Science.gov

Sample records for a318 a319 a320

  1. 76 FR 16582 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... to revise the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness... Airbus A318/A319/ A320/A321 ALS Part 1--Safe Life Airworthiness Limitation Items, dated February 28, 2006... included in Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS). The airworthiness...

  2. 76 FR 42024 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... limitations are currently included in Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS). The... Safety Agency (EASA) and referenced in Airbus Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) Part 2. The issue...: Revise Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) To Incorporate Safe Life ALIs (g) For Model A318-111 and...

  3. 77 FR 64029 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes because of a novel or unusual design feature, special... Unusual Design Features The Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes with modification 160500...

  4. 76 FR 64854 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...-1087; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-032-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318... comments to an address listed under the ADDRESSES section. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2011-1087; Directorate... new AD: Airbus: Docket No. FAA-2011-1087; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM- 032-AD. Comments Due Date (a...

  5. 75 FR 68548 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...: One case of elevator servo-control disconnection has been experienced on an aeroplane of the A320 family. Investigation has revealed that the failure occurred at the servo-control rod eye-end. Further to... servo-control rod eye-ends. In several cases, both actuators of the same elevator surface were affected...

  6. 77 FR 64023 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Roll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... airplanes with modification 160023 (Sharklet). These airplanes will have novel or unusual design features..., A320, and A321 series airplanes because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are... model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already...

  7. 76 FR 57630 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... surface. Request To Change Compliance Time Delta Air Lines (Delta) recommended that paragraph (g) of the... Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-27A1186, Revision 05, dated March 10, 2010. Delta stated that the current... the service bulletin wording. Delta also stated that the FAA AD wording does not give acceptance to...

  8. 75 FR 27414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... occurrences of loss of the AC [alternating current] BUS 1 have been reported which led in some instances to the loss of the AC ESS [essential] BUS and DC [direct current] ESS BUS and connected systems. The... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Several occurrences of loss of the AC [alternating...

  9. 75 FR 8003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Several occurrences of loss of the AC [alternating current] BUS 1 have been reported which led in some instances to the loss of the AC ESS [essential... MCAI states: Several occurrences of loss of the AC [alternating current] BUS 1 have been reported which...

  10. 75 FR 11439 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... the erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) (for certain configurations) in addition to... A320-31-1286, dated January 22, 2008; for related information. Material Incorporated by Reference (i.... For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221 or 425-227-1152. (4...

  11. 76 FR 56279 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... to socket arcing at the Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) feeder cable pylon/nacelle interface connector. The fretting corrosion phenomenon was identified to be the root cause of the pin to socket arcing... products. The MCAI states: In service experience has shown a number of events of pin to socket arcing at...

  12. 75 FR 52246 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... 2006. Table of Contents 1-TOC 9 November 2006. Section 1--Introduction 1--7 9 November 2006. Section 2... Revisions 1-ROR through None shown October 2009. 4[dash]ROR. Table of Contents 1-TOC None shown October 2009...

  13. 76 FR 37241 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Aircraft Monitoring] warnings during the landing gear retraction or extension sequence. * * * * * This... [Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring] warnings during the landing gear retraction or extension sequence... [Electronic Centralised Aircraft [[Page 37243

  14. 75 FR 68181 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... after receipt. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2010... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new...

  15. 77 FR 64025 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Interaction of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... series airplanes with modification 160023 (Sharklet). These airplanes will have novel or unusual design... novel or unusual design features on the model series of airplanes listed above. It is not a rule of... Series Airplanes; Interaction of Systems and Structures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  16. 75 FR 16689 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... other areas (splice/lower rib/upper edge/leading edge/other specified locations), and elasticity laminate checks for de-bonding of the rudders in the trailing edge area and other areas (splice/lower rib/upper edge/leading edge/other specified locations). Corrective actions include contacting Airbus for...

  17. 75 FR 46873 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318-111 and A318-112 Airplanes and Model A319, A320, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... fittings of the 80VU rack, typically elongated holes, migrated bushes [bushings], and/or missing bolts have... with a high load factor or strong vibration could lead to failure of the rack structure and/or... rack contains computers for Flight Controls, Communication and Radio-navigation. These functions are...

  18. 75 FR 75878 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318-111 and A318-112 Airplanes and Model A319, A320, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2008... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  19. 75 FR 12965 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Seats With Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...-traditional, large, non-metallic panels. In order to provide a level of safety that is equivalent to that... Airplanes; Seats With Non-Traditional, Large, Non-Metallic Panels AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with seats that include non-traditional, large, non...

  20. 76 FR 27863 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111, A319-112, A319-115, A319-132, A319-133...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... aeroplane. In addition, this condition could lead to a non detected passenger oxygen loss, which, in case of emergency, could result in a large number of passenger oxygen masks not being supplied with oxygen, possibly... a non detected passenger oxygen loss, which, in case of emergency, could result in a large number of...

  1. 77 FR 32060 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... currently requires revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for Continued... limitations are currently published in the Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS... Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 ALS Part 5. The issue 4 of Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 FAL Document introduces...

  2. 76 FR 67625 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319 and A320 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sanjay Ralhan, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116... appropriate. If sending information directly to the International Branch, send it to ATTN: Sanjay Ralhan...

  3. Classification and Prediction of RF Coupling inside A-320 and A-319 Airplanes using Feed Forward Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Neural Network Modeling is introduced in this paper to classify and predict Interference Path Loss measurements on Airbus 319 and 320 airplanes. Interference patterns inside the aircraft are classified and predicted based on the locations of the doors, windows, aircraft structures and the communication/navigation system-of-concern. Modeled results are compared with measured data and a plan is proposed to enhance the modeling for better prediction of electromagnetic coupling problems inside aircraft.

  4. 14 CFR 125.509 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340... comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320...

  5. 14 CFR 125.509 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340... comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320...

  6. 14 CFR 125.509 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340... comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320...

  7. 14 CFR 125.509 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340... comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320...

  8. 78 FR 49213 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Airbus aeroplanes are currently published in Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) documents. The... Airbus A318/A319/A320/ A321 ALS Part 1, which is approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 ALS Part 1 original issue. Failure to comply with the instructions of ALS Part...

  9. 77 FR 63716 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    .... That AD currently requires revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for... published in the Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS). The Fuel Airworthiness... approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and referenced in the Airbus A318/A319/A320/A321 ALS...

  10. 14 CFR 129.117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of § 26.33 of this chapter is operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319.... Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A300, A310 Series... modified to comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 3 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319...

  11. 14 CFR 129.117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of § 26.33 of this chapter is operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319.... Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A300, A310 Series... modified to comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 3 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319...

  12. 14 CFR 129.117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of § 26.33 of this chapter is operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319.... Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A300, A310 Series... modified to comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 3 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319...

  13. 75 FR 31282 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319-100, A320-200, A321-100, and A321-200 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 12, 2006. The error resulted in an incorrect component maintenance... related investigative and corrective actions if necessary. DATES: This correction is effective June 3... wall-mounted cabin attendant seat, and related investigative and corrective actions if necessary. As...

  14. 76 FR 61641 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319-111, -112, and -132 Airplanes; Model A320-111, -211...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    .... Comments will be available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sanjay... International Branch, send it to ATTN: Sanjay Ralhan, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116...

  15. 14 CFR 125.509 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340... comply with § 26.33(c) of this chapter. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320... Herald Type 300. (14) Avions Marcel Dassault—Breguet Aviation Mercure 100C. (15) Airbus Caravelle. (16...

  16. 14 CFR 121.1117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340 Series 777 Series 767... subject to the extension. Table 2 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737... Dassault—Breguet Aviation Mercure 100C. (15) Airbus Caravelle. (16) Fokker F-27/Fairchild Hiller FH-227...

  17. Characterization of a new phage, termed ϕA318, which is specific for Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Rong; Chiu, Chi-Wen; Chang, Feng-Yi; Lin, Chan-Shing

    2012-05-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans; its related strains can also produce tetrodotoxin and hemolysins. A new phage, ϕA318, which lysed its host V. alginolyticus with high efficiency, was characterized. The burst size of ϕA318 in V. alginolyticus was 72 PFU/bacterium at an MOI of 1 at room temperature; the plaque size was as large as 5 mm in diameter. Electron microscopy (EM) of the phage particles revealed a 50- to 55-nm isomorphous icosahedral head with a 12-nm non-contractile tail, similar to the T7-like phages of the family Podoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequences of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase gene revealed that ϕA318 had 28-47% amino acid identity to enterobacteria phages T7 and SP6, and other Vibrio phages, and the phylogenetic distance suggested that ϕA318 could be classified as a new T7-like bacteriophage. Nevertheless, several motifs in the ϕA318 phage RNA polymerase were highly conserved, including DFRGR (T7-421 motif), DG (T7-537 motif), PSEKPQDIYGAVS (T7-563 motif), RSMTKKPVMTL PYGS (T7-627 motif), and HDS (T7-811 motif). Genetic analysis indicated that phage ϕA318 is not a thermostable direct hemolysin producer. The results suggest that the MOI should be higher than 0.1 to prevent the chance of hemolysin production by the bacteria before they are lysed by the phage.

  18. Relationships Between Solidification Parameters in A319 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersluis, E.; Ravindran, C.

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-performance materials depends on a comprehensive understanding of the alloy-specific relationships between solidification and properties. However, the inconsistent use of a particular solidification parameter for presenting materials characterization in the literature impedes inter-study comparability and the interpretation of findings. Therefore, there is a need for accurate expressions relating the solidification parameters for each alloy. In this study, A319 aluminum alloy castings were produced in a permanent mold with various preheating temperatures in order to control metal cooling. Analysis of the cooling curve for each casting enabled the identification of its liquidus, Al-Si eutectic, and solidus temperatures and times. These values led to the calculation of the primary solidification rate, total solidification rate, primary solidification time, and local solidification time for each casting, which were related to each other as well as to the average casting SDAS and material hardness. Expressions for each of their correlations have been presented with high coefficients of determination, which will aid in microstructural prediction and casting design.

  19. Optimization of Coolant Technique Conditions for Machining A319 Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Ariffin, S.; Razlan, A.; Ali, M. Mohd; Efendee, A. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Background/Objectives: The paper discusses about the optimum cutting parameters with coolant techniques condition (1.0 mm nozzle orifice, wet and dry) to optimize surface roughness, temperature and tool wear in the machining process based on the selected setting parameters. The selected cutting parameters for this study were the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and coolant techniques condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis Experiments were conducted and investigated based on Design of Experiment (DOE) with Response Surface Method. The research of the aggressive machining process on aluminum alloy (A319) for automotive applications is an effort to understand the machining concept, which widely used in a variety of manufacturing industries especially in the automotive industry. Findings: The results show that the dominant failure mode is the surface roughness, temperature and tool wear when using 1.0 mm nozzle orifice, increases during machining and also can be alternative minimize built up edge of the A319. The exploration for surface roughness, productivity and the optimization of cutting speed in the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of A319 are discussed in automotive components industries for further work Applications/Improvements: The research result also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms. According to the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based RSM, experiments were performed and cutting coolant condition technique using size nozzle can reduces tool wear, surface roughness and temperature was obtained. Results have been analyzed and optimization has been carried out for selecting cutting parameters, shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the system can be identified and helps to solve potential problems.

  20. 78 FR 19085 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of oil residue... (MCAI) states: During Airbus Final Assembly Line flight tests, AoA [angle of attack] data from two...

  1. 77 FR 57003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a torn out.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-18-12 Airbus: Amendment 39-17189...

  2. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. AD 2012- 26-51 required revising the...''), to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Recently, an Airbus A330...

  3. 77 FR 60325 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) that would supersede an existing AD for certain Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  4. 77 FR 73340 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series..., contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  5. 77 FR 70369 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of the escape... the escape slide raft, which could result in delayed evacuation from the airplane during an emergency...

  6. 14 CFR 129.117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of § 26.33 of this chapter is operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340 Series 777 Series 767 Series (c) Auxiliary Fuel Tanks. After... within the compliance times specified in paragraph (e) of this section. (2) Except in accordance with...

  7. 14 CFR 129.117 - Flammability reduction means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of § 26.33 of this chapter is operational. Table 1 Model—Boeing Model—Airbus 747 Series A318, A319, A320, A321 Series 737 Series A330, A340 Series 777 Series 767 Series (c) Auxiliary Fuel Tanks. After... within the compliance times specified in paragraph (e) of this section. (2) Except in accordance with...

  8. Medico-legal investigations of the Airbus, A320 crash upon Mount Ste-Odile, France.

    PubMed

    Ludes, B; Tracqui, A; Pfitzinger, H; Kintz, P; Levy, F; Disteldorf, M; Hutt, J M; Kaess, B; Haag, R; Memheld, B

    1994-09-01

    The authors present the medico-legal investigations and identification after the aircrash of the Airbus A320 upon the Mount Sainte-Odile (France). The identification team comprising investigators from the gendarmerie, forensic pathologists, odontologists, and scientists of the Institute from Legal Medecine rapidly retrieved and identified 85 of the 87 victims, with 17 being identified through DNA typing, three through fingerprints and the remaining through dental records and specific physical or X-ray findings. Full autopsies were performed on all fatalities to determine patterns of injury and cause of death. Results lead us to point out the importance of a multidisciplinary team of forensic practitioners especially trained for managing medico-legal investigation in mass disaster and the ability of DNA technology to solve complex identification problems.

  9. A 320-year AMM+SOI Index Reconstruction from Historical Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, M.; Divine, D.

    2010-12-01

    Trends in the frequency of North Atlantic tropical cyclones, including major hurricanes, are dominated by those originating in the deep tropics. In addition, these tropical cyclones are stronger when making landfall and their total power dissipation is higher than storms forming elsewhere in the Atlantic basin. Both the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the leading modes of coupled air-sea interaction in the Atlantic and Pacific, respectively, and have well-established relationships with Atlantic hurricane variability. Here we use a 320-year record of tropical cyclone activity in the Lesser Antilles region of the North Atlantic from historical manuscript and newspaper records to reconstruct a normalized seasonal (July-October) index combining the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and AMM employing both the modern analog technique and back-propagation artificial neural networks. Our results indicate that the AMM+SOI index since 1690 shows no long-term trend but is dominated by both short-term (<10 years) and long-term (quasi-decadal to bi-decadal) variations. The decadal-scale variation is consistent with both instrumental and proxy records elsewhere from the global tropics. Distinct periods of high and low index values, corresponding to high and low tropical cyclone frequency, are regularly-appearing features in the record and provides further evidence that natural decadal -scale variability in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency must be accounted for when determining trends in records and attribution of climate change.

  10. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-10-17

    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  11. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...—Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series A300, A310 Series A330, A340 Series (d) Design Changes and Service...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel...

  12. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series A300, A310 Series A330, A340 Series (d) Design Changes and Service...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel...

  13. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series A300, A310 Series A330, A340 Series (d) Design Changes and Service...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel...

  14. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...—Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series A300, A310 Series A330, A340 Series (d) Design Changes and Service...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel...

  15. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Series A300, A310 Series A330, A340 Series (d) Design Changes and Service...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel...

