed by feeding transgenic mice a high cholesterol diet for 16 wk. 13 out of 14 (93%) hypertriglyceridemic human apo CIII (HuCIII) transgenic (Tg) mice developed atherosclerotic lesions, compared to 18 out of 29 (62%) controls. In HuCIII/CETPTg, human apo AI/CIIITg and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice, 7 of 13 (54%), 5 of 10 (50%), and 5 of 13 (38%), respectively, developed lesions in the proximal aorta (P < .05 compared to HuCIIITg). The average number of aortic lesions per mouse in HuCIIITg and controls was 3.4 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.6, respectively in HuCIII/CETPTg, HuAI/CIIIg, and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice the number of lesions was significantly lower than in HuCIIITg and control mice: 0.9 +/- 0.4, 1.5 +/- 0.5, and 0.9 +/- 0.4, respectively. There were parallel reductions in mean lesion area. In a separate study, we found an increased susceptibility to dietary atherosclerosis in nonhypertriglyceridemic CETP transgenic mice compared to controls. We conclude that CETP expression inhibits the development of early atherosclerotic lesions but only in hypertriglyceridemic mice. PMID:7560101

  14. Expression of a Pim-1 transgene accelerates lymphoproliferation and inhibits apoptosis in lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Möröy, T; Grzeschiczek, A; Petzold, S; Hartmann, K U

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the Pim-1 kinase are predisposed to develop T-cell lymphomas with a long latency period of about 7-9 months. However, the exact functional basis of the oncogenic activity of Pim-1 remains obscure. C57BL/6 mice homozygous for the lpr mutation develop a well-described lymphoproliferative syndrome at about 26-30 weeks of age. This syndrome is characterized mainly by the accumulation of abnormal T cells in lymph nodes because of the lack of Fas receptor-induced apoptosis. We find that backcross of E mu-Pim-1 transgenics (mice with a transgene that carries the mouse Pim-1 gene under the transcriptional control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer E mu) into lpr/lpr mice results in strong acceleration of lymphoproliferation and dramatic enlargement of lymph nodes. In addition, we show here that cultured lymph node cells from E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr mice are rescued from rapid apoptosis that normally occurs in nontransgenic lpr cells in vitro. We also present evidence that CD4+/CD8+ double-positive thymocytes from lpr/lpr mice are sensitive to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, although lpr/lpr mice lack the Fas receptor. In contrast, E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr animals show considerable protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These results show that Pim-1 can strongly accelerate lymphoproliferation through inhibition of apoptosis and thereby provide first insight into the functional basis for the oncogenic activity of Pim-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7504280

  15. Vaccines against human HER2 prevent mammary carcinoma in mice transgenic for human HER2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The availability of mice transgenic for the human HER2 gene (huHER2) and prone to the development of HER2-driven mammary carcinogenesis (referred to as FVB-huHER2 mice) prompted us to study active immunopreventive strategies targeting the human HER2 molecule in a tolerant host. Methods FVB-huHER2 mice were vaccinated with either IL-12-adjuvanted human HER2-positive cancer cells or DNA vaccine carrying chimeric human-rat HER2 sequences. Onset and number of mammary tumors were recorded to evaluate vaccine potency. Mice sera were collected and passively transferred to xenograft-bearing mice to assess their antitumor efficacy. Results Both cell and DNA vaccines significantly delayed tumor onset, leading to about 65% tumor-free mice at 70 weeks, whereas mock-vaccinated FVB-huHER2 controls developed mammary tumors at a median age of 45 weeks. In the DNA vaccinated group, 65% of mice were still tumor-free at about 90 weeks of age. The number of mammary tumors per mouse was also significantly reduced in vaccinated mice. Vaccines broke the immunological tolerance to the huHER2 transgene, inducing both humoral and cytokine responses. The DNA vaccine mainly induced a high and sustained level of anti-huHER2 antibodies, the cell vaccine also elicited interferon (IFN)-γ production. Sera of DNA-vaccinated mice transferred to xenograft-carrying mice significantly inhibited the growth of human HER2-positive cancer cells. Conclusions Anti-huHER2 antibodies elicited in the tolerant host exert antitumor activity. PMID:24451168

  16. Nociception, neurogenic inflammation and thermoregulation in TRPV1 knockdown transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Dániel Márton; Szoke, Eva; Bölcskei, Kata; Kvell, Krisztián; Bender, Balázs; Bosze, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, János; Sándor, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    Transgenic mice with a small hairpin RNA construct interfering with the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) were created by lentiviral transgenesis. TRPV1 expression level in transgenic mice was reduced to 8% while the expression of ankyrin repeat domain 1 (TRPA1) was unchanged. Ear oedema induced by topical application of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin was completely absent in TRPV1 knockdown mice. Thermoregulatory behaviour in relation to environmental thermopreference (30 vs. 35°C) was slightly impaired in male knockdown mice, but the reduction of TRPV1 function was not associated with enhanced hyperthermia. TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin induced hypothermia and tail vasodilatation was markedly inhibited in knockdown mice. In conclusion, shRNA-mediated knock down of the TRPV1 receptor in mice induced robust inhibition of the responses to TRPV1 agonists without altering the expression, gating function or neurogenic oedema provoked by TRPA1 activation. Thermoregulatory behaviour in response to heat was inhibited, but enhanced hyperthermia was not observed.

  17. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with significant changes in the BMD parameters. At 12 months, curcumin treatment led to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown.

  18. Immunological Prevention of Spontaneous Mammary Carcinoma in Transgenic Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Dr. L. Clerici, Euratom, Ispra, Italy) (20) was mated with inbred Balb/c females from Charles River (CR), Calco, Italy. The progeny was screened for...Univ of Torino. #2. A safety back-up breeding colony in isolators at Charles River, Calco Italy has been established. Our Balb-NeuT mice were put in...will be produced and maintained at Charles River, Calco, Italy. 9 CONCLUSIONS The experimental work is going on very actively and according to our

  19. Transgenic mice expressing the human heat shock protein 70 have improved post-ischemic myocardial recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Plumier, J C; Ross, B M; Currie, R W; Angelidis, C E; Kazlaris, H; Kollias, G; Pagoulatos, G N

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment induces expression of several heat shock proteins and subsequent post-ischemic myocardial protection. Correlations exist between the degree of stress used to induce the heat shock proteins, the amount of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the level of myocardial protection. The inducible HSP70 has also been shown to be protective in transfected myogenic cells. Here we examined the role of human inducible HSP70 in transgenic mouse hearts. Overexpression of the human HSP70 does not appear to affect normal protein synthesis or the stress response in transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic mice. After 30 min of ischemia, upon reperfusion, transgenic hearts versus nontransgenic hearts showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force (0.35 +/- 0.08 versus 0.16 +/- 0.05 g, respectively, P < 0.05), rate of contraction, and rate of relaxation. Creatine kinase, an indicator of cellular injury, was released at a high level (67.7 +/- 23.0 U/ml) upon reperfusion from nontransgenic hearts, but not transgenic hearts (1.6 +/- 0.8 U/ml). We conclude that high level constitutive expression of the human inducible HSP70 plays a direct role in the protection of the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Images PMID:7706492

  20. Lactase gene promoter fragments mediate differential spatial and temporal expression patterns in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Lactase gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during mammalian gut development. We hypothesize that distinct DNA control regions specify appropriate spatial and temporal patterning of lactase gene expression. In order to define regions of the lactase promoter involved in mediating intestine-specific and spatiotemporal restricted expression, transgenic mice harboring 100 bp, 1.3- and 2.0- kb fragments of the 5' flanking region of the rat lactase gene cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter were characterized. The 100-bp lactase promoter-reporter transgenic mouse line expressed maximal luciferase activity in the intestine with a posterior shift in spatial restriction and ectopic expression in the stomach and lung. The temporal pattern of expression mediated by the 1.3-kb promoter?reporter transgene increases with postnatal maturation in contrast with the postnatal decline mediated by the 2.0-kb promoter-reporter transgene and the endogenous lactase gene. The differential transgene expression patterns mediated by the lactase promoter fragments suggests that intestine-specific spatial and temporal control elements reside in distinct regions of the DNA sequences upstream of the lactase gene transcription start-site.

  1. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  2. Transgenic Mice Expressing Yeast CUP1 Exhibit Increased Copper Utilization from Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenliang; Liao, Rongrong; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

    2014-01-01

    Copper is required for structural and catalytic properties of a variety of enzymes participating in many vital biological processes for growth and development. Feeds provide most of the copper as an essential micronutrient consumed by animals, but inorganic copper could not be utilized effectively. In the present study, we aimed to develop transgenic mouse models to test if copper utilization will be increased by providing the animals with an exogenous gene for generation of copper chelatin in saliva. Considering that the S. cerevisiae CUP1 gene encodes a Cys-rich protein that can bind copper as specifically as copper chelatin in yeast, we therefore constructed a transgene plasmid containing the CUP1 gene regulated for specific expression in the salivary glands by a promoter of gene coding pig parotid secretory protein. Transgenic CUP1 was highly expressed in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands and secreted in saliva as a 9-kDa copper-chelating protein. Expression of salivary copper-chelating proteins reduced fecal copper contents by 21.61% and increased body-weight by 12.97%, suggesting that chelating proteins improve the utilization and absorbed efficacy of copper. No negative effects on the health of the transgenic mice were found by blood biochemistry and histology analysis. These results demonstrate that the introduction of the salivary CUP1 transgene into animals offers a possible approach to increase the utilization efficiency of copper and decrease the fecal copper contents. PMID:25265503

  3. Imaging Neural Activity Using Thy1-GCaMP Transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Cichon, Joseph; Wang, Wenting; Qiu, Li; Lee, Seok-Jin R.; Campbell, Nolan R.; DeStefino, Nicholas; Goard, Michael J.; Fu, Zhanyan; Yasuda, Ryohei; Looger, Loren L.; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Gan, Wen-Biao; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ability to chronically monitor neuronal activity in the living brain is essential for understanding the organization and function of the nervous system. The genetically encoded green fluorescent protein based calcium sensor GCaMP provides a powerful tool for detecting calcium transients in neuronal somata, processes, and synapses that are triggered by neuronal activities. Here we report the generation and characterization of transgenic mice that express improved GCaMPs in various neuronal subpopulations under the control of the Thy1 promoter. In vitro and in vivo studies show that calcium transients induced by spontaneous and stimulus-evoked neuronal activities can be readily detected at the level of individual cells and synapses in acute brain slices, as well as chronically in awake behaving animals. These GCaMP transgenic mice allow investigation of activity patterns in defined neuronal populations in the living brain, and will greatly facilitate dissecting complex structural and functional relationships of neural networks. PMID:23083733

  4. Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939

  5. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-05-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak(-/-) mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak(-/-)vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak(-/-) mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1(-/-) BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia.

  6. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-01-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak−/− mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak−/−vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak−/− mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1−/− BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia. PMID:24464220

  7. Growth retardation and hair loss in transgenic mice overexpressing human H-ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Harada, Kazutoshi; Morokoshi, Yukie; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-06-01

    H-ferritin (HF) is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and plays a central role in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that ferritin and HF are involved in a wide variety of iron-independent functions, including regulating biological processes during physiological and pathological conditions, and can be overexpressed in some human diseases. To investigate the in vivo function of HF, we generated transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human HF gene (hHF-tg). We established two independent hHF-tg mouse lines. Although both lines of hHF-tg mice were viable, they showed reduced body size compared to wild-type (WT) mice at 4-12 weeks of age. Serum iron concentration and blood parameters of hHF-tg mice such as hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were comparable to those of WT mice. At 3-5 weeks of age, hHF-tg mice exhibited temporary loss of coat hair on the trunk, but not on the head or face. Histological analyses revealed that although initial hair development was normal, hHF-tg mice had epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, dilated hair follicles, bended hair shafts and keratinous debris during the hairless period. In conclusion, we showed that hHF-tg mice exhibited mild growth retardation and temporary hairless phenotype. Our findings highlight the physiological roles of HF and demonstrate that hHF-tg mice are useful for understanding the in vivo functions of HF.

  8. Impaired Immunogenicity of Meningococcal Neisserial Surface Protein A in Human Complement Factor H Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Eduardo; Pajon, Rolando; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-11-23

    Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) is a highly conserved outer membrane protein previously investigated as a meningococcal vaccine candidate. Despite eliciting serum bactericidal activity in mice, a recombinant NspA vaccine failed to elicit serum bactericidal antibodies in a phase 1 clinical trial in humans. The discordant results may be explained by the recent discovery that NspA is a human-specific ligand of the complement inhibitor factor H (FH). Therefore, in humans but not mice, NspA would be expected to form a complex with FH, which could impair human anti-NspA protective antibody responses. To investigate this question, we immunized human FH transgenic BALB/c mice with three doses of recombinant NspA expressed in Escherichia coli microvesicles, with each dose being separated by 3 weeks. Three of 12 (25%) transgenic mice and 13 of 14 wild-type mice responded with bactericidal titers of ≥1:10 in postimmunization sera (P = 0.0008, Fisher's exact test). In contrast, human FH transgenic and wild-type mice immunized with a control meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine had similar serum bactericidal antibody responses directed at PorA, which is not known to bind human FH, and a mutant factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigen with a >50-fold lower level of FH binding than wild-type FHbp antigen binding.Thus, human FH can impair anti-NspA serum bactericidal antibody responses, which may explain the poor immunogenicity of the NspA vaccine previously tested in humans. A mutant NspA vaccine engineered to have decreased binding to human FH may increase protective antibody responses in humans.

  9. FHL1 reduces dystrophy in transgenic mice overexpressing FSHD muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Sandra J; McGrath, Meagan J; Sriratana, Absorn; Gehrig, Stefan M; Lynch, Gordon S; D'Arcy, Colleen E; Price, John T; McLean, Catriona A; Tupler, Rossella; Mitchell, Christina A

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1.

  10. FHL1 Reduces Dystrophy in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing FSHD Muscular Dystrophy Region Gene 1 (FRG1)

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Sandra J.; McGrath, Meagan J.; Sriratana, Absorn; Gehrig, Stefan M.; Lynch, Gordon S.; D’Arcy, Colleen E.; Price, John T.; McLean, Catriona A.; Tupler, Rossella; Mitchell, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1. PMID:25695429

  11. Excessive growth hormone expression in male GH transgenic mice adversely alters bone architecture and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Lim, S V; Marenzana, M; Hopkinson, M; List, E O; Kopchick, J J; Pereira, M; Javaheri, B; Roux, J P; Chavassieux, P; Korbonits, M; Chenu, C

    2015-04-01

    Patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures despite normal bone mineral density (BMD), suggesting that GH overexpression has adverse effects on skeletal architecture and strength. We used giant bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice to analyze the effects of high serum GH levels on BMD, architecture, and mechanical strength. Five-month-old hemizygous male bGH mice were compared with age- and sex-matched nontransgenic littermates controls (NT; n=16/group). Bone architecture and BMD were analyzed in tibia and lumbar vertebrae using microcomputed tomography. Femora were tested to failure using three-point bending and bone cellular activity determined by bone histomorphometry. bGH transgenic mice displayed significant increases in body weight and bone lengths. bGH tibia showed decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, and number compared with NT ones, whereas trabecular pattern factor and structure model index were significantly increased, indicating deterioration in bone structure. Although cortical tissue perimeter was increased in transgenic mice, cortical thickness was reduced. bGH mice showed similar trabecular BMD but reduced trabecular thickness in lumbar vertebra relative to controls. Cortical BMD and thickness were significantly reduced in bGH lumbar vertebra. Mechanical testing of femora confirmed that bGH femora have decreased intrinsic mechanical properties compared with NT ones. Bone turnover is increased in favor of bone resorption in bGH tibia and vertebra compared with controls, and serum PTH levels is also enhanced in bGH mice. These data collectively suggest that high serum GH levels negatively affect bone architecture and quality at multiple skeletal sites.

  12. Progressive squamous epithelial neoplasia in K14-human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, J M; Münger, K; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1994-01-01

    To model human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic progression, expression of the early region of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was targeted to the basal cells of the squamous epithelium in transgenic mice, using a human keratin 14 (K14) enhancer/promoter. Twenty-one transgenic founder mice were produced, and eight lines carrying either wild-type or mutant HPV16 early regions that did not express the E1 or E2 genes were established. As is characteristic of human cancers, the E6 and E7 genes remained intact in these mutants. The absence of E1 or E2 function did not influence the severity of the phenotype that eventually developed in the transgenic mice. Hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and dysplasia appeared at multiple epidermal and squamous mucosal sites, including ear and truncal skin, face, snout and eyelids, and anus. The ears were the most consistently affected site, with pathology being present in all lines with 100% penetrance. This phenotype also progressed through discernible stages. An initial mild hyperplasia was followed by hyperplasia, which further progressed to dysplasia and papillomatosis. During histopathological progression, there was an incremental increase in cellular DNA synthesis, determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and a profound perturbation in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, as revealed by immunohistochemistry to K5, K14, and K10 and filaggrin. These K14-HPV16 transgenic mice present an opportunity to study the role of the HPV16 oncogenes in the neoplastic progression of squamous epithelium and provide a model with which to identify genetic and epigenetic factors necessary for carcinogenesis. Images PMID:7515971

  13. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  14. Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ju; Li, Yan; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Masuda, Takahiro; Allen, Thaddeus D.; Lobe, Corrinne G.

    2015-08-07

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We found that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression. - Highlights: • TSA suppresses lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice. • TSA does not affect overall Grg1 protein levels in the mice and in A549 cells. • TSA reduces ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression in the mice and in A549 cells. • Lapatinib masks TSA-induced inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration. • TSA inhibits VEGF signaling, but not basic FGF

  15. Hybrid voltage sensor imaging of electrical activity from neurons in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; McMahon, Shane; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting with genetically encoded optical voltage sensors brings the methods of voltage imaging to genetically defined neurons and offers a method of studying circuit activity in these selected populations. The present study reports the targeting of genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) to neurons in transgenic mice. The hVOS family of probes employs a membrane-targeted fluorescent protein, which generates voltage-dependent fluorescence changes in the presence of dipicrylamine (DPA) as the result of a voltage-dependent optical interaction between the two molecules. We generated transgenic mice with two different high-performance hVOS probes under control of a neuron-specific thy-1 promoter. Hippocampal slices from these animals present distinct spatial patterns of expression, and electrical stimulation evoked fluorescence changes as high as 3%. Glutamate receptor and Na+ channel antagonists blocked these responses. One hVOS probe tested here harbors an axonal targeting motif (from GAP-43) and shows preferential expression in axons; this probe can thus report axonal voltage changes. Voltage imaging in transgenic mice expressing hVOS probes opens the door to the study of functional activity in genetically defined populations of neurons in intact neural circuits. PMID:22993267

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 facilitates cervical cancer progression in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi Hong; Wright, Jason D; Belt, Brian; Cardiff, Robert D; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Advanced cervical cancer remains a vexing clinical challenge despite screening programs. Many of these cancers are hypoxic, and expression of the alpha subunit of the major regulator of the hypoxic cellular response, the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), is correlated with poor prognosis. Here, we tested a functional role for HIF-1alpha in pathogenesis of cervical cancer in estrogen-treated transgenic mice. Double-transgenic (DTG) mice developed locally invasive cervical cancers 70 times larger than K14-HPV16 mice. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was elevated in DTG cancers without a significant increase in apoptosis. HIF-1alpha gain of function did not up-regulate canonical HIF-1 targets in premalignant DTG cervices, in contrast to elevation of these targets in K14-HIF-1alpha transgenic cervices. The DTG transcriptional signature included up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cytokines and chemokines, immune signaling molecules, extracellular proteases, and cell motility factors, as well as reduced expression of cell adhesion and epithelial differentiation genes. Importantly, a set of gene markers derived from the DTG transcriptome predicted cervical cancer progression in patients. This study suggests a novel paradigm for HIF-1 function evident in multistage carcinogenesis as opposed to established malignancies, including interaction with viral oncogenes to induce multiple genomic networks in premalignancy that fosters the development of advanced cervical cancer.

  17. Antiviral effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on hepatitis B virus transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yongning; Li, Wei; Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Li; Victor, David W.; Xuan, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant global pathogen and efficient cure for HBV patients is still a challenging goal. We previously reported that acidic mucopolysaccharide from stichopus japonicus selenka (SJAMP) could inhibit HBsAg and HBeAg expression in vitro. However, the potential anti-HBV effects of SJAMP in vivo have not yet been explored. In this study, we show that SJAMP exhibits potent anti-HBV activity in HBV transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, sixty HBV transgenic male BALB/c mice were randomly selected to receive the treatment of PBS, low dose SJAMP (30 mg kg-1), middle dose SJAMP (40 mg kg-1), high dose SJAMP (50 mg kg-1) and IFN (45 IU kg-1) for 30 d. SJAMP treatment suppressed serum HBV-DNA, and liver HBsAg and HBcAg levels in HBV-transgenic mice. The present study highlights the potential application of SJAMP in HBV therapy.

  18. Loss of renal microvascular integrity in postnatal Crim1 hypomorphic transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Lorine; Gilbert, Thierry; Sipos, Arnold; Toma, Ildiko; Pennisi, David J; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Little, Melissa H

    2009-12-01

    Crim1 is a cell-surface, transmembrane protein that binds to a variety of cystine knot-containing growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A. In the developing renal glomerulus, Crim1 acts to tether vascular endothelial growth factor A to the podocyte cell surface, thus regulating its release to glomerular endothelial cells. The hypomorphic transgenic mouse (Crim1(KST264/KST264)) has glomerular cysts and severe glomerular vascular defects because of the lack of functional Crim1 in the glomerulus. Adult transgenic mice have a reduced glomerular filtration rate and glomerular capillary defects. We now show that, in these adult transgenic mice, renal vascular defects are not confined to the glomerulus but also extend to the peritubular microvasculature, as live imaging revealed leakiness of both glomerular and peritubular capillaries. An ultrastructural analysis of the microvasculature showed an abnormal endothelium and collagen deposition between the endothelium and the tubular basement membrane, present even in juvenile mice. Overt renal disease, including fibrosis and renin recruitment, was not evident until adulthood. Our study suggests that Crim1 is involved in endothelial maintenance and integrity and its loss contributes to a primary defect in the extraglomerular vasculature.

  19. Transgenic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) causes premature aging phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingxiao; Field, Kevin; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Shim, Minsub

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process. However, it is not clear whether the increased COX2 expression is causal to or a result of aging. We have now addressed this question by creating an inducible COX2 transgenic mouse model. Here we show that post-natal expression of COX2 led to a panel of aging-related phenotypes. The expression of p16, p53, and phospho-H2AX was increased in the tissues of COX2 transgenic mice. Additionally, adult mouse lung fibroblasts from COX2 transgenic mice exhibited increased expression of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Our study reveals that the increased COX2 expression has an impact on the aging process and suggests that modulation of COX2 and its downstream signaling may be an approach for intervention of age-related disorders. PMID:27750221

  20. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

  1. ErbB Receptor-Driven Prolactinomas Respond to Targeted Lapatinib Treatment in Female Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohai; Kano, Maya; Araki, Takako; Cooper, Odelia; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Tone, Yukiko; Tone, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    As ErbB receptors are expressed in prolactinomas and exhibit downstream effects on prolactin (PRL) production and cell proliferation, we generated transgenic mice using a PRL enhancer/promoter expression system to restrict lactotroph-specific expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or human EGFR2 (HER2). EGFR or HER2 transgenic mice developed prolactinomas between 13 and 15 months, and confocal immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed lactotroph-restricted PRL and EGFR or HER2 coexpression. Circulating PRL levels in EGFR and HER2 transgenic mice were increased 5- and 3.8-fold, respectively. Inhibiting EGFR or HER2 signaling with oral lapatinib (100 mg/kg), a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor for both EGFR and HER2, suppressed circulating PRL by 72% and attenuated tumor PRL expression by 80% and also attenuated downstream tumor EGFR/HER2 signaling. This model demonstrates the role of ErbB receptors underlying prolactinoma tumorigenesis and the feasibility of targeting these receptors for translation to treatment of refractory prolactinomas. PMID:25375038

  2. Behavioral improvement after chronic administration of coenzyme Q10 in P301S transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Gerges, Meri; Yang, Lichuan; Starkov, Anatoly; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is a key component of the electron transport chain which plays an essential role in ATP production and also has antioxidant effects. Neuroprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 have been reported in both in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its effects have not been studied in cells or in animals with tau induced pathology. In this report, we administered coenzyme Q10 to transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, which causes fronto-temporal dementia in man. These mice develop tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Coenzyme Q10 improved survival and behavioral deficits in the P301S mice. There was a modest reduction in phosphorylated tau in the cortex of P301S mice. We also examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on the electron transport chain enzymes, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. There was a significant increase in complex I activity and protein levels, and a reduction in lipid peroxidation. Our data show that coenzyme Q10 significantly improved behavioral deficits and survival in transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, upregulated key enzymes of the electron transport chain, and reduced oxidative stress.

  3. Environmental enrichment enhances cellular plasticity in transgenic mice with Alzheimer-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Ambrée, Oliver; Tomm, Manuel; Habermann, Henrik; Sachser, Norbert; Paulus, Werner; Keyvani, Kathy

    2009-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by hippocampal neuronal loss and abnormal neurogenesis, both of which probably contributing to AD-related cognitive deficits. Mounting evidence indicates that cognitive and physical stimulation provided by environmental enrichment improves neurogenesis in healthy animals and counteracts beta-amyloid pathology in mouse models of AD. Here, we hypothesized that environmental enrichment has also an impact on hippocampal neurogenesis in mice with AD-like pathology. Therefore, TgCRND8 mice and wild type littermates were either housed under standard conditions or in an enriched environment for 4 months. Standard housed TgCRND8 mice revealed diminished hippocampal cell proliferation and reduced number of mature newborn neurons compared to wild type littermates under the same housing condition. However, environmental enrichment reversed this genotype effect. Here, we show that cognitive and physical stimulation is capable of increasing the number of newborn mature hippocampal neurons in transgenic mice to wild type levels. Moreover, the expression of various plasticity associated molecules was enhanced in transgenic mice due to enriched housing. This study identifies that environmental enrichment improves diminished cellular plasticity in AD brain, probably enhancing the brain capacity to better compensate for neurodegeneration.

  4. Targeted overexpression of calcitonin in gonadotrophs of transgenic mice leads to chronic hypoprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ren; Kulkarni, Trupti; Wei, Fu; Shah, Girish V

    2005-01-14

    It was previously shown that calcitonin-like pituitary peptide (pit-CT) is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs, and pit-CT inhibits PRL gene transcription and lactotroph cell proliferation. Present studies examined long-term consequences of pit-CT overexpression on the functioning of mouse anterior pituitary (AP) gland. Targeted overexpression of pit-CT in gonadotrophs of mouse pituitaries was achieved by generating mice overexpressing bovine luteinizing hormone (LH)-alpha subunit promoter-pit-CT cDNA transgene. Transgenic (pit-CT+) mice displayed chronic but selective overexpression of pit-CT in gonadotrophs. The mice also displayed a dramatic decline in PRL gene expression as assessed by PRL mRNA abundance, PRL immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum PRL levels. LH secretion in pit-CT+ mice was also reduced, without any change in FSH secretion. Reproductive abnormalities such as prolonged estrous cycles, reduced pregnancy rate, delivery of smaller litters, increased neonatal mortality and deficient lactation were also observed. Administration of PRL during early pregnancy significantly increased the pregnancy rate and neonatal survival of newborns. These results demonstrate that overexpression of pit-CT leads to chronic hypoprolactinemia and reproductive dysfunction in female mice, and reinforces the possibility that gonadotroph-derived pit-CT is an important paracrine regulator of lactotroph function.

  5. Behavioral Improvement after Chronic Administration of Coenzyme Q10 in P301S Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Gerges, Meri; Yang, Lichuan; Starkov, Anatoly; Beal, M. Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is a key component of the electron transport chain which plays an essential role in ATP production and also has antioxidant effects. Neuroprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 have been reported in both in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its effects have not been studied in cells or in animals with tau induced pathology. In this report, we administered coenzyme Q10 to transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, which causes fronto-temporal dementia in man. These mice develop tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Coenzyme Q10 improved survival and behavioral deficits in the P301S mice. There was a modest reduction in phosphorylated tau in the cortex of P301S mice. We also examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on the electron transport chain enzymes, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. There was a significant increase in complex I activity and protein levels, and a reduction in lipid peroxidation. Our data show that coenzyme Q10 significantly improved behavioral deficits and survival in transgenic mice with the P301S tau mutation, upregulated key enzymes of the electron transport chain, and reduced oxidative stress. PMID:21971408

  6. Behavioral Effects of Chronic Methamphetamine Treatment in HIV-1 gp120 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brook L.; Geyer, Mark A.; Buell, Mahalah; Perry, William; Young, Jared W.; Minassian, Arpi

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection. Both factors are independently characterized by inhibitory deficits, which may manifest as increased motor activity, inappropriate perseverative behavior, and elevated exploratory responses to novel stimuli, but the effect of combined METH exposure and HIV is not well understood. In this study, we administered a chronic escalation/binge regimen of METH or vehicle treatment to wildtype (WT) or transgenic (tg) mice expressing the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and quantified disinhibition during the 7 days following drug withdrawal. We hypothesized that gp120tg mice administered chronic METH would exhibit more pronounced inhibitory deficits compared to vehicle-treated WT or gp120tg animals. Our results showed that METH treatment alone increased novel object interaction while female METH-treated gp120tg mice exhibited the highest level of exploration (holepoking) compared to other female mice. Transgenic mice exhibited fewer rears relative to WT, slightly less locomotion, and also demonstrated a trend towards more perseverative motor patterns. In summary, both METH treatment and gp120 expression may modify inhibition, but such effects are selective and dependent upon variations in age and sex that could impact dopamine and frontostriatal function. These findings illustrate the need to improve our knowledge about the combined effects of HIV and substance use and facilitate improved treatment methods for comorbid disease and drug dependence. PMID:22960458

  7. Behavioral effects of chronic methamphetamine treatment in HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brook L; Geyer, Mark A; Buell, Mahalah; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Minassian, Arpi

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection. Both factors are independently characterized by inhibitory deficits, which may manifest as increased motor activity, inappropriate perseverative behavior, and elevated exploratory responses to novel stimuli, but the effect of combined METH exposure and HIV is not well understood. In this study, we administered a chronic escalation/binge regimen of METH or vehicle treatment to wildtype (WT) or transgenic (tg) mice expressing the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and quantified disinhibition during the 7 days following drug withdrawal. We hypothesized that gp120tg mice administered chronic METH would exhibit more pronounced inhibitory deficits compared to vehicle-treated WT or gp120tg animals. Our results showed that METH treatment alone increased novel object interaction while female METH-treated gp120tg mice exhibited the highest level of exploration (holepoking) compared to other female mice. Transgenic mice exhibited fewer rears relative to WT, slightly less locomotion, and also demonstrated a trend toward more perseverative motor patterns. In summary, both METH treatment and gp120 expression may modify inhibition, but such effects are selective and dependent upon variations in age and sex that could impact dopamine and frontostriatal function. These findings illustrate the need to improve our knowledge about the combined effects of HIV and substance use and facilitate improved treatment methods for comorbid disease and drug dependence.

  8. Development of T cell lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP factor and Tax double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells possess a CD4+ CD25+ phenotype, similar to that of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tax has been reported to play a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genomic RNA, is expressed in all ATL cases and induces neoplastic and inflammatory disease in vivo. To test whether HBZ and Tax are both required for T cell malignancy, we generated HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice in which HBZ and Tax are expressed exclusively in CD4+ T cells. Survival was much reduced in HBZ/Tax double-transgenic mice compared with wild type littermates. Transgenic expression of HBZ and Tax induced skin lesions and T-cell lymphoma in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, Tax single transgenic mice did not develop major health problems. In addition, memory CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells counts were increased in HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice, and their proliferation was enhanced. There was very little difference between HBZ single and HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice. Taken together, these results show that HBZ, in addition to Tax, plays a critical role in T-cell lymphoma arising from HTLV-1 infection.

  9. Monitoring aggregate formation in organotypic slice cultures from transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donna L; Bates, Gillian P

    2004-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the HD gene. It encodes a protein known as huntingtin, which aggregates in the nuclei of affected neurons. These aggregates are an obvious therapeutic target, thus an organotypic slice culture assay has been designed to screen potential antiaggregation compounds using the R6/2 mouse model of HD. This assay allows the aggregates to be fully quantified using fluorescent confocal microscopy and gives additional information perturbing to drug solubility, delivery, toxicity, concentration, and efficacy of inhibitors. This information is essential to the planning and application of an in vivo drug trial in the R6/2 mice.

  10. Production of mitochondrial DNA transgenic mice using zygotes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2002-04-01

    Several animal models of human disease, which have been developed by random or targeted modifications of genomic DNA sequences, have furthered our understanding of pathogenesis and the development of therapeutics. However, these models have not facilitated studies on mitochondrial diseases, since modifications to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are not possible using current recombination techniques. Consequently, information on human mitochondrial diseases is relatively sparse, and issues related to mitochondrial pathogenesis and inheritance remain unresolved. Recently, we reported the development of a new technique to generate mice carrying mutant mtDNA from a mouse cell line. In this report, we describe our techniques in detail, with emphasis on the preparation of donor cytoplasts and the micromanipulative procedures for electrofusion of cytoplasts and recipient zygotes. These steps are critically important for the successful introduction of exogenous mtDNA into embryos, and thereby into animals, so that the mutant mtDNA is efficiently propagated in subsequent generations.

  11. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  12. Studies on the thymus of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice: effect of transgene expression.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, L A; Healey, D; Simpson, E; Chandler, P; Lund, T; Ritter, M A; Cooke, A

    1994-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a good model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Autoreactive T cells may play a fundamental role in disease initiation in this model, while disregulation of such cells may result from an abnormal thymic microenvironment. Diabetes is prevented in NOD mice by direct introduction of an E alpha d transgene (NOD-E) or a modified I-A beta chain of NOD origin (NOD-PRO or NOD-ASP). To investigate if disease pathology in NOD mice, protection from disease in transgenic NOD-E and NOD-PRO and partial protection from disease in NOD-ASP can be attributed to alterations in the thymic microenvironment, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis of the thymi of these mouse strains was studied. Thymi from NOD and NOD-E mice showed a progressive increase in thymic B-cell percentage from 12 weeks of age. This was accompanied by a concomitant loss in thymic epithelial cells with the appearance of large epithelial-free areas mainly at the corticomedullary junction, which increased in size and number with age and contained the B-cell clusters. Such thymic B cells did not express CD5 and were absent in CBA, NOD-ASP and NOD-PRO mice as were the epithelial cell-free spaces, even at 5 months of age. Therefore the mechanisms of disease protection in the transgenic NOD-E and NOD-ASP/NOD-PRO mice may differ if these thymic abnormalities are related to disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7523287

  13. Genotoxicity of 3-methylcholanthrene in liver of transgenic big Blue mice.

    PubMed

    Rihn, B H; Bottin, M C; Coulais, C; Rouget, R; Monhoven, N; Baranowski, W; Edorh, A; Keith, G

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice provide a unique tool for studying the tissue specificity and mutagenic potential of chemicals. Because 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) was found mutagenic in bacteria, clastogenic in bone marrow, and induces DNA adducts in animals, we were interested to determinine whether this xenobiotic provokes (1) cell proliferation, (2) transcriptional activity changes, (3) DNA adducts, and (4) hepatic mutations in transgenic Big Blue mice carrying the lambdaLIZ phage shuttle vector. Big Blue C57/Bl male mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 80 mg/kg 3MC for 1, 3, 6, 14, or 30 days. Cell proliferation was checked by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling and immunohistochemical detection. The maximal increase of the mitotic index was evidenced after 3 days (2.9 times the control value; P < 0.01). The relative nucleus area, reflecting the transcriptional activity, was also the highest in the treated group after 3 days: 1.86 times the control value, on average (P < 0.01). Four major DNA adducts, determined according to the [(32)P]-postlabeling method, were evidenced in liver DNA of treated mice, 6 days after the treatment: the spot intensities increased in a time-dependent manner. The mutant frequency of liver DNA was the highest after 14 days: 20.3 +/- 2.9 x 10(-5) in the treated vs. 7.6 +/- 2.7 x 10(-5) in the control mice (P < 0.01). Sequencing of the lambda lacI mutant plaques showed mainly G:C --> T:A and C:G --> A:T transversions. In conclusion, 3MC at first induced nuclear enlargement and a slight increase of cell proliferation in liver, followed by parallel formation of DNA adducts and mutations. This study shows how transgenic models allow in vivo evaluation of mechanistically simultaneous endpoints.

  14. Genetic biomarkers for ALS disease in transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana C; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies.

  15. Increased renal oxidative stress in salt-sensitive human GRK4γ486V transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zhenyu; Asico, Laureano D; Villar, Van Anthony M; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Cuevas, Santiago; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that salt-sensitive hypertension is caused by renal oxidative stress by measuring the blood pressure and reactive oxygen species-related proteins in the kidneys of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4γ (hGRK4γ) 486V transgenic mice and non-transgenic (Non-T) littermates on normal and high salt diets. High salt diet increased the blood pressure, associated with impaired sodium excretion, in hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal expressions of NOX isoforms were similar in both strains on normal salt diet but NOX2 was decreased by high salt diet to a greater extent in Non-T than hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal HO-2, but not HO-1, protein was greater in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice on normal salt diet and normalized by high salt diet. On normal salt diet, renal CuZnSOD and ECSOD proteins were similar but renal MnSOD was lower in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice and remained low on high salt diet. High salt diet decreased renal CuZnSOD in hGRK4γ486V but not Non-T mice and decreased renal ECSOD to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. Renal SOD activity, superoxide production, and NOS3 protein were similar in two strains on normal salt diet. However, high salt diet decreased SOD activity and NOS3 protein and increased superoxide production in hGRK4γ486V mice but not in Non-T mice. High salt diet also increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. hGRK4γwild-type mice were normotensive and hGRK4γ142V mice were hypertensive but both were salt-resistant and in normal redox balance. Chronic tempol treatment partially prevented the salt-sensitivity of hGRK4γ486V mice. Thus, hGRK4γ486V causes salt-sensitive hypertension due, in part, to defective renal antioxidant mechanisms.

  16. Difluoromethylornithine chemoprevention of epidermal carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, J M; Riley, R R; Huey, B; Porter, C; Kelloff, G; Lubet, R; Ward, J M; Pinkel, D

    1999-08-01

    To be informative for chemoprevention, animal models must both closely emulate human disease and possess surrogate endpoint biomarkers that facilitate rapid drug screening. This study elucidated site-specific histopathological and biochemical surrogate endpoint biomarkers of spontaneous epidermal carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice and demonstrated that the incidence and severity of these markers were decreased by the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). The cumulative incidence of visible epidermal cancers in 127 untreated transgenic mice was 42% by 52 weeks of age, most frequently affecting the chest as flat lesions in association with chronic ulcers, or in the ear as protuberant masses. Microscopic malignancies were detected in 39% of 32-week-old transgenic mice and were found to emerge from precursor lesions that were of two distinct types: dysplastic sessile ear papillomas and hyperproliferative follicular/interfollicular chest dysplasias. ODC activity and tissue polyamine contents were differentially elevated in ear and chest skin during carcinogenesis, such that there was a marked elevation of both parameters of polyamine metabolism as early as 4 weeks of age in the ear, whereas in the chest, polyamine metabolism was increased significantly only in the late stages of neoplastic progression and in epidermal cancers. Administration of 1.0% DFMO in the drinking water from 4 to 32 weeks of age prevented both visible and microscopic malignancies and significantly decreased the incidence of chest and ear precursor lesions. ODC activity and tissue putrescine content were markedly diminished by DFMO chemoprevention in ear skin, whereas there was a more modest decline of these parameters in chest skin. DFMO treatment of transgenic mice from 28 to 32 weeks of age was associated with an absence of ear cancer and a marked regression of dysplastic papillomas. In contrast, the results in chest skin were complex in that the

  17. Overexpression of heparanase lowers the amyloid burden in amyloid-β precursor protein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Jendresen, Charlotte B; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Xiao; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nilsson, Lars N G; Li, Jin-Ping

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) colocalize with amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer disease brain and in Aβ precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mouse models. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades the unbranched glycosaminoglycan side chains of HSPGs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that HS and HSPGs are active participators of Aβ pathogenesis in vivo. We therefore generated a double-transgenic mouse model overexpressing both human heparanase and human AβPP harboring the Swedish mutation (tgHpa*Swe). Overexpression of heparanase did not affect AβPP processing because the steady-state levels of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and soluble AβPP β were the same in 2- to 3-month-old double-transgenic tgHpa*Swe and single-transgenic tgSwe mice. In contrast, the Congo red-positive amyloid burden was significantly lower in 15-month-old tgHpa*Swe brain than in tgSwe brain. Likewise, the Aβ burden, measured by Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 immunohistochemistry, was reduced significantly in tgHpa*Swe brain. The intensity of HS-stained plaques correlated with the Aβx-42 burden and was reduced in tgHpa*Swe mice. Moreover, the HS-like molecule heparin facilitated Aβ1-42-aggregation in an in vitro Thioflavin T assay. The findings suggest that HSPGs contribute to amyloid deposition in tgSwe mice by increasing Aβ fibril formation because heparanase-induced fragmentation of HS led to a reduced amyloid burden. Therefore, drugs interfering with Aβ-HSPG interactions might be a potential strategy for Alzheimer disease treatment.

  18. Hsp70 regulates the doxorubicin-mediated heart failure in Hsp70-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Naka K, Katerina; Vezyraki, Patra; Kalaitzakis, Alexandros; Zerikiotis, Stelios; Michalis, Lampros; Angelidis, Charalampos

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of the Hsp70 protein in the cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin (DOX) and the mechanisms of its action. For this purpose, we used both wild-type mice (F1/F1) and Hsp70-transgenic mice (Tg/Tg) overexpressing human HSP70. Both types were subjected to chronic DOX administration (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally every week for 10 weeks, with an interval from weeks 4 to 6). Primary cell cultures isolated from embryos of these mice were also studied. During DOX administration, the mortality rate as well as weight reduction were lower in Tg/Tg compared to F1/F1 mice (P < 0.05). In vivo cardiac function assessment by transthoracic echocardiography showed that the reduction in left ventricular systolic function observed after DOX administration was lower in Tg/Tg mice (P < 0.05). The study in primary embryonic cell lines showed that the apoptosis after incubation with DOX was reduced in cells overexpressing Hsp70 (Tg/Tg), while the apoptotic pathway that was activated by DOX administration involved activated protein factors such as p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP-1. In myocardial protein extracts from identical mice with DOX-induced heart failure, the particular activated apoptotic pathway was confirmed, while the presence of Hsp70 appeared to inhibit the apoptotic pathway upstream of the p53 activation. Our results, in this DOX-induced heart failure model, indicate that Hsp70 overexpression in Tg/Tg transgenic mice provides protection from myocardial damage via an Hsp70-block in p53 activation, thus reducing the subsequent apoptotic mechanism.

  19. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  20. Ablation of the Locus Coeruleus Increases Oxidative Stress in Tg-2576 Transgenic but Not Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hurko, Orest; Boudonck, Kurt; Gonzales, Cathleen; Hughes, Zoe A.; Jacobsen, J. Steve; Reinhart, Peter H.; Crowther, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Mice transgenic for production of excessive or mutant forms of beta-amyloid differ from patients with Alzheimer's disease in the degree of inflammation, oxidative damage, and alteration of intermediary metabolism, as well as the paucity or absence of neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment. Previous observers have suggested that differences in inflammatory response reflect a discrepancy in the state of the locus coeruleus (LC), loss of which is an early change in Alzheimer's disease but which is preserved in the transgenic mice. In this paper, we extend these observations by examining the effects of the LC on markers of oxidative stress and intermediary metabolism. We compare four groups: wild-type or Tg2576 Aβ transgenic mice injected with DSP4 or vehicle. Of greatest interest were metabolites different between ablated and intact transgenics, but not between ablated and intact wild-type animals. The Tg2576_DSP4 mice were distinguished from the other three groups by oxidative stress and altered energy metabolism. These observations provide further support for the hypothesis that Tg2576 Aβ transgenic mice with this ablation may be a more congruent model of Alzheimer's disease than are transgenics with an intact LC. PMID:20981353

  1. Effect of dihydrotestosterone on gastrointestinal tract of male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Karri, Sritulasi; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica; Coimbatore, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-05-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. While research contributions identifying brain as locus of the disease is growing, evidence of severely impaired gastrointestinal (GI) functions with ageing too is accumulating, there is an equal dearth of information on GI tract in AD condition. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular, histological, morphological and microflora alterations of GI tract in male Alzheimer's transgenic mice. The present study also investigates the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment (1 mg/kg) on AD mice. Histoarchitecture data revealed a significant decrease in the villi number, muscular layer thickness, villi length, width, crypt length, enterocyte length and nuclei length. A shift in colon feces microbial community composition was observed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression levels in intestine significantly increased in AD mice revealing its toxicity. DHT treatment attenuated the effect caused by AD on GI morphometrics, APP expression and colon micro flora population. These results for the first time reveal the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of GI tract in male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

  2. Osthole Upregulates BDNF to Enhance Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Xue, Xinhong; Shi, Huijian; Qi, Lifeng; Gong, Dianrong

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the mouse hippocampus, and plays roles in learning and memory progresses. In amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), severe impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG has been reported. Osthole, an active constituent of Cnidium monnieri (L.) CUSSON, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects and may promote neural stem cell proliferation. However, whether osthole ameliorates spatial memory deficits and improves hippocampal neurogenesis in APP/PS1 mice remains unknown. In this study we found that osthole (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily) treatment dramatically ameliorated the cognitive impairments by Morris Water Maze test and passive avoidance test, and augmented neurogenesis in the DG of hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, osthole treatment upregulated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and enhanced activation of the BDNF receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) following increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), indicating that osthole improves neurogenesis via stimulating BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

  3. Spontaneous colitis occurrence in transgenic mice with altered B7-mediated costimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gisen; Turovskaya, Olga; Levin, Matthew; Byrne, Fergus R; Whoriskey, John S; McCabe, James G; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2008-10-15

    The B7 costimulatory molecules govern many aspects of T cell immune responses by interacting with CD28 for costimulation, but also with CTLA-4 for immune suppression. Although blockade of CTLA-4 with Ab in humans undergoing cancer immune therapy has led to some cases of inflammatory bowel disease, spontaneous animal models of colitis that depend upon modulation of B7 interactions have not been previously described. In this study, we demonstrate that mice expressing a soluble B7-2 Ig Fc chimeric protein spontaneously develop colitis that is dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation of CD4(+) T cells. We show that the chimeric protein has mixed agonistic/antagonist properties, and that it acts in part by blocking the cell intrinsic effects on T cell activation of engagement of CTLA-4. Disease occurred in transgenic mice that lack expression of the endogenous B7 molecules (B7 double knock-out mice), because of the relatively weak costimulatory delivered by the chimeric protein. Surprisingly, colitis was more severe in this context, which was associated with the decreased number of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in transgenic B7 double knock-out mice. This model provides an important tool for examining how B7 molecules and their effects on CTLA-4 modulate T cell function and the development of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Abnormal B-cell function in HTLV-I-tax transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Peebles, R S; Maliszewski, C R; Sato, T A; Hanley-Hyde, J; Maroulakou, I G; Hunziker, R; Schneck, J P; Green, J E

    1995-03-16

    Transgenic mice that carry the HTLV-I Tax gene develop an exocrinopathy with some similarities to Sjoegren's syndrome. Our experiments reveal that these mice have lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly composed primarily of B lymphocytes, as well as abnormal levels of secreted immunoglobulins. To gain insight into whether the lymphadenopathy manifested by these transgenic mice was the result of induction of cytokines by Tax, we utilized cell lines from these mice to study in vitro B-cell responses. Conditioned media (CM) derived from the cell lines caused B-cells to proliferate when a second signal, surface Ig cross-linking, was provided. The CM also caused a marked enhancement of IgM secretion by spleen cells or by purified B-cells treated with supplemental cytokines. The B-cell proliferative response and enhanced IgM secretion have not been attributed to a known cytokine. These results suggest that the CM from the cell lines contain a factor(s) involved in novel pathways of B-cell growth and differentiation that may participate in the pathologic development of autoimmune disease.

  5. Oral Administration of Thioflavin T Prevents Beta Amyloid Plaque Formation in Double Transgenic AD Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Paule, Merle G; Schmued, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and most common cause of adult-onset dementia. The major hallmarks of AD are the formation of senile amyloid plaques made of beta amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are primarily composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Although numerous agents have been considered as providing protection against AD, identification of potential agents with neuroprotective ability is limited. Thioflavin T has been used in the past to stain amyloid beta plaques in brain. In this study, Thioflavin T (ThT) and vehicle (infant formula) were administered orally by gavage to transgenic (B6C3 APP PS1; AD-Tg) mice beginning at 4 months age and continuing until sacrifice at 9 months of age at 40 mg/kg dose. The number of amyloid plaques was reduced dramatically by ThT treatment in both male and female transgenic mice compared to those in control mice. Additionally, GFAP and Amylo-Glo labeling suggest that astrocytic hypertrophy is minimized in ThT-treated animals. Similarly, CD68 labeling, which detects activated microglia, along with Amylo-Glo labeling, suggests that microglial activation is significantly less in ThT-treated mice. Both Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 concentrations in blood rose significantly in the ThT-treated animals suggesting that ThT may inhibit the deposition, degradation, and/or clearance of Aβ plaques in brain.

  6. Biaryl Amides and Hydrazones as Therapeutics for Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duo; Giles, Kurt; Li, Zhe; Rao, Satish; Dolghih, Elena; Gever, Joel R.; Geva, Michal; Elepano, Manuel L.; Oehler, Abby; Bryant, Clifford; Renslo, Adam R.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Silber, B. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The only small-molecule compound demonstrated to substantially extend survival in prion-infected mice is a biaryl hydrazone termed “Compd B” (4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde,2-[4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl]hydrazone). However, the hydrazone moiety of Compd B results in toxic metabolites, making it a poor candidate for further drug development. We developed a pharmacophore model based on diverse antiprion compounds identified by high-throughput screening; based on this model, we generated biaryl amide analogs of Compd B. Medicinal chemistry optimization led to multiple compounds with increased potency, increased brain concentrations, and greater metabolic stability, indicating that they could be promising candidates for antiprion therapy. Replacing the pyridyl ring of Compd B with a phenyl group containing an electron-donating substituent increased potency, while adding an aryl group to the oxazole moiety increased metabolic stability. To test the efficacy of Compd B, we applied bioluminescence imaging (BLI), which was previously shown to detect prion disease onset in live mice earlier than clinical signs. In our studies, Compd B showed good efficacy in two lines of transgenic mice infected with the mouse-adapted Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) strain of prions, but not in transgenic mice infected with human prions. The BLI system successfully predicted the efficacies in all cases long before extension in survival could be observed. Our studies suggest that this BLI system has good potential to be applied in future antiprion drug efficacy studies. PMID:23965382

  7. In vivo MRI and histological evaluation of brain atrophy in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Delatour, Benoît; Guégan, Maryvonne; Volk, Andreas; Dhenain, Marc

    2006-06-01

    Regional cerebral atrophy was evaluated in APP/PS1 mice harboring mutated transgenes linked to familial Alzheimer's disease, using complementary methods. In vivo high resolution MRI was selected for measurements of brain atrophy and associated cerebrospinal fluid dilation; histological analysis was performed to reveal localized atrophies and to evaluate amyloid burden. Young APP/PS1 mice examined at a pre-amyloid stage (10 weeks) showed disruption in development (reduced intracranial and brain volumes). Comparison of young and old (24 months) mice, indicated that both APP/PS1 and control brains endure growth during adulthood. Aged APP/PS1 animals showed a moderate although significant global brain atrophy and a dilation of CSF space in posterior brain regions. The locus of this atrophy was identified in the midbrain area and not, as expected, at isocortical/hippocampal levels. Atrophy was also detected in fiber tracts. The severity of brain atrophy in old APP/PS1 mice was not correlated with the extent of cerebral amyloidosis. The relevance of current transgenic mouse models for the study of brain atrophy related to Alzheimer's disease is discussed.

  8. Transgenic overexpression of ADAM12 suppresses muscle regeneration and aggravates dystrophy in aged mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Wewer, Ulla M; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2007-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are characterized by insufficient restoration and gradual replacement of the skeletal muscle by fat and connective tissue. ADAM12 has previously been shown to alleviate the pathology of young dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The observed effect of ADAM12 was suggested to be mediated via a membrane-stabilizing up-regulation of utrophin, alpha7B integrin, and dystroglycans. Ectopic ADAM12 expression in normal mouse skeletal muscle also improved regeneration after freeze injury, presumably by the same mechanism. Hence, it was suggested that ADAM12 could be a candidate for nonreplacement gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We therefore evaluated the long-term effect of ADAM12 overexpression in muscle. Surprisingly, we observed loss of skeletal muscle and accelerated fibrosis and adipogenesis in 1-year-old mdx mice transgenically overexpressing ADAM12 (ADAM12(+)/mdx mice), even though their utrophin levels were mildly elevated compared with age-matched controls. Thus, membrane stabilization was not sufficient to provide protection during prolonged disease. Consequently, we reinvestigated skeletal muscle regeneration in ADAM12 transgenic mice (ADAM12(+)) after a knife cut lesion and observed that the regeneration process was significantly impaired. ADAM12 seemed to inhibit the satellite cell response and delay myoblast differentiation. These results discourage long-term therapeutic use of ADAM12. They also point to impaired regeneration as a possible factor in development of muscular dystrophy.

  9. Inhibition of elastase-pulmonary emphysema in dominant-negative MafB transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Yasuko; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Kimura, Tomomi; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Nunomiya, Keiko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Sato-Nishiwaki, Michiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously demonstrated upregulation of the transcription factor MafB in AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of MafB in the development of pulmonary emphysema. Porcine pancreatic elastase was administered to wild-type (WT) and dominant-negative (DN)-MafB transgenic (Tg) mice in which MafB activity was suppressed only in macrophages. We measured the mean linear intercept and conducted cell differential analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, surface marker analysis using flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12. Airspace enlargement of the lungs was suppressed significantly in elastase-treated DN-MafB Tg mice compared with treated WT mice. AMs with projected pseudopods were decreased in DN-MafB Tg mice. The number of cells intermediately positive for F4/80 and weakly or intermediately positive for CD11b, which are considered cell subsets of matured AMs, decreased in the BAL of DN-MafB Tg mice. Furthermore, MMP-9 and -12 were significantly downregulated in BAL cells of DN-MafB Tg mice. Because MMPs exacerbate emphysema, MafB may be involved in pulmonary emphysema development through altered maturation of macrophages and MMP expression.

  10. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-08-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  11. Utrophin Up-Regulation by an Artificial Transcription Factor in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E.; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter “A”. Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics. PMID:17712422

  12. FIAT represses ATF4-mediated transcription to regulate bone mass in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vionnie W C; Ambartsoumian, Gourgen; Verlinden, Lieve; Moir, Janet M; Prud'homme, Josée; Gauthier, Claude; Roughley, Peter J; St-Arnaud, René

    2005-05-23

    We report the characterization of factor inhibiting activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-mediated transcription (FIAT), a leucine zipper nuclear protein. FIAT interacted with ATF4 to inhibit binding of ATF4 to DNA and block ATF4-mediated transcription of the osteocalcin gene in vitro. Transgenic mice overexpressing FIAT in osteoblasts also had reduced osteocalcin gene expression and decreased bone mineral density, bone volume, mineralized volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and decreased rigidity of long bones. Mineral homeostasis, osteoclast number and activity, and osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis were unchanged in transgenics. Expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers was largely unaffected and type I collagen synthesis was unchanged. Mineral apposition rate was reduced in transgenic mice, suggesting that the lowered bone mass was due to a decline in osteoblast activity. This cell-autonomous decrease in osteoblast activity was confirmed by measuring reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures. These results show that FIAT regulates bone mass accrual and establish FIAT as a novel transcriptional regulator of osteoblastic function.

  13. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies.

  14. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  15. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  16. Phenylbutyric acid reduces amyloid plaques and rescues cognitive behavior in AD transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jesse C; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Ladiges, Warren C

    2011-06-01

    Trafficking through the secretory pathway is known to regulate the maturation of the APP-cleaving secretases and APP proteolysis. The coupling of stress signaling and pathological deterioration of the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) supports a mechanistic connection between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neurodegeneration. Consequently, small molecular chaperones, which promote protein folding and minimize ER stress, might be effective in delaying or attenuating the deleterious progression of AD. We tested this hypothesis by treating APPswePS1delta9 AD transgenic mice with the molecular chaperone phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 14 months at a dose of 1 mg PBA g(-1) of body weight in the drinking water. Phenylbutyric acid treatment increased secretase-mediated APP cleavage, but was not associated with any increase in amyloid biosynthesis. The PBA-treated AD transgenic mice had significantly decreased incidence and size of amyloid plaques throughout the cortex and hippocampus. There was no change in total amyloid levels suggesting that PBA modifies amyloid aggregation or pathogenesis independently of biogenesis. The decrease in amyloid plaques was paralleled by increased memory retention, as PBA treatment facilitated cognitive performance in a spatial memory task in both wild-type and AD transgenic mice. The molecular mechanism underlying the cognitive facilitation of PBA is not clear; however, increased levels of both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as ADAM10 and TACE, were observed in the cortex and hippocampus of PBA-treated mice. The data suggest that PBA ameliorates the cognitive and pathological features of AD and supports the investigation of PBA as a therapeutic for AD.

  17. Exacerbation of Apoptosis of Cortical Neurons Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Par-4 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Payette, Daniel J; Xie, Jun; Shirwany, Najeeb; Guo, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant clinical problem, yet few effective strategies for treating it have emerged. People that sustain and survive a TBI are left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. Apoptotic neuronal death occurs following TBI. Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a death domain-containing protein initially characterized as a critical regulator of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. We have recently generated and characterized Par-4 transgenic mice in which the expression of the par-4 transgene was limited to cells of neuronal lineage. We now provide evidence that, in cortical neurons from these mice, Par-4 drastically increases apoptotic neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo models of TBI. In vitro experiments were performed in 7-day-old primary cultures of cortical neurons using a previously published, scratch-induced mechanical trauma model. Neurons that overexpress Par-4 showed not only a significant decrease in overall neuron survival after TBI compared to wild-type cells, but also exhibited a sharper decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, a higher degree of free radical accumulation, and earlier activation of caspase-3 than wild-type cells did. In vivo experiments were performed utilizing a weight drop TBI model. A significantly increased volume of cortical injury and exacerbated activation of caspase-3 were observed in Par-4 transgenic mice when compared to those in wild-type mice. These data suggests that aberrant Par-4 expression exacerbates neuronal cell death following TBI by altering mitochondrial function, enhancing oxidative damage, and execution of apoptosis via caspase activation. PMID:18784822

  18. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  19. Use of a 2-aminothiazole to Treat Chronic Wasting Disease in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2015-07-15

    Treatment with the 2-aminothiazole IND24 extended the survival of mice infected with mouse-adapted scrapie but also resulted in the emergence of a drug-resistant prion strain. Here, we determined whether IND24 extended the survival of transgenic mice infected with prions that caused scrapie in sheep or prions that caused chronic wasting disease (CWD; hereafter "CWD prions") in deer, using 2 isolates for each disease. IND24 doubled the incubation times for mice infected with CWD prions but had no effect on the survival of those infected with scrapie prions. Biochemical, neuropathologic, and cell culture analyses were used to characterize prion strain properties following treatment, and results indicated that the CWD prions were not altered by IND24, regardless of survival extension. These results suggest that IND24 may be a viable candidate for treating CWD in infected captive cervid populations and raise questions about why some prion strains develop drug resistance whereas others do not.

  20. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  1. Neurodevelopmental effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in APOE transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Reverte, Ingrid; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of neurotoxic pollutants during early brain development is a public health concern. Perinatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been associated with neurodevelopmental effects in infants and long-term behavioral alterations in rodents. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is extensively used in the industry, with its potential risk to humans still under examination. In a previous study, we found that a single postnatal administration of BDE-209 impaired spatial learning in mice at 12 months of age, but a similar alteration was present in young mice carrying a specific genotype of apolipoprotein E (apoE). On the basis of our results, the main goal of the current investigation was to assess whether the same exposure to BDE-209 would affect the neurodevelopment of apoE transgenic mice. We used a functional observational battery (FOB) to evaluate the physical and neuromotor maturation of transgenic mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms (ε2, ε3, and ε4). On postnatal day 10, BDE-209 was administered orally at 0, 10 and 30 mg/kg and neurodevelopmental screening was carried out until postnatal day 36. We observed a subtle delay in eye opening in mice carrying the apoE4 genotype. Exposure to the high dose of BDE-209 retarded the eye opening of apoE2 mice, but no other developmental features were affected. The results indicate few effects of BDE-209 during development, while the vulnerability conferred by the apoE genotype may vary depending on age. Identifying relevant early gene-environment interactions is fundamental for a better understanding of adult health and disease.

  2. Tubular overexpression of Gremlin in transgenic mice aggravates renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Vanessa; Droguett, Alejandra; Valderrama, Graciela; Burgos, M Eugenia; Carpio, Daniel; Kerr, Bredford; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesús; Mezzano, Sergio

    2015-09-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Gremlin was identified as a gene differentially expressed in mesangial cells exposed to high glucose and in experimental diabetic kidneys. We have described that Gremlin is highly expressed in biopsies from patients with diabetic nephropathy, predominantly in areas of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetes, Gremlin deletion using Grem1 heterozygous knockout mice or by gene silencing, ameliorates renal damage. To study the in vivo role of Gremlin in renal damage, we developed a diabetic model induced by STZ in transgenic (TG) mice expressing human Gremlin in proximal tubular epithelial cells. The albuminuria/creatinuria ratio, determined at week 20 after treatment, was significantly increased in diabetic mice but with no significant differences between transgenic (TG/STZ) and wild-type mice (WT/STZ). To assess the level of renal damage, kidney tissue was analyzed by light microscopy (periodic acid-Schiff and Masson staining), electron microscopy, and quantitative PCR. TG/STZ mice had significantly greater thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, increased mesangial matrix, and podocytopenia vs. WT/STZ. At the tubulointerstitial level, TG/STZ showed increased cell infiltration and mild interstitial fibrosis. In addition, we observed a decreased expression of podocin and overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and fibrotic-related markers, including transforming growth factor-β1, Col1a1, and α-smooth muscle actin. Together, these results show that TG mice overexpressing Gremlin in renal tubules develop greater glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in response to diabetic-mediated damage and support the involvement of Gremlin in diabetic nephropathy.

  3. [Changes of ocular biological parameters and Lumican expression in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Sun, M S; Song, Y Z; Zhang, F J; Tao, J; Liu, Y B

    2016-11-11

    Objective: To investigate ocular changes in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice. Comparing influences on biological parameters and sclera development between Lumican transgenic and form deprivation mice, and to prepare for further study of pathogenesis of pathological myopia (PM). Methods: Experimental research. Lumican transgenic mice and wild mice were monocularly lid-sutured at ten days after birth. All eyes were divided into 6 groups, group A(32 eyes): control eyes in transgenic mice; group B(34 eyes): sutured eyes in transgenic mice; group C(34 eyes): fellow eyes in transgenic mice; group D(28 eyes): control eyes in wild mice; group E(32 eyes): sutured eyes in wild mice; group F(32 eyes): fellow eyes in wild mice. Refraction was measured by streak retinoscopye and axial length was measured by vernier caliper at 8 weeks (56 days) after birth. Lumican expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR in all groups. Results: The refraction in group B and group E were (-0.38±1.10) D and (0.14±1.26)D respectively, which were significantly different compared with contralateral groups and normal control groups (F=9.525, 10.067; P<0.01). The mean axial length were also increased in group B ((3.28 ± 0.07)mm and group E (3.24 ± 0.09)mm, (F=7.183, 6.671; P<0.05). Expression level of Lumican mRNA in sclera was increased in group B, which was significantly different from group A and group C (F= 6.262; P<0.05). The expression of Lumican mRNA was increased in group B and C when compared with group E and F (t=4.772, 2.218, P<0.05). Conclusions: Form-deprivation in mutant Lumican transgenic mice causes myopic changes in deprived eyes. The gene expression level of Lumican in sclera of transgenic mice is significantly increased compared with contralateral eyes or that of wild group. Lumican mutation may effect the development of PM, and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors may lead to development of PM. (Chin J

  4. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  5. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur.

    PubMed

    Klebig, M L; Wilkinson, J E; Geisler, J G; Woychik, R P

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (Ay) or viable yellow (Avy) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant "obese yellow" a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants.

  6. High-level expression of biologically active human alpha 1-antitrypsin in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, A L; McClenaghan, M; Hornsey, V; Simons, J P; Clark, A J

    1990-01-01

    Reduced circulating levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) are associated with certain alpha 1 AT genotypes and increased susceptibility to emphysema. Unfortunately, the amounts of alpha 1 AT that would be required for replacement therapy are beyond the capacity of plasma fractionation and mammalian cell culture systems. Thus, we have examined the potential of transgenic animals as an alternative means of producing human alpha 1 AT. A hybrid gene constructed by using sequences from the ovine milk protein gene beta-lactoglobulin fused to an alpha 1 AT "minigene" was used to generate transgenic mice. Of 13 independent transgenic mice and mouse lines, 5 expressed the hybrid gene in the mammary gland, 5 in the salivary glands, and 2 in both these tissues. Human alpha 1 AT was secreted into the milk of each of the 7 mice and mouse lines that expressed the hybrid gene in the mammary gland. Four of these mammary-expressing transgenic mice and mouse lines produced concentrations of at least 0.5 mg of alpha 1 AT per ml in their milk; one line (AATB 35) produced 7 mg of this protein per ml. alpha 1 AT from transgenic mouse milk was similar in size to human plasma-derived alpha 1 AT and showed a similar capacity to inhibit trypsin. Expression at equivalent levels in transgenic sheep or cattle would yield sufficient alpha 1 AT for therapeutic purposes. Images PMID:1695012

  7. Transgenic Mice Expressing Dominant Negative Bright Exhibit Defects in B1 B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Jamee C.; Ferrell, Scott; Miner, Cathrine; Oldham, Athenia L.; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Webb, Carol F.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Bright up-regulates immunoglobulin heavy chain production from select variable region promoters and requires Bright dimerization, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) and the Btk substrate, TFII-I for this activity. Defects in Btk cause X-linked immunodeficiency disease in mice and man. Btk-deficient mice exhibit decreased serum IgM production, B cell developmental blocks, absence of peritoneal B1 cells, and subnormal immune responses against antigens, including phosphorylcholine, which confer protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transgenic mice expressing dominant negative (DN) Bright share similarities with Btk-deficient mice, including decreased serum IgM, poor anti-phosphorylcholine responses, and slightly reduced numbers of mature B cells. Although DN Bright mice developed B1 B cells, these were functionally deficient in immunoglobulin secretion. These data suggest a mechanistic explanation for the abnormal responses to phosphorylcholine observed in Btk-deficient mice, and indicate that Bright functions in a subset of Btk-dependent pathways in vivo, particularly those responses dominated by B1 B cells. PMID:18981111

  8. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis.

  9. Detection of allergenic compounds using an IL-4/luciferase/CNS-1 transgenic mice model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chang Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Bae, Hee Sook; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Lee, Chang Kyu; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-04-01

    The interleukin-4 (IL-4) signaling cascade has been identified as a potentially important pathway in the development of allergies. The principal objective of this study was to produce novel transgenic (Tg) mice harboring the luciferase gene under the control of the human IL-4 promoter and the enhancer of IL-4 (CNS-1), in an effort to evaluate three types of allergens including a respiratory sensitizer, vaccine additives, and crude extracts of natural allergens in vivo. A new lineage of Tg mice was generated by the microinjection of pIL-4/Luc/CNS-1 constructs into a fertilized mice egg. The luciferase activity was successfully regulated by the IL-4 promoter in splenocytes cultured from IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice. From the first five founder lines, one (#57) evidencing a profound response to ovalbumin was selected for use in evaluating the allergens. Additionally, the lungs, thymus, and lymph nodes of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice evidenced high luciferase activity in response to allergens such as phthalic anhydride (PA), trimellitic anhydride, ovalbumin, gelatin, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts, and Japanese cedar pollen, whereas key allergy-related indicators including ear thickness, Immunoglobulin E concentration, and the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes in response to PA were unaltered in the Tg mice relative to the non-Tg mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of endogenous type 2 helper T cells cytokines and proinflammatory cytokines were similarly increased in these organs of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice in response to allergens. These results indicate that IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice may be used as an animal model for the evaluation and prediction of the human body response to a variety of allergens originating from the environment and from certain industrial products.

  10. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in Hepcidin transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Jacqueline M.; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E.; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N.

    2014-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a “murinized” ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. PMID:25236856

  11. Divergent prion strain evolution driven by PrPC expression level in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Le Dur, Annick; Laï, Thanh Lan; Stinnakre, Marie-George; Laisné, Aude; Chenais, Nathalie; Rakotobe, Sabine; Passet, Bruno; Reine, Fabienne; Soulier, Solange; Herzog, Laetitia; Tilly, Gaëlle; Rézaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Laude, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Prions induce a fatal neurodegenerative disease in infected host brain based on the refolding and aggregation of the host-encoded prion protein PrPC into PrPSc. Structurally distinct PrPSc conformers can give rise to multiple prion strains. Constrained interactions between PrPC and different PrPSc strains can in turn lead to certain PrPSc (sub)populations being selected for cross-species transmission, or even produce mutation-like events. By contrast, prion strains are generally conserved when transmitted within the same species, or to transgenic mice expressing homologous PrPC. Here, we compare the strain properties of a representative sheep scrapie isolate transmitted to a panel of transgenic mouse lines expressing varying levels of homologous PrPC. While breeding true in mice expressing PrPC at near physiological levels, scrapie prions evolve consistently towards different strain components in mice beyond a certain threshold of PrPC overexpression. Our results support the view that PrPC gene dosage can influence prion evolution on homotypic transmission. PMID:28112164

  12. Chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sigurdson, Christina J; Glatzel, Markus; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Asante, Emmanuel A; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2010-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose. CWD-infected cervids have been reported in 14 USA states, two Canadian provinces and in South Korea. The possibility of a zoonotic transmission of CWD prions via diet is of particular concern in North America where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. To investigate the potential public health risks posed by CWD prions, we have investigated whether intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from CWD-infected mule deer transmits prion infection to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein with methionine or valine at polymorphic residue 129. These transgenic mice have been utilized in extensive transmission studies of human and animal prion disease and are susceptible to BSE and vCJD prions, allowing comparison with CWD. Here, we show that these mice proved entirely resistant to infection with mule deer CWD prions arguing that the transmission barrier associated with this prion strain/host combination is greater than that observed with classical BSE prions. However, it is possible that CWD may be caused by multiple prion strains. Further studies will be required to evaluate the transmission properties of distinct cervid prion strains as they are characterized.

  13. Generation of embryonic stem cells and transgenic mice expressing green fluorescence protein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suling; Maxwell, Sarah; Jimenez-Beristain, Antonio; Vives, Joaquim; Kuehner, Eva; Zhao, Jiexin; O'Brien, Carmel; de Felipe, Carmen; Semina, Elena; Li, Meng

    2004-03-01

    We have generated embryonic stem (ES) cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) inserted into the Pitx3 locus via homologous recombination. In the central nervous system, Pitx3-directed GFP was visualized in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Live primary DA neurons can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from these transgenic mouse embryos. In culture, Pitx3-GFP is coexpressed in a proportion of ES-derived DA neurons. Furthermore, ES cell-derived Pitx3-GFP expressing DA neurons responded to neurotrophic factors and were sensitive to DA-specific neurotoxin N-4-methyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine. We anticipate that the Pitx3-GFP ES cells could be used as a powerful model system for functional identification of molecules governing mDA neuron differentiation and for preclinical research including pharmaceutical drug screening and transplantation. The Pitx3 knock-in mice, on the other hand, could be used for purifying primary neurons for molecular studies associated with the midbrain-specific DA phenotype at a level not previously feasible. These mice would also provide a useful tool to study DA fate determination from embryo- or adult-derived neural stem cells.

  14. Transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Gregory J; Raymond, Lynne D; Meade-White, Kimberly D; Hughson, Andrew G; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Donald; Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Race, Richard E; Caughey, Byron

    2007-04-01

    In vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD). Therefore, CWD isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of CWD. The species inoculated were Syrian golden, Djungarian, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters, transgenic mice expressing the Syrian golden hamster prion protein, and RML Swiss and C57BL10 wild-type mice. The transgenic mice and the Syrian golden, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters had limited susceptibility to certain of the CWD inocula, as evidenced by incomplete attack rates and long incubation periods. For serial passages of CWD isolates in Syrian golden hamsters, incubation periods rapidly stabilized, with isolates having either short (85 to 89 days) or long (408 to 544 days) mean incubation periods and distinct neuropathological patterns. In contrast, wild-type mouse strains and Djungarian hamsters were not susceptible to CWD. These results show that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to some species of rodents and suggest that the cervid-derived CWD inocula may have contained or diverged into at least two distinct transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains.