  16. Creep Properties of the As-Cast Al-A319 Alloy: T4 and T7 Heat Treatment Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanian-Naziftoosi, Hamid R.; Rincón, Ernesto J.; López, Hugo F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the creep behavior of a commercial Al-A319 alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 413 K to 533 K (140 °C to 260 °C). Tensile creep specimens in the as-cast condition and after heat treating by solid solution (T4) and by aging (T7) were tested in a stress range varying from 60 to 170 MPa. It was found that steady-state creep strain rate was significantly low in the T7 condition when compared with either the T4 or as-cast alloy conditions. As a result, the time to failure behavior considerably increased. The experimentally determined creep exponents measured from the stress-strain curves were 4 for the as-cast alloy, 7.5 in the solid solution, and 9.5 after aging. In particular, after solid solution a grain substructure was found to develop which indicated that creep in a constant subgrain structure was active, thus accounting for the n exponent of 7.5. In the aged condition, a stress threshold is considered to account for the power law creep exponent n of 9.5. Moreover, It was found that the creep activation energy values were rather similar for the alloys in the as-cast (134 kJ/mol) and T4 (146 kJ/mol) conditions. These values are close to the one corresponding to pure Al self-diffusion (143 kJ/mol). In the aged alloy, the apparent creep activation energy (202 kJ/mol) exceeded that corresponding to Al self-diffusion. This deviation in activation energy is attributed to the effect of temperature on the alloy elastic modulus. Microstructural observations using transmission electron microscopy provided further support for the various dislocation-microstructure interactions exhibited by the alloy under the investigated creep conditions and implemented heat treatments.

  17. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Aluminum (A319)—SiCp Metallic Composites by Centrifugal Casting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, E.; Jacob, Jibin C.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Joseph, M. A.; Pai, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) are successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of engineering components with location-specific properties. The present study describes the processing and characterization of A319 Aluminum functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC) with 10 and 15 wt pct SiCp reinforcements. The liquid stir casting method is used for composite melt preparation followed by FGMMC formation by vertical centrifugal casting method. The process parameters used are the mold preheating temperature of 523 K (250 °C), melt pouring temperature of 1013 K (740 °C), and mold rotation speed of 1300 rpm. The study analyzes the distribution and concentration of reinforcement particles in the radial direction of the FGMMC disk along with the effects of gradation on density, hardness, mechanical strength, the variation in coefficient of thermal expansion and the wear resistance properties at different zones. Microstructures of FGMMC reveal an outward radial gradient distribution of reinforcements forming different zones. Namely, matrix-rich inner, transition, particles-rich outer, and chill zone of a few millimeters thick at the outer most periphery of the casting are formed. From 10-FGM, a radial shift in the position of SiCp maxima is observed in 15-FGM casting. The mechanical characterization depicts enhanced properties for the particle-rich zone. The hardness shows a graded nature in correlation with particle concentration and a maximum of 94.4 HRB has been obtained at the particle-rich region of 15-FGM. In the particle-rich zone, the lowest CTE value of 20.1 µm/mK is also observed with a compressive strength of 650 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 279 MPa. The wear resistance is higher at the particle-rich zone of the FGMMC.

  18. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320.

    PubMed

    Sarter, N B; Woods, D D

    1997-12-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  19. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, N. B.; Woods, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  20. 3D CT cerebral angiography technique using a 320-detector machine with a time-density curve and low contrast medium volume: comparison with fixed time delay technique.

    PubMed

    Das, K; Biswas, S; Roughley, S; Bhojak, M; Niven, S

    2014-03-01

    To describe a cerebral computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique using a 320-detector CT machine and a small contrast medium volume (35 ml, 15 ml for test bolus). Also, to compare the quality of these images with that of the images acquired using a larger contrast medium volume (90 or 120 ml) and a fixed time delay (FTD) of 18 s using a 16-detector CT machine. Cerebral CTA images were acquired using a 320-detector machine by synchronizing the scanning time with the time of peak enhancement as determined from the time-density curve (TDC) using a test bolus dose. The quality of CTA images acquired using this technique was compared with that obtained using a FTD of 18 s (by 16-detector CT), retrospectively. Average densities in four different intracranial arteries, overall opacification of arteries, and the degree of venous contamination were graded and compared. Thirty-eight patients were scanned using the TDC technique and 40 patients using the FTD technique. The arterial densities achieved by the TDC technique were higher (significant for supraclinoid and basilar arteries, p < 0.05). The proportion of images deemed as having "good" arterial opacification was 95% for TDC and 90% for FTD. The degree of venous contamination was significantly higher in images produced by the FTD technique (p < 0.001%). Good diagnostic quality CTA images with significant reduction of venous contamination can be achieved with a low contrast medium dose using a 320-detector machine by coupling the time of data acquisition with the time of peak enhancement. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 71996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111, A319-112, A319-115, A319-132, and A319-133 airplanes. This AD was... developing this AD. We have considered the comments received. Request To Refer to Revised EASA AD Airbus...

  2. 14 CFR 121.1115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... weight is a result of an original type certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to... A300-600 Series 30 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 30 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 30 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  3. 14 CFR 129.115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to foreign air carriers or foreign persons... A300-600 Series 30 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 30 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 30 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  4. 14 CFR 121.1115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... weight is a result of an original type certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to... A300-600 Series 60 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 60 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 60 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  5. 14 CFR 121.1115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... weight is a result of an original type certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to... A300-600 Series 30 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 30 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 30 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  6. 14 CFR 129.115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to foreign air carriers or foreign persons... A300-600 Series 60 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 60 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 60 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  7. 14 CFR 129.115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to foreign air carriers or foreign persons... A300-600 Series 60 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 60 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 60 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  8. 14 CFR 121.1115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... weight is a result of an original type certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to... A300-600 Series 60 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 60 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 60 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  9. 14 CFR 129.115 - Limit of validity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificate or a later design change. This section also applies to foreign air carriers or foreign persons... A300-600 Series 30 30,000 FC/67,500 FH A310-200 Series 30 40,000 FC/60,000 FH A310-300 Series 30 35,000 FC/60,000 FH A318 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A319 Series 60 48,000 FC/60,000 FH A320-100 Series 60...

  10. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M. S.; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  11. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms.

    PubMed

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M S; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-07-17

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  12. Simulation of the concomitant process of nucleation-growth-coarsening of Al2Cu particles in a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Larouche, D.; Cailletaud, G.; Guillot, I.; Massinon, D.

    2015-06-01

    The precipitation of Al2Cu particles in a 319 T7 aluminum alloy has been modeled. A theoretical approach enables the concomitant computation of nucleation, growth and coarsening. The framework is based on an implicit scheme using the finite differences. The equation of continuity is discretized in time and space in order to obtain a matricial form. The inversion of a tridiagonal matrix gives way to determining the evolution of the size distribution of Al2Cu particles at t  +Δt. The fluxes of in-between the boundaries are computed in order to respect the conservation of the mass of the system, as well as the fluxes at the boundaries. The essential results of the model are compared to TEM measurements. Simulations provide quantitative features on the impact of the cooling rate on the size distribution of particles. They also provide results in agreement with the TEM measurements. This kind of multiscale approach allows new perspectives to be examined in the process of designing highly loaded components such as cylinder heads. It enables a more precise prediction of the microstructure and its evolution as a function of continuous cooling rates.

  13. 77 FR 42952 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112 and -121 airplanes; Model A319-111, -112, -115, - 132, and -133 airplanes; Model... MCAI states: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N...

  14. 78 FR 14029 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...-0096; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-143-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111... Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone...

  15. 75 FR 3983 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ..., German, or EASA airworthiness certificate or the date of issuance of the original French, German, or EASA..., under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), the Office of Management...

  16. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  17. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...-1321; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320-211, -212, -214, -231, -232, and -233 airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes that would...

  18. Animal model for evaluation of topical photoprotection against ultraviolet A (320-380 nm) radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, S.; DeLeo, V.A.; Harber, L.C.

    Recent studies reporting UVA (ultraviolet A radiation 320-380 nm) as an integral part of the cumulative sun-induced damage in human skin have prompted an interest in developing effective UVA photoprotective agents. The development of such compounds has been impeded by the absence of a clinically relevant animal model for evaluating their efficacy. This report describes the development and use of such a laboratory animal system. Selected concentrations of oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) in vehicle (0.1% to 6%) or vehicle alone were applied to the depilated dorsal skin of 30 Hartley strain female albino guinea pigs. The skin was irradiated with solar simulatedmore » UVA from a xenon light source. Acute radiation-induced damage was assayed by erythema grading and inhibition of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into epidermal DNA. Data from erythema grading studies indicated that a significant degree of photoprotection was achieved with 6%, 3%, and 1% solutions of benzophenone compared with the control vehicle; the 6% solution was significantly more photoprotective than the 3% and 1% solutions. A 6% solution afforded significant photoprotection when assayed by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation.« less

  19. 76 FR 19714 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A320-214, -232, and -233 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sanjay Ralhan, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch... ATTN: Sanjay Ralhan, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate...

  20. 76 FR 50113 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A320-214, -232, and -233 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    .... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new...

  1. 78 FR 6198 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3238); Certification of Cooktops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ..., electrical resistance, and fire extinguishing including cooking oil fires for light duty and heavy duty... operation and will not create a hazardous condition even with cooking oil in the cooktop. Discussion of... the cooktop is unattended, which would prohibit a single person from cooking on the cooktop and...

  2. 77 FR 51944 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3238); Certification of Cooktops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...: Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for... way, executive lounge, two private lounges, and a private bathroom. The entry will include the.... If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do...

  3. 75 FR 35 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3886); Certification of a Cooktop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ..., include with your comments a self-addressed, stamped postcard on which the docket number appears. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On December 5, 2008, Bizjet... sources and the presence of relatively unrestrained hot cookware and heated food. These may represent...

  4. Interference Path Loss Prediction in A319/320 Airplanes Using Modulated Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha J.; Ely, Jay J.; Vahala, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, neural network (NN) modeling is combined with fuzzy logic to estimate Interference Path Loss measurements on Airbus 319 and 320 airplanes. Interference patterns inside the aircraft are classified and predicted based on the locations of the doors, windows, aircraft structures and the communication/navigation system-of-concern. Modeled results are compared with measured data. Combining fuzzy logic and NN modeling is shown to improve estimates of measured data over estimates obtained with NN alone. A plan is proposed to enhance the modeling for better prediction of electromagnetic coupling problems inside aircraft.

  5. Exploring the atomic structure and conformational flexibility of a 320 Å long engineered viral fiber using X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, Anshul; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Cingolani, Gino, E-mail: gino.cingolani@jefferson.edu

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of a ∼320 Å long protein fiber generated by in-frame extension of its repeated helical coiled-coil core. Protein fibers are widespread in nature, but only a limited number of high-resolution structures have been determined experimentally. Unlike globular proteins, fibers are usually recalcitrant to form three-dimensional crystals, preventing single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the absence of three-dimensional crystals, X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool to determine the internal symmetry of a fiber, but it rarely yields atomic resolution structural information on complex protein fibers. An 85-residue-long minimal coiled-coil repeat unit (MiCRU) was previously identifiedmore » in the trimeric helical core of tail needle gp26, a fibrous protein emanating from the tail apparatus of the bacteriophage P22 virion. Here, evidence is provided that an MiCRU can be inserted in frame inside the gp26 helical core to generate a rationally extended fiber (gp26-2M) which, like gp26, retains a trimeric quaternary structure in solution. The 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure of this engineered fiber, which measures ∼320 Å in length and is only 20–35 Å wide, was determined. This structure, the longest for a trimeric protein fiber to be determined to such a high resolution, reveals the architecture of 22 consecutive trimerization heptads and provides a framework to decipher the structural determinants for protein fiber assembly, stability and flexibility.« less

  6. MT3250BA: a 320×256-50µm snapshot microbolometer ROIC for high-resistance detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer readout integrated circuit (MT3250BA) designed for high-resistance detector arrays. MT3250BA is the first microbolometer readout integrated circuit (ROIC) product from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic CMOS imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid photonic imaging sensors and microbolometers. MT3250BA has a format of 320 × 256 and a pixel pitch of 50 µm, developed with a system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT3250BA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. MT3250BA has 2 analog video outputs and 1 analog reference output for pseudo-differential operation, and the ROIC can be programmed to operate in the 1 or 2-output modes. A unique feature of MT3250BA is that it performs snapshot readout operation; therefore, the image quality will only be limited by the thermal time constant of the detector pixels, but not by the scanning speed of the ROIC, as commonly found in the conventional microbolometer ROICs performing line-by-line (rolling-line) readout operation. The signal integration is performed at the pixel level in parallel for the whole array, and signal integration time can be programmed from 0.1 µs up to 100 ms in steps of 0.1 µs. The ROIC is designed to work with high-resistance detector arrays with pixel resistance values higher than 250 kΩ. The detector bias voltage can be programmed on-chip over a 2 V range with a resolution of 1 mV. The ROIC has a measured input referred noise of 260 µV rms at 300 K. The ROIC can be used to build a microbolometer infrared sensor with an NETD value below 100 mK using a microbolometer detector array fabrication technology with a high detector resistance value (≥ 250 KΩ), a high TCR value (≥ 2.5 % / K), and a sufficiently low pixel thermal conductance (Gth ≤ 20 nW / K). The ROIC uses a single 3.3 V supply voltage and dissipates less than 75 mW in the 1-output mode at 60 fps. MT3250BA is fabricated using a mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and tested wafers are available with test data and wafer map. A USB based compact test electronics and software are available for quick evaluation of this new microbolometer ROIC.

  7. Conceptual and Information Structure: A Comparison of the Boeing 757/767, A320, and Universal Flight Management Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-03-17

    The Flight Management System (FMS) is the principal means by which navigation and in-flight : performance optimization take place in most current aircarriers and many business jets. The : FMS integrates conventional airplane avionics capabilities wit...

  8. Automatic exposure control at single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA on a 320-MDCT volume scanner: effect of heart rate, exposure phase window setting, and reconstruction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Funama, Yoshinori; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Oda, Seitaro; Shimonobo, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated single- and dual-heartbeat computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) with automatic exposure control (AEC) yields images with uniform image noise at reduced radiation doses. Using an anthropomorphic chest CT phantom we performed prospectively ECG-gated single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA on a second-generation 320-multidetector CT volume scanner. The exposure phase window was set at 75%, 70-80%, 40-80%, and 0-100% and the heart rate at 60 or 80 or corr80 bpm; images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) or iterative reconstruction (IR, adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D). We applied AEC and set the image noise level to 20 or 25 HU. For each technique we determined the image noise and the radiation dose to the phantom center. With half-scan reconstruction at 60 bpm, a 70-80% phase window- and a 20-HU standard deviation (SD) setting, the imagenoise level and -variation along the z axis manifested similar curves with FBP and IR. With half-scan reconstruction, the radiation dose to the phantom center with 70-80% phase window was 18.89 and 12.34 mGy for FBP and 4.61 and 3.10 mGy for IR at an SD setting SD of 20 and 25 HU, respectively. At 80 bpm with two-segment reconstruction the dose was approximately twice that of 60 bpm at both SD settings. However, increasing radiation dose at corr80 bpm was suppressed to 1.39 times compared to 60 bpm. AEC at ECG-gated single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA controls the image noise at different radiation dose. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A 320-year long series of Danube floods in Central Hungary (Budapest and Pest County): a frequency-magnitude-seasonality overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Salinas, Jose; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2015-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred in the town of Budapest (historical towns of Pest, Buda) and Central Hungary (historical Pest-Pilis-Solt County). As for the archival evidence, main bases of investigation are the administrative sources such as town council protocols and county meeting protocols of Budapest and historical Pest-Pilis-Solt County: in these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers; however, other published sources (e.g. narratives, fund raising circulars etc.; both published and unpublished) also contained useful flood-related information. Beyond providing information on the strength and weaknesses of different sources types and the temporal and spatial distribution of evidence, a general background on the contemporary environmental and hydrological/hydromorphological conditions of the study area (and its changes during and after river regulations) are also provided. However, in the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood rich flood poor periods of the last more than 300 years; furthermore, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Danube flood events - and their spatial differences are discussed. In case of Budapest and Central Hungary, with respect to the greatest flood events, ice jam floods played a rather significant role before river regulation works. Due to this fact the main types of flood events (including their main causes), with special emphasis on ice jam floods, are discussed separate.