  15. Mantle cell lymphoma in cyclin D1 transgenic mice with Bim-deficient B cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Samuel G; Labelle, James L; Meng, Hailong; Valeriano, Regina P; Fisher, Jill K; Sun, Heather; Rodig, Scott J; Kleinstein, Steven H; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-02-06

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Although defined by the characteristic t(11;14) translocation, MCL has not been recapitulated in transgenic mouse models of cyclin D1 overexpression alone. Indeed, several genetic aberrations have been identified in MCL that may contribute to its pathogenesis and chemoresistance. Of particular interest is the frequent biallelic deletion of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family protein BIM. BIM exerts its pro-death function via its α-helical BH3 death domain that has the dual capacity to inhibit antiapoptotic proteins such as BCL-2 and MCL-1 and directly trigger proapoptotic proteins such as the mitochondrial executioner protein BAX. To evaluate a functional role for Bim deletion in the pathogenesis of MCL, we generated cyclin D1-transgenic mice harboring Bim-deficient B cells. In response to immunization, Eμ(CycD1)CD19(CRE)Bim(fl/fl) mice manifested selective expansion of their splenic mantle zone compartment. Three distinct immune stimulation regimens induced lymphomas with histopathologic and molecular features of human MCL in a subset of mice. Thus, deletion of Bim in B cells, in the context of cyclin D1 overexpression, disrupts a critical control point in lymphoid maturation and predisposes to the development of MCL. This genetic proof of concept for MCL pathogenesis suggests an opportunity to reactivate the death pathway by pharmacologic mimicry of proapoptotic BIM.

  16. Overexpression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice does not prevent unloading-induced atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Booth, F. W.; DeMayo, F.; Schwartz, R. J.; Gordon, S. E.; Fiorotto, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the association between local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) overexpression and atrophy in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that endogenous skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA expression would decrease with hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice, and that transgenic mice overexpressing human IGF-I (hIGF-I) specifically in skeletal muscle would exhibit less atrophy after HU. Male transgenic mice and nontransgenic mice from the parent strain (FVB) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): 1) transgenic, weight-bearing (IGF-I/WB); 2) transgenic, hindlimb unloaded (IGF-I/HU); 3) nontransgenic, weight-bearing (FVB/WB); and 4) nontransgenic, hindlimb unloaded (FVB/HU). HU groups were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Body mass was reduced (P < 0.05) after HU in both IGF-I (-9%) and FVB mice (-13%). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the relative abundance of mRNA for the endogenous rodent IGF-I (rIGF-I) was unaltered by HU in the gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle of wild-type FVB mice. High-level expression of hIGF-I peptide and mRNA was confirmed in the GAST and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the transgenic mice. Nevertheless, masses of the GAST and TA muscles were reduced (P < 0.05) in both FVB/HU and IGF-I/HU groups compared with FVB/WB and IGF-I/WB groups, respectively, and the percent atrophy in mass of these muscles did not differ between FVB and IGF-I mice. Therefore, skeletal muscle atrophy may not be associated with a reduction of endogenous rIGF-I mRNA level in 14-day HU mice. We conclude that high local expression of hIGF-I mRNA and peptide in skeletal muscle alone cannot attenuate unloading-induced atrophy of fast-twitch muscle in mice.

  17. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H.; Rao, Eshaan R.; McNellis, Brittany M.; Huang, Eric S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Borchelt, David R.; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H.; Zahs, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ~4.5 times that of 21-month Tg2576 mice and ~15 times that of 21–24-month rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort. PMID:28059792

  18. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Sayo; Suyama, Haruka; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ito, Toshihiro; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  19. Osteoblasts are target cells for transformation in c-fos transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have generated transgenic mice expressing the proto-oncogene c-fos from an H-2Kb class I MHC promoter as a tool to identify and isolate cell populations which are sensitive to altered levels of Fos protein. All homozygous H2-c-fosLTR mice develop osteosarcomas with a short latency period. This phenotype is specific for c-fos as transgenic mice expressing the fos- and jun-related genes, fosB and c-jun, from the same regulatory elements do not develop any pathology despite high expression in bone tissues. The c-fos transgene is not expressed during embryogenesis but is expressed after birth in bone tissues before the onset of tumor formation, specifically in putative preosteoblasts, bone- forming osteoblasts, osteocytes, as well as in osteoblastic cells present within the tumors. Primary and clonal cell lines established from c-fos-induced tumors expressed high levels of exogenous c-fos as well as the bone cell marker genes, type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin/2ar. In contrast, osteocalcin/BGP expression was either low or absent. All cell lines were tumorigenic in vivo, some of which gave rise to osteosarcomas, expressing exogenous c- fos mRNA, and Fos protein in osteoblastic cells. Detailed analysis of one osteogenic cell line, P1, and several P1-derived clonal cell lines indicated that bone-forming osteoblastic cells were transformed by Fos. The regulation of osteocalcin/BGP and alkaline phosphatase gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was abrogated in P1-derived clonal cells, whereas glucocorticoid responsiveness was unaltered. These results suggest that high levels of Fos perturb the normal growth control of osteoblastic cells and exert specific effects on the expression of the osteoblast phenotype. PMID:8335693

  20. ABNORMAL MOTOR FUNCTION AND DOPAMINE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN DYT1 ΔGAG TRANSGENIC MICE

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; DeCuypere, Michael; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    A single GAG deletion in Exon 5 of the TOR1A gene is associated with a form of early-onset primary dystonia showing less than 40% penetrance. To provide a framework for cellular and systems study of DYT1 dystonia, we characterized the genetic, behavioral, morphological and neurochemical features of transgenic mice expressing either human wild-type torsinA (hWT) or mutant torsinA (hMT1 and hMT2) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Relative to human brain, hMT1 mice showed robust neural expression of human torsinA transcript (3.90X). In comparison with WT littermates, hMT1 mice had prolonged traversal times on both square and round raised-beam tasks and more slips on the round raised-beam task. Although there were no effects of genotype on rotarod performance and rope climbing, hMT1 mice exhibited increased hind-base widths in comparison to WT and hWT mice. In contrast to several other mouse models of DYT1 dystonia, we were unable to identify either torsinA- and ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic inclusion bodies or nuclear bleb formation in hMT1 mice. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine cerebral cortical, striatal, and cerebellar levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Although there were no differences in striatal DA levels between WT and hMT1 mice, DOPAC and HVA concentrations and DA turnover (DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA) were significantly higher in the mutants. Our findings in DYT1 transgenic mice are compatible with previous neuroimaging and postmortem neurochemical studies of human DYT1 dystonia. Increased striatal dopamine turnover in hMT1 mice suggests that the nigrostriatal pathway may be a site of functional neuropathology in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:18299128

  1. Studies on induction of lamotrigine metabolism in transgenic UGT1 mice.

    PubMed

    Argikar, U A; Senekeo-Effenberger, K; Larson, E E; Tukey, R H; Remmel, R P

    2009-11-01

    A transgenic 'knock-in' mouse model expressing a human UGT1 locus (Tg-UGT1) was recently developed and validated. Although these animals express mouse UGT1A proteins, UGT1A4 is a pseudo-gene in mice. Therefore, Tg-UGT1 mice serve as a 'humanized' UGT1A4 animal model. Lamotrigine (LTG) is primarily metabolized to its N-glucuronide (LTGG) by hUGT1A4. This investigation aimed at examining the impact of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators on LTG glucuronidation in vivo and in vitro. Tg-UGT1 mice were administered the inducers phenobarbital (CAR), pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PXR), WY-14643 (PPAR-alpha), ciglitazone (PPAR-gamma), or L-165041 (PPAR-beta), once daily for 3 or 4 days. Thereafter, LTG was administered orally and blood samples were collected over 24 h. LTG was measured in blood and formation of LTGG was measured in pooled microsomes made from the livers of treated animals. A three-fold increase in in vivo LTG clearance was seen after phenobarbital administration. In microsomes prepared from phenobarbital-treated Tg-UGT1 animals, 13-fold higher CL(int) (Vmax/K(m)) value was observed as compared with the untreated transgenic mice. A trend toward induction of catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo was also observed following pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile and WY-14643 treatment. This study demonstrates the successful application of Tg-UGT1 mice as a novel tool to study the impact of induction and regulation on metabolism of UGT1A4 substrates.

  2. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  3. Overexpression of natural killer T cells protects Valpha14- Jalpha281 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice against diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lehuen, A; Lantz, O; Beaudoin, L; Laloux, V; Carnaud, C; Bendelac, A; Bach, J F; Monteiro, R C

    1998-11-16

    Progression to destructive insulitis in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is linked to the failure of regulatory cells, possibly involving T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Natural killer (NK) T cells might be involved in diabetes, given their deficiency in NOD mice and the prevention of diabetes by adoptive transfer of alpha/beta double-negative thymocytes. Here, we evaluated the role of NK T cells in diabetes by using transgenic NOD mice expressing the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha chain Valpha14-Jalpha281 characteristic of NK T cells. Precise identification of NK1.1(+) T cells was based on out-cross with congenic NK1.1 NOD mice. All six transgenic lines showed, to various degrees, elevated numbers of NK1.1(+) T cells, enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-4, and increased levels of serum immunoglobulin E. Only the transgenic lines with the largest numbers of NK T cells and the most vigorous burst of IL-4 production were protected from diabetes. Transfer and cotransfer experiments with transgenic splenocytes demonstrated that Valpha14-Jalpha281 transgenic NOD mice, although protected from overt diabetes, developed a diabetogenic T cell repertoire, and that NK T cells actively inhibited the pathogenic action of T cells. These results indicate that the number of NK T cells strongly influences the development of diabetes.

  4. Respiratory epithelial cell expression of human transforming growth factor-alpha induces lung fibrosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Korfhagen, T R; Swantz, R J; Wert, S E; McCarty, J M; Kerlakian, C B; Glasser, S W; Whitsett, J A

    1994-01-01

    Increased production of EGF or TGF-alpha by the respiratory epithelial cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of various forms of lung injury. Growth factors and cytokines are thought to act locally, via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, to stimulate cell proliferation and matrix deposition by interstitial lung cells resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. To test whether TGF-alpha mediates pulmonary fibrotic responses, we have generated transgenic mice expressing human TGF-alpha under control of regulatory regions of the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene. Human TGF-alpha mRNA was expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs of the transgenic mice. Adult mice bearing the SP-C-TGF-alpha transgene developed severe pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic lesions were observed in peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular regions, as well as subjacent to pleural surfaces. Lesions consisted of fibrous tissue that included groups of epithelial cells expressing endogenous SP-C mRNA, consistent with their identification as distal respiratory epithelial cells. Peripheral fibrotic regions consisted of thickened pleura associated with extensive collagen deposition. Alveolar architecture was disrupted in the transgenic mice with loss of alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice disrupts alveolar morphogenesis and produces fibrotic lesions mediated by paracrine signaling between respiratory epithelial and interstitial cells of the lung. Images PMID:8163670

  5. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2014-02-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer.

  6. Morphine Tolerance and Physical Dependence Are Altered in Conditional HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, David L.; Khan, Fayez A.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Enga, Rachel M.; Beardsley, Patrick M.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Dewey, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that chronic opiate use selectively affects the pathophysiologic consequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the nervous system, few studies have examined whether neuro-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) might intrinsically alter the pharmacologic responses to chronic opiate exposure. This is an important matter because HIV-1 and opiate abuse are interrelated epidemics, and HIV-1 patients are often prescribed opiates as a treatment of HIV-1–related neuropathic pain. Tolerance and physical dependence are inevitable consequences of frequent and repeated administration of morphine. In the present study, mice expressing HIV-1 Tat in a doxycycline (DOX)–inducible manner [Tat(+)], their Tat(−) controls, and control C57BL/6 mice were chronically exposed to placebo or 75-mg morphine pellets to explore the effects of Tat induction on morphine tolerance and dependence. Antinociceptive tolerance and locomotor activity tolerance were assessed using tail-flick and locomotor activity assays, respectively, and physical dependence was measured with the platform-jumping assay and recording of other withdrawal signs. We found that Tat(+) mice treated with DOX [Tat(+)/DOX] developed an increased tolerance in the tail-flick assay compared with control Tat(−)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Equivalent tolerance was developed in all mice when assessed by locomotor activity. Further, Tat(+)/DOX mice expressed reduced levels of physical dependence to chronic morphine exposure after a 1-mg/kg naloxone challenge compared with control Tat(−)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Assuming the results seen in Tat transgenic mice can be generalized to neuroAIDS, our findings suggest that HIV-1-infected individuals may display heightened analgesic tolerance to similar doses of opiates compared with uninfected individuals and show fewer symptoms of physical dependence. PMID:26542403

  7. Maladaptive exploratory behavior and neuropathology of the PS-1 P117L Alzheimer transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Valérie; Vallet, Philippe G; Moeri, Michaël; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Piotton, Françoise; Marin, Pascale; Savioz, Armand

    2013-05-01

    Patients with the early-onset Alzheimer's disease P117L mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PS-1) present pathological hallmarks in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia. In the present work we determined by immunohistochemistry which brain regions were injured in the transgenic PS-1 P117L mice, in comparison to their littermates, the B6D2 mice. Furthermore, as these regions are involved in novelty detection, we investigated the behavior of these mice in tests for object and place novelty recognition. Limited numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were detected in aged PS-1 P117L mice in the CA1 only, indicating that the disease is restrained to an initial neuropathological stage. Western blots showed a change in PSD-95 expression (p=0.03), not in NR2A subunit, NR2B subunit and synaptophysin expressions in the frontal cortex, suggesting specific synaptic alterations. The behavioral tests repeatedly revealed, despite a non-significant preference for object or place novelty, maladaptive exploratory behavior of the PS-1 P117L mice in novel environmental conditions, not due to locomotor problems. These mice, unlike the B6D2 mice, were less inhibited to visit the center of the cages (p=0.01) and they continued to move excessively in the presence of a displaced object (p=0.021). Overall, the PS-1 P117L mice appear to be in an initial Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathological stage, and they showed a lack of reaction toward novel environmental conditions.

  8. Deposition of BACE-1 Protein in the Brains of APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Xu, Hongxia; Huang, Yinuo; Mo, Dapeng; Song, Ligang; Jia, Baixue; Wang, Bo; Jin, Zhanqiang; Miao, Zhongrong

    2016-01-01

    The main causes of Alzheimer's disease remain elusive. Previous data have implicated the BACE-1 protein as a central player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, many inhibitors of BACE-1 have failed during preclinical and clinical trials for AD treatment. Therefore, uncovering the exact role of BACE-1 in AD may have significant impact on the future development of therapeutic agents. Three- and six-month-old female APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were used to study abnormal accumulation of BACE-1 protein in brains of mice here. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot were performed to measure the distributing pattern and expression level of BACE-1. We found obvious BACE-1 protein accumulation in 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice, which had increased by the time of 6 months. Coimmunostaining results showed BACE-1 surrounded amyloid plaques in brain sections. The abnormal protein expression might not be attributable to the upregulation of BACE-1 protein, as no significant difference of protein expression was observed between wild-type and APP/PS1 mice. With antibodies against BACE-1 and CD31, we found a high immunoreactive density of BACE-1 protein on the outer layer of brain blood vessels. The aberrant distribution of BACE-1 in APP/PS1 mice suggests BACE-1 may be involved in the microvascular abnormality of AD. PMID:27294139

  9. Anxiolytic effect of music exposure on BDNFMet/Met transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jing; Yu, Hui; Yang, Jian-Min; Gao, Jing; Jiang, Hong; Feng, Min; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-08-06

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play important roles in the modulation of anxiety, mood stabilizers, and pathophysiology of affective disorders. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene (Val66Met) has been found to be associated with depression and anxiety disorders. The humanized BDNF(Met/Met) knock-in transgenic mice exhibited increased anxiety-related behaviors that were unresponsive to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine. Music is known to be able to elicit emotional changes, including anxiolytic effects. In this study, we found that music treatment could significantly decrease anxiety state in BDNF(Met/Met) mice, but not in BDNF(+/)(-), mice compared with white noise exposure in open field and elevated plus maze test. Moreover, in contrast to white noise exposure, BDNF expression levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus were significantly increased in music-exposed adult BDNF(Met/Met) mice. However, music treatment could not upregulate BDNF levels in the PFC, amygdala, and hippocampus in BDNF(+/)(-) mice, which suggests the essential role of BDNF in the anxiolytic effect of music. Together, our results imply that music may provide an effective therapeutic intervention for anxiety disorders in humans with this genetic BDNF(Met) variant.

  10. Riboflavin supplementation does not attenuate hyperoxic lung injury in transgenic (spc-mt)hGR mice.

    PubMed

    Heyob, Kathryn M; Rogers, Lynette K; Tipple, Trent E; Welty, Stephen E

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that mice expressing mitochondrially targeted human glutathione reductase (GR) driven by a surfactant protein C promoter ((spc-mt)hGR) are functionally riboflavin deficient and that this deficiency exacerbates hyperoxic lung injury. The authors further hypothesized that dietary supplementation with riboflavin (FADH) will improve the bioactivity of GR, thus enhancing resistance to hyperoxic lung injury. Transgenic (mt-spc)hGR mice and their nontransgenic littermates were fed control or riboflavin-supplemented diets upon weaning. At 6 weeks of age the mice were exposed to either room air (RA) or >95% O(2) for up to 84 hours. GR activities (with and without exogenous FADH) and GR protein levels were measured in lung tissue homogenates. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations were assayed to identify changes in GR activity in vivo. Lung injury was assessed by right lung to body weight ratios and bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentrations. The data showed that enhanced GR activity in the mitochondria of lung type II cells does not protect adult mice from hyperoxic lung injury. Furthermore, the addition of riboflavin to the diets of (spc-mt)hGR mice neither enhances GR activities nor offers protection from hyperoxic lung injury. The results indicated that modulation of mitochondrial GR activity in lung type II cells is not an effective therapy to minimize hyperoxic lung injury.

  11. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The brain dopaminergic (DA) system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification. Methods & Results Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF) and TH-rtTA (tet-ON) mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time. Conclusion These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases. PMID:26291828

  12. Comparison of Cbln1 and Cbln2 functions using transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yongqi; Wei, Peng; Parris, Jennifer; Guo, Hong; Pattarini, Roberto; Correia, Kristen; Li, Leyi; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Deutch, Ariel Y; Morgan, James I

    2012-02-01

    Cerebellin precursor protein 1 (Cbln1) is the prototype of a family of secreted neuronal glycoproteins (Cbln1-4) and its genetic elimination results in synaptic alterations in cerebellum (CB) and striatum. In CB, Cbln1 acts as a bi-functional ligand bridging pre-synaptic β-neurexins on granule cells to post-synaptic Grid2 on Purkinje neurons. Although much is known concerning the action of Cbln1, little is known of the function of its other family members. Here, we show that Cbln1 and Cbln2 have similar binding activities to β-neurexins and Grid2 and the targeted ectopic expression of Cbln2 to Purkinje cells in transgenic mice rescues the cerebellar deficits in Cbln1-null animals: suggesting that the two proteins have redundant function mediated by their common receptor binding properties. Cbln1 and Cbln2 are also co-expressed in the endolysosomal compartment of the thalamic neurons responsible for the synaptic alterations in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Therefore, to determine whether the two family members have similar functions, we generated Cbln2-null mice. Cbln2-null mice do not show the synaptic alterations evident in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Thus, Cbln2 can exhibit functional redundancy with Cbln1 in CB but it does not have the same properties as Cbln1 in thalamic neurons, implying one or both utilize different receptors/mechanisms in this brain region.

  13. Altered telomere homeostasis and resistance to skin carcinogenesis in Suv39h1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Eleonora; Jordi, Fabian; Buemi, Valentina; Dinami, Roberto; Benetti, Roberta; Blasco, Maria A; Schoeftner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) have a conserved role in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin and gene silencing. Using a transgenic mouse model system we demonstrate that elevated expression of Suv39h1 increases global H3K9me3 levels in vivo. More specifically, Suv39h1 overexpression enhances the imposition of H3K9me3 levels at constitutive heterochromatin at telomeric and major satellite repeats in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chromatin compaction is paralleled by telomere shortening, indicating that telomere length is controlled by H3K9me3 density at telomeres. We further show that increased Suv39h1 levels result in an impaired clonogenic potential of transgenic epidermal stem cells and Ras/E1A transduced transgenic primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Importantly, Suv39h1 overexpression in mice confers resistance to a DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis protocol that is characterized by the accumulation of activating H-ras mutations. Our results provide genetic evidence that Suv39h1 controls telomere homeostasis and mediates resistance to oncogenic stress in vivo. This identifies Suv39h1 as an interesting target to improve oncogene induced senescence in premalignant lesions. PMID:25789788

  14. Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice transgenically overexpressing angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G; Suri, C; Smith, K; McClain, J; Sato, T N; Yancopoulos, G D; McDonald, D M

    1999-12-24

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. Direct comparison of transgenic mice overexpressing these factors in the skin revealed that the VEGF-induced blood vessels were leaky, whereas those induced by Ang1 were nonleaky. Moreover, vessels in Ang1-overexpressing mice were resistant to leaks caused by inflammatory agents. Coexpression of Ang1 and VEGF had an additive effect on angiogenesis but resulted in leakage-resistant vessels typical of Ang1. Ang1 therefore may be useful for reducing microvascular leakage in diseases in which the leakage results from chronic inflammation or elevated VEGF and, in combination with VEGF, for promoting growth of nonleaky vessels.

  15. Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, J; Sundgren-Andersson, A K; Tingsborg, S; Ostlund, P; Engfors, C; Alheim, K; Bartfai, T; Iverfeldt, K; Schultzberg, M

    1999-03-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels.

  16. Peripheral B cell tolerance and function in transgenic mice expressing an IgD superantigen.

    PubMed

    Duong, Bao Hoa; Ota, Takayuki; Aït-Azzouzene, Djemel; Aoki-Ota, Miyo; Vela, José Luis; Huber, Christoph; Walsh, Kevin; Gavin, Amanda L; Nemazee, David

    2010-04-15

    Transitional B cells turn over rapidly in vivo and are sensitive to apoptosis upon BCR ligation in vitro. However, little direct evidence addresses their tolerance sensitivity in vivo. A key marker used to distinguish these cells is IgD, which, through alternative RNA splicing of H chain transcripts, begins to be coexpressed with IgM at this stage. IgD is also expressed at high levels on naive follicular (B-2) and at lower levels on marginal zone and B-1 B cells. In this study, mice were generated to ubiquitously express a membrane-bound IgD-superantigen. These mice supported virtually no B-2 development, a greatly reduced marginal zone B cell population, but a relatively normal B-1 compartment. B cell development in the spleen abruptly halted at the transitional B cell population 1 to 2 stage, a block that could not be rescued by either Bcl-2 or BAFF overexpression. The developmentally arrested B cells appeared less mature and turned over more rapidly than nontransgenic T2 cells, exhibiting neither conventional features of anergy nor appreciable receptor editing. Paradoxically, type-2 T-independent responses were more robust in the transgenic mice, although T-dependent responses were reduced and had skewed IgL and IgH isotype usages. Nevertheless, an augmented memory response to secondary challenge was evident. The transgenic mice also had increased serum IgM, but diminished IgG, levels mirrored by the increased numbers of IgM(+) plasma cells. This model should facilitate studies of peripheral B cell tolerance, with the advantages of allowing analysis of polyclonal populations, and of B cells naturally lacking IgD.

  17. Alu sequence involvement in transcriptional insulation of the keratin 18 gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Thorey, I S; Ceceña, G; Reynolds, W; Oshima, R G

    1993-01-01

    The human keratin 18 (K18) gene is expressed in a variety of adult simple epithelial tissues, including liver, intestine, lung, and kidney, but is not normally found in skin, muscle, heart, spleen, or most of the brain. Transgenic animals derived from the cloned K18 gene express the transgene in appropriate tissues at levels directly proportional to the copy number and independently of the sites of integration. We have investigated in transgenic mice the dependence of K18 gene expression on the distal 5' and 3' flanking sequences and upon the RNA polymerase III promoter of an Alu repetitive DNA transcription unit immediately upstream of the K18 promoter. Integration site-independent expression of tandemly duplicated K18 transgenes requires the presence of either an 825-bp fragment of the 5' flanking sequence or the 3.5-kb 3' flanking sequence. Mutation of the RNA polymerase III promoter of the Alu element within the 825-bp fragment abolishes copy number-dependent expression in kidney but does not abolish integration site-independent expression when assayed in the absence of the 3' flanking sequence of the K18 gene. The characteristics of integration site-independent expression and copy number-dependent expression are separable. In addition, the formation of the chromatin state of the K18 gene, which likely restricts the tissue-specific expression of this gene, is not dependent upon the distal flanking sequences of the 10-kb K18 gene but rather may depend on internal regulatory regions of the gene. Images PMID:7692231

  18. Colon water transport in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin-4 water channels

    PubMed Central

    WANG, KASPER S.; MA, TONGHUI; FILIZ, FERDA; VERKMAN, A. S.; BASTIDAS, J. AUGUSTO

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic null mice were used to test the hypothesis that water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is involved in colon water transport and fecal dehydration. AQP4 was immunolocalized to the basolateral membrane of colonic surface epithelium of wild-type (+/+) mice and was absent in AQP4 null (−/−) mice. The transepithelial osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) of in vivo perfused colon of +/+ mice, measured using the volume marker 14C-labeled polyethylene glycol, was 0.016 ± 0.002 cm/s. Pf of proximal colon was greater than that of distal colon (0.020 ± 0.004 vs. 0.009 ± 0.003 cm/s, P < 0.01). Pf was significantly lower in −/− mice when measured in full-length colon (0.009 ± 0.002 cm/s, P < 0.05) and proximal colon (0.013 ± 0.002 cm/s, P < 0.05) but not in distal colon. There was no difference in water content of cecal stool from +/+ vs. −/− mice (0.80 ± 0.01 vs. 0.81 ± 0.01), but there was a slightly higher water content in defecated stool from +/+ mice (0.68 ± 0.01 vs. 0.65 ± 0.01, P < 0.05). Despite the differences in water permeability with AQP4 deletion, theophylline-induced secretion was not impaired (50 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8 μl · min−1 · g−1). These results provide evidence that transcellular water transport through AQP4 water channels in colonic epithelium facilitates transepithelial osmotic water permeability but has little or no effect on colonic fluid secretion or fecal dehydration. PMID:10915657

  19. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPARγ and Fatty Acid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Marilyne; Lalonde, Simon; Najyb, Ouafa; Thiery, Maxime; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Chrisitne; Rassart, Eric; Mounier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPARγ expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPARγ target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation. Expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36, another PPARgamma target, is also increased in Tg mice associated with elevated fatty acid uptake as measured in primary hepatocytes. Elevated expression of AMPK in the liver of Tg leads to phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, indicating a decreased activity of the enzyme. Fatty acid synthase expression is also induced but the hepatic lipogenesis measured in vivo is not significantly different between WT and Tg mice. In addition, expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, is slightly upregulated. Finally, we show that overexpressing H-apoD in HepG2 cells in presence of arachidonic acid (AA), the main apoD ligand, increases the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Supporting the role of apoD in AA transport, we observed enrichment in hepatic AA and a decrease in plasmatic AA concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPARγ transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver. PMID:26083030

  20. Transgenic mice overexpressing desmocollin-2 (DSC2) develop cardiomyopathy associated with myocardial inflammation and fibrotic remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Lauren; Martens, Kristina; Abdelfatah, Nelly; Rodriguez, Marcela; Diao, Catherine; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Gordon, Paul M. K.; Nygren, Anders; Gerull, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Background Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder leading to ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure, mainly as a result of mutations in cardiac desmosomal genes. Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions mediating adhesion of cardiomyocytes; however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease remain widely unknown. Desmocollin-2 is a desmosomal cadherin serving as an anchor molecule required to reconstitute homeostatic intercellular adhesion with desmoglein-2. Cardiac specific lack of desmoglein-2 leads to severe cardiomyopathy, whereas overexpression does not. In contrast, the corresponding data for desmocollin-2 are incomplete, in particular from the view of protein overexpression. Therefore, we developed a mouse model overexpressing desmocollin-2 to determine its potential contribution to cardiomyopathy and intercellular adhesion pathology. Methods and results We generated transgenic mice overexpressing DSC2 in cardiac myocytes. Transgenic mice developed a severe cardiac dysfunction over 5 to 13 weeks as indicated by 2D-echocardiography measurements. Corresponding histology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated fibrosis, necrosis and calcification which were mainly localized in patches near the epi- and endocardium of both ventricles. Expressions of endogenous desmosomal proteins were markedly reduced in fibrotic areas but appear to be unchanged in non-fibrotic areas. Furthermore, gene expression data indicate an early up-regulation of inflammatory and fibrotic remodeling pathways between 2 to 3.5 weeks of age. Conclusion Cardiac specific overexpression of desmocollin-2 induces necrosis, acute inflammation and patchy cardiac fibrotic remodeling leading to fulminant biventricular cardiomyopathy. PMID:28339476

  1. Variability of Inducible Expression across the Hematopoietic System of Tetracycline Transactivator Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takiguchi, Megumi; Dow, Lukas E.; Prier, Julia E.; Carmichael, Catherine L.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Turner, Stephen J.; Lowe, Scott W.; Huang, David C. S.; Dickins, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    The tetracycline (tet)-regulated expression system allows for the inducible overexpression of protein-coding genes, or inducible gene knockdown based on expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). The system is widely used in mice, however it requires robust expression of a tet transactivator protein (tTA or rtTA) in the cell type of interest. Here we used an in vivo tet-regulated fluorescent reporter approach to characterise inducible gene/shRNA expression across a range of hematopoietic cell types of several commonly used transgenic tet transactivator mouse strains. We find that even in strains where the tet transactivator is expressed from a nominally ubiquitous promoter, the efficiency of tet-regulated expression can be highly variable between hematopoietic lineages and between differentiation stages within a lineage. In some cases tet-regulated reporter expression differs markedly between cells within a discrete, immunophenotypically defined population, suggesting mosaic transactivator expression. A recently developed CAG-rtTA3 transgenic mouse displays intense and efficient reporter expression in most blood cell types, establishing this strain as a highly effective tool for probing hematopoietic development and disease. These findings have important implications for interpreting tet-regulated hematopoietic phenotypes in mice, and identify mouse strains that provide optimal tet-regulated expression in particular hematopoietic progenitor cell types and mature blood lineages. PMID:23326559

  2. Analysis of the human [alpha]-globin gene cluster in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, J.A.; Vyas, P.; Higgs, D.R.; Wood, W.G. ); Wells, D.J. ); Whitelaw, E. )

    1993-11-15

    A 350-bp segment of DNA associated with an erythroid-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site (HS -40), upstream of the [alpha]-globin gene cluster, has been identified as the major tissue-specific regulator of the [alpha]-globin genes. However, this element does not direct copy number-dependent or developmentally stable expression of the human genes in transgenic mice. To determine whether additional upstream hypersensitive sites could provide more complete regulation of [alpha] gene expression, the authors have studied 17 lines of transgenic mice bearing various DNA fragments containing HSs -33, -10, -8, and -4, in addition to HS -40. Position-independent, high-level expression of the human [zeta]- and [alpha]-globin genes was consistently observed in embryonic erythroid cells. However, the additional HSs did not confer copy-number dependence, alter the level of expression, or prevent the variable down-regulation of expression in adults. These results suggest that the region upstream of the human [alpha]-globin genes is not equivalent to that upstream of the [beta] locus and that although the two clusters are coordinately expressed, there may be differences in their regulation.

  3. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method for β-defensin-2 detection in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhou, Tao; Yu, Lei; Tan, Wenwen; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2015-03-01

    A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method for porcine β-defensin-2 (pBD-2) detection in transgenic mice was established. Several factors that affect detection, including luminol, p-iodophenol and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, as well as pH, were studied and optimized. The linear range of the proposed method for pBD-2 detection under optimal conditions was 0.05-80 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9960. Eleven detections of a 30 ng/mL pBD-2 standard sample were performed. Reproducible results were obtained with a relative standard deviation of 3.94%. The limit of detection of the method for pBD-2 was 3.5 pg/mL (3σ). The proposed method was applied to determine pBD-2 expression levels in the tissues of pBD-2 transgenic mice, and compared with LC-MS/MS and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. This suggests that the CLEIA can be used as a valuable method to detect and quantify pBD-2.

  4. Effectiveness of a novel immunogenic nanoparticle platform for Toxoplasma peptide vaccine in HLA transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bissati, Kamal El; Zhou, Ying; Dasgupta, Debleena; Cobb, Drew; Dubey, Jitender P.; Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E.; McLeod, Rima

    2014-01-01

    We created and produced a novel self-assembling nanoparticle platform for delivery of peptide epitopes that induces CD8+ and CD4+T cells that are protective against T. gondii infection. These self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) are composed of linear peptide (LP) monomers which contain two coiled-coil oligomerization domains, the dense granule 7 (GRA720-28 LPQFATAAT) peptide and a universal CD4+ T cell epitope (derived from PADRE). Purified LPs assemble into nanoparticles with icosahedral symmetry, similar to the capsids of small viruses. These particles were evaluated for their efficacy in eliciting IFN-γ by splenocytes of HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice and for their ability to protect against subsequent T. gondii challenge. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using this platform approach with a CD8+ epitope that binds HLA-B7 and tests the biological activity of potentially protective peptides restricted by human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) class I molecules in HLA transgenic mice. PMID:24736000

  5. Effectiveness of a novel immunogenic nanoparticle platform for Toxoplasma peptide vaccine in HLA transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Dasgupta, Debleena; Cobb, Drew; Dubey, Jitender P; Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E; McLeod, Rima

    2014-05-30

    We created and produced a novel self-assembling nanoparticle platform for delivery of peptide epitopes that induces CD8(+) and CD4(+)T cells that are protective against Toxoplasma gondii infection. These self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) are composed of linear peptide (LP) monomers which contain two coiled-coil oligomerization domains, the dense granule 7 (GRA720-28 LPQFATAAT) peptide and a universal CD4(+)T cell epitope (derived from PADRE). Purified LPs assemble into nanoparticles with icosahedral symmetry, similar to the capsids of small viruses. These particles were evaluated for their efficacy in eliciting IFN-γ by splenocytes of HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice and for their ability to protect against subsequent T. gondii challenge. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using this platform approach with a CD8(+) epitope that binds HLA-B7 and tests the biological activity of potentially protective peptides restricted by human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) class I molecules in HLA transgenic mice.

  6. Hepatic Microenvironment Affects Oval Cell Localization in Albumin-Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kristin M.; Thompson, Anne W.; Sandgren, Eric P.

    2003-01-01

    Mice carrying an albumin-urokinase type plasminogen activator transgene (AL-uPA) develop liver disease secondary to uPA expression in hepatocytes. Transgene-expressing parenchyma is replaced gradually by clones of cells that have deleted transgene DNA and therefore are not subject to uPA-mediated damage. Diseased liver displays several abnormalities, including hepatocyte vacuolation and changes in nonparenchymal tissue. The latter includes increases in laminin protein within parenchyma and the appearance of cytokeratin 19-positive bile ductule-like cells (oval cells) both in portal regions and extending into the hepatic parenchyma. In this study, we subjected AL-uPA mice to two-thirds partial hepatectomy to identify the response of these livers to additional growth stimulation. We observed several changes in hepatic morphology. First, the oval cells increased in number and often formed ductules in the parenchyma. Second, this cellular change was accompanied by a further increase in laminin associated with single or clusters of oval cells. Third, desmin-positive Ito cells increased in number and maintained close association with oval cells. Fourth, these changes were localized precisely to uPA-expressing areas of liver. Regenerating clones of uPA-deficient cells appeared to be unaffected both by stromal and cellular alterations. Thus, additional growth stimulation of diseased uPA-expressing liver induces an oval cell-like response, as observed in other models of severe hepatic injury, but the localization of this response seems to be highly regulated by the hepatic microenvironment. PMID:12507902

  7. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  8. High incidence of lung, bone, and lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur, A; Maltby, V; Mock, D; Rossant, J; Pawson, T; Bernstein, A

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the p53 gene in oncogenesis in vivo by generating transgenic mice carrying murine p53 genomic fragments isolated from a mouse Friend erythroleukemia cell line or BALB/c mouse liver DNA. Elevated levels of p53 mRNA were detected in several tissues of two transgenic lines tested. Increased levels of p53 protein were also detected in most of the tissues analyzed by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Because both transgenes encoded p53 proteins that were antigenically distinct from wild-type p53, it was possible to demonstrate that overexpression of the p53 protein was mostly, if not entirely, due to the expression of the transgenes. Neoplasms developed in 20% of the transgenic mice, with a high incidence of lung adenocarcinomas, osteosarcomas, and lymphomas. Tissues such as ovaries that expressed the transgene at high levels were not at higher risk of malignant transformation than tissues expressing p53 protein at much lower levels. The long latent period and low penetrance suggest that overexpression of p53 alone is not sufficient to induce malignancies and that additional events are required. These observations provide direct evidence that mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene have oncogenic potential in vivo and that different cell types show intrinsic differences in susceptibility to malignant transformation by p53. Since recent data suggest that p53 may be a recessive oncogene, it is possible that the elevated tumor incidence results from functional inactivation of endogenous p53 by overexpression of the mutant transgene. The high incidence of lung and bone tumors suggests that p53 transgenic mice may provide a useful model to investigate the molecular events that underlie these malignancies in humans. Images PMID:2476668

  9. Organ-targeted mutagenicity of nitrofurantoin in Big Blue transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Quillardet, Philippe; Arrault, Xavier; Michel, Valérie; Touati, Eliette

    2006-09-01

    Nitrofurans are widely used in human medicine, as nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, still prescribed for long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis of urinary tract and gastrointestinal infection in humans respectively. Recent experiments in mammals, as well as reports mentioning toxic effects in humans associated with a long-term use, specially in the case of nitrofurantoin, raised the need for reevaluating their genotoxicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether these two compounds induce a mutagenic effect in the Big Blue transgenic mouse mutation assay. Mice were orally treated either with nitrofurantoin or nifuroxazide for five consecutive days and sacrificed 3 weeks later. In order to optimize the genotoxic response, the doses used for each compound were 25-fold higher as the posology in humans. They corresponded to 50% of the highest doses tolerated by mice. The mutant frequency was determined from kidney, lung, bladder, caecum, colon, small intestine, spleen and stomach. A weak mutagenic response of nitrofurantoin-treated mice specifically in the kidney was observed. As in the case of other nitrofuran compounds, the mutation spectra determined from treated samples exhibited slightly more GC-->TA transversions as compared with untreated conditions. These data are relevant to the targeted action of nitrofurantoin as a urinary antimicrobial agent. No significant increase of mutants was detected in the case of nifuroxazide-treated mice whatever the organs analysed.