  10. Exploring the atomic structure and conformational flexibility of a 320 Å long engineered viral fiber using X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anshul; Casjens, Sherwood R; Cingolani, Gino

    2014-02-01

    Protein fibers are widespread in nature, but only a limited number of high-resolution structures have been determined experimentally. Unlike globular proteins, fibers are usually recalcitrant to form three-dimensional crystals, preventing single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the absence of three-dimensional crystals, X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool to determine the internal symmetry of a fiber, but it rarely yields atomic resolution structural information on complex protein fibers. An 85-residue-long minimal coiled-coil repeat unit (MiCRU) was previously identified in the trimeric helical core of tail needle gp26, a fibrous protein emanating from the tail apparatus of the bacteriophage P22 virion. Here, evidence is provided that an MiCRU can be inserted in frame inside the gp26 helical core to generate a rationally extended fiber (gp26-2M) which, like gp26, retains a trimeric quaternary structure in solution. The 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure of this engineered fiber, which measures ∼320 Å in length and is only 20-35 Å wide, was determined. This structure, the longest for a trimeric protein fiber to be determined to such a high resolution, reveals the architecture of 22 consecutive trimerization heptads and provides a framework to decipher the structural determinants for protein fiber assembly, stability and flexibility.

  11. Transactivation of micrornA-320 by microRNA-383 regulates granulosa cell functions by targeting E2F1 and SF-1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mianmian; Wang, Xiaorong; Yao, Guidong; Lü, Mingrong; Liang, Meng; Sun, Yingpu; Sun, Fei

    2014-06-27

    Our previous studies have shown that microRNA-320 (miR-320) is one of the most down-regulated microRNAs (miRNA) in mouse ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) after TGF-β1 treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-320 involved in GC function during follicular development remain unknown. In this study, we found that pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment resulted in the suppression of miR-320 expression in a time-dependent manner. miR-320 was mainly expressed in GCs and oocytes of mouse ovarian follicles in follicular development. Overexpression of miR-320 inhibited estradiol synthesis and proliferation of GCs through targeting E2F1 and SF-1. E2F1/SF-1 mediated miR-320-induced suppression of GC proliferation and of GC steroidogenesis. FSH down-regulated the expression of miR-320 and regulated the function of miR-320 in mouse GCs. miR-383 promoted the expression of miR-320 and enhanced miR-320-mediated suppression of GC proliferation. Injection of miR-320 into the ovaries of mice partially promoted the production of testosterone and progesterone but inhibited estradiol release in vivo. Moreover, the expression of miR-320 and miR-383 was up-regulated in the follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, although the expression of E2F1 and SF-1 was down-regulated in GCs. These data demonstrated that miR-320 regulates the proliferation and steroid production by targeting E2F1 and SF-1 in the follicular development. Understanding the regulation of miRNA biogenesis and function in the follicular development will potentiate the usefulness of miRNA in the treatment of reproduction and some steroid-related disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. 78 FR 15335 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...-1034, including Appendices 1 and 2, dated August 19, 2011; and Service Bulletin A320- 55-1042, Revision... Accomplishment Instructions of Airbus Service Bulletin A320-55-1042, Revision 01, dated June 29, 2012. (k) Credit... A320-55-1042, dated August 19, 2011, which is not incorporated by reference in this AD. (l) Parts...

  13. 77 FR 65808 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214 and -232 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were... installation of upper panels on Frame 35 in Airbus A320 final assembly line. Investigations revealed that...

  14. 75 FR 20866 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Airways Flight 1549, Airbus A320-214, N106US, Weehawken, New Jersey, January 15, 2009. News Media Contact... archived Webcast by accessing a link under ``News & Events'' on the NTSB home page at www.ntsb.gov . FOR...

  15. 77 FR 60064 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... populations of rudders affected by AOT A320-55- 1038), which is superseded, and requires: -- a local... would take about 12 work-hours and require parts costing $10,000, for a cost of $11,020 per product. We...-55A1038, Revision 01, dated June 10, 2009; or Airbus AOT A320-55A1038, Revision 02, dated September 28...

  16. 42 CFR 56.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grants awarded pursuant to section 319(g) of the Act for the provision of technical and other non-financial assistance to grantees under sections 319(c)(1)(A), 319(d)(1)(A) and 319(d)(1)(B) of the Act. ...

  17. 78 FR 77115 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Lock 14 Hydro... of: (1) An existing 248-foot- long, 17-foot-high concrete lock and dam with a 319-foot-long stone...

  18. 42 CFR 56.107 - Priorities for grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of this part will be made in accordance with priorities set forth in paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priorities for grants. 56.107 Section 56.107 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 56.107 Priorities for grants. (a) Grants under sections 319(c) (1)(A), 319(d...

  19. 3 CFR - Assignment of Reporting Functions Under the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Attorney General, of providing to the Congress the reports specified in sections 319(a), 319(c)(1)-(3), and..., in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, of providing to the Congress the report specified in... Secretary of Defense, of providing to the Congress the information specified in section 14103(e). The...

  20. 77 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319-112, -113, and... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of two fatigue cracks on the left-hand and right-hand... proposed AD would require a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the left-hand...

  1. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...-0291; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-168-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, and -121... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  2. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...-0427; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-214 and-232... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  3. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214, -232 and -233 airplanes; and Model A321-211, - 213, and -231 airplanes. This AD... Service Information Airbus requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 63270, October 16, 2012) to reflect...

  4. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-57-1120, Revision 01...

  5. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  6. IET. Control and equipment building (TAN620) floor plan. Schedule of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Control and equipment building (TAN-620) floor plan. Schedule of furniture and equipment. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-A 320. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0620-00-693-106905 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 78 FR 48286 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... installed on both LH and RH sides (Airbus modification 153655 applied in production, or modified in-service... unit (LGCIU) interlink communication ARINC 429 (applied in production through Airbus Modification (mod... of MLG actuator Part Number (P/N) 114122014 through Airbus SB A320-32-1407 (Airbus production mod...

  8. 77 FR 60331 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... (NLG) retraction. This proposed AD would require installing a power interruption protection circuit for... unlocking and/or retraction of the NLG, which, while on the ground, could result in injury to ground... A320 aeroplane was preparing to initiate taxi, when an uncommanded nose landing gear (NLG) retraction...

  9. 78 FR 71992 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...) with a metallic MFLI with the top stop retained by a `trapped wire', or with a composite MFLI. Since...'' column of the table in paragraph 1.L., ``Interchangeability/Mixability,'' of Airbus Service Bulletin A320... a P/N identified in the ``old P/N'' column of the table in paragraph 1.L., ``Interchangeability...

  10. Development, testing, and certification of life sciences engineering solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for the development of an air flat plate collector for use with solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water systems. The contract was for final development, testing, and certification of the collector, and for delivery of a 320 square feet collector panel.

  11. 78 FR 12988 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... investigations have also concluded that A320 family THSA P/N 47145-XXX (where XXX stands for any numerical [[Page... ballscrew lower splines of THSAs having P/N 47145-XXX to detect corrosion and, depending on findings, the... tie-rod splines on any THSA having P/N 47145-XXX (where XXX stands for any numerical value) to...

  12. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  13. The electromagnetic environment in CFC structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardwick, C. J.; Haigh, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive measurements of induced voltages and currents were made using a CFC (carbon fiber composites) horizontal stabilizer from the A320 as a test bed. The work was done to investigate the efficacy of various protection schemes to reduce the magnitudes of the induced voltages and validate a computer program INDCAL. Results indicate that a good understanding of the various induced voltage mechanisms including the long wave effect due to current redistribution was obtained.

  14. List Models of Procedure Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matessa, Michael P.; Polson, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory of the initial stages of skill acquisition and then employs the theory to model current and future training programs for fight management systems (FMSs) in modern commercial airliners like the Boeing 777 and the Airbus A320. The theoretical foundations for the theory are a new synthesis of the literature on human memory and the latest version of the ACT-R theory of skill acquisition.

  15. [First clinical results using a pulsed dye laser Rhodamine 590 lithotripter in treatment of ureteral calculi].

    PubMed

    Jichlinski, P; Bonard, M; von Niederhäusern, W; Delacrétaz, G; Rink, K; Lambelet, P; Klohn, M; Bolle, J F; Graber, P

    1991-09-01

    A collaborative study about a pulsed dye laser Rhodamin 590 was undergone, 2 years ago, between the laser application center of EPFL and both urological departments of the university of Geneva and the university of Lausanne. First clinical results are presented. Ten patients have been treated for various ureteral stones, mainly calcium oxalate stones. Laser fragmentation was successful in seven cases. No serious complication was noted. Fragmentation efficiency seems better with a 320 microns fiber than with a 200 microns fiber.

  16. West Europe Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-27

    exemption of employee shares), the French system does not sufficiently encourage creation and development of companies which depend on the often...pharmaceutical industry because with good reason the multina- tional chemical companies are investing millions in this area. The effects upon the...build upon knowledge gained from the high- performance wings of the Airbus A310 and Airbus A320. The com- pany considers that here systems of

  17. Lidar investigation of wake vortices generated by a landing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalikho, Igor N.; Banakh, Viktor A.; Falits, Andrey V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of measurements of parameters of aircraft wake vortices by a Stream Line coherent Doppler lidar during the three-day experiment on the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport are presented. We have analyzed spatial dynamics and evolution of the wake vortices generated by aircrafts of various types: from the Airbus A319 passenger aircraft to the heavy Boeing B747-8 cargo aircraft entering the landing at Tolmachevo Airport. It is shown that the Stream Line lidar may well be used to obtain reliable information about the presence and intensity of aircraft wake vortices in the vicinity of the runway.

  18. Annoyance by transportation noise: The effects of source identity and tonal components.

    PubMed

    White, Kim; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W; Meeter, Martijn

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft noise is consistently rated as more annoying than noise from other sources with similar intensity. In three experiments, it was investigated whether this penalty is due to the source identity of the noise. In the first experiment, four samples were played to participants engaged in a working memory task: road traffic noise, an Airbus 320 flyover, and unidentifiable, transformed versions of these samples containing the same spectral content and envelope. Original, identifiable samples were rated as more annoying than the transformed samples. A second experiment tested whether these results were due to the absence of tonal components in the transformed samples. This was partly the case: an additional sample, created from the A320 flyover by filtering out major tonal components, was rated as less annoying than the original A320 sample, but as more annoying than the transformed sample. In a third experiment, participants either received full disclosure of the generation of the samples or no information to identify the transformed samples. The transformed sample was rated as most annoying when the A320 identity was disclosed, but as least annoying when it was not. Therefore, it was concluded that annoyance is influenced by both identifiability and the presence of tonal components.

  19. Modeling of Air-to-Air Refueling for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, Brian Raul

    Air-to-air refueling is important to the military for enabling aircraft to remain in the air for long periods of time, reducing the need for forward bases, and allowing aircraft to stay on mission for longer intervals. Although this has been available for traditional military aircraft for several decades, it has not been implemented for the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This thesis uses a panel method, VSAERO, to examine the effects that a large tanker aircraft will have on a small unmanned aerial vehicle during a refueling process. The primary cause of conditions behind the tanker aircraft is the wake generated by the wingtip vortices of the aircraft. The planes used for this analysis were an Airbus A320 as the tanker, and a General Atomic MQ-9 as the receiver. The techniques used were to examine literature on aerial refueling, and analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the UAV. The most important properties that were examined were the rolling moment, pitching moment, and lift. These characteristics were used to determine the feasibility of the UAV being able to withstand the conditions behind the A320. Through the analysis of the MQ-9's aerodynamic characteristics when in ideal conditions, along with its maximum rolling moment, and those same characteristics when flying behind the tanker, it was determined that the MQ-9 would be able to maintain position behind an A320 in order to complete the aerial refueling process.

  20. Comment on "On the security of a spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem" [Chaos 17, 033117 (2007)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2008-09-01

    This paper comments on a recent paper by R. Rhouma and B. Safya [Chaos 17, 033117 (2007)]. They claimed to find some security weakness of the spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem suggested by G. Tang et al. [Phys. Lett. A 318, 388 (2003)] and proposed a chosen-plaintext attack to analyze this system. We find that in their analysis, called a "chosen-plaintext attack," they actually act as a legal receiver (with a machine in their hands during the entire decryption process) rather than an attacker and, therefore, the whole reasoning is not valid. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Enhanced detection of intracellular organism of swine proliferative enteritis, ileal symbiont intracellularis, in feces by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G F; Ward, G E; Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G; Gebhart, C J

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive assay based on amplification of a 319-bp DNA fragment of the intracellular bacterium of swine proliferative enteritis was developed for the detection of the organism in the feces of swine. A vernacular name, ileal symbiont intracellularis (IS-intracellularis), has recently been published for the intracellular bacterium, which was formerly known as a Campylobacter-like organism (C.J. Gebhart, S.M. Barnes, S. McOrist, G.F. Lin, and G.H.K. Larson, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:533-538, 1993). As few as 10(1) IS-intracellularis organisms purified from intestinal mucosa, or 10(3) IS-intracellularis per g of feces, were detected. No amplification product was produced from a polymerase chain reaction performed on DNA extracted from the feces of healthy pigs. A 319-bp DNA fragment specific for IS-intracellularis was produced on amplification of DNA from the feces of pigs with experimental and naturally occurring proliferative enteritis. Images PMID:8253956

  2. Shape Formation by Self-Disassembly in Programmable Matter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    DPRSim, like the simulator we present in this paper, devotes a separate thread to each simulated Catom. It appears that the CMU/Intel team has...ensured that the two pole faces were co-planar by rubbing the assembly against a 320 grit aluminum-oxide oil-filled abrasive file (McMaster-Carr...poles of the connectors. Each module contributes a resistance of 0.3Ω. Given that the quiescent current of each module is 15mA, each module in a chain

  3. GRAMM-X public web server for protein–protein docking

    PubMed Central

    Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Protein docking software GRAMM-X and its web interface () extend the original GRAMM Fast Fourier Transformation methodology by employing smoothed potentials, refinement stage, and knowledge-based scoring. The web server frees users from complex installation of database-dependent parallel software and maintaining large hardware resources needed for protein docking simulations. Docking problems submitted to GRAMM-X server are processed by a 320 processor Linux cluster. The server was extensively tested by benchmarking, several months of public use, and participation in the CAPRI server track. PMID:16845016

  4. Characterization of Terahertz Bi-Material Sensors with Integrated Metamaterial Absorbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Kumar, Qing Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320x240 microbolometer focal-plane array ,” IEEE...responsivity, the speed of operation and the minimum detected incident power were measured using a quantum cascade laser (QCL), operating at 3.8 THz...of operation and the minimum detected incident power were measured using a quantum cascade laser (QCL), operating at 3.8 THz. The measured

  5. Aerospace Technology: Technical Data and Information on Foreign Test Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-22

    effects of an airflow on various active models (nozzles or rotors ) or pas- sive models (airfoils). It is specially dedicated to acoustic testing driven by...Tunnel Figure V.3: Aerospatiale Rotor Test Bench and 99 Microphones Installed Inside Test Chamber of the CEPRA 19 Anechoic Wind Tunnel Figure V.4...Figure V.26: Ground Effect Test on Airbus A320 Model in 127 Test Section of the ONERA S1MA Wind Tunnel Figure V.27: ONERA S3Ch Transonic Wind Tunnel 130

  6. Design and Performance of the Hyper-Cam, an Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    helps to reduce the noise level, since the FIRST is shot noise limited . 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 200 250 300 350 ab s( O...performed using a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS). It uses a 320x256 LWIR PV- MCT focal plane array detector that can be windowed and formatted...cooled down to 68 K. The offset is very low (~215 K), which indicates that the shot noise coming from the instrument radiance is minimized. This

  7. Development and Synthesis of DNA-Encoded Benzimidazole Library.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Centrella, Paolo A; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Clark, Matthew A

    2018-04-25

    Encoded library technology (ELT) is an effective approach to the discovery of novel small-molecule ligands for biological targets. A key factor for the success of the technology is the chemical diversity of the libraries. Here we report the development of DNA-conjugated benzimidazoles. Using 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as a key synthon, we synthesized a 320 million-member DNA-encoded benzimidazole library using Fmoc-protected amino acids, amines and aldehydes as diversity elements. Affinity selection of the library led to the discovery of a novel, potent and specific antagonist of the NK3 receptor.