  10. Extraneural manifestations of prion infection in GPI-anchorless transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Andrew M.; Paulsson, Johan F.; Cruite, Justin; Andaya, Abegail A.; Trifilo, Matthew J.; Oldstone, Michael B.A.

    2011-03-01

    Earlier studies indicated that transgenic (tg) mice engineered to express prion protein (PrP) lacking the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI{sup -/-}) membrane anchor formed abnormal proteinase-resistant prion (PrPsc) amyloid deposits in their brains and hearts when infected with the RML strain of murine scrapie. In contrast, RML scrapie infection of normal mice with a GPI-anchored PrP did not deposit amyloid with PrPsc in the brain or the heart. Here we report that scrapie-infected GPI{sup -/-} PrP tg mice also deposit PrP and transmissible infectious material in the gut, kidneys, and islets of Langerhans. Similar to previously reported amyloid deposits in the brain and heart, amyloid deposits were found in the gut; however, no amyloid deposited in the islets. By high-resolution electron microscopy, we show PrP is located primarily in {alpha} cells and also {beta} cells. Islets contain abundant insulin and there is no abnormality in glucose metabolism in infected GPI{sup -/-} PrP tg mice.

  11. C9orf72 BAC transgenic mice display typical pathologic features of ALS/FTD

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jacqueline G.; Bogdanik, Laurent; Muhammad, A.K.M.G.; Gendron, Tania F.; Kim, Kevin J.; Austin, Andrew; Cady, Janet; Liu, Elaine; Zarrow, Jonah; Grant, Sharday; Ho, Ritchie; Bell, Shaughn; Carmona, Sharon; Simpkinson, Megan; Lall, Deepti; Wu, Kathryn; Daughrity, Lillian; Dickson, Dennis W.; Harms, Matthew B.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lee, Edward B.; Lutz, Cathleen M.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noncoding expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we report transgenic mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the full human C9orf72 gene with either a normal allele (15 repeats) or disease-associated expansion (~100-1000 repeats; C9-BACexp). C9-BACexp mice displayed pathologic features seen in C9orf72 expansion patients, including widespread RNA foci and repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translated dipeptides, which were suppressed by antisense oligonucleotides targeting human C9orf72. Nucleolin distribution was altered supporting that either C9orf72 transcripts or RAN dipeptides promote nucleolar dysfunction. Despite early and widespread production of RNA foci and RAN dipeptides in C9-BACexp mice, behavioral abnormalities and neurodegeneration were not observed even at advanced ages, supporting the hypothesis that RNA foci and RAN dipeptides occur presymptomatically, and are not sufficient to drive neurodegeneration in mice at levels seen in patients. PMID:26637796

  12. C9orf72 BAC Transgenic Mice Display Typical Pathologic Features of ALS/FTD.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Jacqueline G; Bogdanik, Laurent; Muhammad, A K M G; Gendron, Tania F; Kim, Kevin J; Austin, Andrew; Cady, Janet; Liu, Elaine Y; Zarrow, Jonah; Grant, Sharday; Ho, Ritchie; Bell, Shaughn; Carmona, Sharon; Simpkinson, Megan; Lall, Deepti; Wu, Kathryn; Daughrity, Lillian; Dickson, Dennis W; Harms, Matthew B; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lee, Edward B; Lutz, Cathleen M; Baloh, Robert H

    2015-12-02

    Noncoding expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we report transgenic mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the full human C9orf72 gene with either a normal allele (15 repeats) or disease-associated expansion (∼100-1,000 repeats; C9-BACexp). C9-BACexp mice displayed pathologic features seen in C9orf72 expansion patients, including widespread RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translated dipeptides, which were suppressed by antisense oligonucleotides targeting human C9orf72. Nucleolin distribution was altered, supporting that either C9orf72 transcripts or RAN dipeptides promote nucleolar dysfunction. Despite early and widespread production of RNA foci and RAN dipeptides in C9-BACexp mice, behavioral abnormalities and neurodegeneration were not observed even at advanced ages, supporting the hypothesis that RNA foci and RAN dipeptides occur presymptomatically and are not sufficient to drive neurodegeneration in mice at levels seen in patients.

  13. Transgenic mice carrying the human poliovirus receptor: new animal models for study of poliovirus neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Horie, H; Koike, S; Kurata, T; Sato-Yoshida, Y; Ise, I; Ota, Y; Abe, S; Hioki, K; Kato, H; Taya, C

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant viruses between the virulent Mahoney and attenuated Sabin 1 strains of poliovirus type 1 were subjected to neurovirulence tests using a transgenic (Tg) mouse line, ICR-PVRTg1, that carried the human poliovirus receptor gene. The Tg mice were inoculated intracerebrally with these recombinant viruses and observed for clinical signs, histopathological lesions, and viral antigens as parameters of neurovirulence of the viruses. These parameters observed in the Tg mice were different for different inoculated viruses. Dose-dependent incidences of paralysis and of death were observed in the Tg mice inoculated with any viruses used. This indicates that values of 50% lethal dose are useful to score a wide range of neurovirulence of poliovirus. The neurovirulence of individual viruses estimated by the Tg mouse model had a strong correlation with those estimated by monkey model. Consequently, the mouse tests identified the neurovirulence determinants on the genome of poliovirus that had been identified by monkey tests. In addition, the mouse tests revealed new neurovirulence determinants, that is, different nucleotides between the two strains at positions 189 and 21 and/or 935 in the 5'-proximal 1,122 nucleotides. The Tg mice used in this study may be suitable for replacing monkeys for investigating poliovirus neurovirulence. Images PMID:8289371

  14. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sabogal-Guáqueta Angélica; Edison, Osorio; Patricia, Cardona-Gómez Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Several types of treatments have been tested to block or delay the onset of the disease, but none have been completely successful. Diet, lifestyle and natural products are currently the main scientific focuses. Here, we evaluate the effects of oral administration of the monoterpene linalool (25 mg / kg), every 48 hours for 3 months, on aged (21–24 months old) mice with a triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice showed improved learning and spatial memory and greater risk assessment behavior during the elevated plus maze. Hippocampi and amygdalae from linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice exhibited a significant reduction in extracellular β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, astrogliosis and microgliosis as well as a significant reduction in the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers p38 MAPK, NOS2, COX2 and IL-1β. Together, our findings suggest that linalool reverses the histopathological hallmarks of AD and restores cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, linalool may be an AD prevention candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:26549854

  15. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients.

  16. Long-term dantrolene treatment reduced intraneuronal amyloid in aged Alzheimer triple transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Yang, Bin; Liu, Chunxia; Liang, Ge; Liu, Weixia; Pickup, Stephen; Meng, Qingcheng; Tian, Yuke; Li, Shitong; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F; Wei, Huafeng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the long-term treatment of dantrolene on amyloid and tau neuropathology, brain volume, and cognitive function in aged triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTg-AD) mice. Fifteen-month old 3xTg-AD mice and wild-type controls were treated with oral dantrolene (5 mg/kg) or vehicle control twice a week for 6 months. Learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze at 21 and 22 months of age. After the behavioral testing, hippocampal and cortical brain volumes were calculated with magnetic resonance imaging and motor function was evaluated using the rotorod. The amyloid burden and tau neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemistry. We found that dantrolene significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid accumulation by as much as 76% compared with its corresponding vehicle control, together with a trend to reduce phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus. No significant differences could be detected in hippocampal or cortical brain volume, motor function or cognition among all experimental groups, indicating that the mice were still presymptomatic for Alzheimer disease. Thus, presymptomatic and long-term dantrolene treatment significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid burden in aged 3xTg-AD mice before significant changes in brain volume, or cognition.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 transgenic mice: postnatal growth, brain development, and reproduction abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Géraldine; Seurin, Danielle; Grellier, Pascale; Froment, Pascal; Baudrimont, Marielle; Monget, Philippe; Le Bouc, Yves; Babajko, Sylvie

    2004-05-01

    In biological fluids, IGFs bind to six distinct binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). IGFBP-6 is of particular interest because it has been shown to inhibit proliferation in many cell types and to be synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS). It also has the strongest affinity for IGF-II among the IGFBPs. To study IGFBP-6 function in vivo, we established IGFBP-6 transgenic mice in which human IGFBP-6 (hIGFBP-6) cDNA is expressed under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Northern and Western blot analysis revealed strong transgene expression in the CNS. With histological examination of the CNS, cerebellum size and weight proved to be reduced by about 25% and 35%, respectively, and there were smaller numbers of differentiated, GFAP-expressing astrocytes than in wild-type mice. Between birth and 1 month of age, transgenic mice had high levels of circulating hIGFBP-6 and reduced plasma IGF-I, and, as a result, body weight was significantly reduced. Reproductive physiology was also affected. Litter size was reduced by 27% when wild-type males were mated with 3-month-old transgenic females and by 66% when mated with 6-month-old transgenic females. Histological examination of ovaries of transgenic mice revealed a marked decrease in weight and in the number of corpora lutea, suggesting altered ovulation, and circulating LH levels were reduced by 50%. Our results indicate that this new model of transgenic mouse may prove to be a useful tool in elucidating the in vivo role of IGFBP-6 in the brain, especially in regard to hypothalamic control, and in reproductive physiology.

  18. HER-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice model: the effects of aromatase overexpression on mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Nair, Hareesh B; Perla, Rao P; Kirma, Nameer

    2007-01-01

    A majority of breast cancers are hormone-responsive, and require estrogen for growth, and respond to hormonal therapy that blocks estrogen receptor action. Breast tumors with low levels of or completely lacking estrogen receptor fail to respond to antiestrogen therapy yet require estrogen for tumor initiation. To address the importance of local estrogen in oncogene-mediated breast tumorigenesis, we have crossed MMTV-aromatase with MMTV-HER2/neu and examined the incidence of breast cancer in double transgenic mice in comparison with parental strains. Double transgenic mice show normal mammary development and express both transgenes at similar levels to that of parental strains. Tumor incidence in double transgenic mice (<5%) decreased compared to HER2/neu mice (>65%). In addition to a significant decrease in tumorigenesis, these mice expressed ERalpha as well as high levels of ERbeta along with decreased levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated pRb among other changes. Furthermore, experiments using THC (ERalpha-agonist and ERbeta-antagonist) clearly demonstrate the critical role of ERbeta in HER2/neu-mediated tumorigenesis. These studies provide the first genetic evidence that estrogen receptor, mainly ERbeta than ERalpha and its dependent changes play an important role in regulating mammary tumorigenesis. These findings provide further evidence for development and testing of novel therapeutic approaches based on selective regulation of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and beta)-dependent actions for the treatment and prevention of breast cancers.

  19. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  20. CaMKIIα underlies spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Chen, Yan; Tian, Xuebi; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Jian; Xiao, Chun; DeSimone, Joseph; Wilkie, Diana J; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-12-01

    Pain is one of the most challenging and stressful conditions to patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their clinicians. Patients with SCD start experiencing pain as early as 3 months old and continue having it throughout their lives. Although many aspects of the disease are well understood, little progress has been made in understanding and treating pain in SCD. This study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) in the persistent and refractory pain associated with SCD. We found that nonevoked ongoing pain as well as evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli were present in Berkeley sickle cell transgenic mice (BERK mice), but not nonsickle control littermates. Prominent activation of CaMKIIα was observed in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord dorsal horn region of BERK mice. Intrathecal administration of KN93, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in BERK mice. Meanwhile, spinal inhibition of CaMKII elicited conditioned place preference in the BERK mice, indicating the contribution of CaMKII in the ongoing spontaneous pain of SCD. We further targeted CaMKIIα by siRNA knockdown. Both evoked pain and ongoing spontaneous pain were effectively attenuated in BERK mice. These findings elucidated, for the first time, an essential role of CaMKIIα as a cellular mechanism in the development and maintenance of spontaneous and evoked pain in SCD, which can potentially offer new targets for pharmacological intervention of pain in SCD.

  1. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG.

  2. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hakju; Ogle, Louise; Benitez, Bobby; Bohuslav, Jan; Montano, Mauricio; Felsher, Dean W; Greene, Warner C

    2005-10-21

    Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology.

  3. Carcinogenicity study of 217 Hz pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in Pim1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Oberto, Germano; Rolfo, Katia; Yu, Ping; Carbonatto, Michela; Peano, Sergio; Kuster, Niels; Ebert, Sven; Tofani, Santi

    2007-09-01

    In an 18-month carcinogenicity study, Pim1 transgenic mice were exposed to pulsed 900 MHz (pulse width: 0.577 ms; pulse repetition rate: 217 Hz) radiofrequency (RF) radiation at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5, 1.4 or 4.0 W/kg [uncertainty (k = 2): 2.6 dB; lifetime variation (k = 1): 1.2 dB]. A total of 500 mice, 50 per sex per group, were exposed, sham-exposed or used as cage controls. The experiment was an extension of a previously published study in female Pim1 transgenic mice conducted by Repacholi et al. (Radiat. Res. 147, 631-640, 1997) that reported a significant increase in lymphomas after exposure to the same 900 MHz RF signal. Animals were exposed for 1 h/day, 7 days/week in plastic tubes similar to those used in inhalation studies to obtain well-defined uniform exposure. The study was conducted blind. The highest exposure level (4 W/kg) used in this study resulted in organ-averaged SARs that are above the peak spatial SAR limits allowed by the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection) standard for environmental exposures. The whole-body average was about three times greater than the highest average SAR reported in the earlier study by Repacholi et al. The results of this study do not suggest any effect of 217 Hz-pulsed RF-radiation exposure (pulse width: 0.577 ms) on the incidence of tumors at any site, and thus the findings of Repacholi et al. were not confirmed. Overall, the study shows no effect of RF radiation under the conditions used on the incidence of any neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesion, and thus the study does not provide evidence that RF radiation possesses carcinogenic potential.

  4. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:25537657

  5. Studies on the correlation with olfactory dysfunction in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Ameer; Lee, Ji Hye; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of proteinaceous deposits in the brain. AD often results in olfactory dysfunction and impaired olfactory perceptual acuity may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Until recently, there is no Alzheimer's nanoscope or any other high-end microscope developed to be capable of seeing buried feature of AD clearly. Modern neuroimaging techniques are more effective only after the occurrence of cognitive impairment. Therefore, early detection of Alzheimer's disease is critical in developing effective treatment of AD. H and E (Haematoxyline and Eosin) staining is performed for examining gross morphological changes, while TUNEL (transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining for monitoring neuronal death in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and western blot are performed to examine β-amyloid protein expression. AD model animals were Tg2576 (transgenic mice that overexpress a mutated form of the Aβ precursor protein), and 6 month (before onset of AD symptoms) and 14 month (after onset of AD symptoms) old WT (wild type) and transgenic mice were compared in their olfactory system. We found that in OE of Tg2576 mice, thickness and total number of cells were decreased, while the numbers of TUNEL-positive neurons, caspase-3 activation were significantly increased compared with age-matched WT. Our results demonstrate that the olfactory system may get deteriorated before onset of AD symptoms. Our findings imply that an olfactory biopsy could be served as an early and relatively simple diagnostic tool for potential AD patients.

  6. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  7. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Giuliani, Alessandra; Brun, Francesco; Canciani, Barbara; Manescu, Adrian; Marozzi, Katia; Cilli, Michele; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Tasso, Roberta; Tromba, Giuliana; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt) and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg) mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS) during the Mice Drawer System (MDS) mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days) in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN) in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  8. Renoprotection From Diabetic Complications in OVE Transgenic Mice by Endothelial Cell Specific Overexpression of Metallothionein: A TEM Stereological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chhoun, Jennifer M.; Grove, Bryon D.; Laturnus, Donna I.; Zheng, Shirong; Epstein, Paul N.; Tan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that OVE transgenic diabetic mice are susceptible to chronic complications of diabetic nephropathy (DN) including substantial oxidative damage to the renal glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Importantly, the damage was mitigated significantly by overexpression of the powerful antioxidant, metallothionein (MT) in podocytes. To test our hypothesis that GFB damage in OVE mice is the result of endothelial oxidative insult, a new JTMT transgenic mouse was designed in which MT overexpression was targeted specifically to endothelial cells. At 60 days of age, JTMT mice were crossed with age‐matched OVE diabetic mice to produce bi‐transgenic OVE‐JTMT diabetic progeny that carried the endothelial targeted JTMT transgene. Renal tissues from the OVE‐JTMT progeny were examined by unbiased TEM stereometry for possible GFB damage and other alterations from chronic complications of DN. In 150 day‐old OVE‐JTMT mice, blood glucose and HbA1c were indistinguishable from age‐matched OVE mice. However, endothelial‐specific MT overexpression in OVE‐JTMT mice mitigated several DN complications including significantly increased non‐fenestrated glomerular endothelial area, and elimination of glomerular basement membrane thickening. Significant renoprotection was also observed outside of endothelial cells, including reduced podocyte effacement, and increased podocyte and total glomerular cell densities. Moreover, when compared to OVE diabetic animals, OVE‐JTMT mice showed significant mitigation of nephromegaly, glomerular hypertrophy, increased mesangial cell numbers and increased total glomerular cell numbers. These results confirm the importance of oxidative stress to glomerular damage in DN, and show the central role of endothelial cell injury to the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:560–576, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published

  9. Behavioral deficit, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction precede tau pathology in P301S transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Magali; Stack, Cliona; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Jainuddin, Shari; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia N.; Yang, Lichuan; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Beal, Flint

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal tau accumulation can lead to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. P301S mice overexpress the human tau mutated gene, resulting in tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation. Mice also develop synaptic deficits and microglial activation prior to any neurodegeneration and tangles. Oxidative stress can also affect tauopathy. We studied the role of oxidative stress in relationship to behavioral abnormalities and disease progression in P301S mice at 2, 7, and 10 mo of age. At 7 mo of age, P301S mice had behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity and disinhibition. At the same age, we observed increased carbonyls in P301S mitochondria (∼215 and 55% increase, males/females), and deregulation in the activity and content of mitochondrial enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species formation and energy metabolism, such as citrate synthase (∼19 and ∼5% decrease, males/females), MnSOD (∼16% decrease, males only), cytochrome C (∼19% decrease, females only), and cytochrome C oxidase (∼20% increase, females only). These changes in mitochondria proteome appeared before tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, which were observed at 10 mo and were associated with GSK3β activation. At that age, mitochondria proteome deregulation became more apparent in male P301S mitochondria. The data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities appear prior to tau pathology.—Dumont, M., Stack, C., Elipenahli, C., Jainuddin, S., Gerges, M., Starkova, M. N., Yang, L., Starkov, A. A., Beal, F. Behavioral deficit, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction precede tau pathology in P301S transgenic mice. PMID:21825035

  10. Increased excitability in tat-transgenic mice: role of tat in HIV-related neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Silvia; Pittaluga, Anna; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Summa, Maria; Fabris, Marina; De Michele, Rita; Bonaccorsi, Angela; Busatto, Graziella; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Verlengia, Gianluca; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Corallini, Alfredo; Caputo, Antonella; Simonato, Michele

    2013-07-01

    HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a major complication of HIV-1 infection. The mechanism(s) underlying HAND are not completely understood but, based on in vitro studies, the HIV-1 Tat protein may play an important role. In this study, the effect of prolonged exposure to endogenously produced Tat in the brain was investigated using a tat-transgenic (TT) mouse model constitutively expressing the HIV-1 tat gene. We found that stimulus-evoked glutamate exocytosis in the hippocampus and cortex was significantly increased in TT as compared with wild-type control (CC) mice, while GABA exocytosis was unchanged in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex. This suggests that Tat generates a latent hyper-excitability state, which favors the detrimental effects of neurotoxic and/or excitotoxic agents. To challenge this idea, TT mice were tested for susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures and neurodegeneration, and found to exhibit significantly greater responses to the convulsant agent than CC mice. These results support the concept that constitutive expression of tat in the brain generates a latent excitatory state, which may increase the negative effects of damaging insults. These events may play a key role in the development of HAND.

  11. Life Extension Factor Klotho Prevents Mortality and Enhances Cognition in hAPP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Sanchez, Pascal E.; Worden, Kurtresha; Broestl, Lauren; Johnson, Erik; Ho, Kaitlyn; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Kim, Daniel; Betourne, Alexander; Kuro-o, Makoto; Masliah, Eliezer; Abraham, Carmela R.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the principal demographic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Klotho is a key modulator of the aging process and, when overexpressed, extends mammalian lifespan, increases synaptic plasticity, and enhances cognition. Whether klotho can counteract deficits related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, is unknown. Here we show that elevating klotho expression decreases premature mortality and network dysfunction in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increasing klotho levels prevented depletion of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning and memory in hAPP mice. Klotho elevation in hAPP mice increased the abundance of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in postsynaptic densities and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, which is critical for learning and memory. Thus, increasing wild-type klotho levels or activities improves synaptic and cognitive functions, and may be of therapeutic benefit in AD and other cognitive disorders. PMID:25673831

  12. Parkinson-like phenotype in insulin-resistant PED/PEA-15 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Perruolo, Giuseppe; Viggiano, Davide; Fiory, Francesca; Cassese, Angela; Nigro, Cecilia; Liotti, Antonietta; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurological abnormalities, such as Parkinson-like disorders (PlD), are often co-morbidities of Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients, although the epidemiological link between these two disorders remains controversial. The PED/PEA-15 protein represents a possible candidate linking T2D and PD, because it is increased in subjects with T2D and is highly expressed in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the neurological and neurochemical phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (tgPED). These mice develop impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by neurological features resembling PlD: feet clasping, slow and delayed locomotor movements in different behavioral tests in absence of clear cognitive deficits, ataxia or anxiety. Morphological analysis of the brains showed selective modifications of metabolic activity in the striatal region. In the same region, we have observed 26% decrease of dopamine fibers, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot for tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, they also showed 48% reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus the tgPED mice may represent a genetic animal model of neurological disease linked to T2D. PMID:27426254

  13. Erythropoietin and the use of a transgenic model of erythropoietin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Aurélien; Jeton, Florine; El Hasnaoui-Saadani, Raja; Hagström, Luciana; Launay, Thierry; Beaudry, Michèle; Marchant, Dominique; Quidu, Patricia; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Favret, Fabrice; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Voituron, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Despite its well-known role in red blood cell production, it is now accepted that erythropoietin (Epo) has other physiological functions. Epo and its receptors are expressed in many tissues, such as the brain and heart. The presence of Epo/Epo receptors in these organs suggests other roles than those usually assigned to this protein. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the effects of Epo deficiency on adaptation to normoxic and hypoxic environments and to suggest a key role of Epo on main physiological adaptive functions. Our original model of Epo-deficient (Epo-TAgh) mice allowed us to improve our knowledge of the possible role of Epo in O2 homeostasis. The use of anemic transgenic mice revealed Epo as a crucial component of adaptation to hypoxia. Epo-TAgh mice survive well in hypoxic conditions despite low hematocrit. Furthermore, Epo plays a key role in neural control of ventilatory acclimatization and response to hypoxia, in deformability of red blood cells, in cerebral and cardiac angiogenesis, and in neuro- and cardioprotection. PMID:27800506

  14. Use of a 2-aminothiazole to Treat Chronic Wasting Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with the 2-aminothiazole IND24 extended the survival of mice infected with mouse-adapted scrapie but also resulted in the emergence of a drug-resistant prion strain. Here, we determined whether IND24 extended the survival of transgenic mice infected with prions that caused scrapie in sheep or prions that caused chronic wasting disease (CWD; hereafter “CWD prions”) in deer, using 2 isolates for each disease. IND24 doubled the incubation times for mice infected with CWD prions but had no effect on the survival of those infected with scrapie prions. Biochemical, neuropathologic, and cell culture analyses were used to characterize prion strain properties following treatment, and results indicated that the CWD prions were not altered by IND24, regardless of survival extension. These results suggest that IND24 may be a viable candidate for treating CWD in infected captive cervid populations and raise questions about why some prion strains develop drug resistance whereas others do not. PMID:26116725

  15. Utilizing GCaMP transgenic mice to monitor endogenous Gq/11-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, John G.

    2015-01-01

    The family of GCaMPs are engineered proteins that contain Ca2+ binding motifs within a circularly permutated variant of the Aequorea Victoria green fluorescent protein (cp-GFP). The rapidly advancing field of utilizing GCaMP reporter constructs represents a major step forward in our ability to monitor intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. With the use of these genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors, investigators have studied activation of endogenous Gq types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and subsequent rises in intracellular calcium. Escalations in intracellular Ca2+ from GPCR activation can be faithfully monitored in space and time as an increase in fluorescent emission from these proteins. Further, transgenic mice are now commercially available that express GCaMPs in a Cre recombinase dependent fashion. These GCaMP reporter mice can be bred to distinct Cre recombinase driver mice to direct expression of this sensor in unique populations of cells. Concerning the central nervous system (CNS), sources of calcium influx, including those arising from Gq activation can be observed in targeted cell types like neurons or astrocytes. This powerful genetic method allows simultaneous monitoring of the activity of dozens of cells upon activation of endogenous Gq-coupled GPCRs. Therefore, in combination with pharmacological tools, this strategy of monitoring GPCR activation is amenable to analysis of orthosteric and allosteric ligands of Gq-coupled receptors in their endogenous environments. PMID:25805995

  16. Utilizing GCaMP transgenic mice to monitor endogenous Gq/11-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Partridge, John G

    2015-01-01

    The family of GCaMPs are engineered proteins that contain Ca(2+) binding motifs within a circularly permutated variant of the Aequorea Victoria green fluorescent protein (cp-GFP). The rapidly advancing field of utilizing GCaMP reporter constructs represents a major step forward in our ability to monitor intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. With the use of these genetically encoded Ca(2+) sensors, investigators have studied activation of endogenous Gq types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and subsequent rises in intracellular calcium. Escalations in intracellular Ca(2+) from GPCR activation can be faithfully monitored in space and time as an increase in fluorescent emission from these proteins. Further, transgenic mice are now commercially available that express GCaMPs in a Cre recombinase dependent fashion. These GCaMP reporter mice can be bred to distinct Cre recombinase driver mice to direct expression of this sensor in unique populations of cells. Concerning the central nervous system (CNS), sources of calcium influx, including those arising from Gq activation can be observed in targeted cell types like neurons or astrocytes. This powerful genetic method allows simultaneous monitoring of the activity of dozens of cells upon activation of endogenous Gq-coupled GPCRs. Therefore, in combination with pharmacological tools, this strategy of monitoring GPCR activation is amenable to analysis of orthosteric and allosteric ligands of Gq-coupled receptors in their endogenous environments.

  17. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan peptide mimotope-protein conjugates in human immunoglobulin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Datta, Kausik; Lees, Andrew; Belouski, Shelley Sims; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2004-01-01

    Peptide mimotopes of capsular polysaccharides have been proposed as antigens for vaccines against encapsulated pathogens. In this study, we determined the antibody response to and efficacy of P13, a peptide mimetic of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), in mice that produce human antibodies. P13 was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and administered subcutaneously in Alhydrogel with or without CpG to mice transgenic for human immunoglobulin loci (XenoMouse mice) and expressing either immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) (G2 mice) or IgG4 (G4 mice). Mice were vaccinated and revaccinated two or three times. The serum antibody responses of the mice to GXM and P13 and antibody idiotype expression were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that both P13-TT and P13-DT were antigenic, inducing a mimetic response to P13 in both G2 and G4 mice, and immunogenic, inducing a mimotope response including VH3 (idiotype)-positive antibodies to GXM in G2 but not G4 mice. CpG led to higher titers of IgG to P13 and GXM in P13-TT-vaccinated G2 mice. C. neoformans challenge of P13-protein conjugate-vaccinated and control G2 mice induced anamnestic IgG- and VH3-positive responses to GXM and was associated with a significantly decreased risk of death and a prolongation of survival in P13-DT-vaccinated mice compared to phosphate-buffered saline-treated or protein carrier-vaccinated mice. These findings reveal that P13 elicited a human antibody response with VH3 expression in human immunoglobulin transgenic mice that has been observed for human antibodies to GXM and support the concept that peptide mimotope-based vaccines may hold promise for the treatment of C. neoformans infections.

  18. Neural regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha- subunit gene promoters in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of denervation were investigated in mice with transgenes containing promoter elements from the muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha-subunit genes. The promoter sequences were coupled to a nuclear localization signal-beta-galactosidase fusion gene (nlacZ) as a reporter. While many postsynaptic specializations form in the embryo, expression of the epsilon subunit is induced during the first two postnatal weeks. When muscles were denervated at birth, before the onset of epsilon expression, epsilon nlacZ still appeared at the former synaptic sites on schedule. This result suggests that the nerve leaves a localized "trace" in the muscle that can continue to regulate transcription. An additional finding was that epsilon nlacZ expression was much stronger in denervated than in intact muscles. This suggests that the epsilon promoter is similar to the other subunits in containing elements that are activated on cessation of neural activity. However, even after denervation, epsilon nlacZ expression was always confined to the synaptic region whereas alpha nlacZ expression increased in nuclei along the entire length of the fiber. This suggests that while the epsilon gene is similar in its activity dependence to other subunit genes, it is unique in that local nerve-derived signals are essential for its expression. Consequently, inactivity enhances epsilon expression only in synaptic nuclei where such signals are present, but enhances expression throughout the muscle fiber. Truncations and an internal deletion of the epsilon promoter indicate that cis-elements essential for the response to synaptic signals are contained within 280 bp of the transcription start site. In contrast to these results in young animals, denervation in older animals leads to an unexpected reduction in nlacZ activity. However, mRNA measurements indicated that transgene expression was increased in these animals. This discordance between nlacZ mRNA and enzyme activity, demonstrates a

  19. Vitamin C deficiency increases basal exploratory activity but decreases scopolamine-induced activity in APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, F. E.; May, J. M.; McDonald, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and its levels are decreased in Alzheimer's patients. Even sub-clinical vitamin C deficiency could impact disease development. To investigate this principle we crossed APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice with Gulo knockout mice unable to synthesize their own vitamin C. Experimental mice were maintained from 6 weeks of age on standard (0.33 g/L) or reduced (0.099 g/L) levels of vitamin C and then assessed for changes in behavior and neuropathology. APP/PSEN1 mice showed impaired spatial learning in the Barnes maze and water maze that was not further impacted by vitamin C level. However, long-term decreased vitamin C levels led to hyperactivity in transgenic mice, with altered locomotor habituation and increased omission errors in the Barnes maze. Decreased vitamin C also led to increased oxidative stress. Transgenic mice were more susceptible to the activity-enhancing effects of scopolamine and low vitamin C attenuated these effects in both genotypes. These data indicate an interaction between the cholinergic system and vitamin C that could be important given the cholinergic degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19941887

  20. Decreased severity of collagen antibody and lipopolysaccharide-induced arthritis in human IL-32β overexpressed transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Yoon, Do-Young; Ban, Jung Ok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Dong Hun; Song, Sukgil; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Hee Pom; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-11-17

    Interleukin (IL)-32, mainly produced by T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, epithelial cells, and blood monocytes, is dominantly known as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. However, the role of IL-32 on inflammatory disease has been doubtful according to diverse conflicting results. This study was designed to examine the role of IL-32β on the development of collagen antibody (CAIA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory arthritis. Our data showed that the paw swelling volume and clinical score were significantly reduced in the CAIA and LPS-treated IL-32β transgenic mice compared with non-transgenic mice. The populations of cytotoxic T, NK and dendritic cells was inhibited and NF-κB and STAT3 activities were significantly lowered in the CAIA and LPS-treated IL-32β transgenic mice. The expression of pro-inflammatory proteins was prevented in the paw tissues of CAIA and LPS-treated IL-32β transgenic mice. In addition, IL-32β altered several cytokine levels in the blood, spleen and paw joint. Our data indicates that IL-32β comprehensively inhibits the inflammation responses in the CAIA and LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis model.

  1. Overexpression of liver-type phosphofructokinase (PFKL) in transgenic-PFKL mice: implication for gene dosage in trisomy 21.

    PubMed Central

    Elson, A; Levanon, D; Weiss, Y; Groner, Y

    1994-01-01

    The human liver-type subunit of the key glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase (PFKL), is encoded by a gene residing on chromosome 21. This chromosome, when triplicated, causes the phenotypic expression of Down's syndrome (trisomy 21). Increased phosphofructokinase activity, a result of gene dosage, is commonly found in erythrocytes and fibroblasts from Down's syndrome patients. We describe the construction of transgenic mice overexpressing PFKL for use as a well-defined model system, in which the effects of PFKL overexpression in various tissues, and throughout development, can be studied. Mice transgenic for a murine PFKL 'gene cDNA' hybrid construct were found to overexpress PFKL in a tissue-specific manner resembling that of the endogenous enzyme. Although unchanged in adult brain, PFK specific activity was found to have been almost doubled in brains of embryonic transgenic-PFKL mice, suggesting that the extra copies of the PFKL gene are expressed during the developmental period. This pattern of overexpression of PFKL in brains of transgenic-PFKL mice suggests that gene-dosage effects may be temporally separated from some of their consequences, adding an additional layer of complexity to the analysis of gene dosage in trisomy 21. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8172601

  2. Age-associated and cell-type-specific neurofibrillary pathology in transgenic mice expressing the human midsized neurofilament subunit.