  8. AlliedSignal driver's viewer enhancement (DVE) for paramilitary and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, Michael; Caron, Hubert; Kovacevic, Branislav; Faina-Cherkaoui, Marcela; Wrobel, Leslie; Turcotte, Gilles

    1999-07-01

    AlliedSignal Driver's Viewer Enhancement (DVE) system is a thermal imager using a 320 X 240 uncooled microbolometer array. This high performance system was initially developed for military combat and tactical wheeled vehicles. It features a very small sensor head remotely mounted from the display, control and processing module. The sensor head has a modular design and is being adapted to various commercial applications such as truck and car-driving aid, using specifically designed low cost optics. Tradeoffs in the system design, system features and test results are discussed in this paper. A short video shows footage of the DVE system while driving at night.

  9. Cost-Driven Design of a Large Scale X-Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welstead, Jason R.; Frederic, Peter C.; Frederick, Michael A.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    A conceptual design process focused on the development of a low-cost, large scale X-plane was developed as part of an internal research and development effort. One of the concepts considered for this process was the double-bubble configuration recently developed as an advanced single-aisle class commercial transport similar in size to a Boeing 737-800 or Airbus A320. The study objective was to reduce the contractor cost from contract award to first test flight to less than $100 million, and having the first flight within three years of contract award. Methods and strategies for reduced cost are discussed.

  10. Searching for SNPs with cloud computing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As DNA sequencing outpaces improvements in computer speed, there is a critical need to accelerate tasks like alignment and SNP calling. Crossbow is a cloud-computing software tool that combines the aligner Bowtie and the SNP caller SOAPsnp. Executing in parallel using Hadoop, Crossbow analyzes data comprising 38-fold coverage of the human genome in three hours using a 320-CPU cluster rented from a cloud computing service for about $85. Crossbow is available from http://bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net/crossbow/. PMID:19930550

  11. An Atlas of Ionospheric F-Region Structures as Determined by the NRL-747/S3-4 Ionospheric Irregularities Satellite Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-07

    07/17/78 2001 A 336 x 07/18/78 2006 A 226 x 07/18/78 2011 A 114 x 07/18/78 2015 C 26 x 07/19/78 2018 A 319 X** 07/19/78 202-3 A 208 x 07/19/78 2029 A...16 32:00 164 :00 16 2:00 70 :00 1?)Z-1 0 I1ZZ:00 l732:00 LT 0103:06 224:58 221:36 2200:24 2018 :36 1101:44 10Z9:08 1009:5 70930: 3 0000:11 a ZZ:26 ALT...el e e e e ~ e o ¢. . . . . .. uJ I I - 10? to, S1- UT 191:00 1928:00 1931:00 1941:00 1958:00 2008:00 2018 :00 Z oz:00

  12. A dominant variant in the PDE1C gene is associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Feng, Yong; Yan, Denise; Qin, Litao; Grati, M'hamed; Mittal, Rahul; Li, Tao; Sundhari, Abhiraami Kannan; Liu, Yalan; Chapagain, Prem; Blanton, Susan H; Liao, Shixiu; Liu, Xuezhong

    2018-06-02

    Identification of genes with variants causing non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is challenging due to genetic heterogeneity. The difficulty is compounded by technical limitations that in the past prevented comprehensive gene identification. Recent advances in technology, using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS), is changing the face of gene identification and making it possible to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence the whole human exome. Here, we characterize a five-generation Chinese family with progressive, postlingual autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). By combining population-specific mutation arrays, targeted deafness genes panel, whole exome sequencing (WES), we identified PDE1C (Phosphodiesterase 1C) c.958G>T (p.A320S) as the disease-associated variant. Structural modeling insights into p.A320S strongly suggest that the sequence alteration will likely affect the substrate-binding pocket of PDE1C. By whole-mount immunofluorescence on postnatal day 3 mouse cochlea, we show its expression in outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells cytosol co-localizing with Lamp-1 in lysosomes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the variant alters the PDE1C hydrolytic activity for both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Collectively, our findings indicate that the c.958G>T variant in PDE1C may disrupt the cross talk between cGMP-signaling and cAMP pathways in Ca 2+ homeostasis.

  13. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuković, B.; Lisjak, I.; Radolić, V.; Vekić, B.; Planinić, J.

    2006-06-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv and the average dose rate was 2.7 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h.

  14. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft--a neutron track etch detector.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Miklavcić, I; Poje, M; Varga, M; Planinić, J

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect.

  15. Automatic visibility retrieval from thermal camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizerens, Céline; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Wunderle, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an automatic visibility retrieval of a FLIR A320 Stationary Thermal Imager installed on a measurement tower on the mountain Lagern located in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Our visibility retrieval makes use of edges that are automatically detected from thermal camera images. Predefined target regions, such as mountain silhouettes or buildings with high thermal differences to the surroundings, are used to derive the maximum visibility distance that is detectable in the image. To allow a stable, automatic processing, our procedure additionally removes noise in the image and includes automatic image alignment to correct small shifts of the camera. We present a detailed analysis of visibility derived from more than 24000 thermal images of the years 2015 and 2016 by comparing them to (1) visibility derived from a panoramic camera image (VISrange), (2) measurements of a forward-scatter visibility meter (Vaisala FD12 working in the NIR spectra), and (3) modeled visibility values using the Thermal Range Model TRM4. Atmospheric conditions, mainly water vapor from European Center for Medium Weather Forecast (ECMWF), were considered to calculate the extinction coefficients using MODTRAN. The automatic visibility retrieval based on FLIR A320 images is often in good agreement with the retrieval from the systems working in different spectral ranges. However, some significant differences were detected as well, depending on weather conditions, thermal differences of the monitored landscape, and defined target size.

  16. A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal

  17. Results of test IA137 in the NASA/ARC 14 foot transonic wind tunnel of the 0.07 scale external tank forebody (model 68-T) to determine auxiliary aerodynamic data system feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a 14 foot transonic wind tunnel to examine the feasibility of the auxiliary aerodynamic data system (AADS) for determining angles of attack and sideslip during boost flight. The model used was a 0.07 scale replica of the external tank forebody consisting of the nose portion and a 60 inch (full scale) cylindrical section of the ogive cylinder tangency point. The model terminated in a blunt base with a 320.0 inch diameter at external tank (ET) station 1120.37. Pressure data were obtained from five pressure orifices (one total and four statics) on the nose probe, and sixteen surface static pressure orifices along the ET forebody.

  18. Progress of the Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.; Ringh, Ulf; Jansson, Christer; Reinhold, Olaf

    1998-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of uncooled microbolometer IR focal plane detector arrays (IRFPDA) under a research collaboration between the Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA), and the Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO), Australia. The paper describes current focal plane detector arrays designed by Electro-optic Sensor Design (EOSD) for readout circuits developed by FOA. The readouts are fabricated in 0.8 micrometer CMOS, and have a novel signal conditioning and 16 bit parallel ADC design. The arrays are post-processed at DSTO on wafers supplied by FOA. During the past year array processing has been carried out at a new microengineering facility at DSTO, Salisbury, South Australia. A number of small format 16 X 16 arrays have been delivered to FOA for evaluation, and imaging has been demonstrated with these arrays. A 320 X 240 readout with 320 parallel 16 bit ADCs has been developed and IRFPDAs for this readout have been fabricated and are currently being evaluated.

  19. Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bangzheng; Xing, Da; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Yaguang; Tan, Yi; Chen, Qun

    2004-04-07

    A fast photoacoustic (PA) imaging system, based on a 320-transducer linear array, was developed and tested on a tissue phantom. To reconstruct a test tomographic image, 64 time-domain PA signals were acquired from a tissue phantom with embedded light-absorption targets. A signal acquisition was accomplished by utilizing 11 phase-controlled sub-arrays, each consisting of four transducers. The results show that the system can rapidly map the optical absorption of a tissue phantom and effectively detect the embedded light-absorbing target. By utilizing the multi-element linear transducer array and phase-controlled imaging algorithm, we thus can acquire PA tomography more efficiently, compared to other existing technology and algorithms. The methodology and equipment thus provide a rapid and reliable approach to PA imaging that may have potential applications in noninvasive imaging and clinic diagnosis.

  20. Ecological assessment of the environmental impacts of the kerosene burning in jet turbines and its improvement assessment.

    PubMed

    Geldermann, J; Gabriel, R; Rentz, O

    1999-01-01

    The burning of kerosene in jet turbines is investigated for two reference flights with a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A320-200, representing the typical Lufthansa planes for long and middle distance. The ecological evaluation is performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Formation of condensation trails, which is a specific environmental impact caused by air traffic, has to be considered in addition to established LCA impact categories. Based on the ecological assessment, an improvement assessment is performed. Environmental performance of diesel fuel during the combustion in car engines is analysed based on available publications. The relevant parameters for the environmental impact of the combustion of diesel (aromatics content, reduction of sulphur content, the reduction of the density and raising of the cetane number) are discussed with regard to improvements of the exhaust qualities of kerosene. A reduction of the aromatics content promises to improve the emission of soot which should be further investigated.

  1. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: a full-mission simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sarter, N B; Woods, D D

    2000-01-01

    One major problem with pilot-automation interaction on modern flight decks is a lack of mode awareness; that is, a lack of knowledge and understanding of the current and future status and behavior of the automation. A lack of mode awareness is not simply a pilot problem; rather, it is a symptom of a coordination breakdown between humans and machines. Recent changes in automation design can therefore be expected to have an impact on the nature of problems related to mode awareness. To examine how new automation properties might affect pilot-automation coordination, we performed a full-mission simulation study on one of the most advanced automated aircraft, the Airbus A-320. The results of this work indicate that mode errors and "automation surprises" still occur on these advanced aircraft. However, there appear to be more opportunities for delayed or missing interventions with undesirable system activities, possibly because of higher system autonomy and coupling.

  2. Airbus windshear warning and guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    From its first designed airplane, Airbus considered mandatory a help in the crew's decision-making process to initiate an escape maneuver and help to successfully realize it. All the Airbus airplanes designed since 1975 included an alpha-floor function and a speed reference control law imbedded in the speed reference system (SRS) box for A 300 and FAC and FCC for A 310, A300/600 and the A 320. Alpha-Floor function takes into account the airplane energy situation considering angle of attack and observed longitudinal situation in order to apply immediately the full power without any pilot action. Speed reference managers control airspeed and/or ground speed in order to survive a maximum in shear situation. In order to comply with the new FAA regulation: Aerospatiale and Airbus developed more efficient systems. A comparison between 1975 and a newly developed system is given. It is explained how the new system improves the situation.

  3. An Analytical Assessment of NASA's N+1 Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Noise Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program has adopted a noise reduction goal for new, subsonic, single-aisle, civil aircraft expected to replace current 737 and A320 airplanes. These so-called 'N+1' aircraft - designated in NASA vernacular as such since they will follow the current, in-service, 'N' airplanes - are hoped to achieve certification noise goal levels of 32 cumulative EPNdB under current Stage 4 noise regulations. A notional, N+1, single-aisle, twinjet transport with ultrahigh bypass ratio turbofan engines is analyzed in this study using NASA software and methods. Several advanced noise-reduction technologies are analytically applied to the propulsion system and airframe. Certification noise levels are predicted and compared with the NASA goal.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  5. A modified Galam’s model for word-of-mouth information exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellero, Andrea; Fasano, Giovanni; Sorato, Annamaria

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the stochastic model proposed by Galam in [S. Galam, Modelling rumors: The no plane Pentagon French hoax case, Physica A 320 (2003), 571-580], for information spreading in a ‘word-of-mouth’ process among agents, based on a majority rule. Using the communications rules among agents defined in the above reference, we first perform simulations of the ‘word-of-mouth’ process and compare the results with the theoretical values predicted by Galam’s model. Some dissimilarities arise in particular when a small number of agents is considered. We find motivations for these dissimilarities and suggest some enhancements by introducing a new parameter dependent model. We propose a modified Galam’s scheme which is asymptotically coincident with the original model in the above reference. Furthermore, for relatively small values of the parameter, we provide a numerical experience proving that the modified model often outperforms the original one.

  6. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  7. Design of transmission-type phase holograms for a compact radar-cross-section measurement range at 650 GHz.

    PubMed

    Noponen, Eero; Tamminen, Aleksi; Vaaja, Matti

    2007-07-10

    A design formalism is presented for transmission-type phase holograms for use in a submillimeter-wave compact radar-cross-section (RCS) measurement range. The design method is based on rigorous electromagnetic grating theory combined with conventional hologram synthesis. Hologram structures consisting of a curved groove pattern on a 320 mmx280 mm Teflon plate are designed to transform an incoming spherical wave at 650 GHz into an output wave generating a 100 mm diameter planar field region (quiet zone) at a distance of 1 m. The reconstructed quiet-zone field is evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The uniformity of the quiet-zone field is further improved by reoptimizing the goal field. Measurement results are given for a test hologram fabricated on Teflon.

  8. An Analytical Assessment of NASA's N(+)1 Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Noise Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2010-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program has adopted a noise reduction goal for new, subsonic, single-aisle, civil aircraft expected to replace current 737 and A320 airplanes. These so-called "N+1" aircraft--designated in NASA vernacular as such since they will follow the current, in-service, "N" airplanes--are hoped to achieve certification noise goal levels of 32 cumulative EPNdB under current Stage 4 noise regulations. A notional, N+1, single-aisle, twinjet transport with ultrahigh bypass ratio turbofan engines is analyzed in this study using NASA software and methods. Several advanced noise-reduction technologies are empirically applied to the propulsion system and airframe. Certification noise levels are predicted and compared with the NASA goal.

  9. Comparing statistical and machine learning classifiers: alternatives for predictive modeling in human factors research.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Brian; Meyer, Gérard; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate classification models play an increasingly important role in human factors research. In the past, these models have been based primarily on discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Models developed from machine learning research offer the human factors professional a viable alternative to these traditional statistical classification methods. To illustrate this point, two machine learning approaches--genetic programming and decision tree induction--were used to construct classification models designed to predict whether or not a student truck driver would pass his or her commercial driver license (CDL) examination. The models were developed and validated using the curriculum scores and CDL exam performances of 37 student truck drivers who had completed a 320-hr driver training course. Results indicated that the machine learning classification models were superior to discriminant analysis and logistic regression in terms of predictive accuracy. Actual or potential applications of this research include the creation of models that more accurately predict human performance outcomes.

  10. Advanced uncooled infrared focal plane development at CEA/LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc; Mottin, Eric; Martin, Jean-Luc; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Vilain, Michel

    2017-11-01

    LETI/LIR has been involved for a few year in the field of uncooled detectors and has chosen amorphous silicon for its microbolometer technology development. Uncooled IR detectors pave the way to reduced weight systems aboard satellites. The silicon compatibility of our thermometer is a key parameter which has enabled a very fast technology development and transfer to industry. This competitive technology is now able to provide a new approach for IR detectors for space applications. This paper presents the main characteristics of the CEA / LETI technology which is based on a monolithically integrated structure over a fully completed readout circuit from a commercially available 0.5 μm design rules CMOS line. The technology maturity will be illustrated by the results obtained at LETI/LIR and SOFRADIR on a 320 x 240 with a pitch of 45 μm. First improvement on device reliability and characterization results will be presented.