    PubMed

    Vickers, J C; Morrison, J H; Friedrich, V L; Elder, G A; Perl, D P; Katz, R N; Lazzarini, R A

    1994-09-01

    Alterations in neurofilaments are a common occurrence in neurons of the human nervous system during aging and diseases associated with aging. Such pathologic changes may be attributed to species-specific properties of human neurofilaments as well as cell-type-specific regulation of this element of the cytoskeleton. The development of transgenic animals containing human neurofilament subunits offers an opportunity to study the effects of aging and other experimental conditions on the human-specific form of these proteins in a rodent model. The present study shows that mice from the transgenic line NF(M)27, which express the human midsized neurofilament subunit at low levels (2-25% of the endogenous NF-M), develop neurofilamentous accumulations in specific subgroups of neurons that are age dependent, affecting 78% of transgenic mice over 12 months of age. Similar accumulations do not occur in age-matched, wild-type littermates or in 3-month-old transgenic mice. In 12-month-old transgenic mice, somatic neurofilament accumulations resembling neurofibrillary tangles were present predominantly in layers III and V of the neocortex, as well as in select subpopulations of subcortical neurons. Intraperikaryal, spherical neurofilamentous accumulations were particularly abundant in cell bodies in layer II of the neocortex, and neurofilament-containing distentions of Purkinje cell proximal axons occurred in the cerebellum. These pathological accumulations contained mouse as well as human NF subunits, but could be distinguished by their content of phosphorylation-dependent NF epitopes. These cytoskeletal alterations closely resemble the cell-type-specific alterations in neurofilaments that occur during normal human aging and in diseases associated with aging, indicating that these transgenic animals may serve as models of some aspects of the pathologic features of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Position independent expression and developmental regulation is directed by the beta myosin heavy chain gene's 5' upstream region in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Knotts, S; Rindt, H; Robbins, J

    1995-08-25

    Transgenic mice generated with constructs containing 5.6 kb of the beta myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene's 5' flanking region linked to the cat reporter gene express the transgene at high levels. In all 47 lines analyzed, tissue-specific accumulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was found at levels proportional to the number of integrated transgene copies. Deletion constructs containing only 0.6 kb of 5' upstream region showed position effects in transgenic mice and did not demonstrate copy number dependence although transgene expression remained muscle-specific. The 5.6 kb 5' upstream region conferred appropriate developmental control of the transgene to the cardiac compartment and directs copy number dependent and position independent expression. Lines generated with a construct in which three proximal cis-acting elements were mutated showed reduced levels of transgene expression, but all maintained their position independence and copy number dependence, suggesting the presence of distinct regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Position independent expression and developmental regulation is directed by the beta myosin heavy chain gene's 5' upstream region in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, S; Rindt, H; Robbins, J

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice generated with constructs containing 5.6 kb of the beta myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene's 5' flanking region linked to the cat reporter gene express the transgene at high levels. In all 47 lines analyzed, tissue-specific accumulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was found at levels proportional to the number of integrated transgene copies. Deletion constructs containing only 0.6 kb of 5' upstream region showed position effects in transgenic mice and did not demonstrate copy number dependence although transgene expression remained muscle-specific. The 5.6 kb 5' upstream region conferred appropriate developmental control of the transgene to the cardiac compartment and directs copy number dependent and position independent expression. Lines generated with a construct in which three proximal cis-acting elements were mutated showed reduced levels of transgene expression, but all maintained their position independence and copy number dependence, suggesting the presence of distinct regulatory mechanisms. Images PMID:7667107

  5. Transgenic mice expressing an artificial zinc finger regulator targeting an endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Claudio; Corbi, Nicoletta; Onori, Annalisa; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) proteins belonging to the Cys2-His2 class provide a simple and versatile framework to design novel artificial transcription factors (ATFs) targeted to the desired genes. Our work is based on ZF ATFs engineered to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In particular, on the basis of the "recognition code" that defines specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA-binding sites we engineered and selected a new family of artificial transcription factors, whose DNA-binding domain consists in a three zinc finger peptide called "Jazz." Jazz protein binds specifically the 9 bp DNA sequence (5(')-GCT-GCT-GCG-3(')) present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. We generated a transgenic mouse expressing Jazz protein fused to the strong transcriptional activation domain VP16 and under the control of the muscle specific promoter of the myosin light chain gene. Vp16-Jazz mice display a strong up-regulation of the utrophin at both mRNA and protein levels. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger-based transcription factor.

  6. Methylene Blue Modulates β-Secretase, Reverses Cerebral Amyloidosis, and Improves Cognition in Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takashi; Koyama, Naoki; Segawa, Tatsuya; Maeda, Masahiro; Maruyama, Nobuhiro; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Hou, Huayan; Tan, Jun; Town, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is required for production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that comprise β-amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we tested whether the experimental agent methylene blue (MB), used for treatment of methemoglobinemia, might improve AD-like pathology and behavioral deficits. We orally administered MB to the aged transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis and evaluated cognitive function and cerebral amyloid pathology. Beginning at 15 months of age, animals were gavaged with MB (3 mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 3 months. MB treatment significantly prevented transgene-associated behavioral impairment, including hyperactivity, decreased object recognition, and defective spatial working and reference memory, but it did not alter nontransgenic mouse behavior. Moreover, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits as well as levels of various Aβ species, including oligomers, were mitigated in MB-treated PSAPP mice. These effects occurred with inhibition of amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Specifically, β-carboxyl-terminal APP fragment and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 protein expression and activity were attenuated. Additionally, treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human wild-type APP with MB significantly decreased Aβ production and amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. These results underscore the potential for oral MB treatment against AD-related cerebral amyloidosis by modulating the amyloidogenic pathway. PMID:25157105

  7. A preliminary assessment of the toxic and mutagenic potential of steroidal alkaloids in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, L; Myhr, B

    1995-03-01

    Impregnated CD2 transgenic mice, which contain multiple copies of a lambda gt10lacZ construct integrated into the genome of each cell, were given a predetermined estimated maximum tolerated dose of several steroidal alkaloids: Solanum glycoalkaloids from potato, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; aglycones, solanidine and solasodine, and a Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Observations were made of dams and foetuses for indications of toxicity and/or terata; some dam livers and foetuses were assayed for mutagenicity using the lacZ gene. Other dams were gavaged with a single dose of 75 mg all-trans-retinol/kg to serve as a reference teratogen. Unexpectedly, this level of retinol was not clearly teratogenic. The results of both positive and non-positive selection systems showed that the mutation frequencies in the livers of the dams dosed with alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine and solanidine were three to four times higher than historically normal in the livers of this transgenic mouse strain.

  8. Intrachoroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schwesinger, Catherine; Yee, Charles; Rohan, Richard M.; Joussen, Antonia M.; Fernandez, Antonio; Meyer, Tobias N.; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Ma, Joseph J. K.; Redmond, T. Michael; Liu, Suyan; Adamis, Anthony P.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is a frequent and poorly treatable cause of vision loss in elderly Caucasians. This choroidal neovascularization has been associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In current animal models choroidal neovascularization is induced by subretinal injection of growth factors or vectors encoding growth factors such as VEGF, or by disruption of the Bruch’s membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex with laser treatment. We wished to establish a transgenic murine model of age-related macular degeneration, in which the overexpression of VEGF by the retinal pigment epithelium induces choroidal neovascularization. A construct consisting of a tissue-specific murine retinal pigment epithelium promoter (RPE65 promoter) coupled to murine VEGF164 cDNA with a rabbit β-globin-3′ UTR was introduced into the genome of albino mice. Transgene mRNA was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium at all ages peaking at 4 months. The expression of VEGF protein was increased in both the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. An increase of intravascular adherent leukocytes and vessel leakage was observed. Histopathology revealed intrachoroidal neovascularization that did not penetrate through an intact Bruch’s membrane. These results support the hypothesis that additional insults to the integrity of Bruch’s membrane are required to induce growth of choroidal vessels into the subretinal space as seen in age-related macular degeneration. This model may be useful to screen for inhibitors of choroidal vessel growth. PMID:11238064

  9. Hibernoma development in transgenic mice identifies brown adipose tissue as a novel target of aldosterone action.

    PubMed Central

    Zennaro, M C; Le Menuet, D; Viengchareun, S; Walker, F; Ricquier, D; Lombès, M

    1998-01-01

    Aldosterone is a major regulator of salt balance and blood pressure, exerting its effects via the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). To analyze the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue-specific expression of the human MR (hMR) in vivo, we have developed transgenic mouse models expressing the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the control of each of the two promoters of the hMR gene (P1 or P2). Unexpectedly, all five P1-TAg founder animals died prematurely from voluminous malignant liposarcomas originating from brown adipose tissue, as evidenced by the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein ucp1, indicating that the proximal P1 promoter was transcriptionally active in brown adipocytes. No such hibernoma occurred in P2-TAg transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific usage of P1 promoter sequences was confirmed by demonstrating the presence of endogenous MR in both neoplastic and normal brown adipose tissue. Several cell lines were derived from hibernomas; among them, the T37i cells can undergo terminal differentiation into brown adipocytes, which remain capable of expressing ucp1 upon adrenergic or retinoic acid stimulation. These cells possess endogenous functional MR, thus providing a new model to explore molecular mechanisms of mineralocorticoid action. Our data broaden the known functions of aldosterone and suggest a potential role for MR in adipocyte differentiation and regulation of thermogenesis. PMID:9502766

  10. Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving non-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats Mohan; Montgomery, Kate L.; Towne, Chris; Lee, Soo Yeun; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain1. Our ability to excite and inhibit these neurons has been limited by pharmacological and electrical stimulation constraints; non-invasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving non-transgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic2 strategy to bidirectionally control nociceptors of non-transgenic mice. Intra-sciatic nerve injection of adeno-associated viruses encoding an excitatory opsin enabled light-inducible stimulation of acute pain, place aversion, and optogenetically mediated reductions in withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, viral delivery of an inhibitory opsin enabled light-inducible inhibition of acute pain perception, and reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. Light was delivered transdermally enabling these behaviors to be induced in freely moving animals. This approach may have utility in basic and translational pain research, and enable rapid drug screening and testing of newly engineered opsins. PMID:24531797

  11. Expression of the hepatitis delta virus large and small antigens in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S; Huang, S N; Xia, Y P; La Monica, N; Lai, M M; Chisari, F V

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in humans is often associated with severe viral liver disease including fulminant hepatitis. Since HBV is thought to be noncytopathic to the hepatocyte, the enhanced disease severity observed during dual infection has been attributed to either simultaneous immune responses against the two viruses or direct cytotoxic effects of HDV products on the hepatocyte or both. To examine these alternate possibilities, we produced transgenic mice that express the small and large delta antigens (HDAg) in hepatocyte nuclei at levels equal to those observed during natural HDV infection. No biological or histopathological evidence of liver disease was detectable during 18 months of observation, suggesting that neither the large nor small form of HDAg is directly cytopathic to the hepatocyte in vivo. Images PMID:8289334

  12. Cardioprotective effects of 70-kDa heat shock protein in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Radford, N B; Fina, M; Benjamin, I J; Moreadith, R W; Graves, K H; Zhao, P; Gavva, S; Wiethoff, A; Sherry, A D; Malloy, C R; Williams, R S

    1996-01-01

    Heat shock proteins are proposed to limit injury resulting from diverse environmental stresses, but direct metabolic evidence for such a cytoprotective function in vertebrates has been largely limited to studies of cultured cells. We generated lines of transgenic mice to express human 70-kDa heat shock protein constitutively in the myocardium. Hearts isolated from these animals demonstrated enhanced recovery of high energy phosphate stores and correction of metabolic acidosis following brief periods of global ischemia sufficient to induce sustained abnormalities of these variables in hearts from nontransgenic littermates. These data demonstrate a direct cardioprotective effect of 70-kDa heat shock protein to enhance postischemic recovery of the intact heart. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8637874

  13. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  14. Accelerated amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in double mutant APP/tau transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ribé, Elena M; Pérez, Mar; Puig, Berta; Gich, Ignasi; Lim, Filip; Cuadrado, Mar; Sesma, Teresa; Catena, Silvia; Sánchez, Belén; Nieto, María; Gómez-Ramos, Pilar; Morán, M Asunción; Cabodevilla, Felipe; Samaranch, Lluis; Ortiz, Lourdes; Pérez, Alberto; Ferrer, Isidro; Avila, Jesús; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2005-12-01

    Even though the idea that amyloid beta peptide accumulation is the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease has become the leading hypothesis, the causal link between aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing and tau alterations in this type of dementia remains controversial. We further investigated the role of beta-amyloid production/deposition in tau pathology and neuronal cell death in the mouse brain by crossing Tg2576 and VLW lines expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein and human mutant tau, respectively. The resulting double transgenic mice showed enhanced amyloid deposition accompanied by neurofibrillary degeneration and overt neuronal loss in selectively vulnerable brain limbic areas. These findings challenge the idea that tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease is merely a downstream effect of amyloid production/deposition and suggest that reciprocal interactions between beta-amyloid and tau alterations may take place in vivo.

  15. Reduced Mid1 Expression and Delayed Neuromotor Development in daDREAM Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Mara; Fedrizzi, Laura; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; de Lagran, María Martinez; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Sahún, Ignasi; Pintado, Belen; Oliveros, Juan C.; Dopazo, Xose M.; Gonzalez, Paz; Brini, Marisa; Mellström, Britt; Carafoli, Ernesto; Naranjo, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Previous work has shown a role for DREAM in cerebellar function regulating the expression of the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) in cerebellar granular neurons to control Ca2+ homeostasis and survival of these neurons. To achieve a global view of the genes regulated by DREAM in the cerebellum, we performed a genome-wide analysis in transgenic cerebellum expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Here we show that DREAM regulates the expression of the midline 1 (Mid1) gene early after birth. As a consequence, daDREAM mice exhibit a significant shortening of the rostro-caudal axis of the cerebellum and a delay in neuromotor development early after birth. Our results indicate a role for DREAM in cerebellar function. PMID:22563308

  16. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Gastrocnemius Muscle between DGAT1 Transgenic Mice and Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue was the major energy deposition site of the mammals and provided the energy for the body and released the external pressure to the internal organs. In animal production, fat deposition in muscle can affect the meat quality, especially the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of the triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. In order to better understand the regulation mechanism of the DGAT1 in the intramuscular fat deposition, the global gene expression profiling was performed in gastrocnemius muscle between DGAT1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice by microarray. 281 differentially expressed transcripts were identified with at least 1.5-fold change and the p value < 0.05. 169 transcripts were upregulated and 112 transcripts were downregulated. Ten genes (SREBF1, DUSP1, PLAGL1, FKBP5, ZBTB16, PPP1R3C, CDC14A, GLUL, PDK4, and UCP3) were selected to validate the reliability of the chip's results by the real-time PCR. The finding of RT-PCR was consistent with the gene chip. Seventeen signal pathways were analyzed using KEGG pathway database and the pathways concentrated mainly on the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, signal transduction, oxidation-reduction reaction, olfactory receptor activity, protein binding, and zinc ion binding. This study implied a function role of DGAT1 in the synthesis of TAG, insulin resistance, and IMF deposition. PMID:28386555

  17. Expression of cyclin D1 in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice results in epidermal hyperproliferation and severe thymic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Robles, A I; Larcher, F; Whalin, R B; Murillas, R; Richie, E; Gimenez-Conti, I B; Jorcano, J L; Conti, C J

    1996-01-01

    To study the involvement of cyclin D1 in epithelial growth and differentiation and its putative role as an oncogene in skin, transgenic mice were developed carrying the human cyclin D1 gene driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter. As expected, all squamous epithelia including skin, oral mucosa, trachea, vaginal epithelium, and the epithelial compartment of the thymus expressed aberrant levels of cyclin D1. The rate of epidermal proliferation increased dramatically in transgenic mice, which also showed basal cell hyperplasia. However, epidermal differentiation was unaffected, as shown by normal growth arrest of newborn primary keratinocytes in response to high extracellular calcium. Moreover, an unexpected phenotype was observed in the thymus. Transgenic mice developed a severe thymic hyperplasia that caused premature death due to cardio-respiratory failure within 4 months of age. By 14 weeks, the thymi of transgenic mice increased in weight up to 40-fold, representing 10% of total body weight. The hyperplastic thymi had normal histology revealing a well-differentiated cortex and medulla, which supported an apparently normal T-cell developmental program based on the distribution of thymocyte subsets. These results suggest that proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells are under independent genetic controls in these organs and that cyclin D1 can modulate epithelial proliferation without altering the initiation of differentiation programs. No spontaneous development of epithelial tumors or thymic lymphomas was perceived in transgenic mice during their first 8 months of life, although they continue under observation. This model provides in vivo evidence of the action of cyclin D1 as a pure mediator of proliferation in epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755527

  18. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K.; Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Transgenic expression of CYP7A1 in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocks diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Eric P; Gutierrez, Alejandra; Davis, Roger A

    2006-07-01

    Constitutive expression of a cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transgene in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocked the ability of a cholesterol-enriched diet to increase plasma levels of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. LDL receptor-deficient mice expressing the CYP7A1 transgene exhibited complete resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and to the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expression of liver X receptor-inducible ABCG5 and ABCG8 was decreased in CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. Thus, increased biliary cholesterol excretion could not account for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet exhibited decreased jejunal Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) mRNA expression, an important mediator of intestinal cholesterol absorption. A taurocholate-enriched diet also decreased NPC1L1 mRNA expression in a farnesoid X receptor-independent manner. Reduced expression of NPC1L1 mRNA was associated with decreased cholesterol absorption ( approximately 20%; P < 0.05) exhibited by CYP7A1 transgenic LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet. The combined data show that enhanced expression of CYP7A1 is an effective means to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and of atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in plasma.

  20. Intraductal delivery of adenoviruses targets pancreatic tumors in transgenic Ela-myc mice and orthotopic xenografts.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Miguel Camacho-Sánchez, Juan; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p less than 0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors.

  1. Effect of dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate on hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) has previously been shown to inhibit MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenographs in nude mice in a manner correlated with increases in plasma IL-12 and IL-4 concentrations, and decreases in plasma IL-6 levels. DCP also inhibits indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immuno-inhibitory enzyme, in human PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells). Methods In the present study, DCP was administered per os, once daily for 14 days to hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice at 23, 7.3, and 2.3 mg/(kg d). Multivariate stepwise regression and MANOVA analyses, by gender and treatment, of liver HBV DNA and RNA measures, liver core and serum HBe antigen assays, serum cytokine/chemokine profiles, and IDO metabolite measurements were performed. Results DCP caused a significant dose-response reduction of log liver HBV DNA as measured by PCR in the female HBV mice. The gender dependence of the anti-HBV DNA activity was explained by the DCP Effects Model (DCP-EM) (p = .001) which includes three serum biomarker changes caused by DCP: 1) decreased MCP-1; 2) decreased Kyn/Trp (an estimation of IDO activity); and 3) increased GM-CSF. Conclusions Immunomodulation via IDO or TDO (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase) pathways, along with serum MCP-1 and GM-CSF are proposed to play roles in the anti-HBV mechanism of DCP based upon their coordinated modulation in the reduction of viral DNA replication in HBV mice. PMID:20356392

  2. Intraductal Delivery of Adenoviruses Targets Pancreatic Tumors in Transgenic Ela-myc Mice and Orthotopic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p<0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors. PMID:23328228

  3. Characterization of Transgenic Gfrp Knock-In Mice: Implications for Tetrahydrobiopterin in Modulation of Normal Tissue Radiation Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rupak; Pawar, Snehalata A.; Fu, Qiang; Gupta, Prem K.; Berbée, Maaike; Garg, Sarita; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Wang, Wenze; Biju, Prabath G.; Krager, Kimberly J.; Boerma, Marjan; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Hendrickson, Howard P.; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The free radical scavenger and nitric oxide synthase cofactor, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), plays a well-documented role in many disorders associated with oxidative stress, including normal tissue radiation responses. Radiation exposure is associated with decreased BH4 levels, while BH4 supplementation attenuates aspects of radiation toxicity. The endogenous synthesis of BH4 is catalyzed by the enzyme guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH1), which is regulated by the inhibitory GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). We here report and characterize a novel, Cre-Lox-driven, transgenic mouse model that overexpresses Gfrp. Results: Compared to control littermates, transgenic mice exhibited high transgene copy numbers, increased Gfrp mRNA and GFRP expression, enhanced GFRP–GTPCH1 interaction, reduced BH4 levels, and low glutathione (GSH) levels and differential mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles. After exposure to total body irradiation, transgenic mice showed decreased BH4/7,8-dihydrobiopterin ratios, increased vascular oxidative stress, and reduced white blood cell counts compared with controls. Innovation and Conclusion: This novel Gfrp knock-in transgenic mouse model allows elucidation of the role of GFRP in the regulation of BH4 biosynthesis. This model is a valuable tool to study the involvement of BH4 in whole body and tissue-specific radiation responses and other conditions associated with oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1436–1446. PMID:23521531

  4. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  5. Neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl-2 protooncogene in transgenic mice are protected from axotomy-induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Dauphin, M; Frankowski, H; Tsujimoto, Y; Huarte, J; Martinou, J C

    1994-01-01

    In vitro, the overexpression of the bcl-2 protooncogene in cultured neurons has been shown to prevent apoptosis induced by neurotrophic factor deprivation. We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing the Bcl-2 protein in neurons, including motoneurons of the facial nucleus. We have tested whether Bcl-2 could protect these motoneurons from experimentally induced cell death in new born mice. To address this question, we performed unilateral lesion of the facial nerve of wild-type and transgenic 2-day-old mice. In wild-type mice, the lesioned nerve and the corresponding motoneuron cell bodies in the facial nucleus underwent rapid degeneration. In contrast, in transgenic mice, facial motoneurons survived axotomy. Not only their cell bodies but also their axons were protected up to the lesion site. These results demonstrate that in vivo Bcl-2 protects neonatal motoneurons from degeneration after axonal injury. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 prevents neuronal cell death in vivo could lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of motoneuron degenerative diseases. Images PMID:8159744

  6. Mimp/Mtch2, an Obesity Susceptibility Gene, Induces Alteration of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsarfaty, Galia; Kaufman, Dafna; Horev, Judith; Resau, James H.; Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metabolic dysfunctions, such as fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance, are among the most common contemporary diseases worldwide, and their prevalence is continuously rising. Mimp/Mtch2 is a mitochondrial carrier protein homologue, which localizes to the mitochondria and induces mitochondrial depolarization. Mimp/Mtch2 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with obesity in humans and its loss in mice muscle protects from obesity. Our aim was to study the effects of Mimp/Mtch2 overexpression in vivo. Methods Transgenic mice overexpressing Mimp/Mtch2-GFP were characterized and monitored for lipid accumulation, weight and blood glucose levels. Transgenic mice liver and kidneys were used for gene expression analysis. Results Mimp/Mtch2-GFP transgenic mice express high levels of fatty acid synthase and of β-oxidation genes and develop fatty livers and kidneys. Moreover, high-fat diet–fed Mimp/Mtch2 mice exhibit high blood glucose levels. Our results also show that Mimp/Mtch2 is involved in lipid accumulation and uptake in cells and perhaps in human obesity. Conclusions Mimp/Mtch2 alters lipid metabolism and may play a role in the onset of obesity and development of insulin resistance. PMID:27359329

  7. [The expression of tPA directed by the bovine BLG regulatory elements in the mammary gland of transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, H X; Chen, X; Yang, X; Deng, J X; Su, G F; Huang, P T

    2001-03-01

    In order to get the regulatory elements which are essential for generating mammary gland bioreactors, the whole 8.4 kb bovine BLG gene was obtained by PCR amplification. The 1.6 kb chicken lysozyme matrix attachment region (MAR) was used to overcome position effects. The bovine BLG-tPA expression vector was constructed and the BLG-tPA fusion gene was introduced into fertilized eggs of mice by microinjection to generate transgenic mouse. 170 offsprings were obtained, of which 9 were proved to be transgenic mice based on PCR and Southern-blot analysis. The tPA expression level amounted to 12 micrograms/mL in the milk of mice. The bovine BLG-tPA fusion gene integrated in the founders was inheritable.

  8. Alteration of Methamphetamine-induced stereotypic behaviour in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope protein gp120.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amanda J; Maung, Ricky; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Ake, Christopher; Kaul, Marcus

    2010-02-15

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes, in particular Methamphetamine, is associated with an increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. HIV-1 infection in turn can lead to HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) that range from mild cognitive and motor impairment to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Interestingly, post mortem brain specimens from HAD patients and transgenic (tg) mice expressing the viral envelope protein gp120 in the central nervous system display similar neuropathological signs. In HIV patients, the use of Methamphetamine appears to aggravate neurocognitive alterations. In the present study, we injected HIV/gp120tg mice and non-transgenic littermate control animals with Methamphetamine dissolved in Saline or Saline vehicle and assessed locomotion and stereotyped behaviour. We found that HIVgp120-transgenic mice differ significantly from non-transgenic controls in certain domains of their behavioural response to Methamphetamine. Thus this experimental model system may be useful to further study the mechanistic interaction of both the viral envelope protein and the psychostimulant drug in behavioural alterations and neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy.

  10. High-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation elongates the lifespan of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Máté Fort; Török, Rita; Szalárdy, Levente; Sümegi, Evelin; Vécsei, László; Klivényi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease, which results in a decreased quality of life and an early death. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was first described in a 2013 study in patients with manifest Huntington's disease, where serum vitamin D level was found to be associated with motor capabilities of the patients. Our objective was to investigate the effect of a high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Our study was performed on N171-82Q Huntington's disease transgenic mice in age- and gender-matched groups. We collected data on the motor state and survival of the mice. The results demonstrate that though vitamin D3 had no effect on the motor performance of transgenic mice, but significantly increased the lifespan of transgenic animals (Kaplan-Meier survival curves: vehicle-supplemented group: 73 (67-94) days vs. vitamin D3-supplemented group: 101 (74-109) days, p=0.048 Mantel-Cox log rank test). Further investigations are needed to determine whether a neuroprotective or a general corroborative effect of vitamin D leads to the measured effect. Our findings support the potential influence of vitamin D deficiency on the disease course and propose that vitamin D may be an effective supplementary treatment to beneficially influence clinical features of Huntington's disease.

  11. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, David; Spiro, Adena S; Jenner, Andrew M; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Here we evaluate the preventative properties of long-term CBD treatment in male AβPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (AβPP × PS1) mice, a transgenic model of AD. Control and AD transgenic mice were treated orally from 2.5 months of age with CBD (20 mg/kg) daily for 8 months. Mice were then assessed in the social preference test, elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning paradigms, before cortical and hippocampal tissues were analyzed for amyloid load, oxidative damage, cholesterol, phytosterols, and inflammation. We found that AβPP × PS1 mice developed a social recognition deficit, which was prevented by CBD treatment. CBD had no impact on anxiety or associative learning. The prevention of the social recognition deficit was not associated with any changes in amyloid load or oxidative damage. However, the study revealed a subtle impact of CBD on neuroinflammation, cholesterol, and dietary phytosterol retention, which deserves further investigation. This study is the first to demonstrate CBD's ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.

  12. Chronic administration of R-flurbiprofen attenuates learning impairments in transgenic amyloid precursor protein mice

    PubMed Central

    Kukar, Thomas; Prescott, Sonya; Eriksen, Jason L; Holloway, Vallie; Murphy, M Paul; Koo, Edward H; Golde, Todd E; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    ability to selectively target Aβ42 production and improve cognitive impairments in transgenic APP mice, as well as promising data from a phase 2 human clinical trial, future studies are needed to investigate the utility of R-flurbiprofen as an AD therapeutic and its possible mechanisms of action. PMID:17650315

  13. An Antidepressant Decreases CSF Aβ Production in Healthy Individuals and in Transgenic AD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheline, Yvette I.; West, Tim; Yarasheski, Kevin; Swarm, Robert; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Fisher, Jonathan R.; Ficker, Whitney D.; Yan, Ping; Xiong, Chengjie; Frederiksen, Christine; Grzelak, Monica V.; Chott, Robert; Bateman, Randall J.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Cirrito, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin signaling suppresses generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in vitro and in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We show that in an aged transgenic AD mouse model (APP/PS1 plaque-bearing mice), the antidepressant citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), decreased Aβ in brain interstitial fluid (ISF) in a dose-dependent manner. Growth of individual amyloid plaques was assessed in plaque-bearing mice that were chronically administered citalopram. Citalopram arrested the growth of pre-existing plaques and reduced the appearance of new plaques by 78%. In healthy human volunteers, citalopram’s effects on Aβ production and Aβ concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured prospectively using stable-isotope labeling kinetics (SILK), with CSF sampling during acute dosing of citalopram. Aβ production in CSF was slowed by 37% in the citalopram group compared to placebo. This change was associated with a 38% decrease in total CSF Aβ concentrations in the drug-treated group. The ability to safely decrease Aβ concentrations is potentially important as a preventive strategy for AD. This study demonstrates key target engagement for future AD prevention trials. PMID:24828079

  14. Impairment of T cell development and acute inflammatory response in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Scialdone, Annarita; Albano, Francesco; Rossi, Annalisa; Maria Tuccillo, Franca; Rea, Domenica; Palmieri, Camillo; Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Cicala, Carla; Bellevicine, Claudio; Falcone, Cristina; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Mimmi, Selena; Iaccino, Enrico; Laurentiis, Annamaria de; Pontoriero, Marilena; Agosti, Valter; Troncone, Giancarlo; Mignogna, Chiara; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; Mallardo, Massimo; Maria Buonaguro, Franco; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation and chronic inflammation are hallmark features of HIV infection causing T-cell depletion and cellular immune dysfunction in AIDS. Here, we addressed the issue whether HIV-1 Tat could affect T cell development and acute inflammatory response by generating a transgenic mouse expressing Tat in lymphoid tissue. Tat-Tg mice showed thymus atrophy and the maturation block from DN4 to DP thymic subpopulations, resulting in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depletion in peripheral blood. In Tat-positive thymus, we observed the increased p65/NF-κB activity and deregulated expression of cytokines/chemokines and microRNA-181a-1, which are involved in T-lymphopoiesis. Upon LPS intraperitoneal injection, Tat-Tg mice developed an abnormal acute inflammatory response, which was characterized by enhanced lethality and production of inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, Tat-Tg mouse could represent an animal model for testing adjunctive therapies of HIV-1-associated inflammation and immune deregulation. PMID:26343909

  15. Suprabasal desmoglein 3 expression in the epidermis of transgenic mice results in hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Anita J; Berika, Mohamed Y; Zhai, Wenwu; Kirk, Sarah E; Ji, Baijing; Hardman, Matthew J; Garrod, David R

    2002-08-01

    The desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and desmocollin 1 (Dsc1) isoforms of the desmosomal cadherins are expressed in the suprabasal layers of epidermis, whereas Dsg3 and Dsc3 are more strongly expressed basally. This differential expression may have a function in epidermal morphogenesis and/or may regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis, we changed the expression pattern by overexpressing human Dsg3 under the control of the keratin 1 (K1) promoter in the suprabasal epidermis of transgenic mice. From around 12 weeks of age, the mice exhibited flaking of the skin accompanied by epidermal pustules and thinning of the hair. Histological analysis of affected areas revealed acanthosis, hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis, localized parakeratosis, and abnormal hair follicles. This phenotype has some features in common with human ichthyosiform diseases. Electron microscopy revealed a mild epidermal spongiosis. Suprabasally, desmosomes showed incorporation of the exogenous protein by immunogold labeling but were normal in structure. The epidermis was hyperproliferative, and differentiation was abnormal, demonstrated by expression of K14 in the suprabasal layer, restriction of K1, and strong induction of K6 and K16. The changes resembled those found in previous studies in which growth factors, cytokines, and integrins had been overexpressed in epidermis. Thus our data strongly support the view that Dsg3 contributes to the regulation of epidermal differentiation. Our results contrast markedly with those recently obtained by expressing Dsg3 in epidermis under the involucrin promoter. Possible reasons for this difference are considered in this paper.

  16. Isolation of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Twist2 Cre Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaling; Wang, Liping; Fatahi, Reza; Kronenberg, Mark; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David; Li, Yingcui; Maye, Peter

    2010-01-01

    While human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are of great interest for their potential therapeutic value, its murine equivalent remains an important basic research model that can provide critical insights into the biology of this progenitor cell population. Here we present a novel transgenic strategy that allowed for the selective identification and isolation of murine BMSCs at the early stages of stromal cell culture. This strategy involved crossing Twist2 –Cre mice with Cre reporter mice such as Z/EG or Ai9, which express EGFP or Tomato fluorescent protein, respectively, upon Cre mediated excision of a stop sequence. Using this approach, we identified an adherent fluorescent protein+ cell population (T2C+) that is present during the earliest stages of colony formation and by day 5 of culture represents ~20% of the total cell population. Cell surface profiling by flow cytometry showed that T2C+ cells are highly positive for SCA1 and CD29 and negative for CD45, CD117, TIE2, and TER119. Isolation of T2C+ cells by FACS selected for a cell population with skeletal potential that can be directed to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, or chondrocytes. We also demonstrated in a calvarial bone defect model that T2C+ cells retain a strong efficacy for osteogenic repair and can support a hematopoietic environment. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that the Twist2-Cre x Cre reporter breeding strategy can be used to positively identify and isolate multipotent murine BMSCs. PMID:20673822

  17. Interleukin-32γ transgenic mice resist LPS-mediated septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jong; Lee, Siyoung; Kwak, Areum; Kim, Eunsom; Jo, Seunghyun; Bae, Suyoung; Lee, Youngmin; Ryoo, Soyoon; Choi, Jida; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a cytokine and inducer of various proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 as well as chemokines. There are five splicing variants (α, β, γ, delta, and epsilon) and IL-32γ is the most active isoform. We generated human IL-32γ transgenic (IL-32γ TG) mice to express high level of IL-32γ in various tissues, including immune cells. The pathology of sepsis is based on the systemic inflammatory response that is characterized by upregulating inflammatory cytokines in whole body, particularly in response to gram-negative bacteria. We investigated the role of IL-32γ in a mouse model of experimental sepsis by using lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that IL-32γTG mice resisted LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. IL-32γ reduced systemic cytokines release after LPS administration but not the local immune response. IL-32γTG increased neutrophil influx into the initial foci of the primary injected site, and prolonged local cytokines and chemokines production. These results suggest that neutrophil recruitment in IL-32γTG occurred as a result of the local induction of chemokines but not the systemic inflammatory cytokine circulation. Together, our results suggest that IL-32γ enhances an innate immune response against local infection but inhibits the spread of immune responses, leading to systemic immune disorder.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Transgenic Male Mice Overexpressing Aromatase (Cyp19a1)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Rahman, Nafis A.; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Gou, Kemian; Yu, Wanpeng; Zhu, Dahai; Li, Ning; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the etiology and molecular mechanisms of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Transgenic (Tg) male mice overexpressing aromatase (Cyp19a1) under the ubiquitin C promoter in the estrogen-susceptible C57Bl/6J genetic background (AROM+/6J) developed inguinal hernia by 2 months and severe BOO by 9 to 10 months, with 100% penetrance. These mice gradually developed uremia, renal failure, renal retention, and finally died. The BOO bladders were threefold larger than in age-matched wild-type (WT) males and were filled with urine on necropsy. Hypotrophic smooth muscle cells formed the thin detrusor urinae muscle, and collagen III accumulation contributed to the reduced compliance of the bladder. p-AKT and ERα expression were up-regulated and Pten expression was down-regulated in the BOO bladder urothelium. Expression of only ERα in the intradetrusor fibroblasts suggests a specific role of this estrogen receptor form in urothelial proliferation. Inactivation of Pten, which in turn activated the p-AKT pathway, was strictly related to the activation of the ERα pathway in the BOO bladders. Human relevance for these findings was provided by increased expression of p-AKT, PCNA, and ERα and decreased expression of PTEN in severe human BOO samples, compared with subnormal to mild samples. These findings clarify the involvement of estrogen excess and/or imbalance of the androgen/estrogen ratio in the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of BOO and provide a novel lead into potential treatment strategies for BOO. PMID:21356374

  19. Absence of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in transgenic mice overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X; Suri, C; Knusel, B; Noebels, J L

    2001-05-01

    Excess neuronal activity upregulates the expression of two neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult hippocampus. Nerve growth factor has been shown to contribute the induction of aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, however the role of prolonged brain-derived neurotrophic factor exposure is uncertain. We examined the distribution and plasticity of mossy fibers in transgenic mice with developmental overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Despite 2--3-fold elevated BDNF levels in the hippocampus sufficient to increase the intensity of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in interneurons, no visible changes in mossy fiber Timm staining patterns were observed in the inner molecular layer of adult mutant hippocampus compared to wild-type mice. In addition, no changes of the mRNA expression of two growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 and SCG-10 were found. These data suggest that early and persistent elevations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in granule cells are not sufficient to elicit this pattern of axonal plasticity in the hippocampus.

  20. Effects of Anabolic Steroids and High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E. R.; Staron, Robert S.; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP+/-LDLr-/+) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed) and/or training (Ex) mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M). The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M) on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition) in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS) were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB) was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M) and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C) increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M) resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M) caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was even

  1. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  2. Prediabetes linked to excess glucagon in transgenic mice with pancreatic active AKT1.

    PubMed

    Albury-Warren, Toya M; Pandey, Veethika; Spinel, Lina P; Masternak, Michal M; Altomare, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B/AKT has three isoforms (AKT1-3) and is renowned for its central role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, due to its constitutive activation in various cancers. AKT2, which is highly expressed in insulin-responsive tissues, has been identified as a primary regulator of glucose metabolism as Akt2 knockout mice (Akt2(-/-)) are glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant. However, the role of AKT1 in glucose metabolism is not as clearly defined. We previously showed that mice with myristoylated Akt1 (AKT1(Myr)) expressed through a bicistronic Pdx1-TetA and TetO-MyrAkt1 system were susceptible to islet cell carcinomas, and in this study we characterized an early onset, prediabetic phenotype. Beginning at weaning (3 weeks of age), the glucose-intolerant AKT1(Myr) mice exhibited non-fasted hyperglycemia, which progressed to fasted hyperglycemia by 5 months of age. The glucose intolerance was attributed to a fasted hyperglucagonemia, and hepatic insulin resistance detectable by reduced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor following insulin injection into the inferior vena cava. In contrast, treatment with doxycycline diet to turn off the transgene caused attenuation of the non-fasted and fasted hyperglycemia, thus affirming AKT1 hyperactivation as the trigger. Collectively, this model highlights a novel glucagon-mediated mechanism by which AKT1 hyperactivation affects glucose homeostasis and provides an avenue to better delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible for diabetes mellitus and the potential association with pancreatic cancer.

  3. Systemic therapy of spontaneous prostate cancer in transgenic mice with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Susan; Rabkin, Samuel D; Nielsen, G Petur; MacGarvey, Usha; Liu, Renbin; Martuza, Robert L

    2007-10-01

    Oncolytic viruses are an innovative therapeutic strategy for cancer, wherein viral replication and cytotoxicity are selective for tumor cells. Here we show the efficacy of systemically administered oncolytic viruses for the treatment of spontaneously arising tumors, specifically the use of oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) administered i.v. to treat spontaneously developing primary and metastatic prostate cancer in the transgenic TRAMP mouse, which recapitulates human prostate cancer progression. Four administrations of systemically delivered NV1023 virus, an HSV-1/HSV-2 oncolytic recombinant, to TRAMP mice at 12 or 18 weeks of age (presence of prostate adenocarcinoma or metastatic disease, respectively) inhibited primary tumor growth and metastases to lymph nodes. Expression of interleukin 12 (IL-12) from NV1042 virus, a derivative of NV1023, was additionally effective, significantly reducing the frequency of development of prostate cancer and lung metastases, even when the mice were treated after the onset of metastasis at 18 weeks of age. NV1042-infected cells, as detected by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside staining for Lac Z expressed by the virus, were present in prostate tumors 1 week after the final virus injection and viral DNA was detected at 2 weeks after final virus injection by real-time PCR in primary and metastatic tumors but not in liver or blood. No toxicity was observed in any of the treated mice. The efficacy of the IL-12-expressing NV1042 virus in this aggressive prostate cancer model using a clinically relevant treatment paradigm merits its consideration for clinical studies.

  4. Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.; Bourassa, M.W.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Chan, P.K.; Gralla, E.B.; Borchelt, D.R.; et al

    2010-09-24

    Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutant and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.

  5. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ suppresses liver tumorigenesis in hepatitis B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Balandaram, Gayathri; Kramer, Lance R; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Murray, Iain A; Perdew, Gary H; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) inhibits steatosis and inflammation, known risk factors for liver cancer. In this study, the effect of ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in modulating liver tumorigenesis in transgenic hepatitis B virus (HBV) mice was examined. Activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice reduced steatosis, the average number of liver foci, and tumor multiplicity. Reduced expression of hepatic CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) mRNA, serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase, and an increase in apoptotic signaling was also observed following ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice compared to controls. Inhibition of Tnfa mRNA expression was not observed in wild-type hepatocytes. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression of Tnfa in wild-type, but not in Pparβ/δ-null Kupffer cells. Interestingly, LPS-induced expression of Tnfa mRNA was also inhibited in Kupffer cells from a transgenic mouse line that expressed a DNA binding mutant form of PPARβ/δ compared to controls. Combined, these results suggest that ligand activation of PPARβ/δ attenuates hepatic tumorigenesis in HBV transgenic mice by inhibiting steatosis and cell proliferation, enhancing hepatocyte apoptosis, and modulating anti-inflammatory activity in Kupffer cells.

  6. Infection by ME7 prion is not modified in transgenic mice expressing the yeast chaperone Hsp104 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Dandoy-Dron, Françoise; Bogdanova, Anna; Beringue, Vincent; Bailly, Yannick; Tovey, Michael G; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2006-09-25

    The Hsp104 chaperone induces thermo-tolerance in yeast and rescues proteins trapped in aggregates. In this study, we showed that xenogenic expression of Hsp104 dramatically increased the viability of the neuronal mouse CAD cell line after exposure to heat shock. These results indicate that the Hsp104 protein confers thermo-resistance to mammalian neuronal cells, the canonical property of Hsp104 in yeast. Hsp104 also determines the prion state of prion-like proteins in yeast and to investigate whether Hsp104 expression may modify mammalian prion infection in vivo, transgenic mice with specific expression of Hsp104 in neurons were generated. Mice develop and reproduce normally, they show no detectable physical defect and may constitute valuable model for the study of aggregation-prone neuropathological disorders. Hsp104 transgenic and control littermates were infected intracerebrally with the ME7 strain of scrapie. No differences in the incubation time of the disease or in PrP(Sc) accumulation were observed between transgenic and control mice. These results suggest that the heat-shock protein Hsp104 is not efficient to modulate the multiplication of mammalian prions and/or to counteract neurodegeneration in the brain of scrapie-infected mice.

  7. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  8. Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss, Reduced Neurite Complexity and Autophagic Abnormalities in Transgenic Mice Expressing G2019S Mutant LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian M.; Stafa, Klodjan; Kim, Jaekwang; Banerjee, Rebecca; Westerlund, Marie; Pletnikova, Olga; Glauser, Liliane; Yang, Lichuan; Liu, Ying; Swing, Deborah A.; Beal, M. Flint; Troncoso, Juan C.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Galter, Dagmar; Thomas, Bobby; Lee, Michael K.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s) through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD. PMID:21494637

  9. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Geisler, J.G. |

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of wild-type and mutated human alpha-synuclein in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Richfield, Eric K; Thiruchelvam, Mona J; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Wuertzer, Charles; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Di Monte, Donato A; Federoff, Howard J

    2002-05-01

    Human alpha-synuclein (halpha-SYN) is implicated in the Parkinson's disease phenotype (PDP) based on a variety of studies in man, animal models, and in vitro studies. The normal function of halpha-SYN and the mechanism by which it contributes to the PDP remains unclear. We created transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (hwalpha-SYN) or a doubly mutated (hm2alpha-SYN) form of halpha-SYN under control of the 9-kb rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. These mice expressed halpha-SYN in cell bodies, axons, and terminals of the nigrostriatal system. The expression of halpha-SYN in nigrostriatal terminals produced effects in both constructs resulting in increased density of the dopamine transporter and enhanced toxicity to the neurotoxin MPTP. Expression of hm2alpha-SYN reduced locomotor responses to repeated doses of amphetamine and blocked the development of sensitization. Adult hwalpha-SYN-5 transgenic mice had unremarkable dopaminergic axons and terminals, normal age-related measures on two motor coordination screens, and normal age-related measures of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites. Adult hm2alpha-SYN-39 transgenic mice had abnormal axons and terminals, age-related impairments in motor coordination, and age-related reductions in DA and its metabolites. Expression of hm2alpha-SYN adversely affects the integrity of dopaminergic terminals and leads to age-related declines in motor coordination and dopaminergic markers.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Aortae from Human Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice Shows an Early Metabolic Response Independent of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Euan J.; Suetani, Rachel J.; Jones, Gregory T.; Kleffmann, Torsten; Carne, Alan; Legge, Michael; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipoprotein(a) are independent risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Using a proteomic approach we aimed to determine early changes in arterial protein expression in transgenic mice containing both human LDL and lipoprotein(a) in circulation. Methods and Results Plasma lipid analyses showed the lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice had significantly higher lipid levels than wildtype, including a much increased LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Analysis of aortae from lipoprotein(a) mice showed lipoprotein(a) accumulation but no lipid accumulation or foam cells, leaving the arteries essentially atherosclerosis free. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified 34 arterial proteins with significantly altered abundance (P<0.05) in lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice compared to wildtype including 17 that showed a ≥2 fold difference. Some proteins of interest showed a similarly altered abundance at the transcript level. These changes collectively indicated an initial metabolic response that included a down regulation in energy, redox and lipid metabolism proteins and changes in structural proteins at a stage when atherosclerosis had not yet developed. Conclusions Our study shows that human LDL and lipoprotein(a) promote changes in the expression of a unique set of arterial proteins which may be early indicators of the metabolic disturbances preceding atherosclerosis. PMID:22276189

  12. Embryonic Lethality in Homozygous Human Her-2 Transgenic Mice Due to Disruption of the Pds5b Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Sharkey, Janelle; Duscio, Belinda; Venville, Ben; Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F.; Slaney, Clare Y.; Mir Arnau, Gisela; Papenfuss, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of antigen-targeted therapeutics is dependent on the preferential expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) at targetable levels on the tumor. Tumor-associated antigens can be generated de novo or can arise from altered expression of normal basal proteins, such as the up-regulation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/ErbB2). To properly assess the development of Her2 therapeutics in an immune tolerant model, we previously generated a transgenic mouse model in which expression of the human Her2 protein was present in both the brain and mammary tissue. This mouse model has facilitated the development of Her2 targeted therapies in a clinically relevant and suitable model. While heterozygous Her2+/- mice appear to develop in a similar manner to wild type mice (Her2-/-), it has proven difficult to generate homozygous Her2+/+ mice, potentially due to embryonic lethality. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing to determine if the integration site of the Her2 transgene was responsible for this lethality. Indeed, we report that the Her2 transgene had integrated into the Pds5b (precocious dissociation of sisters) gene on chromosome 5, as a 162 copy concatemer. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that Her2+/+ mice, similar to Pds5b-/- mice, are embryonic lethal and confirm the necessity for Pds5b in embryonic development. This study confirms the value of whole genome sequencing in determining the integration site of transgenes to gain insight into associated phenotypes. PMID:26334628

  13. Early Cognitive/Social Deficits and Late Motor Phenotype in Conditional Wild-Type TDP-43 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Julio A.; Silva, Pablo R.; Igaz, Lionel M.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two neurodegenerative diseases associated to mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). To investigate in depth the behavioral phenotype associated with this proteinopathy, we used as a model transgenic (Tg) mice conditionally overexpressing human wild-type TDP 43 protein (hTDP-43-WT) in forebrain neurons. We previously characterized these mice at the neuropathological level and found progressive neurodegeneration and other features that evoke human TDP-43 proteinopathies of the FTD/ALS spectrum. In the present study we analyzed the behavior of mice at multiple domains, including motor, social and cognitive performance. Our results indicate that young hTDP-43-WT Tg mice (1 month after post-weaning transgene induction) present a normal motor phenotype compared to control littermates, as assessed by accelerated rotarod performance, spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test and a mild degree of spasticity shown by a clasping phenotype. Analysis of social and cognitive behavior showed a rapid installment of deficits in social interaction, working memory (Y-maze test) and recognition memory (novel object recognition test) in the absence of overt motor abnormalities. To investigate if the motor phenotype worsen with age, we analyzed the behavior of mice after long-term (up to 12 months) transgene induction. Our results reveal a decreased performance on the rotarod test and in the hanging wire test, indicating a motor phenotype that was absent in younger mice. In addition, long-term hTDP-43-WT expression led to hyperlocomotion in the open field test. In sum, these results demonstrate a time-dependent emergence of a motor phenotype in older hTDP-43-WT Tg mice, recapitulating aspects of clinical FTD presentations with motor involvement in human patients, and providing a complementary animal model for studying TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:28066234

  14. Early Cognitive/Social Deficits and Late Motor Phenotype in Conditional Wild-Type TDP-43 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Julio A; Silva, Pablo R; Igaz, Lionel M

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two neurodegenerative diseases associated to mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). To investigate in depth the behavioral phenotype associated with this proteinopathy, we used as a model transgenic (Tg) mice conditionally overexpressing human wild-type TDP 43 protein (hTDP-43-WT) in forebrain neurons. We previously characterized these mice at the neuropathological level and found progressive neurodegeneration and other features that evoke human TDP-43 proteinopathies of the FTD/ALS spectrum. In the present study we analyzed the behavior of mice at multiple domains, including motor, social and cognitive performance. Our results indicate that young hTDP-43-WT Tg mice (1 month after post-weaning transgene induction) present a normal motor phenotype compared to control littermates, as assessed by accelerated rotarod performance, spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test and a mild degree of spasticity shown by a clasping phenotype. Analysis of social and cognitive behavior showed a rapid installment of deficits in social interaction, working memory (Y-maze test) and recognition memory (novel object recognition test) in the absence of overt motor abnormalities. To investigate if the motor phenotype worsen with age, we analyzed the behavior of mice after long-term (up to 12 months) transgene induction. Our results reveal a decreased performance on the rotarod test and in the hanging wire test, indicating a motor phenotype that was absent in younger mice. In addition, long-term hTDP-43-WT expression led to hyperlocomotion in the open field test. In sum, these results demonstrate a time-dependent emergence of a motor phenotype in older hTDP-43-WT Tg mice, recapitulating aspects of clinical FTD presentations with motor involvement in human patients, and providing a complementary animal model for studying TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  15. Motor deficits associated with Huntington's disease occur in the absence of striatal degeneration in BACHD transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Susanna; Gordon, Richard; Li, Rui; Christie, Daniel C; Kumar, Vinod; Woodruff, Trent M

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction, and depletion of neurons in the striatum. Recently, BACHD transgenic mice expressing the full-length human huntingtin gene have been generated, which recapitulate some of the motor and cognitive deficits seen in HD. In this study, we carried out a series of extensive behavioural and neuropathological tests on BACHD mice, to validate this mouse for preclinical research. Transgenic C57BL/6J BACHD and litter-matched wild-type mice were examined in a battery of motor and cognitive function tests at regular intervals up to 12 months of age. Brains from these mice were also analysed for signs of neurodegeneration and striatal and cortical volume sizes compared using anatomic 16.4T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. BACHD mice showed progressive motor impairments on rotarod and balance beam tests starting from 3 months of age, were hypoactive in the open field tests starting from 6 months of age, however, showed no alterations in gait and grip strength at any age. Surprisingly, despite these distinct motor deficits, no signs of neuronal loss, gliosis or blood-brain barrier degeneration were observed in the striatum of 12-month-old mice. MRI brain scans confirmed no reduction in striatal or cortical volumes at 12 months of age, and BACHD mice had a normal lifespan. These results demonstrate that classical Huntington's-like motor impairments seen in this transgenic model, do not occur due to degeneration of the striatum, and thus caution against the use of this model for preclinical studies into HD.

  16. A genome-wide gene-expression analysis and database in transgenic mice during development of amyloid or tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Matarin, Mar; Salih, Dervis A; Yasvoina, Marina; Cummings, Damian M; Guelfi, Sebastian; Liu, Wenfei; Nahaboo Solim, Muzammil A; Moens, Thomas G; Paublete, Rocio Moreno; Ali, Shabinah S; Perona, Marina; Desai, Roshni; Smith, Kenneth J; Latcham, Judy; Fulleylove, Michael; Richardson, Jill C; Hardy, John; Edwards, Frances A

    2015-02-03

    We provide microarray data comparing genome-wide differential expression and pathology throughout life in four lines of "amyloid" transgenic mice (mutant human APP, PSEN1, or APP/PSEN1) and "TAU" transgenic mice (mutant human MAPT gene). Microarray data were validated by qPCR and by comparison to human studies, including genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits. Immune gene expression correlated tightly with plaques whereas synaptic genes correlated negatively with neurofibrillary tangles. Network analysis of immune gene modules revealed six hub genes in hippocampus of amyloid mice, four in common with cortex. The hippocampal network in TAU mice was similar except that Trem2 had hub status only in amyloid mice. The cortical network of TAU mice was entirely different with more hub genes and few in common with the other networks, suggesting reasons for specificity of cortical dysfunction in FTDP17. This Resource opens up many areas for investigation. All data are available and searchable at http://www.mouseac.org.

  17. Moderate GLUT4 overexpression improves insulin sensitivity and fasting triglyceridemia in high-fat diet-fed transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Brittanie J; Griesel, Beth A; King, Caleb D; Josey, Miranda A; Olson, Ann Louise

    2013-07-01

    The GLUT4 facilitative glucose transporter mediates insulin-dependent glucose uptake. We tested the hypothesis that moderate overexpression of human GLUT4 in mice, under the regulation of the human GLUT4 promoter, can prevent the hyperinsulinemia that results from obesity. Transgenic mice engineered to express the human GLUT4 gene and promoter (hGLUT4 TG) and their nontransgenic counterparts (NT) were fed either a control diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 10 weeks. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores revealed that hGLUT4 TG mice fed an HFD remained highly insulin sensitive. The presence of the GLUT4 transgene did not completely prevent the metabolic adaptations to HFD. For example, HFD resulted in loss of dynamic regulation of the expression of several metabolic genes in the livers of fasted and refed NT and hGLUT4 TG mice. The hGLUT4 TG mice fed a CD showed no feeding-dependent regulation of SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in the transition from the fasted to the fed state. Similarly, HFD altered the response of SREBP-1c and FAS mRNA expression to feeding in both strains. These changes in hepatic gene expression were accompanied by increased nuclear phospho-CREB in refed mice. Taken together, a moderate increase in expression of GLUT4 is a good target for treatment of insulin resistance.

  18. Expression of VP1 protein in the milk of transgenic mice: a potential oral vaccine protects against enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chu, Te-Wei; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Hung, Che-Ming; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Fang-Chueh; Wang, Li-Chung; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lin, Ming-Fong; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2008-06-02

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most common etiological agent detected in cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. The clinical data have already shown the significant increase in recent EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Due to the lack of an effective antiviral agent, primary prevention of the disease, including the development of an effective vaccine, has been the top priority in terms of control strategies. In this study, we first generated a transgenic animal system to produce the EV71 VP1 capsid protein under the control of alpha-lactalbumin promoter and alpha-casein leader sequences. A high level of recombinant VP1 protein (2.51 mg/ml) was expressed and secreted into the milk of transgenic mice. Mouse pups that received VP1-transgenic milk orally demonstrated relatively better health conditions after challenge with the respective virus as compared with the non-transgenic milk fed group; moreover, the mice fed with the VP1-milk had body weights similar to those of the PBS placebo control groups. According to the serum-neutralization assay and serum antibody detection, the littermates suckling VP1-milk generated antibodies specific to EV71. Our data suggest that EV71 VP1-containing milk is suitable for development as a potential oral vaccine.

  19. Overexpression of antizyme in the hearts of transgenic mice prevents the isoprenaline-induced increase in cardiac ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamines, but does not prevent cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, C A; Feith, D J; Shantz, L M; Pegg, A E

    2000-01-01

    Two lines of transgenic mice were produced with constitutive expression of antizyme-1 in the heart, driven from the cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. The use of engineered antizyme cDNA in which nucleotide 205 had been deleted eliminated the need for polyamine-mediated frameshifting, normally necessary for translation of antizyme mRNA, and thus ensured the constitutive expression of antizyme. Antizyme-1 is thought to be a major factor in regulating cellular polyamine content, acting both to inhibit ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and to target it for degradation, as well as preventing polyamine uptake. The two transgenic lines had substantial, but different, levels of antizyme in the heart, as detected by Western blotting and by the ability of heart extracts to inhibit exogenous purified ODC. Despite the high levels of antizyme, endogenous ODC activity was not completely abolished, with 10-39% remaining, depending on the transgenic line. Additionally, a relatively small decrease (30-32%) in cardiac spermidine content was observed, with levels of putrescine and spermine unaffected. Interestingly, although the two lines of transgenic mice had different antizyme expression levels, they had almost identical cardiac polyamine content. When treated with a single acute dose of isoprenaline (isoproterenol), cardiac ODC activity and putrescine content were substantially increased (by 14-fold and 4.7-fold respectively) in non-transgenic littermate mice, but these increases were completely prevented in the transgenic mice from both founder lines. Prolonged exposure to isoprenaline also caused increases in cardiac ODC activity and polyamine content, as well as an increase in cardiac growth, in non-transgenic mice. Although the increases in cardiac ODC activity and polyamine content were prevented in the transgenic mice from both founder lines, the increase in cardiac growth was unaffected. These transgenic mice thus provide a valuable model system in which to

  20. Induction of hypervascularity without leakage or inflammation in transgenic mice overexpressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Elson, D A; Thurston, G; Huang, L E; Ginzinger, D G; McDonald, D M; Johnson, R S; Arbeit, J M

    2001-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) transactivates genes required for energy metabolism and tissue perfusion and is necessary for embryonic development and tumor explant growth. HIF-1alpha is overexpressed during carcinogenesis, myocardial infarction, and wound healing; however, the biological consequences of HIF-1alpha overexpression are unknown. Here, transgenic mice expressing constitutively active HIF-1alpha in epidermis displayed a 66% increase in dermal capillaries, a 13-fold elevation of total vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and a six- to ninefold induction of each VEGF isoform. Despite marked induction of hypervascularity, HIF-1alpha did not induce edema, inflammation, or vascular leakage, phenotypes developing in transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF cDNA in skin. Remarkably, blood vessel leakage resistance induced by HIF-1alpha overexpression was not caused by up-regulation of angiopoietin-1 or angiopoietin-2. Hypervascularity induced by HIF-1alpha could improve therapy of tissue ischemia.

  1. Modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and preparation of intact BAC DNA for generation of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shiaoching; Yang, X William

    2005-05-01

    BAC transgenesis is a powerful tool for the study of gene expression and gene function in the mouse in vivo. In this unit, detailed protocols are provided for modification (i.e., marker gene insertion, deletion, or point mutation) of BACs by homologous recombination in E. coli. This method utilizes a shuttle vector that allows transient expression of the E. coli RecA gene to support homologous recombination in the BAC host bacteria. In addition, two protocols are provided for purification of BAC DNA for microinjection to generate transgenic mice. Since BAC DNA is prone to degradation, which may introduce positional effects in transgenic mice, two methods are given for purification of intact BAC DNA for subsequent microinjection.

  2. Preclinical identification of vaccine induced protective correlates in human leukocyte antigen expressing transgenic mice infected with Coccidioides posadasii.

    PubMed

    Hurtgen, Brady J; Castro-Lopez, Natalia; Jiménez-Alzate, Maria Del Pilar; Cole, Garry T; Hung, Chiung-Yu

    2016-10-17

    There is an emerging interest to develop human vaccines against medically-important fungal pathogens and a need for a preclinical animal model to assess vaccine efficacies and protective correlates. HLA-DR4 (DRB1∗0401 allele) transgenic mice express a human major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) receptor in such a way that CD4(+) T-cell response is solely restricted by this human molecule. In this study HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were immunized with a live-attenuated vaccine (ΔT) and challenged by the intranasal route with 50-70 Coccidioides posadasii spores, a potentially lethal dose. The same vaccination regimen offers 100% survival for C57BL/6 mice. Conversely, ΔT-vaccinated HLA-DR4 mice displayed 3 distinct manifestations of Coccidioides infection including 40% fatal acute (FAD), 30% disseminated (DD) and 30% pulmonary disease (PD). The latter 2 groups of mice had reduced loss of body weight and survived to at least 50days postchallenge (dpc). These results suggest that ΔT vaccinated HLA-DR4 mice activated heterogeneous immunity against pulmonary Coccidioides infection. Vaccinated HLA-DR4 mice displayed early expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells and recruitment of inflammatory innate cells into Coccidioides-infected lungs during the first 9dpc. While contraction rates of Th cells and the inflammatory response during 14-35dpc significantly differed among the 3 groups of vaccinated HLA-DR4 mice. The FAD group displayed a sharply reduced Th1 and Th17 response, while overwhelmingly recruiting neutrophils into lungs during 9-14days. The FAD group approached moribund by 14dpc. In contrast, vaccinated HLA-DR4 survivors gradually contracted Th cells and inflammatory response with the greatest rate in the PD group. While vaccinated HLA-DR4 mice are susceptible to Coccidioides infection, they are useful for evaluation of vaccine efficacy and identification of immunological correlates against this mycosis.

  3. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  4. Anti-Nuclear Antibody Production and Autoimmunity in Transgenic Mice that Over-Express the Transcription Factor Bright

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Malini; Nixon, Jamee C.; Maier, Shannon; Workman, Jennifer; Farris, A. Darise; Webb, Carol F.

    2009-01-01

    The B cell-restricted transcription factor, Bright, up-regulates immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription three- to seven-fold in activated B cells in vitro. Bright function is dependent upon both active Bruton’s tyrosine kinase and its substrate, the transcription factor, TFII-I. In mouse and human B lymphocytes, Bright transcription is down regulated in mature B cells, and its expression is tightly regulated during B cell differentiation. To determine how Bright expression affects B cell development, transgenic mice were generated that express Bright constitutively in all B lineage cells. These mice exhibited increases in total B220+ B lymphocyte lineage cells in the bone marrow, but the relative percentages of the individual subpopulations were not altered. Splenic immature transitional B cells were significantly expanded both in total cell numbers and as increased percentages of cells relative to other B cell subpopulations. Serum immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgG isotypes, were increased slightly in the Bright transgenic mice compared to littermate controls. However, immunization studies suggest that responses to all foreign antigens were not increased globally. Moreover, four week-old Bright transgenic mice produced anti-nuclear antibodies. Older animals developed antibody deposits in the kidney glomeruli, but did not succumb to further autoimmune sequelae. These data indicate that enhanced Bright expression results in failure to maintain B cell tolerance and suggest a previously unappreciated role for Bright regulation in immature B cells. Bright is the first B cell-restricted transcription factor demonstrated to induce autoimmunity. Therefore, the Bright transgenics provide a novel model system for future analyses of B cell autoreactivity. PMID:17312145

  5. MicroRNA expressing profiles in A53T mutant alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and Parkinsonian

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Mingshu; Xiao, Yousheng; Huang, Shuxuan; Cen, Luan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Limin; Luo, Qin; Li, Shaomin; Yang, Xinling; Lin, Xian; Xu, Pingyi

    2017-01-01

    α-synuclein gene mutations can cause α-synuclein protein aggregation in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the metabolism of α-synuclein but the mechanism involved in synucleinopathy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the miRNA profiles in A53T-α-synuclein transgenic mice and analyzed the candidate miRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients. The 12-month A53T-transgenic mouse displayed hyperactive movement and anxiolytic-like behaviors with α-synuclein aggregation in midbrain. A total of 317,759 total and 289,207 unique small RNA sequences in the midbrain of mice were identified by high-throughput deep sequencing. We found 644 miRNAs were significantly changed in the transgenic mice. Based on the conserved characteristic of miRNAs, we selected 11 candidates from the 40 remarkably expressed miRNAs and explored their expression in 44 CSF samples collected from PD patients. The results revealed that 11 microRNAs were differently expressed in CSF, emphatically as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, which were dramatically up-regulated in both A53T-transgenic mice and PD patients, and had a helpful accuracy for the PD prediction. The ordered logistic regression analysis showed that the severity of PD has strong correlation with an up-expression of miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p in CSF. Taken together, our data suggested that miRNAs in CSF, such as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, may be useful to the PD diagnosis as potential biomarkers. PMID:27965467

  6. An immunological renal disease in transgenic mice that overexpress Fli-1, a member of the ets family of transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liqun; Teng, Yen-Tung; Melet, F.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes how expression of the proto-oncogene Fli-1 is involved in the regulation of lymphopoiesis. Transgenic mice were generated which overexpressed the oncogene, leading to a high incidence of immunological renal diseases and death. The data suggests that overexpression of Fli-1 perturbs normal lymphoid cell function and programmed cell death, making these transgenic mice suitable as a biological model for autoimmune disease in humans. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Impaired neurogenesis is an early event in the etiology of familial Alzheimer's disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Demars, Michael; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Gadadhar, Archana; Lazarov, Orly

    2010-08-01

    Formation of new neurons in the adult brain takes place in the subventricular zone and in the subgranule layer of the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurogenesis is thought to play a role in hippocampus- and olfaction-dependent learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis take place in learning and memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, is yet to be established. Importantly, it remains to be elucidated whether neurogenic impairments play a role in the course of the disease or are the result of extensive neuropathology. We now report that transgenic mice harboring familial Alzheimer's disease-linked mutant APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 exhibit severe impairments in neurogenesis that are evident as early as 2 months of age. These mice exhibit a significant reduction in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, levels of hyperphosphorylated tau, the cytotoxic precursor of the Alzheimer's disease hallmark neurofibrillary tangles, are particularly high in the neurogenic niches. Isolation of neural progenitor cells in culture reveals that APPswe/PS1DeltaE9-expressing neurospheres exhibit impaired proliferation and tau hyperphosphorylation compared with wildtype neurospheres isolated from nontransgenic littermates. This study suggests that impaired neurogenesis is an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer's disease that may underlie memory impairments, at least in part, and exacerbate neuronal vulnerability in the hippocampal formation and olfaction circuits. Furthermore, impaired neurogenesis is the result of both intrinsic pathology in neural progenitor cells and extrinsic neuropathology in the neurogenic niches. Finally, hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, a critical player in cell proliferation, neuronal maturation, and axonal transport, is a major contributor to impaired neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Reducing Available Soluble β-Amyloid Prevents Progression of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Julia L.; Prada, Claudia M.; Fine, Sara J.; Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Greenberg, Steven M.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Frosch, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the walls of leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels of the brain, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment, and is commonly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). CAA progression, as measured in transgenic mice by longitudinal imaging with multiphoton microscopy, occurs in a predictable linear manner. The dynamics of Aβ deposition in and clearance from vascular walls and their relationship to the concentration of Aβ in the brain is poorly understood. We manipulated Aβ levels in the brain using 2 approaches: peripheral clearance via administration of the amyloid binding “peripheral sink” protein gelsolin, and direct inhibition of its formation via administration of LY-411575, a small molecule γ-secretase inhibitor. We found that gelsolin and LY-411575 both reduced the rate of CAA progression in Tg2576 mice from untreated rates of 0.58 ± 0.15% and 0.52 ± 0.09% to 0.11 ± 0.18% (p = 0.04) and −0.17 ± 0.09% (p < 0.001) of affected vessel per day, respectively, in the absence of an immune response. CAA progression was also halted when gelsolin was combined with LY-411575 (−0.004 ± 0.10%, p < 0.003). These data suggest that CAA progression can be prevented with non-immune approaches that may reduce the availability of soluble Aβ, but without evidence of substantial amyloid clearance from vessels. PMID:23095848

  9. BAC transgenic mice provide evidence that p53 expression is highly regulated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhang, G X; Zhou, Y; Zhang, C X; Xie, Y Y; Xiang, C; He, X Y; Zhang, Q; Liu, G

    2015-09-17

    p53 is an important tumor suppressor and stress response mediator. Proper control of p53 level and activity is tightly associated with its function. Posttranslational modifications and the interactions with Mdm2 and Mdm4 are major mechanisms controlling p53 activity and stability. As p53 protein is short-lived and hardly detectable in unstressed situations, less is known on its basal level expression and the corresponding controlling mechanisms in vivo. In addition, it also remains obscure how p53 expression might contribute to its functional regulation. In this study, we established bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic E.coli β-galactosidase Z gene reporter mice to monitor p53 expression in mouse tissues and identify important regulatory elements critical for the expression in vivo. We revealed preferentially high level of p53 reporter expressions in the proliferating, but not the differentiated compartments of the majority of tissues during development and tissue homeostasis. In addition, tumors as well as regenerating tissues in the p53 reporter mice also expressed high level of β-gal. Furthermore, both the enhancer box sequence (CANNTG) in the p53 promoter and the 3' terminal untranslated region element were critical in mediating the high-level expression of the reporter. We also provided evidence that cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene was a critical player regulating p53 mRNA expression in proliferating cells and tissues. Finally, we found robust p53 activation preferentially in the proliferating compartment of mouse tissues upon DNA damage and the proliferating cells exhibited an enhanced p53 response as compared with cells in a quiescent state. Together, these results suggested a highly regulated expression pattern of p53 in the proliferating compartment controlled by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and such regulated p53 expression may impose functional significance upon stress by setting up a precautionary mode in defense

  10. Induction of focal epithelial hyperplasia in tongue of young bk6-E6/E7 HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Marroquin-Chavira, Alberto; Hernandez-Mote, Ruth; Valencia, Concepción; Manjarrez-Zavala, M Eugenia; Covarrubias, Luis; Gariglio, Patricio

    2009-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is one of the most common neoplasms in the world. During the past 2 decades, the role of high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) has been studied and the data supporting HPV as a one of the causative agents in the development and progression of a sub-set of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) has accumulated. In order to investigate the role of HR-HPV oncogene expression in early epithelial alterations in vivo, we produced transgenic mice expressing HPV16 early region genes from the promoter of the bovine keratin 6 gene (Tg[bK6-E6/E7]). In this article, we demonstrate that E6/E7 transgene was abundantly expressed and cellular proliferation was increased in the middle tongue epithelia of transgenic mice, and that in the same region young (27 weeks old) Tg[bK6-E6/E7] mice spontaneously developed histological alterations, mainly focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH).

  11. An Lck-cre transgene accelerates autoantibody production and lupus development in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R K; Gould, K A

    2016-02-01

    Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antinuclear autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated tissue damage. T cells in lupus patients appear to undergo apoptosis at an increased rate, and this enhanced T cell apoptosis has been postulated to contribute to lupus pathogenesis by increasing autoantigen load. However, there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we show that an Lck-cre transgene, which increases T cell apoptosis as a result of T cell-specific expression of cre recombinase, accelerates the development of autoantibodies and nephritis in lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. Although the enhanced T cell apoptosis in Lck-cre transgenic mice resulted in an overall decrease in the relative abundance of splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of activated CD4(+) T cells was increased and no significant change was observed in the relative abundance of suppressive T cells. We postulate that the Lck-cre transgene promoted lupus by enhancing T cell apoptosis, which, in conjunction with the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in lupus-prone mice, increased the nuclear antigen load and accelerated the development of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results also underscore the importance of including cre-only controls in studies using the cre-lox system.

  12. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S.; Shulkes, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene. PMID:21051525

  13. Therapeutic potential of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Hongliang; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Weijie; Yang, Liang; Yang, Lu; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the presence of extensive oxidative stress plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is involved in the elevation of oxidative stress, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMMSCs) were intravenously injected into C57BL/6J-APP transgenic mice. hAMMSCs significantly ameliorated spatial learning and memory function, and were associated with a decreased amount of amyloid plaques of the brain. The correlation of oxidative stress with Aβ levels was lower in the hAMMSCs-injected group than in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected group, as indicated by the increased level of antioxidative enzymes and the decreased level of lipid peroxidation product. The glutathione (GSH) level and ratio of GSH to glutathione disulfide were higher in the hAMMSC group than in the PBS group. The superoxide dismutase activity and malonaldehyde level were improved significantly as the level of Aβ decreased, but there was no such trend in the PBS group. As a result, our findings represent evidence that hAMMSC treatment might improve the pathology of AD and memory function through the regulation of oxidative stress. PMID:27588134

  14. Unimpeded skin carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice deficient for plasminogen activator inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Masset, A.; Maillard, C.; Sounni, NE.; Jacobs, N.; Bruyère, F.; Delvenne, P.; Tacke, M.; Reinheckel, T.; Foidart, J-M.; Coussens, LM.; Noël, A.

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling and cell migration are associated with cancer progression and involve at least, the plasminogen activating system and its main physiological inhibitor, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Considering the recognized importance of PAI-1 in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and invasion in murine models of skin tumor transplantation, we explored the functional significance of PAI-1 during early stages of neoplastic progression in the transgenic mouse model of multistage epithelial carcinogenesis (K14-HPV16 mice). We have studied the effect of genetic deletion of PAI-1 on inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, as well as tumor progression. In this model, PAI-1 deficiency neither impaired keratinocyte hyperproliferation or tumor development, nor affected the infiltration of inflammatory cells and development of angiogenic or lymphangiogenic vasculature. We are reporting evidence for concomitant lymphangiogenic and angiogenic switches independent to PAI-1 status. Taken together, these data indicate that PAI-1 is not rate limiting for neoplastic progression and vascularization during premalignant progression, or that there is a functional redundancy between PAI-1 and other tumor regulators, masking the effect of PAI-1 deficiency in this long-term model of multi-stage epithelial carcinogenesis. PMID:20232379

  15. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context. PMID:26171413

  16. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S; Shulkes, Arthur; Wang, Timothy C

    2011-02-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene.

  17. Imaging Synaptic Inhibition in Transgenic Mice Expressing the Chloride Indicator, Clomeleon

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, K.; Schleich, W.; Krieger, P.; Loo, L.S.; Wang, D.; Cant, N.B.; Feng, G.; Augustine, G.J.; Kuner, T.

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a molecular genetic approach for imaging synaptic inhibition. The thy-1 promoter was used to express high levels of Clomeleon, a ratiometric fluorescent indicator for chloride ions, in discrete populations of neurons in the brains of transgenic mice. Clomeleon was functional after chronic expression and provided non-invasive readouts of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) in brain slices, allowing us to quantify age-dependent declines in resting [Cl−]i during neuronal development. Activation of hippocampal interneurons caused [Cl−]i to rise transiently in individual postsynaptic pyramidal neurons. [Cl−]i increased in direct proportion to the amount of inhibitory transmission, with peak changes as large as 4 mM. Integrating responses over populations of pyramidal neurons allowed sensitive detection of synaptic inhibition. Thus, Clomeleon imaging permits non-invasive, spatiotemporally resolved recordings of [Cl−]i in a large variety of neurons, opening up new opportunities for imaging synaptic inhibition and other forms of chloride signaling. PMID:18398684

  18. Dopamine neurons from transgenic mice with a knockout of the p53 gene resist MPTP neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, P A; Smith, T S; Jung, A B; Bennett, J P

    1996-09-01

    We have examined MPTP toxicity to dopamine neurons of mice homozygous for a transgenic knockout of the p53 growth control gene (p53-/-). MPTP at a total dose of 96 mg/kg administered in four doses over two days produced a non-homogeneous loss of striatal dopamine transport sites and quantitatively reduced 3H-mazindol binding to similar degrees in p53-/- and wild type controls 2 and 3 weeks after starting MPTP. Nigral DA neurons stained immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase were counted using both manual and automated methods and found to be reduced 29-34% in wild type controls but were not reduced in p53-/-. Mean DA neuronal surface areas were reduced 63-68% by MPTP in controls and 35-50% in p53-/-. We conclude that p53 protein appears necessary for complete expression of MPTP neurotoxicity to dopamine neurons. Our findings suggest that the p53 gene and other growth control genes may regulate dopamine neuronal death in PD.