  11. Design conceptuel d'un avion blended wing body de 200 passagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Sami

    The Blended Wing Body is built based on the flying wing concept and performance improvements compared to conventional aircraft. Contrariwise, most studies have focused on large aircraft and it is not sure whether the gains are the same for smaller aircraft. The main of objective is to perform the conceptual design of a BWB of 200 passengers and compare the performance obtained with a conventional aircraft equivalent in terms of payload and range. The design of the Blended Wing Body was carried out under the CEASIOM environment. This platform design suitable for conventional aircraft design has been modified and additional tools have been integrated in order to achieve the aerodynamic analysis, performance and stability of the aircraft fuselage built. A plane model is obtained in the geometric module AcBuilder CEASIOM from the design variables of a wing. Estimates of mass are made from semi- empirical formulas adapted to the geometry of the BWB and calculations centering and inertia are possible through BWB model developed in CATIA. Low fidelity methods, such as TORNADO and semi- empirical formulas are used to analyze the aerodynamic performance and stability of the aircraft. The aerodynamic results are validated using a high-fidelity analysis using FLUENT CFD software. An optimization process is implemented in order to obtain improved while maintaining a feasible design performance. It is an optimization of the plan form of the aircraft fuselage integrated with a number of passengers and equivalent to that of a A320.Les performance wing aircraft merged optimized maximum range are compared to A320 also optimized. Significant gains were observed. An analysis of the dynamics of longitudinal and lateral flight is carried out on the aircraft optimized BWB finesse and mass. This study identified the stable and unstable modes of the aircraft. Thus, this analysis has highlighted the stability problems associated with the oscillation of incidence and the Dutch roll for the

  12. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  13. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  14. High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue behavior of an Al-Mg-Si based heat-resistant aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sung, Si-Young; Han, Bum-Suck; Park, Joong-Cheol; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue behavior of the new heat-resistant aluminum alloy was investigated in this study. The aluminum alloy consists of aluminum matrix and small amount of precipitated Mg2Si and (Co, Ni)3Al4 strengthening particles. At room temperature and 523 K, the yield and tensile strengths of Al-Mg-Si-(Co, Ni) the aluminum alloy were maintained with no significant decrease, and elongation increased slightly. Low-cycle fatigue tests controlled by total strain were performed with strain ratio (R) = -1, strain rate = 2×10-3 s-1 at 523 K. The fatigue limit of the low-cycle fatigue of this alloy showed plastic strain amplitude (Δ ɛ pa) of 0.22% at 103 cycles. This value was superior to that of conventional aluminum alloy such as A319. The results of the fractographical observation showed that second phases, especially (Co, Ni)3Al4 particles, affected fatigue behavior. This study also attempted to clarify the mechanism of high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue deformation of Al-Mg-Si-(Co, Ni) alloy in relation to its microstructure and energy dissipation analysis.

  15. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  16. FY2017 Materials Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Felix; Gibbs, Jerry; Kleinbaum, Sarah

    The Materials Technology subprogram supports the Vehicle Technology Office’s mission to help consumers and businesses reduce their transportation energy costs while meeting or exceeding vehicle performance expectations. The Propulsion Materials research portfolio seeks to develop higher performance materials that can withstand increasingly extreme environments and address the future properties needs of a variety of high efficiency powertrain types, sizes, fueling concepts, and combustion modes. Advanced Lightweight Materials research enables improvements in fuel economy by providing properties that are equal to or better than traditional materials at a lower weight. Because it takes less energy to accelerate a lighter object, replacingmore » cast iron and traditional steel components with lightweight materials such as high-strength steel, magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), and polymer composites can directly reduce a vehicle’s fuel consumption. Materials technology activities focus on the following cost and performance targets: (1) enable a 25 percent weight reduction for light-duty vehicles including body, chassis, and interior as compared to a 2012 baseline at no more than a $5/lb-saved increase in cost; and (2) validate a 25 percent improvement in high temperature (300°C) component strength relative to components made with 2010 baseline cast Al alloys (A319 or A356) for improved efficiency light-duty engines.« less

  17. Extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels for dental stem cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Aiswarya; Vanacker, Julie; Germain, Loïc; Leprince, Julian G; Diogenes, Anibal; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J; des Rieux, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized mammalian extracellular matrices (ECM) have been widely accepted as an ideal substrate for repair and remodelling of numerous tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from site-specific homologous tissues to direct cell differentiation. The present study investigated the suitability of hydrogels derived from different source tissues: bone, spinal cord and dentine, as suitable carriers to deliver human apical papilla derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCAP) for spinal cord regeneration. Bone, spinal cord, and dentine ECM hydrogels exhibited distinct structural, mechanical, and biological characteristics. All three hydrogels supported SCAP viability and proliferation. However, only spinal cord and bone derived hydrogels promoted the expression of neural lineage markers. The specific environment of ECM scaffolds significantly affected the differentiation of SCAP to a neural lineage, with stronger responses observed with spinal cord ECM hydrogels, suggesting that site-specific tissues are more likely to facilitate optimal stem cell behavior for constructive spinal cord regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 319-328, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of chemiluminescent probe hybridization, RT-PCR and nucleic acid cycle sequencing assays of Sabin type 3 isolates to identify base pair 472 Sabin type 3 mutants associated with vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Old, M O; Logan, L H; Maldonado, Y A

    1997-11-01

    Sabin type 3 polio vaccine virus is the most common cause of poliovaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases have been associated with Sabin type 3 revertants containing a single U to C substitution at bp 472 of Sabin type 3. A rapid method of identification of Sabin type 3 bp 472 mutants is described. An enterovirus group-specific probe for use in a chemiluminescent dot blot hybridization assay was developed to identify enterovirus positive viral lysates. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay producing a 319 bp PCR product containing the Sabin type 3 bp 472 mutation site was then employed to identify Sabin type 3 isolates. Chemiluminescent nucleic acid cycle sequencing of the purified 319 bp PCR product was then employed to identify nucleic acid sequences at bp 472. The enterovirus group probe hybridization procedure and isolation of the Sabin type 3 PCR product were highly sensitive and specific; nucleic acid cycle sequencing corresponded to the known sequence of stock Sabin type 3 isolates. These methods will be used to identify the Sabin type 3 reversion rate from sequential stool samples of infants obtained after the first and second doses of oral poliovirus vaccine.

  19. Recessive Twinkle mutations in early onset encephalopathy with mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Anna H; Isohanni, Pirjo; Paetau, Anders; Herva, Riitta; Suomalainen, Anu; Lönnqvist, Tuula

    2007-11-01

    Twinkle is a mitochondrial replicative helicase, the mutations of which have been associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), and recessively inherited infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). We report here a new phenotype in two siblings with compound heterozygous Twinkle mutations (A318T and Y508C), characterized by severe early onset encephalopathy and signs of liver involvement. The clinical manifestations included hypotonia, athetosis, sensory neuropathy, ataxia, hearing deficit, ophthalmoplegia, intractable epilepsy and elevation of serum transaminases. The liver showed mtDNA depletion, whereas the muscle mtDNA was only slightly affected. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome has previously been associated with mutations of polymerase gamma, a replicative polymerase of mtDNA. We show here that recessive mutations of the close functional partner of the polymerase, the Twinkle helicase, can also manifest as early encephalopathy with liver involvement, a phenotype reminiscent of Alpers syndrome, and are a new genetic cause underlying tissue-specific mtDNA depletion.

  20. Coupling Light Emitting Diodes with Photocatalyst-Coated Optical Fibers Improves Quantum Yield of Pollutant Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Tugaoen, Heather; Brame, Jonathon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Li, Chuanhao; Schoepf, Jared; Hristovski, Kiril; Kim, Jae-Hong; Shang, Chii; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-11-21

    A photocatalyst-coated optical fiber was coupled with a 318 nm ultraviolet-A light emitting diode, which activated the photocatalysts by interfacial photon-electron excitation while minimizing photonic energy losses due to conventional photocatalytic barriers. The light delivery mechanism was explored via modeling of evanescent wave energy produced upon total internal reflection and photon refraction into the TiO 2 surface coating. This work explores aqueous phase LED-irradiated optical fibers for treating organic pollutants and for the first time proposes a dual-mechanistic approach to light delivery and photocatalytic performance. Degradation of a probe organic pollutant was evaluated as a function of optical fiber coating thickness, fiber length, and photocatalyst attachment method and compared against the performance of an equivalent catalyst mass in a completely mixed slurry reactor. Measured and simulated photon fluence through the optical fibers decreased as a function of fiber length, coating thickness, or TiO 2 mass externally coated on the fiber. Thinner TiO 2 coatings achieved faster pollutant removal rates from solution, and dip coating performed better than sol-gel attachment methods. TiO 2 attached to optical fibers achieved a 5-fold higher quantum yield compared against an equivalent mass of TiO 2 suspended in a slurry solution.

  1. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Adam Paul

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark. The event sample is selected from proton-antiproton collisions, at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy, observed with the CDF detector at Fermilab's Tevatron. They consider a 318 pb -1 dataset collected between March 2002 and August 2004. They select events that contain one energetic lepton, large missing transverse energy, exactly four energetic jets, and at least one displaced vertex b tag. The analysis uses leading-order tmore » $$\\bar{t}$$ and background matrix elements along with parameterized parton showering to construct event-by-event likelihoods as a function of top quark mass. From the 63 events observed with the 318 pb -1 dataset they extract a top quark mass of 172.0 ± 2.6(stat) ± 3.3(syst) GeV/c 2 from the joint likelihood. The mean expected statistical uncertainty is 3.2 GeV/c 2 for m $$\\bar{t}$$ = 178 GTeV/c 2 and 3.1 GeV/c 2 for m $$\\bar{t}$$ = 172.5 GeV/c 2. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty of the jet energy scale.« less

  3. Single-photon cesium Rydberg excitation spectroscopy using 318.6-nm UV laser and room-temperature vapor cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieying; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-09-18

    We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S 1/2 ground state to nP 3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S 1/2 , F = 4 - 6P 3/2 , F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated. Fitting to energies of Cs nP 3/2 (n = 70 -100) states, the determined quantum defect is 3.56671(42). The demodulated spectra can also be employed as frequency references to stabilize the UV laser frequency to specific Cs Rydberg transition.

  4. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effects of Er:YAG, diode, and CO₂ lasers on titanium discs: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Emre; Tasar, Ferda; Strauss, Robert; Kıvanc, Dolunay Gulmez; Ungor, Cem

    2012-05-01

    This study examined carbon dioxide (CO(2); 10,600 nm), diode (808 nm), and erbium (Er):yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG; 2,940 nm) laser applications on Staphylococcus aureus contaminated, sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched surface titanium discs and performed a comparative evaluation of the obtained bactericidal effects and the applicability of these effects in clinical practice. This study was carried out in 5 main groups: Er:YAG laser in very short pulse (VSP) emission mode, Er:YAG laser in short pulse (SP) emission mode, diode laser with a 320-nm fiber optic diode laser with an R24-B handpiece, and CO(2) laser. After laser irradiation, dilutions were spread on sheep blood agar plates and, after an incubation period of 24 hours, colony-forming units were counted and compared with the control group, and the bactericidal activity was assessed in relation to the colony counts. The CO(2) laser eliminated 100% of the bacteria at 6 W, 20 Hz, and a 10-ms exposure time/pulse with a 10-second application period (0.8-mm spot size). The continuous-wave diode laser eliminated 97% of the bacteria at 1 W using a 10-second application with a 320-μm optic fiber, 100% of the bacteria were killed with a 1-W, 10-second continuous-wave application with an R14-B handpiece. The Er:YAG laser eliminated 100% of the bacteria at 90 mJ and 10 Hz using a 10-second application in a superpulse mode (300-ms exposure time/pulse). The Er:YAG laser also eliminated 99% to 100% of the bacteria in VSP mode at 90 mJ and 10 Hz with a 10-second application. The results of this study show that a complete, or near complete, elimination of surface bacteria on titanium surfaces can be accomplished in vitro using a CO(2), diode, or Er:YAG laser as long as appropriate parameters are used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  5. 320-row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with automatic exposure control (AEC): effect of 100 kV versus 120 kV on image quality and dose exposure.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gennarelli, Antonio; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Felli, Valentina; Perri, Marco; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Barile, Antonio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    To compare the impact of a 100 kV tube voltage protocol to 120 kV in terms of image quality and radiation dose by a 320 row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with automatic exposure control (AEC). Using a propensity matched analysis we compared a group of 135 patients scanned using a 100 kV tube voltage protocol with a group of 135 subjects scanned employing a 120 kV tube voltage setting. In all subjects the heart rate (HR) was <65 bpm and all CT scans were acquired using a prospective ECG gating and AEC strategy. Mean effective radiation dose and subjective and objective (Noise or N, signal to noise ratio or SNR, contrast to noise ratio or CNR) image quality, were evaluated. Subjective quality was assessed by two experienced radiologists using a 5-point scale (0: non diagnostic-4: excellent) using the 15-segment American Heart Association (AHA) coronary artery classification. Mean effective dose and noise were non significantly different between the two groups: mean effective dose was 2.89 ± 0.7 mSv in the 100 kV group and 2.80 ± 0.57 mSv in the 120 kV group (p = 0.25) while noise was 28.9 ± 3.3 in the 120 kV group and 29.05 ± 3.6 in the 100 kV group (p = 0.72). Both SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV group than in the 120 kV group. This data agrees with the evidence that subjective quality was significantly higher in the 100 kV group in the middle and distal segmental classes. Our study shows that, in using a 320 row CCTA with AEC strategy it is better to employ a 100 kV tube voltage protocol because compared to 120 kV tube voltage setting, it appears to significantly improve both subjective and objective image quality without decreasing the mean effective radiation dose.

  6. Predicting Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) and Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of Engine Inoperative Flight Using Aerodynamic Database and Propulsion Database Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadder, Eric Michael

    There are many computer aided engineering tools and software used by aerospace engineers to design and predict specific parameters of an airplane. These tools help a design engineer predict and calculate such parameters such as lift, drag, pitching moment, takeoff range, maximum takeoff weight, maximum flight range and much more. However, there are very limited ways to predict and calculate the minimum control speeds of an airplane in engine inoperative flight. There are simple solutions, as well as complicated solutions, yet there is neither standard technique nor consistency throughout the aerospace industry. To further complicate this subject, airplane designers have the option of using an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), which directly alters the minimum control speeds of an airplane. This work addresses this issue with a tool used to predict and calculate the Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) as well as the Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of any existing or design-stage airplane. With simple line art of an airplane, a program called VORLAX is used to generate an aerodynamic database used to calculate the stability derivatives of an airplane. Using another program called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a propulsion database is generated to use with the aerodynamic database to calculate both VMCG and VMCA. This tool was tested using two airplanes, the Airbus A320 and the Lockheed Martin C130J-30 Super Hercules. The A320 does not use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), whereas the C130J-30 does use an ATCS. The tool was able to properly calculate and match known values of VMCG and VMCA for both of the airplanes. The fact that this tool was able to calculate the known values of VMCG and VMCA for both airplanes means that this tool would be able to predict the VMCG and VMCA of an airplane in the preliminary stages of design. This would allow design engineers the ability to use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS) as part

  7. Somatic mosaicism of an intragenic FANCB duplication in both fibroblast and peripheral blood cells observed in a Fanconi anemia patient leads to milder phenotype.