  19. A method for the generation of YAC transgenic mice by pronuclear microinjection.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, A; Larin, Z; Montoliu, L; Thies, E; Kelsey, G; Lehrach, H; Schütz, G

    1993-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) represent the latest generation of vectors which have the great advantage of large insert size. The introduction of YACs into mammalian cells and organisms has become an important goal, since it offers the potential to study the control of large and complex transcription units and identify genes by complementation. Microinjection into the nucleus is the most direct and efficient way of delivering YAC DNA into cells, but requires the purification of the YAC from the remaining yeast chromosomes. Here we describe a detailed method for the isolation of pure, intact and highly concentrated YAC DNA. As a model system the murine tyrosinase gene was chosen and four YACs covering this locus were isolated. Introduction by homologous recombination in yeast of sequences permitting YAC amplification greatly facilitated the isolation of YAC DNA at high concentrations. YAC DNA stabilized in a salt and polyamine containing buffer did not compromise the survival of microinjected oocytes and was suitable for the generation of transgenic mice. Applications and benefits of this technique will be discussed. Images PMID:8233827

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces oxidative stress associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy in vivo in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Prada, Claudia; Lattarulo, Carli; Fine, Sara; Borrelli, Laura A; Betensky, Rebecca; Greenberg, Steven M; Frosch, Matthew P; Bacskai, Brian J

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by extracellular beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) deposits in vessel walls, is present in the majority of cases of Alzheimer's disease and is a major cause of hemorrhagic stroke. Although the molecular pathways activated by vascular Abeta are poorly understood, extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and Abeta-induced oxidative stress appear to play important roles. We adapted fluorogenic assays for MMP activity and reactive oxygen species generation for use in vivo. Using multiphoton microscopy in APPswe/PS1dE9 and Tg-2576 transgenic mice, we observed strong associations between MMP activation, oxidative stress, and CAA deposition in leptomeningeal vessels. Antioxidant treatment with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone reduced oxidative stress associated with CAA (approximately 50% reduction) without affecting MMP activation. Conversely, a selection of agents that inhibit MMP by different mechanisms of action, including minocycline, simvastatin, and GM6001, reduced not only CAA-associated MMP activation (approximately 30-40% reduction) but also oxidative stress (approximately 40% reduction). The inhibitors of MMP did not have direct antioxidant effects. Treatment of animals with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone or minocycline did not have a significant effect on CAA progression rates. These data suggest a close association between Abeta-related MMP activation and oxidative stress in vivo and raise the possibility that treatment with MMP inhibitors may have beneficial effects by indirectly reducing the oxidative stress associated with CAA.

  1. Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simone; Klobuch, Sebastian; Podlech, Jürgen; Plachter, Bodo; Hoffmann, Petra; Renzaho, Angelique; Theobald, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe disease in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although preclinical research in murine models as well as clinical trials have provided 'proof of concept' for infection control by pre-emptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy, there exists no predictive model to experimentally evaluate parameters that determine antiviral efficacy of human T cells in terms of virus control in functional organs, prevention of organ disease, and host survival benefit. We here introduce a novel mouse model for testing HCMV epitope-specific human T cells. The HCMV UL83/pp65-derived NLV-peptide was presented by transgenic HLA-A2.1 in the context of a lethal infection of NOD/SCID/IL-2rg-/- mice with a chimeric murine CMV, mCMV-NLV. Scenarios of HCMV-seropositive and -seronegative human T-cell donors were modeled by testing peptide-restimulated and T-cell receptor-transduced human T cells, respectively. Upon transfer, the T cells infiltrated host tissues in an epitope-specific manner, confining the infection to nodular inflammatory foci. This resulted in a significant reduction of viral load, diminished organ pathology, and prolonged survival. The model has thus proven its potential for a preclinical testing of the protective antiviral efficacy of HCMV epitope-specific human T cells in the evaluation of new approaches to an immunotherapy of CMV disease. PMID:26181057

  2. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Astrocytes in GFAP-GFP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongjun; Zou, Jia; Rensing, Nicholas; Wong, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes play important roles in normal brain function and neurological diseases. In vivo two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has the potential to reveal rapid, dynamic structural changes in cells in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The type of in vivo imaging method has been shown to affect the plasticity of dendritic spines of neurons, but the optimal in vivo imaging methods of astrocytes have not been established. We compared open-skull and thinned-skull imaging methods for two-photon laser microscopy of live astrocytes in neocortex of GFAP-GFP transgenic mice. The thinned-skull method provided stable image intensity and morphological features of astrocytes in vivo over at least one week, with no evidence of astrogliosis. In contrast, the open-skull method resulted in significant changes in image intensity and induced astrogliosis. The thinned-skull method is the preferred approach for in vivo imaging of astrocytes under most conditions involving gross astrocyte modulation or causing astrogliosis. PMID:28107381

  3. Expression of human group II PLA2 in transgenic mice results in epidermal hyperplasia in the absence of inflammatory infiltrate.

    PubMed Central

    Grass, D S; Felkner, R H; Chiang, M Y; Wallace, R E; Nevalainen, T J; Bennett, C F; Swanson, M E

    1996-01-01

    Group II PLA2 has been implicated in inflammatory processes in both man and other animals and has been shown to be involved in inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and sepsis. Transgenic mice expressing the human group II PLA2 gene have been generated using a 6.2-kb genomic fragment. These mice express the group II PLA2 gene abundantly in liver, lung, kidney, and skin, and have serum PLA2 activity levels approximately eightfold higher than nontransgenic littermates. The group II PLA2 transgenic mice reported here exhibit epidermal and adnexal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and almost total alopecia. The chronic epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis seen in these mice is similar to that seen in a variety of dermatopathies, including psoriasis. However, unlike what is seen with these dermatopathies, no significant inflammatory-cell influx was observed in the skin of these animals, or in any other tissue examined. These mice provide an important tool for examining group II PLA2 expression, and for determining the role of group II PLA2 in normal and disease physiology. They serve as an in vivo model for identifying inhibitors of group II PLA2 activity and gene expression. PMID:8636402

  4. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulates Parkinson’s disease development in mutant α-synuclein transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.; Semenkow, Samantha; Hanaford, Allison; Wong, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by neurodegeneration in neocortex, substantia nigra (SN) and brainstem and synucleinopathy. Some inherited PD is caused by mutations in α-synuclein (αSyn), and inherited and idiopathic PD are associated with mitochondrial perturbations. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are unresolved. We characterized a human αSyn transgenic mouse model and tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in the disease mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice expressing human A53T-mutant αSyn driven by a Thy1 promoter develop a severe, age-related, fatal movement disorder involving ataxia, rigidity, and postural instability. These mice develop synucleinopathy and neocortical, SN, and cerebello-rubro-thalamic degeneration involving mitochondriopathy and apoptotic and non-apoptotic neurodegeneration. Interneurons undergo apoptotic degeneration in young mice. Mutant αSyn associated with dysmorphic neuronal mitochondria and bound voltage-dependent anion channels. Genetic ablation of cyclophilin D, an mPTP modulator, delayed disease onset and extended lifespans of mutant αSyn mice. Thus, mutant αSyn transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background develop PD-like phenotypes, and the mPTP is involved in their disease mechanisms. PMID:24325796

  5. Inducible targeting of CNS astrocytes in Aldh1l1-CreERT2 BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Winchenbach, Jan; Düking, Tim; Berghoff, Stefan A.; Stumpf, Sina K.; Hülsmann, Swen; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Saher, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studying astrocytes in higher brain functions has been hampered by the lack of genetic tools for the efficient expression of inducible Cre recombinase throughout the CNS, including the neocortex. Methods: Therefore, we generated BAC transgenic mice, in which CreERT2 is expressed under control of the Aldh1l1 regulatory region. Results: When crossbred to Cre reporter mice, adult Aldh1l1-CreERT2 mice show efficient gene targeting in astrocytes. No such Cre-mediated recombination was detectable in CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. As expected, Aldh1l1-CreERT2 expression was evident in several peripheral organs, including liver and kidney. Conclusions: Taken together, Aldh1l1-CreERT2 mice are a useful tool for studying astrocytes in neurovascular coupling, brain metabolism, synaptic plasticity and other aspects of neuron-glia interactions. PMID:28149504

  6. Olfactory Dysfunctions and Decreased Nitric Oxide Production in the Brain of Human P301L Tau Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Ding, Wenting; Zhu, Xiaonan; Chen, Ruzhu; Wang, Xuelan

    2016-04-01

    Different patterns of olfactory dysfunction have been found in both patients and mouse models of Alzheimer's Disease. However, the underlying mechanism of the dysfunction remained unknown. Deficits of nitric oxide production in brain can cause olfactory dysfunction by preventing the formation of olfactory memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral changes in olfaction and alterations in metabolites of nitric oxide, nitrate/nitrite concentration, in the brain of human P301L tau transgenic mice. The tau mice showed impairments in olfaction and increased abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein at AT8 in different brain areas, especially in olfactory bulb. We now report that these olfactory deficits and Tau pathological changes were accompanied by decreased nitrate/nitrite concentration in the brain, especially in the olfactory bulb, and reduced expression of nNOS in the brain of tau mice. These findings provided evidence of olfactory dysfunctions correlated with decreased nitric oxide production in the brain of tau mice.

  7. Melanocyte expression of Survivin promotes development and metastasis of UV-induced melanoma in HGF-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joshua; Liu, Tong; Cotter, Murray A.; Florell, Scott R.; Robinette, Kyle; Hanks, Adrianne N.; Grossman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    We previously found the apoptosis inhibitor Survivin to be expressed in melanocytic nevi and melanoma, but not in normal melanocytes. To investigate the role of Survivin in melanoma development and progression, we examined the consequences of forced Survivin expression in melanocytes in vivo. Transgenic (Tg) mouse lines (Dct-Survivin) were generated with melanocyte-specific expression of Survivin, and melanocytes grown from Dct-Survivin mice expressed Survivin. Dct-Survivin melanocytes exhibited decreased susceptibility to UV-induced apoptosis but no difference in proliferative capacity compared to melanocytes derived from non-Tg littermates. Induction of nevi in Dct-Survivin and non-Tg mice by topical application of DMBA did not reveal significant differences in lesion onset (median 10 wks) or density (4 lesions/mouse after 15 wks). Dct-Survivin mice were bred with melanoma-prone MH19/HGF-B6 Tg mice and all progeny expressing either individual, neither, or both (Survivin/HGF) transgenes were UV-treated as neonates and then monitored for 43 wks. Melanocytes in neonatal Survivin+/HGF+ mouse skin were less susceptible to UV-induced apoptosis than those from Survivin−/HGF+ mice. Onset of melanocytic tumors was earlier (median 18 vs. 24 wks, p = .01, log-rank test) and overall tumor density was greater (7.7 vs. 5.2 tumors/mouse, p = .04) in Survivin+/HGF+ compared to Survivin−/HGF+ mice. Strikingly, melanomas arising in Survivin+/HGF+ mice demonstrated a greater tendency for lymph node (35% vs. 0%, p = .04) and lung (53% vs. 22%) metastasis, and lower rates of spontaneous apoptosis, than those in Survivin−/HGF+ mice. These studies demonstrate a role for Survivin in promoting both early and late events of UV-induced melanoma development in vivo. PMID:17545596

  8. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  9. Presence of subclinical infection in gene-targeted human prion protein transgenic mice exposed to atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Dobie, Karen; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2013-12-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health. Until recently, TSE disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, BSE, also known as classical BSE, or BSE-C. However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. To model the risk to human health, we previously inoculated these two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and BSE-H) into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP) (HuTg) but were unable to detect any signs of TSE pathology in these mice. However, despite the absence of TSE pathology, upon subpassage of some BASE-challenged HuTg mice, a TSE was observed in recipient gene-targeted bovine PrP Tg (Bov6) mice but not in HuTg mice. Disease transmission from apparently healthy individuals indicates the presence of subclinical BASE infection in mice expressing human PrP that cannot be identified by current diagnostic methods. However, due to the lack of transmission to HuTg mice on subpassage, the efficiency of mouse-to-mouse transmission of BASE appears to be low when mice express human rather than bovine PrP.

  10. Prolonged ethanol administration depletes mitochondrial DNA in MnSOD-overexpressing transgenic mice, but not in their wild type littermates

    SciTech Connect

    Larosche, Isabelle; Choumar, Amal; Fromenty, Bernard; Letteron, Philippe; Abbey-Toby, Adje; Van Remmen, Holly; Epstein, Charles J.; Richardson, Arlan; Feldmann, Gerard; Pessayre, Dominique; Mansouri, Abdellah

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation, whose products can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. A possible role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on these effects has not been investigated. To test whether MnSOD overexpression modulates alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, we added ethanol to the drinking water of transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (TgMnSOD) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates for 7 weeks. In TgMnSOD mice, alcohol administration further increased the activity of MnSOD, but decreased cytosolic glutathione as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity and peroxisomal catalase activity. Whereas ethanol increased cytochrome P-450 2E1 and mitochondrial ROS generation in both WT and TgMnSOD mice, hepatic iron, lipid peroxidation products and respiratory complex I protein carbonyls were only increased in ethanol-treated TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice. In ethanol-fed TgMnSOD mice, but not ethanol-fed WT mice, mtDNA was depleted, and mtDNA lesions blocked the progress of polymerases. The iron chelator, DFO prevented hepatic iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and mtDNA depletion in alcohol-treated TgMnSOD mice. Alcohol markedly decreased the activities of complexes I, IV and V of the respiratory chain in TgMnSOD, with absent or lesser effects in WT mice. There was no inflammation, apoptosis or necrosis, and steatosis was similar in ethanol-treated WT and TgMnSOD mice. In conclusion, prolonged alcohol administration selectively triggers iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, respiratory complex I protein carbonylation, mtDNA lesions blocking the progress of polymerases, mtDNA depletion and respiratory complex dysfunction in TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice.

  11. A feasibility study for the analysis of reparative dentinogenesis in pOBCol3.6GFPtpz transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Frozoni, M.; Balic, A.; Sagomonyants, K.; Zaia, A. A.; Line, S. R. P.; Mina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To examine the feasibility of using the pOBCol3.6GFPtpz (3.6-GFP) transgenic mice as an in vivo model for studying the biological sequence of events during pulp healing and reparative dentinogenesis. Methodology Pulp exposures were created in the first maxillary molar of 12-16 week old 3.6-GFP transgenic mice with CD1 and C57/Bl6 genetic background. Direct pulp capping on exposed teeth were performed using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) followed by restoration with a light-cured adhesive system (AS) and composite resin. In control teeth, the AS was placed in direct contact with the pulp. Animals were euthanized at various time points after pulp exposure and capping. The maxillary arch was isolated, fixed and processed for histological and epifluorescence analysis to examine reparative dentinogenesis. Results Analysis of teeth immediately after pulp exposure revealed absence of odontoblasts expressing 3.6-GFP at the injury site. Evidence of reparative dentinogenesis was apparent at 4 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice in CD1 background and at 8 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice with C57/Bl6 background. The reparative dentine with both groups contained newly formed atubular-mineralized tissue resembling a dentine bridge and/or osteodentine that was lined by cells expressing 3.6-GFP as well as 3.6-GFP expressing cells embedded within the atubular matrix. Conclusion This study was conducted in a few animals and did not allow statistical analysis. The results revealed that the 3.6-GFP transgenic animals provide a unique model for direct analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulp repair and tertiary dentinogenesis in vivo. The study also shows the effects of the capping material and the genetic background of the mice in the sequence and timing of reparative dentinogenesis. PMID:22551423

  12. cis-acting DNA regulatory elements, including the retinoic acid response element, are required for tissue specific laminin B1 promoter/lacZ expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Li, C; Gudas, L J

    2001-05-01

    The LAMB1 gene encodes the laminin beta1 subunit of laminin, an extracellular matrix protein. Using several transgenic mouse lines containing various lengths of the LAMB1 promoter driving lacZ reporter gene expression, regions of LAMB1 promoter that contain cis-acting DNA regulatory element(s) have been identified. The 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene is expressed in various tissues during development. LAMB1 transgene expression is observed in a selective set of nephrons of the neonatal and adult kidneys. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements responsible for LAMB1 transgene expression in ovaries and in juvenile kidneys are present between -'1.4 and -0.7 kb relative to the transcription start site, while those of adult kidneys are located between -2.5 and -1.4 kb. The LAMB1 transgene is also expressed in the epididymis of 1 week old transgenic mice. Mutation of the retinoic acid response element (RARE) in the context of the 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene results in loss of LAMB1 transgene expression in all tissues. Thus, sequences between -2.5 and -0.7 kb plus the RARE are required for appropriate expression of the LAMB1 transgene in mice.

  13. Expression of the HSF4 DNA Binding Domain-EGFP Hybrid Gene Recreates Early Childhood Lamellar Cataract in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gangalum, Rajendra K.; Jing, Zhe; Bhat, Ankur M.; Lee, Josh; Nagaoka, Yoshiko; Deng, Sophie X.; Jiang, Meisheng; Bhat, Suraj P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The clinical management of cataracts in infancy involves surgical removal of the lens to ensure transmission of light to the retina, which is essential for normal neural development of the infant. This surgery, however, entails a lifelong follow-up and impaired vision. To our knowledge, no animal models recapitulate human lamellar opacities, the most prevalent form of early childhood cataracts. We present data on the recreation of the human lamellar cataract phenotype in transgenic mice. Methods. Mutations in the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) are known to be associated with early childhood autosomal dominant lamellar cataract. We used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis to express a hybrid gene: Hsf4 (DBD)–enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), by recombineering EGFP sequences into the DBD of the Hsf4 gene, to interfere with the DNA binding properties of Hsf4. Results. We recapitulated the human lamellar cataract, in its temporal as well as spatial presentation, within the transgenic mouse lens. This phenotype was reproduced faithfully using four different BACs, indicating that EGFP can be used to target transcription factor function in transgenic mice. Molecular and cell biological examination of early postnatal transgenic lens reveals impairment of secondary fiber cell differentiation. Conclusions. Recreation of the human lamellar cataract phenotype in mice allows investigation of this human pathology at a level not possible previously and points to the relevance of fiber cell heterogeneity dictated by fiber cell–specific gene activity in the biogenesis of the lamellar cataract. PMID:25168898

  14. Gene expression profiling of R6/2 transgenic mice with different CAG repeat lengths reveals genes associated with disease onset and progression in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Seredenina, Tamara; Coppola, Giovanni; Kuhn, Alexandre; Geschwind, Daniel H; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Thomas, Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    R6/2 transgenic mice with expanded CAG repeats (>300) have a surprisingly prolonged disease progression and longer lifespan than prototypical parent R6/2 mice (carrying 150 CAGs); however, the mechanism of this phenotype amelioration is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles in the striatum of R6/2 transgenic mice carrying ~300 CAG repeats (R6/2(Q300) transgenic mice) to those carrying ~150 CAG repeats (R6/2(Q150) transgenic mice) and littermate wildtype controls in order to identify genes that may play determinant roles in the time course of phenotypic expression in these mice. Of the top genes showing concordant expression changes in the striatum of both R6/2 lines, 85% were decreased in expression, while discordant expression changes were observed mostly for genes upregulated in R6/2(Q300) transgenic mice. Upregulated genes in the R6/2(Q300) mice were associated with the ubiquitin ligase complex, cell adhesion, protein folding, and establishment of protein localization. We qPCR-validated increases in expression of genes related to the latter category, including Lrsam1, Erp29, Nasp, Tap1, Rab9b, and Pfdn5 in R6/2(Q300) mice, changes that were not observed in R6/2 mice with shorter CAG repeats, even in late stages (i.e., 12 weeks of age). We further tested Lrsam1 and Erp29, the two genes showing the greatest upregulation in R6/2(Q300) transgenic mice, for potential neuroprotective effects in primary striatal cultures overexpressing a mutated human huntingtin (htt) fragment. Overexpression of Lrsam1 prevented the loss of NeuN-positive cell bodies in htt171-82Q cultures, concomitant with a reduction of nuclear htt aggregates. Erp29 showed no significant effects in this model. This is consistent with the distinct pattern of htt inclusion localization observed in R6/2(Q300) transgenic mice, in which smaller cytoplasmic inclusions represent the major form of insoluble htt in the cell, as opposed to large nuclear inclusions observed in R6/2(Q150) transgenic mice

  15. The p35 human invariant chain in transgenic mice restores mature B cells in the absence of endogenous CD74.

    PubMed

    Genève, Laetitia; Ménard, Catherine; Labrecque, Nathalie; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-10-01

    The invariant chain (Ii; CD74) has pleiotropic functions and Ii-deficient mice show defects in MHC class II (MHC II) transport and B cell maturation. In humans, but not in mice, a minor Iip35 isoform of unknown function includes an endoplasmic reticulum-retention motif that is masked upon binding of MHC II molecules. To gain further insight into the roles of Ii in B cell homeostasis, we generated Iip35 transgenic mice (Tgp35) and bred these with mice deficient for Ii (Tgp35/mIiKO). Iip35 was shown to compete with mIi for the binding to I-A(b) . In addition, classical endosomal degradation products (p20/p10) and the class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) fragment were detected. Moreover, Iip35 favored the formation of compact peptide-MHC II complexes in the Tgp35/mIiKO mice. I-A(b) levels were restored at the plasma membrane of mature B cells but Iip35 affected the fine conformation of MHC II molecules as judged by the increased reactivity of the AF6-120.1 antibody in permeabilized cells. However, the human Iip35 cannot fully replace the endogenous Ii. Indeed, most immature B cells in the bone marrow and spleen of transgenic mice had reduced surface expression of MHC II molecules, demonstrating a dominant-negative effect of Iip35 in Tgp35 mice. Interestingly, while maturation to follicular B cells was normal, Iip35 expression appeared to reduce the proportions of marginal zone B cells. These results emphasize the importance of Ii in B cell homeostasis and suggest that Iip35 could have regulatory functions.

  16. Expression of active human blood clotting factor IX in transgenic mice: use of a cDNA with complete mRNA sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Choo, K H; Raphael, K; McAdam, W; Peterson, M G

    1987-01-01

    Haemophilia B is a bleeding disorder caused by a functional deficiency of the clotting factor IX. A full length human factor IX complementary DNA clone containing all the natural mRNA sequences plus some flanking intron sequences was constructed with a metallothionein promoter and introduced into transgenic mice by microinjection into the pronuclei of fertilised eggs. The transgenic mice expressed high levels of messenger RNA, gamma-carboxylated and glycosylated protein, and biological clotting activity that are indistinguishable from normal human plasma factor IX. This study demonstrates the feasibility of expressing highly complex heterologous proteins in transgenic mice. It also provides the groundwork for the production of large amounts of human factor IX in larger transgenic livestock for therapeutic use, and the investigation of alternative genetic therapies for haemophilia B. Images PMID:3029708

  17. A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRalpha knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRalpha in prenatal lung growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Jayatilake, D; Afink, G B; Ataliotis, P; Nistér, M; Richardson, W D; Smith, H K

    2000-11-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor (PDGFRalpha) plays a vital role in the development of vertebrate embryos, since mice lacking PDGFRalpha die in mid-gestation. PDGFRalpha is expressed in several types of migratory progenitor cells in the embryo including cranial neural crest cells, lung smooth muscle progenitors and oligodendrocyte progenitors. To study PDGFRalpha gene regulation and function during development, we generated transgenic mice by pronuclear injection of a 380 kb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the human PDGFRalpha gene. The YAC transgene was expressed in neural crest cells, rescued the profound craniofacial abnormalities and spina bifida observed in PDGFRalpha knockout mice and prolonged survival until birth. The ultimate cause of death was respiratory failure due to a defect in lung growth, stemming from failure of the transgene to be expressed correctly in lung smooth muscle progenitors. However, the YAC transgene was expressed faithfully in oligodendrocyte progenitors, which was not previously observed with plasmid-based transgenes containing only upstream PDGFRalpha control sequences. Our data illustrate the complexity of PDGFRalpha genetic control, provide clues to the location of critical regulatory elements and reveal a requirement for PDGF signalling in prenatal lung growth, which is distinct from the known requirement in postnatal alveogenesis. In addition, we found that the YAC transgene did not prolong survival of Patch mutant mice, indicating that genetic defects outside the PDGFRalpha locus contribute to the early embryonic lethality of Patch mice.

  18. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. PMID:20422010

  19. Pharmacologic blockade of 12/15-lipoxygenase ameliorates memory deficits, Aβ and tau neuropathology in the triple-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, J; Li, J-G; Giannopoulos, P F; Blass, B E; Childers, W; Abou-Gharbia, M; Praticò, D

    2015-11-01

    The 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15LO) enzyme is widely distributed within the central nervous system. Previous work showed that this protein is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and plays an active role in the development of brain amyloidosis in amyloid beta (Aβ)-precursor protein transgenic mice (Tg2576). In the present paper, we studied the effect of its pharmacologic inhibition on the AD-like phenotype of a mouse model with plaques and tangles, the triple-transgenic mice. Compared with mice receiving placebo, the group treated with PD146176, a specific 12/15LO inhibitor, manifested a significant improvement of their memory deficits. The same animals had a significant reduction in Aβ levels and deposition, which was secondary to a decrease in the β-secretase pathway. In addition, while total tau-soluble levels were unchanged for both groups, PD146176-treated mice had a significant reduction in its phosphorylation state and insoluble fraction, which specifically associated with decrease in stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity. In vitro study showed that the effect on tau and Aβ were independent from each other. These data establish a functional role for 12/15LO in the pathogenesis of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype and represent the successful completion of the initial step for the preclinical development of 12/15LO inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents for AD.

  20. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of [3H]mazindol-labeled dopamine uptake sites in the brains of superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cadet, J L; Przedborski, S; Kostic, V; Jackson-Lewis, V; Carlson, E; Epstein, C J

    1990-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important enzyme which is involved in the dismutation of the toxic radical, superoxide anion. The activity of CuZnSOD is increased in patients who suffer from Down's Syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and in Parkinson's disease. In order to evaluate the contribution of this enzyme to the neuropathology of these neurodegenerative diseases, transgenic mice have been constructed which express the human CuZnSOD gene. As a first step towards exploring these issues, we have carried out an autoradiographic binding study of the distribution of the catecholaminergic uptake blocker mazindol in the brain of these transgenic mice and of their littermates. Desmethylimipramine (DMI)-insensitive [3H]mazindol binding sites which correspond to dopamine uptake sites were located in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle and in the substantia nigra. Within the striatum, there was a lateromedial gradient, with higher concentration of dopamine uptake sites being found laterally. These findings suggest that subregions of the basal ganglia may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of dopaminotoxic drugs which are taken up into the dopaminergic neurons via these uptake sites. Saturation experiments revealed no differences in the characteristics of [3H]mazindol binding sites between the two groups of mice. Thus, increased activity of SOD is not associated with diffuse changes in the molecular structures of receptors in mice brain.

  1. Autoreactive human T-cell receptor initiates insulitis and impaired glucose tolerance in HLA DR4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Unrath, Kellee A; Yue, Betty B; Miyake, Tom; Falk, Ben A; Nepom, Gerald T

    2008-06-01

    A human T-cell receptor (TcR) derived from an autoreactive T-cell specific for GAD65, from a subject at high risk for autoimmune diabetes, was introduced into HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The source of TcR was a CD4(+) T(H)1(+) T-cell clone which responded to an immunodominant epitope of the human islet protein GAD65, an epitope shared with both GAD65 and GAD67 in the mouse. The resulting HLA-DR4/GAD-TcR transgenic mice on a Rag2(o/o)/I-Ab(o/o)/B6 background exhibited a CD4(+) infiltrate into pancreatic islets that correlated with a loss of insulin in infiltrated islets. These mice also exhibited a subclinical impaired tolerance to exogenously fed glucose as assayed by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. T cells containing the GAD65/67 (555-567) responsive TcR undergo strong negative selection as evidenced by a 10-fold lower thymocyte cellularity compared to non-TcR transgenic mice, and clonotype peripheral T cells represented approximately 1% of CD4(+) T cells in Rag2 sufficient mice. Upon in vitro stimulation, GAD65/67 555-567 responsive T cells secrete interferon-gamma, minimal interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and no IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, or IL-17, consistent with a T(H)1 profile. These data demonstrate that CD4(+) T cells specific for a naturally processed epitope within GAD can specifically home to pancreatic islets and lead to impaired islet beta-cell function in diabetes-associated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice on the relatively non-autoimmune C57BL/6 background. The relatively slow progression and patchy insulitis are reminiscent of the chronic pre-clinical phase similar to a majority of human at-risk subjects, and models these indolent features of human T1D.

  2. Thamnolia vermicularis extract improves learning ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by ameliorating both Aβ and Tau pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Guo, Xiao-dan; Lei, Min; Wu, Jia-yi; Jin, Jia-zhen; Shi, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Hu, Li-hong; Wen, Tie-qiao; Shen, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-targets have become a focus in the discovery of drugs for treatment of this disease. In the current work, we established a multi-target strategy for discovering active reagents capable of suppressing both Aβ level and Tau hyperphosphorylation from natural products, and found that the ethanol extract of Thamnolia vermicularis (THA) was able to improve learning ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by inhibiting both Aβ levels and Tau hyperphosphorylation. SH-SY5Y and CHO-APP/BACE1 cells and primary astrocytes were used in cell-based assays. APP/PS1 transgenic mice [B6C3-Tg(APPswe, PS1dE9)] were administered THA (300 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 100 d. After the administration was completed, the learning ability of the mice was detected using a Morris water maze (MWM) assay; immunofluorescence staining, Congo red staining and Thioflavine S staining were used to detect the senile plaques in the brains of the mice. ELISA was used to evaluate Aβ and sAPPβ contents, and Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to investigate the relevant signaling pathway regulation in response to THA treatment. In SH-SY5Y cells, THΑ (1, 10, 20 μg/mL) significantly stimulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and AMPK/raptor/mTOR signaling-mediated autophagy in the promotion of Aβ clearance as both a PI3K inhibitor and an AMPK indirect activator, and restrained Aβ production as a suppressor against PERK/eIF2α-mediated BACE1 expression. Additionally, THA functioned as a GSK3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.32±0.85 μg/mL, repressing Tau hyperphosphorylation. Similar effects on Aβ accumulation and Tau hyperphosphorylation were observed in APP/PS1 transgenic mice treated with THA. Furthermore, administration of THA effectively improved the learning ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and markedly reduced the number of senile plaques in their hippocampus and cortex. The results highlight the potential of the natural product THA for the

  3. Development of Transgenic Mice Containing an Introduced Stop Codon on the Human Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Nicole E.; Dashnow, Harriet; Pitt, James J.; Wood, Leonie R.; Peters, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The mutation R403stop was found in an individual with mut0 methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) which resulted from a single base change of C→T in exon 6 of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase gene (producing a TGA stop codon). In order to accurately model the human MMA disorder we introduced this mutation onto the human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase locus of a bacterial artificial chromosome. A mouse model was developed using this construct. The transgene was found to be intact in the mouse model, with 7 copies integrated at a single site in chromosome 3. The phenotype of the hemizygous mouse was unchanged until crossed against a methylmalonyl-CoA mutase knockout mouse. Pups with no endogenous mouse methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and one copy of the transgene became ill and died within 24 hours. This severe phenotype could be partially rescued by the addition of a transgene carrying two copies of the normal human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase locus. The “humanized” mice were smaller than control litter mates and had high levels of methylmalonic acid in their blood and tissues. This new transgenic MMA stop codon model mimics (at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels) the key features of the human MMA disorder. It will allow the trialing of pharmacological and, cell and gene therapies for the treatment of MMA and other human metabolic disorders caused by stop codon mutations. PMID:23024777

  4. Spontaneous generation of rapidly transmissible prions in transgenic mice expressing wild-type bank vole prion protein.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Grillo, Sunny K; Patel, Smita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-02-28

    Currently, there are no animal models of the most common human prion disorder, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in which prions are formed spontaneously from wild-type (WT) prion protein (PrP). Interestingly, bank voles (BV) exhibit an unprecedented promiscuity for diverse prion isolates, arguing that bank vole PrP (BVPrP) may be inherently prone to adopting misfolded conformations. Therefore, we constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing WT BVPrP. Tg(BVPrP) mice developed spontaneous CNS dysfunction between 108 and 340 d of age and recapitulated the hallmarks of prion disease, including spongiform degeneration, pronounced astrogliosis, and deposition of alternatively folded PrP in the brain. Brain homogenates of ill Tg(BVPrP) mice transmitted disease to Tg(BVPrP) mice in ∼35 d, to Tg mice overexpressing mouse PrP in under 100 d, and to WT mice in ∼185 d. Our studies demonstrate experimentally that WT PrP can spontaneously form infectious prions in vivo. Thus, Tg(BVPrP) mice may be useful for studying the spontaneous formation of prions, and thus may provide insight into the etiology of sporadic CJD.

  5. Xanthohumol Prevents Atherosclerosis by Reducing Arterial Cholesterol Content via CETP and Apolipoprotein E in CETP-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Shuichi; Ozaki, Moeko; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Shigyo, Tatsuro; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Xanthohumol is expected to be a potent anti-atherosclerotic agent due to its inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). In this study, we hypothesized that xanthohumol prevents atherosclerosis in vivo and used CETP-transgenic mice (CETP-Tg mice) to evaluate xanthohumol as a functional agent. Methodology/Principal Findings Two strains of mice, CETP-Tg and C57BL/6N (wild-type), were fed a high cholesterol diet with or without 0.05% (w/w) xanthohumol ad libitum for 18 weeks. In CETP-Tg mice, xanthohumol significantly decreased accumulated cholesterol in the aortic arch and increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) when compared to the control group (without xanthohumol). Xanthohumol had no significant effect in wild-type mice. CETP activity was significantly decreased after xanthohumol addition in CETP-Tg mice compared with the control group and it inversely correlated with HDL-C (%) (P<0.05). Furthermore, apolipoprotein E (apoE) was enriched in serum and the HDL-fraction in CETP-Tg mice after xanthohumol addition, suggesting that xanthohumol ameliorates reverse cholesterol transport via apoE-rich HDL resulting from CETP inhibition. Conclusions Our results suggest xanthohumol prevents cholesterol accumulation in atherogenic regions by HDL-C metabolism via CETP inhibition leading to apoE enhancement. PMID:23166663

  6. Testis hormone-sensitive lipase expression in spermatids is governed by a short promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Blaise, R; Guillaudeux, T; Tavernier, G; Daegelen, D; Evrard, B; Mairal, A; Holm, C; Jégou, B; Langin, D

    2001-02-16

    A testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL(tes)), a triacylglycerol lipase, and cholesterol esterase, is expressed in male germ cells. Northern blot analysis showed HSL(tes) mRNA expression in early spermatids. Immunolocalization of the protein in human and rodent seminiferous tubules indicated that the highest level of expression occurred in elongated spermatids. We have previously shown that 0.5 kilobase pairs of the human HSL(tes) promoter directs testis-specific expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in transgenic mice and determined regions binding nuclear proteins expressed in testis but not in liver (Blaise, R., Grober, J., Rouet, P., Tavernier, G., Daegelen, D., and Langin, D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 9327-9334). Mutation of a SRY/Sox-binding site in one of the regions did not impair in vivo testis-specific expression of the reporter gene. Further transgenic analyses established that 95 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site were sufficient for correct testis expression. In gel retardation assays using early spermatid nuclear extracts, a germ cell-specific DNA-protein interaction was mapped between -46 and -29 base pairs. The DNA binding nuclear protein showed properties of zinc finger transcription factors. Mutation of the region abolished reporter gene activity in transgenic mice, showing that it is necessary for testis expression of HSL(tes).