    PubMed

    Asur, Rajalakshmi S; Kimble, Danielle C; Lach, Francis P; Jung, Moonjung; Donovan, Frank X; Kamat, Aparna; Noonan, Raymond J; Thomas, James W; Park, Morgan; Chines, Peter; Vlachos, Adrianna; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

    2018-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Patients harboring X-linked FANCB pathogenic variants usually present with severe congenital malformations resembling VACTERL syndrome with hydrocephalus. We employed the diepoxybutane (DEB) test for FA diagnosis, arrayCGH for detection of duplication, targeted capture and next-gen sequencing for defining the duplication breakpoint, PacBio sequencing of full-length FANCB aberrant transcript, FANCD2 ubiquitination and foci formation assays for the evaluation of FANCB protein function by viral transduction of FANCB-null cells with lentiviral FANCB WT and mutant expression constructs, and droplet digital PCR for quantitation of the duplication in the genomic DNA and cDNA. We describe here an FA-B patient with a mild phenotype. The DEB diagnostic test for FA revealed somatic mosaicism. We identified a 9154 bp intragenic duplication in FANCB, covering the first coding exon 3 and the flanking regions. A four bp homology (GTAG) present at both ends of the breakpoint is consistent with microhomology-mediated duplication mechanism. The duplicated allele gives rise to an aberrant transcript containing exon 3 duplication, predicted to introduce a stop codon in FANCB protein (p.A319*). Duplication levels in the peripheral blood DNA declined from 93% to 7.9% in the span of eleven years. Moreover, the patient fibroblasts have shown 8% of wild-type (WT) allele and his carrier mother showed higher than expected levels of WT allele (79% vs. 50%) in peripheral blood, suggesting that the duplication was highly unstable. Unlike sequence point variants, intragenic duplications are difficult to precisely define, accurately quantify, and may be very unstable, challenging the proper diagnosis. The reversion of genomic duplication to the WT allele results in somatic mosaicism and may explain the relatively milder phenotype displayed by the FA

  8. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    PubMed

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Mass aeromedical evacuation of patients in an emergency: experience following the 2010 Yushu earthquake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu; Liang, Wannian; Zhu, Zenghong; Shen, Yan; Kang, Peng; Liu, Zhipeng

    2013-12-01

    On April 14, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake hit Yushu, China, causing 2698 deaths and 12,135 injuries. A large number of patients were evacuated by air to hospitals in unaffected areas for specialty treatment. To investigate the overall process and details of patients' aeromedical evacuation (AE) after the Yushu earthquake. The study was an observational, retrospective investigation conducted in December 2010 in Qinghai province. Information was gathered from Yushu Batang airport, the Ministry of Health, the Health Department of Qinghai Province, and rear echelon hospitals in five provinces. A total of 2796 patients were evacuated by 152 separate flights from Yushu. The number of AE patients reached a peak (55.8%) within 72 h after the earthquake. Of the total 2796 patients, 2533 were admitted to rear echelon hospitals. This number included 2111 (83.3%) with earthquake-related trauma, 422 (26.7%) with non-traumatic diseases, and 166 (6.6%) with acute mountain sickness. No accident or medical error was reported during the evacuation process. The aircraft used for AE included IL-76 transport aircraft from the Air Force, Airbus A-319s from civil aviation, and MI-17 helicopters from Army aviation. According to our investigation, the need for professional AE training was great (83.7%). In addition, almost all participants (99.3%) agreed that the aircraft needed to be improved for the purpose of AE. Aeromedical evacuation of a large number of patients after major disasters in remote areas can be done safely and effectively; however, problems such as a lack of suitable AE aircraft and medical equipment, as well as insufficient professional medical training in AE, were revealed after the Yushu earthquake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of female genital appearance in Chinese adults seeking genital cosmetic surgery: a preliminary report from a gynecological center.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yujiao; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Fengyong; Li, Senkai; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and comprehensive measurements of the external genitalia in female adults are of great significance in surgery designs and for aesthetic evaluation in genital plastic surgeries. The authors carried out a 319-case study and provided baseline data and morphometric reference for plastic surgery involving the genital deformity caused by trauma or burns and male-to-female transsexual operations. Our study design recruited 319 women referred to the out-patient clinic from August 2010 to August 2013. From each individual we measured 16 parameters and assessed the significance of variations in age, height, weight, BMI, and marital status (as a proxy for parity). We tried to establish a female external genitalia database of the population presenting for cosmetic surgery and define the general proportions of female genitalia in Chinese adults from the data we obtained. A wide range of values was noted in female genital measurements especially in labia minora parameters. Four parameters, including clitoral prepuce length, clitoris to urethra, labial length, and perineal body length had a proportional relationship to some extent. The position of the clitoris and urethral orifice was found to be regular in female adults. Compared with unmarried women, perineal body length decreased (P = 0.048), while the apex to perineum (bilateral) and labial length increased (P = 0.005, 0.006, <0.0001) in those who were married. Several parameters were statistically significantly associated with age, height, weight, BMI, and marital status. We presented an external genitalia database of Chinese female adults asking for cosmetic surgery. Although the ranges of genital measurements vary, there is a proportional relationship in female genital appearance, which should be heeded in surgical designs and genital aesthetic evaluation.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ROSAT detected quasars. II. (Yuan+ 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, W.; Brinkmann, W.; Siebert, J.; Voges, W.

    1997-11-01

    We have compiled a sample of all radio-quiet quasars or quasars without radio detection from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue (1993, VV93, Cat. ) detected by ROSAT in the ALL-SKY SURVEY (RASS, Voges 1992, in Proc. of the ISY Conference `Space Science', ESA ISY-3, ESA Publications, p.9, See Cat. ), as targets of pointed observations, or as serendipitous sources from pointed observations publicly available from the ROSAT point source catalogue (ROSAT-SRC, Voges et al. 1995, Cat. ). For all sources we used the results of the Standard Analysis Software System (SASS, Voges et al. 1992, in Proc. of the ISY Conference `Space Science', ESA ISY-3, ESA Publications, p.223), employing the most recent processing for the Survey data (RASS-II, Voges et al. 1996, Cat. ). The total number of quasars is 846. 69 of the radio-quiet objects with radio detections have already been presented in a previous paper (Brinkmann, Yuan, & Siebert 1997, Cat. A/319/413>) using the RASS-I results. 17 objects were found to be radio-loud from recent radio surveys and were marked in the table. When available, the power law photon indices and the corresponding absorption column densities (NH) were estimated from the two hardness ratios given by the SASS, both with free fitted NH and for Galactic absorption. The unabsorbed X-ray flux densities in the ROSAT band (0.1-2.4keV) were calculated from the count rates using the energy to counts conversion factor for power law spectra and Galactic absorption. As the photon index we used the value obtained for the individual source if the estimated 1-σ error is smaller than 0.5, otherwise we used the redshift-dependent mean value (see the paper for details). (1 data file).

  12. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  13. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  14. Automated exterior inspection of an aircraft with a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Igor; Larnier, Stanislas; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with an automated preflight aircraft inspection using a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving autonomously around the aircraft. The general topic is image processing framework for detection and exterior inspection of different types of items, such as closed or unlatched door, mechanical defect on the engine, the integrity of the empennage, or damage caused by impacts or cracks. The detection step allows to focus on the regions of interest and point the camera toward the item to be checked. It is based on the detection of regular shapes, such as rounded corner rectangles, circles, and ellipses. The inspection task relies on clues, such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes, and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The approach is applied to the inspection of four items of Airbus A320: oxygen bay handle, air-inlet vent, static ports, and fan blades. The results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of an automated exterior inspection.

  15. Prepare for Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2007-05-01

    The 2006 Winter Meeting of the AAPT Was Over … and the flight home from Anchorage to Cleveland was just about to end—eight hours in the air, only two complimentary beverages, no meals, a jump across four time zones, a one-year-old baby daughter, and a wife whose motto for the week was, "Why did they choose to have a winter meeting in Alaska?" made for a mentally and physically taxing airborne ordeal. As we entered the last hour of flight, my small family was exhausted and the pilot's decision to dim the interior cabin lights mixed with the soothing hum of the Airbus® A320's engines quickly put us to sleep. Fading in and out of my delirium, I eventually heard the pilot's voice crackle over the intercom with a seemingly innocent comment: "We are going to begin our final descent into Cleveland … we should have you on the ground in exactly eight minutes." Something about the pilot's use of the word "exactly" must have triggered a reaction in my brain, because his remarks initiated a series of calculations: So how fast are we flying? How high are we flying? What's our angle of descent? With only eight minutes until touchdown, my curiosity to determine the descending airplane's motion led me to conduct a hastily constructed experiment.

  16. Bacterial Production, Characterization and Protein Modeling of a Novel Monofuctional Isoform of FAD Synthase in Humans: An Emergency Protein?

    PubMed

    Leone, Piero; Galluccio, Michele; Barbiroli, Alberto; Eberini, Ivano; Tolomeo, Maria; Vrenna, Flavia; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

    2018-01-06

    FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is the last essential enzyme involved in the pathway of biosynthesis of Flavin cofactors starting from Riboflavin (Rf). Alternative splicing of the human FLAD1 gene generates different isoforms of the enzyme FAD synthase. Besides the well characterized isoform 1 and 2, other FADS isoforms with different catalytic domains have been detected, which are splice variants. We report the characterization of one of these novel isoforms, a 320 amino acid protein, consisting of the sole C-terminal 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain (named FADS6). This isoform has been previously detected in Riboflavin-Responsive (RR-MADD) and Non-responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) patients with frameshift mutations of FLAD1 gene. To functionally characterize the hFADS6, it has been over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a yield of 25 mg·L -1 of cell culture. The protein has a monomeric form, it binds FAD and is able to catalyze FAD synthesis (k cat about 2.8 min -1 ), as well as FAD pyrophosphorolysis in a strictly Mg 2+ -dependent manner. The synthesis of FAD is inhibited by HgCl₂. The enzyme lacks the ability to hydrolyze FAD. It behaves similarly to PAPS. Combining threading and ab-initio strategy a 3D structural model for such isoform has been built. The relevance to human physio-pathology of this FADS isoform is discussed.

  17. Evidence of Natural Selection Acting on a Polymorphic Hybrid Incompatibility Locus in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Sweigart, Andrea L.; Flagel, Lex E.

    2015-01-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci—hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)—to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. PMID:25428983

  18. Evidence of natural selection acting on a polymorphic hybrid incompatibility locus in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Flagel, Lex E

    2015-02-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci-hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)-to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Effect of UV radiation on the expulsion of Symbiodinium from the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hui; Beardall, John; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-01-01

    The variation in density of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinum in coral is a basic indicator of coral bleaching, i.e. loss of the symbiotic algae or their photosynthetic pigments. However, in the field corals constantly release their symbiotic algae to surrounding water. To explore the underlying mechanism, the rate of expulsion of zooxanthellae from the coral Pocillopora damicornis was studied over a three-day period under ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm) stress. The results showed that the algal expulsion rate appeared 10-20% higher under exposure to UV-A (320-395nm) or UV-B (295-320nm), though the differences were not statistically significant. When corals were exposed to UV-A and UV-B radiation, the maximum expulsion of zooxanthellae occurred at noon (10:00-13:00), and this timing was 1h earlier than in the control without UVR. UVR stress led to obvious decreases in the concentrations of chl a and carotenoids in the coral nubbins after a three-day exposure. Therefore, our results suggested that although the UVR effect on algal expulsion rate was a chronic stress and was not significant within a time frame of only three days, the reduction in chl a and carotenoids may potentially enhance the possibility of coral bleaching over a longer period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Detection and typing of low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 42, HPV 43 and HPV 44 by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Maver, Polona J; Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Kocjan, Bostjan J

    2010-10-01

    A novel PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (PCR-RFLP) was developed for sensitive detection and reliable differentiation of five low-risk human papillomavirus (lr-HPV) genotypes: HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 42, HPV 43 and HPV 44, as well as differentiation of prototypic and non-prototypic HPV 6 genomic variants. The assay is based on the amplification of a 320-bp fragment of the HPV E1 gene and subsequent analysis of PCR-products with BsaJI and HinFI. Testing on plasmid standards showed that PCR-RFLP enabled simple and reliable identification and differentiation of five targeted lr-HPV genotypes and could detect reproducibly down to 10 copies of viral genome equivalents per PCR. The PCR-RFLP showed almost complete agreement with previously obtained genotyping results on 42 HPV-DNA negative samples and 223 HPV-DNA positive samples (45 HPV 6, 34 HPV 11, 35 HPV 42, 10 HPV 43, 24 HPV 44 positive samples and 75 samples containing 28 non-targeted HPV genotypes). The novel assay is simple and robust, does not require any sophisticated equipment and can be of great value for epidemiological studies, particularly in settings in which financial resources are limited. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Infectivity of Sf-rhabdovirus variants in insect and mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Jarvis, Donald L

    2017-12-01

    Sf-rhabdovirus was only recently identified as an adventitious agent of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines used as hosts for baculovirus vectors. As such, we still know little about its genetic variation, infectivity, and the potential impact of variation on the Sf-rhabdovirus-host interaction. Here, we characterized Sf-rhabdoviruses from two widely used Sf cell lines to confirm and extend information on Sf-rhabdovirus variation. We then used our novel Sf-rhabdovirus-negative (Sf-RVN) Sf cell line to assess the infectivity of variants with and without a 320bp X/L deletion and found both established productive persistent infections in Sf-RVN cells. We also assessed their infectivity using heterologous insect and mammalian cell lines and found neither established productive persistent infections in these cells. These results are the first to directly demonstrate Sf-rhabdoviruses are infectious for Sf cells, irrespective of the X/L deletion. They also confirm and extend previous results indicating Sf-rhabdoviruses have a narrow host range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Data indicating temperature response of Ti-6Al-4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Garrett J; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(™)) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti-6Al-4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  3. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Garrett J.; Thompson, Scott M.; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials. PMID:27054180

  4. Emission analysis of large number of various passenger electronic devices in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüür, Jens; Oppermann, Lukas; Enders, Achim; Nunes, Rafael R.; Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    2016-09-01

    The ever increasing use of PEDs (passenger or portable electronic devices) has put pressure on the aircraft industry as well as operators and administrations to reevaluate established restrictions in PED-use on airplanes in the last years. Any electronic device could cause electromagnetic interference to the electronics of the airplane, especially interference at receiving antennas of sensitive wireless navigation and communication (NAV/COM) systems. This paper presents a measurement campaign in an Airbus A320. 69 test passengers were asked to actively use a combination of about 150 electronic devices including many attached cables, preferentially with a high data load on their buses, to provoke maximal emissions. These emissions were analysed within the cabin as well as at the inputs of aircraft receiving antennas outside of the fuselage. The emissions of the electronic devices as well as the background noise are time-variant, so just comparing only one reference and one transmission measurement is not sufficient. Repeated measurements of both cases lead to a more reliable first analysis. Additional measurements of the absolute received power at the antennas of the airplane allow a good estimation of the real interference potential to aircraft NAV/COM systems. Although there were many measured emissions within the cabin, there were no disturbance signals detectable at the aircraft antennas.

  5. Control in the cockpit: crews vs. computers.

    PubMed

    Ropelewski, R

    1996-08-01

    In the no-holds-barred competition between Boeing and Europe's Airbus Industrie for dominance in the world's commercial jet airliner markets, the question of who--or what--is in charge in the cockpit has been a significant selling point. Airbus, which pioneered highly automated flight controls with its A320 narrow-body transport in the late 1980s, likes to emphasize the "protection" features built into the aircraft through those automated systems. Boeing, which employs many of the same concepts in its new 777 twin-engine widebody transport, tends to put more emphasis on crew involvement in the operation of that aircraft. Is there a difference? In fact, the question has broader implications than those involving the marketing battle between Boeing and Airbus. Airlines, aircraft manufacturers, flight training specialists, human factors gurus, and aviation authorities in various countries are struggling with the isse as automation becomes more and more prevalent on passenger and cargo-carrying aircraft around the world.