  7. A53T Human α-Synuclein Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Pervasive Mitochondria Macroautophagy Defects Preceding Dopamine Neuron Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiguo; Turkson, Susie

    2015-01-01

    In vitro evidence suggests that the inefficient removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tissue-specific gene amplification strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse line with human α-synuclein A53T overexpression specifically in dopamine (DA) neurons. Transgenic mice showed profound early-onset mitochondria abnormalities, characterized by macroautophagy marker-positive cytoplasmic inclusions containing mainly mitochondrial remnants, which preceded the degeneration of DA neurons. Genetic deletion of either parkin or PINK1 in these transgenic mice significantly worsened mitochondrial pathologies, including drastically enlarged inclusions and loss of total mitochondria contents. These data suggest that mitochondria are the main targets of α-synuclein and their defective autophagic clearance plays a significant role during pathogenesis. Moreover, endogenous PINK1 or parkin is indispensable for the proper autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria. Our data for the first time establish an essential link between mitochondria macroautophagy impairments and DA neuron degeneration in an in vivo model based on known PD genetics. The model, its well-defined pathologies, and the demonstration of a main pathogenesis pathway in the present study have set the stage and direction of emphasis for future studies. PMID:25609609

  8. CD4 cell surface downregulation in HIV-1 Nef transgenic mice is a consequence of intracellular sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, H J; Pennington, D J; Miles, C G; Dzierzak, E A

    1993-01-01

    The Nef gene product is a regulatory protein of HIV whose biological function is poorly understood. Nef has been thought to have a negative effect on viral replication in vitro but has been shown in studies with SIV to be necessary in the establishment of viraemia in vivo. In vitro studies in various human cell lines have shown that Nef downregulates the expression of cell surface CD4 and thus could have effects on the immune response. We have generated four transgenic mouse lines, with constructs containing two different Nef alleles under the control of CD2 regulatory elements to examine the interaction of Nef with the host immune system in vivo. In adult transgenic mice we have found marked downregulation in the level of CD4 on the surface of double positive thymocytes and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T cells in the thymus. Functional analyses have revealed a decrease in the total activation of transgenic thymocytes by anti-CD3 epsilon antibody. By specific intracellular staining of T cells in such mice we have found CD4 colocalizing with a Golgi-specific marker. These results strongly suggest a Nef mediated effect on developing CD4 thymocytes resulting from interference of Nef in the intracellular trafficking or post-translational modification of CD4. Images PMID:8262036

  9. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation.

  10. Induced keratinocyte hyper-proliferation in alpha2beta1 integrin transgenic mice results in systemic immune cell activation.

    PubMed

    Teige, Ingrid; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Svensson, Lars; Kvist, Peter Helding; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad; Kemp, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    alpha2beta1 integrins are normally confined to the proliferating basal layers of the epidermis. However, during wound healing and in psoriasis, these integrins are expressed on keratinocytes in suprabasal layers correlating with a less differentiated phenotype. Transgenic mice expressing alpha2beta1 integrins under the involucrine promoter have previously been demonstrated, to various degrees, spontaneously develop a skin disorder resembling psoriasis. Herein, we show that a mild epidermal wounding induces a uniform acanthosis together with an influx of immune cells. The disease initiates as a normal wound healing process and is completely restored in wildtype mice by day 14. However, in the integrin transgenic mice a chronic inflammation develops, a process that can be compared to the Koebner phenomenon in psoriatic patients. In this study, we have followed the integrin transgenic mice for five weeks, where substantial keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and high cytokine levels within the skin can still be observed. In addition, draining lymph nodes were dramatically increased in size and contained highly activated T cells, as well as APCs secreting large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the systemic immune response was affected with increased spleen size, elevated cytokine levels in the serum and altered lymphocyte trafficking patterns, very much resembling what is seen in psoriasis patients. Finally, CD4(+) T cell depletion was not able to affect the onset or progression of skin inflammation. This suggests that altered keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation can drive a skin inflammation and cause chronic immune cell activation both at a local and systemic level.

  11. The influence of chronic stress on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function in different human GFAP-ApoE transgenic adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Zhao, Jun; Fang, Hui; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele (ApoE4) is an important genetic risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as stress may play a critical role in AD pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive changes in different human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE transgenic adult male mice under chronic stress conditions. On the open field test, anxiety-like behavior was increased in the non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice relative to the corresponding GFAP-ApoE3 (ApoE ɛ3 allele) mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice, but was unexpectedly decreased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice. On the novel object recognition task, both GFAP-ApoE4 and GFAP-ApoE3 mice exhibited long-term non-spatial memory impairment after chronic stress. Interestingly, short-term non-spatial memory impairment (based on the novel object recognition task) was observed only in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice. In addition, short-term spatial memory impairment was observed in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice; however, short-term spatial memory performance of GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic male mice was not reduced compared to non-stressed control mice based on the Y-maze task. In conclusion, our findings suggested that chronic stress affects anxiety-like behavior and spatial and non-spatial memory in GFAP-ApoE transgenic mice in an ApoE isoform-dependent manner.

  12. Efficacy of immune sera from human immunoglobulin transgenic mice immunized with a peptide mimotope of Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Datta, Kausik; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2004-09-28

    The efficacy of antibody mediated immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans has not been established experimentally for human antibodies. Our group has previously shown that immunization with a conjugate consisting of a peptide mimotope of the C. neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), P13, and diphtheria toxoid (P13-DT) prolonged survival of transgenic mice with human immunoglobulin loci, XenoMouse mice, which were challenged with a lethal dose of C. neoformans. In the study reported herein, we determined the efficacy of human antibodies in the sera of immunized XenoMouse mice against C. neoformans in passive transfer experiments in naïve BALB/c mice. Survival studies were performed with sera from XenoMouse mice expressing human IgG2/kappa (G2/k mice) or IgG4/kappa (G4/k mice) that had been immunized with P13-tetanus toxoid (TT)/Alhydrogel with or without CpG, and G2/k mice that had been immunized with P13-DT/Alhydrogel/CpG or Alhydrogel/CpG, obtained on day 7 (early sera) and days 30 or 35-59 (late sera) after primary immunization. Compared to mice receiving sera from G2/k-PBS-treated mice, the survival of naïve mice was prolonged by both early and late sera from G2/k-P13-DT/Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice, but only late sera from G2/k-P13-TT/Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice. Late, but not early sera from G2/k-Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice also prolonged survival. For all sera, prolongation of survival was associated with GXM-specific serum IgM. Sera from G2/k mice that received P13-TT without CpG, and all groups of G4/k mice had low to undetectable levels of antibody to GXM and were not protective. Our findings suggest that GXM-specific human IgM may be a functional mediator of protection against C. neoformans.

  13. Carcinogenic responses of transgenic heterozygous p53 knockout mice to inhaled 239PuO2 or metallic beryllium.

    PubMed

    Finch, G L; March, T H; Hahn, F F; Barr, E B; Belinsky, S A; Hoover, M D; Lechner, J F; Nikula, K J; Hobbs, C H

    1998-01-01

    The transgenic heterozygous p53+/- knockout mouse has been a model for assessing the tumorigenicity of selected carcinogens administered by noninhalation routes of exposure. The sensitivity of the model for predicting cancer by inhaled chemicals has not been examined. This study addresses this issue by acutely exposing p53+/- mice of both sexes by nose-only inhalation to either air (controls), or to 1 of 2 levels of 239PuO2 (500 or 100 Bq 239Pu) or beryllium (Be) metal (60 or 15 micrograms). Additional wild-type p53+/+ mice were exposed by inhalation to either 500 Bq of 239PuO2 or 60 micrograms of Be metal. These carcinogens were selected because they operate by differing mechanisms and because of their use in other pulmonary carcinogenesis studies in our laboratory. Four or 5 of the 15 mice per sex from each group were sacrificed 6 mo after exposure, and only 2 pulmonary neoplasms were observed. The remainder of the mice were held for life-span observation and euthanasia as they became moribund. Survival of the p53+/- knockout mice was reduced compared to the p53+/+ wild-type mice. No lung neoplasms were observed in p53+/- mice exposed to air alone. Eleven of the p53+/- mice inhaling 239PuO2 developed pulmonary neoplasms. Seven p53+/+ mice exposed to 239PuO2 also developed pulmonary neoplasms, but the latency period for pulmonary neoplasia was significantly shorter in the p53+/ mice. Four pulmonary neoplasms were observed in p53+/- mice exposed to the higher dose of Be, whereas none were observed in the wild-type mice or in the heterozygous mice exposed to the lower dose of Be. Thus, both p53+/- and p53+/+ mice were susceptible to 239Pu-induced carcinogenesis, whereas the p53+/- but not the p53+/+ mice were susceptible to Be-induced carcinogenesis. However, only 2 pulmonary neoplasms (1 in each of the 239PuO2 exposure groups) were observed in the 59 p53+/ mice that were sacrificed or euthanatized within 9 mo after exposure, indicating that the p53+/- knockout

  14. Skeletal phenotype of growing transgenic mice that express a function-perturbing form of beta1 integrin in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Kim, J-B; Almeida, E. A. C.; Damsky, C. D.; Wronski, T. J.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal modeling entails the deposition of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) to form structures tailored to withstand increasing mechanical loads during rapid growth. Specific ECM molecules bind to integrin receptors on the cell surface, thereby triggering a cascade of signaling events that affect critical cell functions. To evaluate the role of integrins during skeletal growth, transgenic mice were engineered to express a function-perturbing fragment of beta1 integrin consisting of the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail under the control of the osteocalcin promoter (TG mice). Thus, transgene expression was targeted to mature cells of the osteoblast lineage, and herein we show that cultured cells resembling osteocytes from 90-day-old TG mice display impaired adhesion to collagen I, a ligand for beta1 integrin. To determine the influence of beta1 integrin on bones that are responsible for providing structural support during periods of rapid growth, we examined the phenotype of the appendicular skeleton in TG mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. According to radiographs, bones from mice of both genotypes between 14 and 90 days of age appeared similar in gross structure and density, although proximal tibiae from 35-90 days old TG mice were less curved than those of WT mice (72-92% TG/WT). Although there were only mild and transient differences in absolute bone mass and strength, once normalized to body mass, the tibial dry mass (79.1% TG/WT females), ash mass (78.5% TG/WT females), and femoral strength in torsion (71.6% TG/WT females) were reduced in TG mice compared to WT mice at 90 days of age. Similar effects of genotype on bone mass and curvature were observed in 1-year-old retired breeders, indicating that these phenotypic differences between TG and WT mice were stable well into adulthood. Effects of genotype on histomorphometric indices of cancellous bone turnover were minimal and evident only transiently during growth, but when present they

  15. Ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in transgenic mice over-expressing erythropoietin: effect of acclimation to 3-week hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Cárdenas-Alayza, Rosa; Macarlupú, José Luis; Monge-C, Carlos; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2007-09-30

    We used transgenic mice constitutively over-expressing erythropoietin ("tg6" mice) and wild-type (wt) mice to investigate whether the high hematocrit (hct), consequence of Epo over-expression affected: (1) the normoxic ventilation (V (E)) and the acute hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and decline (HVD), (2) the increase in ventilation observed after chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (430mmHg for 21 days), (3) the respiratory "blunting", and (4) the erythrocythemic response induced by chronic hypoxia exposure. V (E) was found to be similar in tg6 and wt mice in normoxia (FIO2=0.21). Post-acclimation V (E) was significantly elevated in every time point in wt mice at FIO2=0.10 when compared to pre-acclimation values. In contrast, tg6 mice exhibited a non-significant increase in V (E) throughout acute hypoxia exposure. Changes in V (E) are associated with adjustments in tidal volume (V(T)). HVR and HVD were independent of EE in tg6 and wt mice before chornic hypoxia exposure. HVR was significantly greater in wt than in tg6 mice after chronic hypoxia. After acclimation, HVD decreased in tg6 mice. Chronic hypoxia exposure caused hct to increase significantly in wt mice, while only a marginal increase occurred in the tg6 group. Although pre-existent EE does not appear to have an effect on HVR, the observation of alterations on V(T) suggests that it may contribute to time-dependent changes in ventilation and in the acute HVR during exposure to chronic hypoxia. In addition, our results suggest that EE may lead to an early "blunting" of the ventilatory response.

  16. Differential expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in the liver and plasma of fasted and fed transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    MacLean, P S; Vadlamudi, S; Hao, E; Barakat, H A

    2000-06-01

    Because cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is considered a potential target in the treatment of atherosclerosis, several reports have focused on the regulation of this enzyme, and there is evidence that insulin may be a regulatory factor. The present study examines the differential expression of the human CETP gene between physiologic conditions that are accompanied by low (fasted) and high (fed) insulin levels. CETP expression was examined in plasma and tissues of transgenic mice expressing the human CETP minigene after 12 hours of fasting (n = 20) or ad libitum feeding (n = 20) with normal mouse chow. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was 20% higher in fed than in fasted mice, reflecting higher levels of CETP (P < 0.05). This observation was accompanied by higher liver mRNA in fed mice (100%, P < 0.05), as determined by ribonuclease protection assays, as well as by higher CETA (23%, P < 0.05) and CETP mass (29%, P < 0.05) in the particulate fraction of liver homogenates. These parameters of liver CETP expression correlated well with each other, as well as with plasma CETA. CETP in the liver particulate fraction was found as a doublet (approximately 70 and 65 kDa), which resolved to a single band (approximately 60 kDa) upon deglycosylation. No differences in CETP expression were observed in pooled adipose tissue samples from fed and fasted mice. Insulin and glucose were not related to any plasma or tissue parameter of CETP expression. In summary, the concerted, differential expression of CETP in the liver of fed and fasted transgenic mice appears to contribute to higher plasma CETP levels in fed mice, but the precise role of insulin and glucose in regulating CETP expression under fasted and fed conditions needs to be defined.

  17. Differential susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human surfactant protein B genetic variants to Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lin; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Rimei; Xu, Yongan; Zuo, Yi Y.; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for lung function. Previous studies have indicated that a SP-B 1580C/T polymorphism (SNP rs1130866) was associated with lung diseases including pneumonia. The SNP causes an altered N-linked glycosylation modification at Asn129 of proSP-B, e.g. the C allele with this glycosylation site but not in the T allele. This study aimed to generate humanized SP-B transgenic mice carrying either SP-B C or T allele without a mouse SP-B background and then examine functional susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia in vivo. A total of 18 transgenic mouse founders were generated by the DNA microinjection method. These founders were back-crossed with SP-B KO mice to eliminate mouse SP-B background. Four founder lines expressing similar SP-B levels to human lung were chosen for further investigation. After intratracheal infection with 50μl of P. aeruginosa solution (1×107 CFU/mouse) or saline in SP-B-C, SP-B-T mice the mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and tissues were harvested. Analysis of surfactant activity revealed differential susceptibility between SP-B-C and SP-B-T mice to bacterial infection, e.g. higher minimum surface tension in infected SP-B-C versus infected SP-B-T mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that human SP-B C allele is more susceptible to bacterial pneumonia than SP-B T allele in vivo. PMID:26620227

  18. The effect of recombinant human lactoferrin from the milk of transgenic cows on Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinghuan; Hu, Yujie; Du, Chunming; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein with antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. Given this beneficial effect, transgenic approaches have been used to produce lactoferrin. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) from the milk of transgenic cows on Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST) infection in mice. Two hours before the infection with 0.3 ml at 2 × 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of ST, each animal in the ST + rhLF group received 0.3 ml of rhLF with 20 mg ml(-1) concentration while the ST group received PBS as placebos with the same volume through oral gavage. The mice were infected with ST once only on the first day. After the infection, the mice received 0.3 ml of rhLF with 20 mg ml(-1) (6 mg d(-1)) concentration or PBS, respectively, for 7 days. Mortality and weight were monitored daily. Bacterial enumeration in the blood, liver, and spleen and histopathological analysis of the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine were conducted. The results showed that rhLF decreased the bacterial load in the liver and spleen of mice, reduced the degree of mice hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and attenuated infectious inflammation with less histopathological abnormalities in the liver, spleen and kidney of mice in the ST infection. This study showed that rhLF with 6 mg per day had antibacterial activity of alleviating the infection caused by ST bacteria, which indicated that rhLF could be used as a supplement in special products.

  19. Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Daniel P.; Wurz, Gregory T.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Kao, Chiao-Jung; Gutierrez, Audrey M.; Hanson, Gregory K.; Wolf, Michael; DeGregorio, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1. PMID:24300078

  20. Expression of human cytomegalovirus pp150 gene in transgenic Vicia faba L. and immunogenicity of pp150 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-03-01

    The pp150 gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was transferred into Vicia faba plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Three of five hygromycin resistant V. faba plants were identified as positive by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The ELISA results indicated that pp150 protein from three plants of transformed V. faba leaves and seeds made up 0.005-0.015% of the total soluble protein. The results of detection by immunoblot and inhibition of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) showed that pp150 soluble protein had immunity activity. HCMV pp150-specific antibody (IgG, IgA) and IFN-gamma producing T cells were detected in 100% of the mice immunized with pp150 transgenic V. faba seeds by ELISA and intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The transgenic V. faba plants will provide new material for the development of edible vaccination against HCMV infection.

  1. Cell-type-specific and hypoxia-inducible expression of the human erythropoietin gene in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Nejfelt, M.K.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. ); Koury, S.T. )

    1991-10-01

    Synthesis of erythropoietin, the primary humoral regulator or erythropoiesis, in liver and kidney is inducible by anemia or hypoxia. Analysis of human erythropoietin gene expression in transgenic mice revealed that sequences located 6-14 kilobases 5{prime} to the gene direct expression to the kidney, whereas sequences within the immediate 3{prime}-flanking region control hepatocyte-specific expression. Human erythropoietin transcription initiation sites were differentially utilized in liver and kidney. Inducible transgene expression was precisely targeted to peritubular interstitial cells in the renal cortex that synthesize endogenous mouse erythropoietin. These studies demonstrate that multiple erythropoietin gene regulatory elements control cello-type-specific expression and inducibility by a fundamental physiologic stimulus, hypoxia.

  2. Generation of an ABCG2{sup GFPn-puro} transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen; Malas, Stavros

    2009-06-26

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  3. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal

  4. Adverse effect on syngeneic islet transplantation by transgenic coexpression of decoy receptor 3 and heme oxygenase-1 in the islet of NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, S-H; Lin, G-J; Chien, M-W; Chu, C-H; Yu, J-C; Chen, T-W; Hueng, D-Y; Liu, Y-L; Sytwu, H-K

    2013-03-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) blocks both Fas ligand- and LIGHT-induced pancreatic β-cell damage in autoimmune diabetes. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) possesses antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects that protect cells against various forms of attack by the immune system. Previously, we have demonstrated that transgenic islets overexpressing DcR3 or murine HO-1 (mHO-1) exhibit longer survival times than nontransgenic islets in syngeneic islet transplantation. In this study, we evaluated whether DcR3 and mHO-1 double-transgenic islets of NOD mice could provide better protective effects and achieve longer islet graft survival than DcR3 or mHO-1 single-transgenic islets after islet transplantation. We generated DcR3 and mHO-1 double-transgenic NOD mice that specifically overexpress DcR3 and HO-1 in islets. Seven hundred islets isolated from double-transgenic, single-transgenic, or nontransgenic NOD mice were syngeneically transplanted into the kidney capsules of newly diabetic female recipients. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the survival time between double-transgenic or nontransgenic NOD islet grafts, and the survival times of double-transgenic NOD islet grafts were even shorter than those of DcR3 or mHO-1 single-transgenic islets. Our data indicate that transplantation of double-transgenic islets that coexpress HO-1 and DcR3 did not result in a better outcome. On the contrary, this strategy even caused an adverse effect in syngeneic islet transplantation.

  5. Thy1.2 driven expression of transgenic His₆-SUMO2 in the brain of mice alters a restricted set of genes.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Moritz J; Tirard, Marilyn

    2014-08-05

    Protein SUMOylation is a post-translational protein modification with a key regulatory role in nerve cell development and function, but its function in mammals in vivo has only been studied cursorily. We generated two new transgenic mouse lines that express His6-tagged SUMO1 and SUMO2 driven by the Thy1.2 promoter. The brains of mice of the two lines express transgenic His6-SUMO peptides and conjugate them to substrates in vivo but cytoarchitecture and synaptic organization of adult transgenic mouse brains are indistinguishable from the wild-type situation. We investigated the impact of transgenic SUMO expression on gene transcription in the hippocampus by performing genome wide analyses using microarrays. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in Thy1.2::His6-SUMO1 transgenic mice and only a restricted set of genes were upregulated in Thy1.2::His6-SUMO2 mice. Among these, Penk1 (Preproenkephalin 1), which encodes Met-enkephalin neuropeptides, showed the highest degree of alteration. Accordingly, a significant increase in Met-enkephalin peptide levels in the hippocampus of Thy1.2::His6-SUMO2 was detected, but the expression levels and cellular localization of Met-enkephalin receptors were not changed. Thus, transgenic neuronal expression of His6-SUMO1 or His6-SUMO2 only induces very minor phenotypical changes in mice.

  6. Enhanced aggressiveness of benzopyrene-induced squamous carcinomas in transgenic mice overexpressing the proprotein convertase PACE4 (PCSK6)

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Daniel E.; Cenna, Jonathan; Zhang, Jirong; Cukierman, Edna; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.

    2014-01-01

    PACE4 (PCSK6) is a pro-protein convertase (PC) capable of processing numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Because of the human relevancy of the tobacco-associated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) we investigated whether transgenic mice in which this PC is targeted to the epidermis (K5-PACE4) may be more susceptible to B(a)P complete carcinogenesis than wild type (WT) mice. In an in vitro experiment, using cell lines derived from skin tumors obtained after B(a)P treatment, we observed that PACE4 overexpression and activity accounts for an increased proliferation rate, exaggerated sensitivity to the PC inhibitor CMK, and interference with IGF-1R autophosphorylation. Squamous cell carcinomas, obtained from K5-PACE4 mice subjected to complete chemical carcinogenesis, were characterized by a 50 % increase in cell proliferation, when compared with similar tumors from WT mice. In addition, tumors from K5-PACE4 mice showed deeper invasion into the underlying dermis. Thus, mice overexpressing PACE4 exhibited tumors of increased growth rate and invasive potential when exposed to the human carcinogen B(a)P, further supporting the significance of PCs in tumor growth and progression. PMID:24845697

  7. Enhanced aggressiveness of benzopyrene-induced squamous carcinomas in transgenic mice overexpressing the proprotein convertase PACE4 (PCSK6).

    PubMed

    Bassi, Daniel E; Cenna, Jonathan; Zhang, Jirong; Cukierman, Edna; Klein-Szanto, Andres J

    2015-10-01

    PACE4 (PCSK6) is a proprotein convertase (PC) capable of processing numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Because of the human relevancy of the tobacco-associated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) we investigated whether transgenic mice in which this PC is targeted to the epidermis (K5-PACE4) may be more susceptible to B(a)P complete carcinogenesis than wild type (WT) mice. In an in vitro experiment, using cell lines derived from skin tumors obtained after B(a)P treatment, we observed that PACE4 overexpression and activity accounts for an increased proliferation rate, exaggerated sensitivity to the PC inhibitor CMK, and interference with IGF-1R autophosphorylation. Squamous cell carcinomas, obtained from K5-PACE4 mice subjected to complete chemical carcinogenesis, were characterized by a 50% increase in cell proliferation, when compared with similar tumors from WT mice. In addition, tumors from K5-PACE4 mice showed deeper invasion into the underlying dermis. Thus, mice overexpressing PACE4 exhibited tumors of increased growth rate and invasive potential when exposed to the human carcinogen B(a)P, further supporting the significance of PCs in tumor growth and progression.

  8. Transgenic mice with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2) develop fragile skin and male sterility.

    PubMed

    Li, S W; Arita, M; Fertala, A; Bao, Y; Kopen, G C; Långsjö, T K; Hyttinen, M M; Helminen, H J; Prockop, D J

    2001-04-15

    Transgenic mice were prepared with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2; where ADAMTS stands for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeats). Homozygous mice were grossly normal at birth, but after 1-2 months they developed thin skin that tore after gentle handling. Although the gene was inactivated, a large fraction of the N-propeptides of type I procollagen in skin and the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were cleaved. Therefore the results suggested the tissues contained one or more additional enzymes that slowly process the proteins. Electron microscopy did not reveal any defects in the morphology of collagen fibrils in newborn mice. However, in two-month-old mice, the collagen fibrils in skin were seen as bizarre curls in cross-section and the mean diameters of the fibrils were approx. half of the controls. Although a portion of the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were not cleaved, no defects in the morphology of the fibrils were seen by electron microscopy or by polarized-light microscopy. Female homozygous mice were fertile, but male mice were sterile with a marked decrease in testicular sperm. Therefore the results indicated that ADAMTS-2 plays an essential role in the maturation of spermatogonia.

  9. Human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice is enhanced by a distant DNase I hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, P T; Liu, D P; Liu, W; Chang, J C; Kan, Y W

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located far upstream of the human beta-globin gene are important in regulating beta-globin gene expression. We used the polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify and clone an 882-base-pair DNA fragment spanning one of these HS, designated HSII, which is located 54 kilobases upstream of the beta-globin gene. The cloned HSII fragment was linked to a human beta-globin gene in either the genomic (HSII-beta) or antigenomic (HSII-beta) orientation. These two constructs and a beta-globin gene alone (beta) were injected into fertilized mouse eggs, and expression was analyzed in liver and brain from day-16 transgenic fetuses. Five of 7 beta-transgenic fetuses expressed human beta-globin mRNA, but the level of expression per gene copy was low, ranging from 0.93 to 22.4% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 9.9%). In contrast, 11 of 12 HSII-beta transgenic fetuses expressed beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy ranging from 31.3 to 336.6% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 139.5%). Only three fetuses containing intact copies of the HSII-beta construct were produced. Two of three expressed human beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy of 179.2 and 387.1%. Expression of human beta-globin mRNA was tissue-specific in all three types of transgenic fetuses. These studies demonstrate that a small DNA fragment containing a single erythroid-specific HS can stimulate high-level human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:2780563

  10. Studies of UCP2 transgenic and knockout mice reveal that liver UCP2 is not essential for the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.

  11. Transgenic Expression of Dominant-Active IDOL in Liver Causes Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna C.; Lee, Stephen D.; Kim, Jason; Van Stijn, Caroline; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hong, Cynthia; Tangirala, Rajendra; Tontonoz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL triggers lysosomal degradation of the LDL receptor. The tissue-specific effects of the IDOL pathway on plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis have not been examined. Objective Given that the liver is the primary determinant of plasma cholesterol levels, we sought to examine the consequence of effect of chronic liver-specific expression of a dominant active form of IDOL in mice. Methods and Results We expressed a degradation-resistant, dominant-active form of IDOL (sIDOL) in C57Bl/6J mice from the liver-specific albumin promoter (L-sIDOL transgenics). L-sIDOL mice were fed a Western diet for 20 or 30 weeks and then analyzed for plasma lipid levels and atherosclerotic lesion formation. L-sIDOL mice showed dramatic reductions in hepatic LDLR protein and increased plasma LDL cholesterol levels on both chow and Western diets. Moreover, L-sIDOL mice developed marked atherosclerotic lesions when fed a Western diet. Lesion formation in L-sIDOL mice was more robust than in ApoE*3 Leiden mice and did not require the addition of cholate to the diet. Western diet-fed L-sIDOL mice had elevated expression of LXR target genes and pro-inflammatory genes in their aortas. Conclusions Liver-specific expression of dominant-active IDOL is associated with hypercholesterolemia and a marked elevation in atherosclerotic lesions. Our results show that increased activity of the IDOL pathway in the liver can override other LDLR regulatory pathways leading to cardiovascular disease. L-sIDOL mice are a robust, dominantly-inherited, diet-inducible model for the study of atherosclerosis. PMID:24935961

  12. Host-dependent Lewis (Le) antigen expression in Helicobacter pylori cells recovered from Leb-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Gallo, Judith; Guruge, Janaki L.; Tse, Doris B.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Variation of surface antigen expression is a mechanism used by microbes to adapt to and persist within their host habitats. Helicobacter pylori, a persistent bacterial colonizer of the human stomach, can alter its surface Lewis (Le) antigen expression. We examined H. pylori colonization in mice to test the hypothesis that host phenotype selects for H. pylori (Le) phenotypes. When wild-type and Leb-expressing transgenic FVB/N mice were challenged with H. pylori strain HP1, expressing Lex and Ley, we found that bacterial populations recovered after 8 mo from Leb-transgenic, but not wild-type, mice expressed Leb. Changes in Le phenotype were linked to variation of a putative galactosyltransferase gene (β-(1,3)galT); mutagenesis and complementation revealed its essential role in type I antigen expression. These studies indicate that H. pylori evolves to resemble the host's gastric Le phenotype, and reveal a bacterial genetic locus that is subject to host-driven selection pressure. PMID:20008521

  13. Identification of novel human aggrecan T cell epitopes in HLA-B27 transgenic mice associated with spondyloarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Wolfgang; Kuhne, Maren; Busch, Dirk H; Atagunduz, Pamir; Seipel, Martina; Wu, Peihua; Morawietz, Lars; Fernahl, Gabriele; Appel, Heiner; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Krenn, Veit; Sieper, Joachim

    2004-10-15

    The pathology of ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and other spondyloarthropathies (SpA) is closely associated with the human leukocyte class I Ag HLA-B27. A characteristic finding in SpA is inflammation of cartilage structures of the joint, in particular at the site of ligament/tendon and bone junction (enthesitis). In this study, we investigated the role of CD8+ T cells in response to the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan as a potential candidate autoantigen in BALB/c-B27 transgenic mice. We identified four new HLA-B27-restricted nonamer peptides, one of them (no. 67) with a particularly strong T cell immunogenicity. Peptide no. 67 immunization was capable of stimulating HLA-B27-restricted, CD8+ T cells in BALB/c-B27 transgenic animals, but not in wild-type BALB/c mice. The peptide was specifically recognized on P815-B27 transfectants by HLA-B27-restricted CTLs, which were also detectable by HLA tetramer staining ex vivo as well as in situ. Most importantly, analysis of the joints from peptide no. 67-immunized mice induced typical histological signs of SpA. Our data indicate that HLA-B27-restricted epitopes derived from human aggrecan are involved in the induction of inflammation (tenosynovitis), underlining the importance of HLA-B27 in the pathogenesis of SpA.

  14. Functional conservation of Pax6 regulatory elements in humans and mice demonstrated with a novel transgenic reporter mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, David A; Simpson, T Ian; Carr, Catherine B; Kleinjan, Dirk A; van Heyningen, Veronica; Mason, John O; Price, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background The Pax6 transcription factor is expressed during development in the eyes and in specific CNS regions, where it is essential for normal cell proliferation and differentiation. Mice lacking one or both copies of the Pax6 gene model closely humans with loss-of-function mutations in the PAX6 locus. The sequence of the Pax6/PAX6 protein is identical in mice and humans and previous studies have shown structural conservation of the gene's regulatory regions. Results We generated a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin resistance under the control of the entire complement of human PAX6 regulatory elements using a modified yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). Expression of GFP was studied in embryos from 9.5 days on and was confined to cells known to express Pax6. GFP expression was sufficiently strong that expressing cells could be distinguished from non-expressing cells using flow cytometry. Conclusion This work demonstrates the functional conservation of the regulatory elements controlling Pax6/PAX6 expression in mice and humans. The transgene provides an excellent tool for studying the functions of different Pax6/PAX6 regulatory elements in controlling Pax6 expression in animals that are otherwise normal. It will allow the analysis and isolation of cells in which Pax6 is activated, irrespective of the status of the endogenous locus. PMID:16674807

  15. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    El Bissati, Kamal; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Krishack, Paulette A.; Zhou, Ying; Woods, Stuart; Dubey, Jitender P.; Vang, Lo; Lykins, Joseph; Broderick, Kate E.; Mui, Ernest; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sa, Qila; Bi, Stephanie; Cardona, Nestor; Verma, Shiv K.; Frazeck, Laura; Reardon, Catherine A.; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Vedvick, Tom; Fox, Chris; Guderian, Jeffrey A.; Reed, Steven; Roberts, Craig W.

    2016-01-01

    We created and tested multi-epitope DNA or protein vaccines with TLR4 ligand emulsion adjuvant (gluco glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion [GLA-SE]) for their ability to protect against Toxoplasma gondii in HLA transgenic mice. Our constructs each included 5 of our best down-selected CD8+ T cell–eliciting epitopes, a universal CD4+ helper T lymphocyte epitope (PADRE), and a secretory signal, all arranged for optimal MHC-I presentation. Their capacity to elicit immune and protective responses was studied using immunization of HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice. These multi-epitope vaccines increased memory CD8+ T cells that produced IFN-γ and protected mice against parasite burden when challenged with T. gondii. Endocytosis of emulsion-trapped protein and cross presentation of the antigens must account for the immunogenicity of our adjuvanted protein. Thus, our work creates an adjuvanted platform assembly of peptides resulting in cross presentation of CD8+ T cell–eliciting epitopes in a vaccine that prevents toxoplasmosis. PMID:27699241

  16. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    El Bissati, Kamal; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Krishack, Paulette A; Zhou, Ying; Woods, Stuart; Dubey, Jitender P; Vang, Lo; Lykins, Joseph; Broderick, Kate E; Mui, Ernest; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sa, Qila; Bi, Stephanie; Cardona, Nestor; Verma, Shiv K; Frazeck, Laura; Reardon, Catherine A; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Vedvick, Tom; Fox, Chris; Guderian, Jeffrey A; Reed, Steven; Roberts, Craig W; McLeod, Rima

    2016-09-22

    We created and tested multi-epitope DNA or protein vaccines with TLR4 ligand emulsion adjuvant (gluco glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion [GLA-SE]) for their ability to protect against Toxoplasma gondii in HLA transgenic mice. Our constructs each included 5 of our best down-selected CD8(+) T cell-eliciting epitopes, a universal CD4(+) helper T lymphocyte epitope (PADRE), and a secretory signal, all arranged for optimal MHC-I presentation. Their capacity to elicit immune and protective responses was studied using immunization of HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice. These multi-epitope vaccines increased memory CD8(+) T cells that produced IFN-γ and protected mice against parasite burden when challenged with T. gondii. Endocytosis of emulsion-trapped protein and cross presentation of the antigens must account for the immunogenicity of our adjuvanted protein. Thus, our work creates an adjuvanted platform assembly of peptides resulting in cross presentation of CD8(+) T cell-eliciting epitopes in a vaccine that prevents toxoplasmosis.

  17. Production of functional human nerve growth factor from the saliva of transgenic mice by using salivary glands as bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Zhu, Qingchun; Dong, Rui; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Guoling; Li, Guo; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Zheng, Enqin; Cai, Gengyuan; Moisyadi, Stefan; Urschitz, Johann; Yang, Huaqiang; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2017-01-01

    The salivary glands of animals have great potential to act as powerful bioreactors to produce human therapeutic proteins. Human nerve growth factor (hNGF) is an important pharmaceutical protein that is clinically effective in the treatment of many human neuronal and non-neuronal diseases. In this study, we generated 18 transgenic (TG) founder mice each carrying a salivary gland specific promoter-driven hNGF transgene. A TG mouse line secreting high levels of hNGF protein in its saliva (1.36 μg/mL) was selected. hNGF protein was successfully purified from the saliva of these TG mice and its identity was verified. The purified hNGF was highly functional as it displayed the ability to induce neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Furthermore, it strongly promoted proliferation of TF1 cells, above the levels observed with mouse NGF. Additionally, saliva collected from TG mice and containing unpurified hNGF was able to significantly enhance the growth of TF1 cells. This study not only provides a new and efficient approach for the synthesis of therapeutic hNGF but also supports the concept that salivary gland from TG animals is an efficient system for production of valuable foreign proteins. PMID:28117418

  18. Transgenic Mice Enriched in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Are More Susceptible to Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Impaired Resistance to Tuberculosis in fat-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Diana L.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.; McMurray, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Besides their health benefits, dietary omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can impair host resistance to intracellular pathogens. Previously, we and others have showed that n-3 PUFA–treated macrophages poorly control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in vitro. Methods Wild-type and fat-1 transgenic mice were infected with virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis via the aerosol route. We evaluated bacteriological and histopathological changes in lungs, as well as differences in activation and antimycobacterial capacity in primary macrophages ex vivo. Results fat-1 mice were more susceptible to tuberculosis, as demonstrated by higher bacterial loads and less robust inflammatory responses in lungs. Macrophages obtained from fat-1 mice were more readily infected with M. tuberculosis in vitro, compared with wild-type macrophages. This impaired bacterial control in cells from fat-1 mice correlated with reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion, impaired oxidative metabolism, and diminished M. tuberculosis–lysotracker colocalization within phagosomes. Conclusions We showed that endogenous production of n-3 PUFAs in fat-1 mice increases their susceptibility to tuberculosis, which could be explained in part by diminished activation and antimycobacterial responses in cells from fat-1 mice. These data suggest that n-3 PUFA–supplemented diets might have a detrimental effect on immunity to M. tuberculosis and raise concerns regarding the safety of omega-3 dietary supplementation in humans. PMID:20053136

  19. Overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in the epidermis of transgenic mice: inhibition or stimulation of proliferation depending on the pattern of transgene expression and formation of psoriatic lesions