  6. Development of Custom 465® Corrosion-Resisting Steel for Landing Gear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daymond, Benjamin T.; Binot, Nicolas; Schmidt, Michael L.; Preston, Steve; Collins, Richard; Shepherd, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Existing high-strength low-alloy steels have been in place on landing gear for many years owing to their superior strength and cost performance. However, there have been major advances in improving the strength of high-performance corrosion-resisting steels. These materials have superior environmental robustness and remove the need for harmful protective coatings such as chromates and cadmium now on the list for removal under REACH legislation. A UK government-funded collaborative project is underway targeting a refined specification Custom 465® precipitation hardened stainless steel to replace the current material on Airbus A320 family aircraft main landing gear, a main fitting component developed by Messier-Bugatti-Dowty. This is a collaborative project between Airbus, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, and Carpenter Technology Corporation. An extensive series of coupon tests on four production Heats of the material have been conducted, to obtain a full range of mechanical, fatigue, and corrosion properties. Custom 465® is an excellent replacement to the current material, with comparable tensile strength and fracture toughness, better ductility, and very good general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Fatigue performance is the only significant area of deficit with respect to incumbent materials, fatigue initiation being often related to carbo-titanium-nitride particles and cleavage zones.

  7. A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-12-01

    This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

  8. Myocardial perfusion 320-row multidetector computed tomography-guided treatment strategy for the clinical management of patients with recent acute-onset chest pain: Design of the CArdiac cT in the treatment of acute CHest pain (CATCH)-2 randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørgaard, Mathias; Linde, Jesper J; Hove, Jens D; Petersen, Jan R; Jørgensen, Tem B S; Abdulla, Jawdat; Heitmann, Merete; Kragelund, Charlotte; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Udholm, Patricia M; Pihl, Christian; Kühl, J Tobias; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Jan Skov; Høfsten, Dan E; Kelbæk, Henning; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-09-01

    Patients admitted with chest pain are a diagnostic challenge because the majority does not have coronary artery disease (CAD). Assessment of CAD with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is safe, cost-effective, and accurate, albeit with a modest specificity. Stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been shown to increase the specificity when added to CCTA, without lowering the sensitivity. This article describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, CATCH-2, comparing a clinical diagnostic management strategy of CCTA alone against CCTA in combination with CTP. Patients with acute-onset chest pain older than 50 years and with at least one cardiovascular risk factor for CAD are being prospectively enrolled to this study from 6 different clinical sites since October 2013. A total of 600 patients will be included. Patients are randomized 1:1 to clinical management based on CCTA or on CCTA in combination with CTP, determining the need for further testing with invasive coronary angiography including measurement of the fractional flow reserve in vessels with coronary artery lesions. Patients are scanned with a 320-row multidetector computed tomography scanner. Decisions to revascularize the patients are taken by the invasive cardiologist independently of the study allocation. The primary end point is the frequency of revascularization. Secondary end points of clinical outcome are also recorded. The CATCH-2 will determine whether CCTA in combination with CTP is diagnostically superior to CCTA alone in the management of patients with acute-onset chest pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  10. Refined Exploration of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the turbofan engine design space for an advanced technology single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) was conducted previously by the authors and is documented in a prior report. Through the course of that study and in a subsequent evaluation of the approach and results, a number of enhancements to the engine design ground rules and assumptions were identified. A follow-on effort was initiated to investigate the impacts of these changes on the original study results. The fundamental conclusions of the prior study were found to still be valid with the revised engine designs. The most significant impact of the design changes was a reduction in the aircraft weight and block fuel penalties incurred with low fan pressure ratio, ultra-high bypass ratio designs. This enables lower noise levels to be pursued (through lower fan pressure ratio) with minor negative impacts on aircraft weight and fuel efficiency. Regardless of the engine design selected, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  11. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  12. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  13. A 25μm pitch LWIR focal plane array with pixel-level 15-bit ADC providing high well capacity and targeting 2mK NETD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guellec, Fabrice; Peizerat, Arnaud; Tchagaspanian, Michael; de Borniol, Eric; Bisotto, Sylvette; Mollard, Laurent; Castelein, Pierre; Zanatta, Jean-Paul; Maillart, Patrick; Zecri, Michel; Peyrard, Jean-Christophe

    2010-04-01

    CEA Leti has recently developed a new readout IC (ROIC) with pixel-level ADC for cooled infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). It operates at 50Hz frame rate in a snapshot Integrate-While-Read (IWR) mode. It targets applications that provide a large amount of integrated charge thanks to a long integration time. The pixel-level analog-to-digital conversion is based on charge packets counting. This technique offers a large well capacity that paves the way for a breakthrough in NETD performances. The 15 bits ADC resolution preserves the excellent detector SNR at full well (3Ge-). These characteristics are essential for LWIR FPAs as broad intra-scene dynamic range imaging requires high sensitivity. The ROIC, featuring a 320x256 array with 25μm pixel pitch, has been designed in a standard 0.18μm CMOS technology. The main design challenges for this digital pixel array (SNR, power consumption and layout density) are discussed. The IC has been hybridized to a LWIR detector fabricated using our in-house HgCdTe process. The first electro-optical test results of the detector dewar assembly are presented. They validate both the pixel-level ADC concept and its circuit implementation. Finally, the benefit of this LWIR FPA in terms of NETD performance is demonstrated.

  14. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  15. Triple pulse shape discrimination and capture-gated spectroscopy in a composite heterogeneous scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Nattress, J.; Wilhelm, K.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an all-solid-state design for a composite heterogeneous scintillation detector sensitive to interactions with high-energy photons (gammas), fast neutrons, and thermal neutrons. The scintillator exhibits triple pulse shape discrimination, effectively separating electron recoils, fast neutron recoils, and neutron captures. This is accomplished by combining the properties of two distinct scintillators, whereby a 51-mm diameter, 51-mm tall cylinder of pulse shape discriminating plastic is wrapped by a 320-μm thick sheet of 6LiF:ZnS(Ag), optically coupling the scintillators to each other and to the photomultiplier tube. In this way, the sensitivity to neutron captures is achieved without the need to load the plastic scintillator with a capture agent. We demonstrate a figure of merit of up to 1.2 for fast neutrons/gammas and 5.7 for thermal neutrons/gammas. Intrinsic capture efficiency is found to be 0.46±0.05% and is in good agreement with simulation, while gamma rejection was 10-6 with respect to the capture region and 10-4 with respect to the recoil region using a 300 keVee threshold. Finally, we show an improvement in capture-gated neutron spectroscopy by rejecting accidental gamma coincidences using pulse shape discrimination in the plastic scintillator.

  16. Effects of detuning of electron beam quality for annular beam Cyclotron Autoresonance Accelerator (CARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Hirshfield, J.L.; Ganguly, K.

    1995-04-01

    For high frequency gyrotrons or high gyroharmonic conversion, an axis encircling beam of high voltage is required to allow coupling to whispering gallery fields near the walls. Lower voltage is required for an annular beam of similar velocity ratio {alpha}. Here the authors present simulation results using a modified CARA for preparation of a 320 kV, 20 A, {alpha} = 1.5 annular beam driven at 11.424 GHz with an rf power of 5 MW and an injection voltage of 75 kV. It is shown that the beam quality can be considerably improved by so-called {open_quotes}detuning{close_quotes}, where the tapered axial magneticmore » field profiles in the CARA are caused to deviate a small amount from exact resonance. Under typical operating conditions, beams with axial velocity spreads of the order of 1% are predicted. This approach could be used to provide a high quality annular gyrating beam for multi-megawatt millimeter wave sources in the 100-200 GHz range.« less

  17. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  18. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    PubMed

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  19. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  20. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Chase, Dorothy M.; McKibben, Constance L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 × 109cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 × 104cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  1. The tails of the satellite auroral footprints at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfond, B.; Saur, J.; Grodent, D.; Badman, S. V.; Bisikalo, D.; Shematovich, V.; Gérard, J.-C.; Radioti, A.

    2017-08-01

    The electromagnetic interaction between Io, Europa, and Ganymede and the rotating plasma that surrounds Jupiter has a signature in the aurora of the planet. This signature, called the satellite footprint, takes the form of a series of spots located slightly downstream of the feet of the field lines passing through the moon under consideration. In the case of Io, these spots are also followed by an extended tail in the downstream direction relative to the plasma flow encountering the moon. A few examples of a tail for the Europa footprint have also been reported in the northern hemisphere. Here we present a simplified Alfvénic model for footprint tails and simulations of vertical brightness profiles for various electron distributions, which favor such a model over quasi-static models. We also report here additional cases of Europa footprint tails, in both hemispheres, even though such detections are rare and difficult. Furthermore, we show that the Ganymede footprint can also be followed by a similar tail. Finally, we present a case of a 320° long Io footprint tail, while other cases in similar configurations do not display such a length.

  2. Pacemaker-induced Metallic Artifacts in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Clinical Feasibility of Single Energy Metal Artifact Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tomoya; Arai, Takehiro; Amanuma, Makoto; Sano, Tomonari; Ichiba, Masato; Ishizaka, Kazumasa; Sekine, Takako; Matsutani, Hideyuki; Morita, Hitomi; Takase, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with pacemaker suffers from metallic lead-induced artifacts, which often interfere with accurate assessment of coronary luminal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to assess a frequency of the lead-induced artifacts and artifact-suppression effect by the single energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) technique. Forty-one patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker were evaluated using a 320 multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Among them, 22 patients with motion-free full data reconstruction images were the final candidates. Images with and without the SMEAR technique were subjectively compared, and the degree of metallic artifacts was compared. On images without SEMAR, severe metallic artifacts were often observed in the right coronary artery (#1, #2, #3) and distal anterior descending branch (#8). These artifacts were effectively suppressed by SEMAR, and the luminal accessibility was significantly improved in #3 and #8. While pacemaker leads often cause metallic-induced artifacts, SEMAR technique reduced the artifacts and significantly improved the accessibility of coronary lumen in #3 and #8.

  3. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  4. Micro-engineered remote palpation device for assessing tissue compliance.

    PubMed

    Hien, M; Yang, T H J; Leung, S K W; Reuben, R L; Habib, F K; McNeill, S A; Schneider, A; McBride, G; Stevens, R; Else, R W

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the operation of the actuator for a prototype micro-engineered mechanical palpation device for deployment via a cystoscope to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of the prostate gland in vivo. The subassembly consists of a 400x200 microm silicon (Si) piston manufactured using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) housed within an anodically bonded glass-Si-glass sandwiched housing. The micro-channel on the Si layer was formed by powder blasting and contains the micro-piston with one end pointing to the side of the housing and the other facing a via hole leading to a capillary tube. The opening on the side of the housing was sealed by a 5 microm thick silicone membrane which acts to retain the micro-piston and act as a return spring. A 320 microm diameter capillary forms the connection between the micro-channel and a micro-syringe which is operated by a programmable syringe pump to produce a reciprocating action. A pressure sensor is connected along the capillary tube to measure the dynamic pressure within the system. The micro-piston has already been used, separately actuated to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of known viscoelastic materials and prostate tissue. The purpose of the present work is to assess the functionality of the actuator assembly.

  5. Portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for detection of biofilms on stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Won; Lee, Kangjin; Millner, Patricia; Sharma, Manan; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2008-04-01

    A rapid nondestructive technology is needed to detect bacterial contamination on the surfaces of food processing equipment to reduce public health risks. A portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system was used to evaluate potential detection of microbial biofilm on stainless steel typically used in the manufacture of food processing equipment. Stainless steel coupons were immersed in bacterium cultures, such as E. coli, Pseudomonas pertucinogena, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Listeria innocula. Following a 1-week exposure, biofilm formations were assessed using fluorescence imaging. In addition, the effects on biofilm formation from both tryptic soy broth (TSB) and M9 medium with casamino acids (M9C) were examined. TSB grown cells enhance biofilm production compared with M9C-grown cells. Hyperspectral fluorescence images of the biofilm samples, in response to ultraviolet-A (320 to 400 nm) excitation, were acquired from approximately 416 to 700 nm. Visual evaluation of individual images at emission peak wavelengths in the blue revealed the most contrast between biofilms and stainless steel coupons. Two-band ratios compared with the single-band images increased the contrast between the biofilm forming area and stainless steel coupon surfaces. The 444/588 nm ratio images exhibited the greatest contrast between the biofilm formations and stainless coupon surfaces.

  6. Numerical analysis of nuclear power plant structure subjected to aircraft crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, Reza; Alinejad, Majid; Mahdavi, Mir Omid; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2017-12-01

    An aircraft crashing into a nuclear containment may induce a series of disasters related to containment capacity, including local penetration and perforation of the containment, intensive vibrations, and fire ignited after jet fuel leakage. In this study, structural safety of a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) has been studied against the direct hit of Airbus A320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4 aircrafts. ABAQUS/explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The impact locations identified on the nuclear containment structure are mid height of containment, center of the cylindrical portion, junction of dome and cylinder, and over the cylindrical portion close to the foundation level. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. The concrete damaged plasticity model was predicted to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using elastoplastic material model. Dynamic loading conditions were considered using dynamic increase factor. The mid height of containment and center of cylindrical portion have been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft crash. It has also been found that compression damage in concrete is not critical at none of the impact locations.

  7. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  8. Disposal of Energy by UV-B Sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Thomas; Krishnan, Rajagopal

    2008-03-01

    Ideal sunscreens absorb dangerous UV light and dispose of the energy safely. ``Safe disposal'' usually means conversion to heat. However, efficient absorption entails a high radiative rate, which implies high energy-transfer and other rates, unless some process intervenes to ``defuse'' the excited state. We studied the excited-state kinetics of three UV-B (290-320 nm) sunscreens by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. Excited-state rate analysis suggests that some sunscreens have low radiative-rate ``dark'' states, in addition to normal excited states.* We deduce dark states when sunscreens of high extinction coefficient do not show lifetimes and total emission consistent with such high radiative rates. A high radiative rate, accompanied by efficient fluorescence emission and/or transfer, may be unfavorable for a sunscreen. In spite of its dark excited state, padimate O shows significant re-emission of light in the UV-A (320-400 nm) and energy transfer to a natural component of excised skin, probably collagen. * Krishnan, R. and T.M. Nordlund (2007) J. Fluoresc. DOI 10.1007/s10895-007-0264-3.

  9. User type certification for advanced flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D.; Abbott, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced avionics through flight management systems (FMS) coupled with autopilots can now precisely control aircraft from takeoff to landing. Clearly, this has been the most important improvement in aircraft since the jet engine. Regardless of the eventual capabilities of this technology, it is doubtful that society will soon accept pilotless airliners with the same aplomb they accept driverless passenger trains. Flight crews are still needed to deal with inputing clearances, taxiing, in-flight rerouting, unexpected weather decisions, and emergencies; yet it is well known that the contribution of human errors far exceed those of current hardware or software systems. Thus human errors remain, and are even increasing in percentage as the largest contributor to total system error. Currently, the flight crew is regulated by a layered system of certification: by operation, e.g., airline transport pilot versus private pilot; by category, e.g., airplane versus helicopter; by class, e.g., single engine land versus multi-engine land; and by type (for larger aircraft and jet powered aircraft), e.g., Boeing 767 or Airbus A320. Nothing in the certification process now requires an in-depth proficiency with specific types of avionics systems despite their prominent role in aircraft control and guidance.

  10. RNA from the 5' end of the R2 retrotransposon controls R2 protein binding to and cleavage of its DNA target site.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Shawn M; Ye, Junqiang; Eickbush, Thomas H

    2006-11-21

    Non-LTR retrotransposons insert into eukaryotic genomes by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT), a process in which cleaved DNA targets are used to prime reverse transcription of the element's RNA transcript. Many of the steps in the integration pathway of these elements can be characterized in vitro for the R2 element because of the rigid sequence specificity of R2 for both its DNA target and its RNA template. R2 retrotransposition involves identical subunits of the R2 protein bound to different DNA sequences upstream and downstream of the insertion site. The key determinant regulating which DNA-binding conformation the protein adopts was found to be a 320-nt RNA sequence from near the 5' end of the R2 element. In the absence of this 5' RNA the R2 protein binds DNA sequences upstream of the insertion site, cleaves the first DNA strand, and conducts TPRT when RNA containing the 3' untranslated region of the R2 transcript is present. In the presence of the 320-nt 5' RNA, the R2 protein binds DNA sequences downstream of the insertion site. Cleavage of the second DNA strand by the downstream subunit does not appear to occur until after the 5' RNA is removed from this subunit. We postulate that the removal of the 5' RNA normally occurs during reverse transcription, and thus provides a critical temporal link to first- and second-strand DNA cleavage in the R2 retrotransposition reaction.

  11. SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The Performance Prototype Trough (PPT) Concentrating Collector consists of four 80-foot modules in a 320-foot row. The collector was analyzed, including cost estimates and manufacturing processes to produce collectors in volumes from 100 to 100,000 modules per year. The four different reflector concepts considered were the sandwich reflector structure, sheet metal reflector structure, molded reflector structure, and glass laminate structure. The sheet metal and glass laminate structures are emphasized with their related structure concepts. A preliminary manufacturing plan is offered that includes: documentation of the manufacturing process with production flow diagrams; labor and material costs at various production levels; machinerymore » and equipment requirements including preliminary design specifications; and capital investment costs for a new plant. Of five reflector designs considered, the two judged best and considered at length are thin annealed glass and steel laminate on steel frame panel and thermally sagged glass. Also discussed are market considerations, costing and selling price estimates, design cost analysis and make/buy analysis. (LEW)« less

  12. A quantitative analysis of spectral mechanisms involved in auditory detection of coloration by a single wall reflection.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Jörg M

    2011-07-01

    Coloration detection thresholds (CDTs) were measured for a single reflection as a function of spectral content and reflection delay for diotic stimulus presentation. The direct sound was a 320-ms long burst of bandpass-filtered noise with varying lower and upper cut-off frequencies. The resulting threshold data revealed that: (1) sensitivity decreases with decreasing bandwidth and increasing reflection delay and (2) high-frequency components contribute less to detection than low-frequency components. The auditory processes that may be involved in coloration detection (CD) are discussed in terms of a spectrum-based auditory model, which is conceptually similar to the pattern-transformation model of pitch (Wightman, 1973). Hence, the model derives an auto-correlation function of the input stimulus by applying a frequency analysis to an auditory representation of the power spectrum. It was found that, to successfully describe the quantitative behavior of the CDT data, three important mechanisms need to be included: (1) auditory bandpass filters with a narrower bandwidth than classic Gammatone filters, the increase in spectral resolution was here linked to cochlear suppression, (2) a spectral contrast enhancement process that reflects neural inhibition mechanisms, and (3) integration of information across auditory frequency bands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  14. Intrapulpal temperatures during pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment of dentin, in vitro.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Fagan, M C; Goodis, H E

    1994-03-01

    Lasers are being used for soft tissue removal, caries removal, and treatment of root surface sensitivity. One concern for laser safety is that the heat produced at the irradiated root surface may diffuse to the pulp causing irreversible pulpal damage. To test this heat diffusion, copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the radicular pulp canals of extracted teeth. Simulating direct exposure which might occur during gingival excision, superficial caries removal, and modification of the dentin surface for treatment of root surface sensitivity, a 2 mm2 area of the external root surface was uniformly irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser using a 320 microns diameter fiber optic contact probe. Power was varied from 0.3 to 3.0 W with frequencies of 10 and 20 Hz. Temperature changes during cavity preparations using a high speed handpiece with air coolant were also recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA (P < or = 0.05) indicated that intrapulpal temperatures increased as a function of power, frequency, and time. Intrapulpal temperatures decreased as remaining dentin thickness (0.2 to 2.0 mm) increased for each laser parameter. Irradiation of dentin using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, within the treatment times, powers, and frequencies with adequate remaining dentin thickness, as outlined in this paper, should not cause devitalizing intrapulpal temperature rises.

  15. Hydrogen production through aqueous-phase reforming of ethylene glycol in a washcoated microchannel.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M Fernanda Neira; Ordomsky, Vitaly; Paunovic, Violeta; van der Schaaf, John; Schouten, Jaap C; Nijhuis, T Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of biocarbohydrates is conducted in a catalytically stable washcoated microreactor where multiphase hydrogen removal enhances hydrogen efficiency. Single microchannel experiments are conducted following a simplified model based on the microreactor concept. A coating method to deposit a Pt-based catalyst on the microchannel walls is selected and optimized. APR reactivity tests are performed by using ethylene glycol as the model compound. Optimum results are achieved with a static washcoating technique; a highly uniform and well adhered 5 μm layer is deposited on the walls of a 320 μm internal diameter (ID) microchannel in one single step. During APR of ethylene glycol, the catalyst layer exhibits high stability over 10 days after limited initial deactivation. The microchannel presents higher conversion and selectivity to hydrogen than a fixed-bed reactor. The benefits of using a microreactor for APR can be further enhanced by utilizing increased Pt loadings, higher reaction temperatures, and larger carbohydrates (e.g., glucose). The use of microtechnology for aqueous-phase reforming will allow for a great reduction in the reformer size, thus rendering it promising for distributed hydrogen production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaoni; Hutchins, David A.; Fu, Feixue; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-10-01

    Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101) using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %), MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 %) in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) alone treatment (400-700 nm). These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  17. PRIC320, a transcription coactivator, isolated from peroxisome proliferator-binding protein complex.

    PubMed

    Surapureddi, Sailesh; Viswakarma, Navin; Yu, Songtao; Guo, Dongsheng; Rao, M Sambasiva; Reddy, Janardan K

    2006-05-05

    Ciprofibrate, a potent peroxisome proliferator, induces pleiotropic responses in liver by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a nuclear receptor. Transcriptional regulation by liganded nuclear receptors involves the participation of coregulators that form multiprotein complexes possibly to achieve cell and gene specific transcription. SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses of ciprofibrate-binding proteins from liver nuclear extracts obtained using ciprofibrate-Sepharose affinity matrix resulted in the identification of a new high molecular weight nuclear receptor coactivator, which we designated PRIC320. The full-length human cDNA encoding this protein has an open-reading frame that codes for a 320kDa protein containing 2882 amino acids. PRIC320 contains five LXXLL signature motifs that mediate interaction with nuclear receptors. PRIC320 binds avidly to nuclear receptors PPARalpha, CAR, ERalpha, and RXR, but only minimally with PPARgamma. PRIC320 also interacts with transcription cofactors CBP, PRIP, and PBP. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting as well as cellular localization studies confirmed the interaction between PPARalpha and PRIC320. PRIC320 acts as a transcription coactivator by stimulating PPARalpha-mediated transcription. We conclude that ciprofibrate, a PPARalpha ligand, binds a multiprotein complex and PRIC320 cloned from this complex functions as a nuclear receptor coactivator.

  18. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on growth and bleaching in three species of Hawaiian coral

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, G.D.

    1990-01-09

    Long term exposure to ultraviolet radiation is harmful to many organisms, including hermatypic corals, which obtain much of their nutrition from photosynthetic zooxanthellae. Therefore, increased UV radiation from atmospheric ozone depletion could inhibit growth of such corals. Moreover, coral bleaching, which has been attributed to loss of pigment and/or expulsion of zooxanthellae, may be a specific response to UV light. Does UV-A reduce skeletal growth or influence population density and pigment content of zooxanthellae In addition, do zooxanthellae migrate to shaded areas of the colony to avoid ultraviolet light Using alizarin red stain and suitable filters, I compared the stainmore » and suitable filters, I compared the effects of UV-A (320-400nm) and full-spectrum UV (280-400nm) on the skeletal growth of two Hawaiian corals, Montipora verrucosa, Pocillopora damicornis, in situ. In the perforate corals, M. Verrucosa and Porites compressa, I measured concentration of zooxanthellae and their chlorophyll content to quantify bleaching in response to UV light. Reduction in skeletal growth by the two corals in response to different ranges of UV light appears to be species specific. Bleaching by UV appears to be characterized by an initial loss of pigment followed by the expulsion and migration of the zooxanthellae to shaded areas of the colony. Differences in tolerance and adaptation to decreasing ozone levels and increasing UV light should confer a competitive advantage on various species and morphologies of reef-building corals.« less

  19. Photocatalytic reactive oxygen species production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles are dependent on the solar ultraviolet radiation spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongbo; Brennan, Amanda; Diamond, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2)) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar ultraviolet (UV) spectra by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UV-B (280-320 nm) from solar radiation had no significant impact on photocatalytic ROS production of nano-TiO(2), whereas removal of UV-A (320-400 nm) decreased ROS production remarkably. Removal of wavelengths below 400 nm resulted in negligible ROS production. A linear correlation between ROS production and D. magna immobilization suggests that photocatalytic ROS production may be a predictor of phototoxicity for nano-TiO(2). Intracellular ROS production within D. magna was consistent with the immobilization of the organism under different solar UV spectra, indicating that oxidative stress was involved in phototoxicity. The dependence of nano-TiO(2) phototoxicity on environmentally realistic variations in solar radiation suggests that risk assessment of these nanomaterials requires careful evaluation of exposure conditions in the environment. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  1. Development of HgCdTe large format MBE arrays and noise-free high speed MOVPE EAPD arrays for ground based NIR astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, G.; Baker, I.; Downing, M.; Alvarez, D.; Ives, D.; Mehrgan, L.; Meyer, M.; Stegmeier, J.; Weller, H. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large format near infrared HgCdTe 2Kx2K and 4Kx4K MBE arrays have reached a level of maturity which meets most of the specifications required for near infrared (NIR) astronomy. The only remaining problem is the persistence effect which is device specific and not yet fully under control. For ground based multi-object spectroscopy on 40 meter class telescopes larger pixels would be advantageous. For high speed near infrared fringe tracking and wavefront sensing the only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. A readout chip for a 320x256 pixel HgCdTe eAPD array will be presented which has 32 parallel video outputs being arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is also available for small sub-windows. In combination with the high APD gain this allows reducing the readout noise to the subelectron level by applying nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling. Arrays grown by MOVPE achieve subelectron readout noise and operate with superb cosmetic quality at high APD gain. Efforts are made to reduce the dark current of those arrays to make this technology also available for large format focal planes of NIR instruments offering noise free detectors for deep exposures. The dark current of the latest MOVPE eAPD arrays is already at a level adequate for noiseless broad and narrow band imaging in scientific instruments.

  2. Sub-Surface Windscreen for the Measurement of Outdoor Infrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Comeaux, Toby; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Weistroffer, George R.

    2008-01-01

    A windscreen has been developed that features two advantages favorable for the measurement of outdoor infrasound. First, the sub-surface location, with the top of the windscreen flush with the ground surface, minimizes the mean velocity of the impinging wind. Secondly, the windscreen material (closed cell polyurethane foam) has a sufficiently low acoustic impedance (222 times that of air) and wall thickness (0.0127 m) to provide a transmission coefficient of nearly unity over the infrasonic frequency range (0-20 Hz). The windscreen, a tightly-sealed box having internal dimensions of 0.3048 x 0.3048 x 0.3556 m, contains a microphone, preamplifier, and a cable feed thru to an external power supply. Provisions are made for rain drainage and seismic isolation. A three-element array, configured as an equilateral triangle with 30.48 m spacing and operating continuously in the field, periodically receives highly coherent signals attributed to emissions from atmospheric turbulence. The time delays between infrasonic signals received at the microphones permit determination of the bearing and elevation of the sources, which correlate well with locations of pilot reports (PIREPS) within a 320 km radius about the array. The test results are interpreted to yield spectral information on infrasonic emissions from clear air turbulence.

  3. Dynamics of particles in central Encke ringlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.-L.; Spahn, F.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Encke gap is a 320 km wide division in the Saturn A ring centered at 133,581 km. There are at least 3 ringlets in Encke gap, and the central one shares the orbit with Pan [1]. Observations suggest that these ringlets are mainly composed of micronsized particles [2]. The lifetime of these particles are restricted, mechanisms must be at work to replenish these ringlets. The kinetic balance of dust production, dynamical evolution, and loss of dust has been investigated in [3]. In this work, we focus on the particle dynamics in the Encke gap. Our results show that in the central Encke ringlet: (1) The solar radiation pressure provides a minimum particle radius of 7μm; (2) The plasma drag force pushes particle outward in a rate of ˜ 1km/yr; (3) Particles are in a 'modified' horseshoe orbit which is the result of horseshoe orbit plus plasma drag, this orbit prevent particles to reach large co-rotational longitudes of Pan.

  4. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics. PMID:27402165

  5. LWIR hyperspectral imager based on a diffractive optics lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam

    2009-05-01

    A diffractive optics lens based longwave infrared hyperspectral imager has been used to collect laboratory and outdoor field test data. The imager uses a specially designed diffractive optics Ge lens with a 320×256 HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) cooled with a Sterling-cooler. The imager operates in 8-10.5 μm (long wave IR, LWIR) spectral region and an image cube with 50 to 200 bands can be acquired rapidly. Spectral images at different wavelengths are obtained by moving the lens along its optical axis. An f/2.38 diffractive lens is used with a focal length of 70 mm at 8 μm. The IFOV is 0.57 mrad which corresponds to an FOV of 10.48°. The spectral resolution of the imager is 0.034 μm at 9 μm. The pixel size is 40×40 μm2 in the FPA. In post processing of image cube data contributions due to wavelengths other than the focused one are removed and a correction to account for the change in magnification due to the motion of the lens is applied to each spectral image. A brief description of the imager, data collection and analysis to characterize the performance of the imager will be presented in this paper.

  6. Design of a 16 gray scales 320 × 240 pixels OLED-on-silicon driving circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Huang; Xiaohui, Wang; Wenbo, Wang; Huan, Du; Zhengsheng, Han

    2009-01-01

    A 320×240 pixel organic-light-emitting-diode-on-silicon (OLEDoS) driving circuit is implemented using the standard 0.5 μm CMOS process of CSMC. It gives 16 gray scales with integrated 4 bit D/A converters. A three-transistor voltage-programmed OLED pixel driver is proposed, which can realize the very small current driving required for the OLEDoS microdisplay. Both the D/A converter and the pixel driver are implemented with pMOS devices. The pass-transistor and capacitance in the OLED pixel driver can be used to sample the output of the D/A converter. An additional pMOS is added to OLED pixel driver, which is used to control the D/A converter operating only when one row is on. This can reduce the circuit's power consumption. This driving circuit can work properly in a frame frequency of 50 Hz, and the final layout of this circuit is given. The pixel area is 28.4 × 28.4 μm2 and the display area is 10.7 × 8.0 mm2 (the diagonal is about 13 mm). The measured pixel gray scale voltage shows that the function of the driver circuit is correct, and the power consumption of the chip is about 350 mW.

  7. Comparing in situ removal strategies for improving styrene bioproduction.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Rebekah; Moya, Luis; McDaniel, Matthew; Nielsen, David R

    2015-01-01

    As an important conventional monomer compound, the biological production of styrene carries significant promise with respect to creating novel sustainable materials. Since end-product toxicity presently limits styrene production by previously engineered Escherichia coli, in situ product removal by both solvent extraction and gas stripping were explored as process-based strategies for circumventing its inhibitory effects. In solvent extraction, the addition of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate offered the greatest productivity enhancement, allowing net volumetric production of 836 ± 64 mg/L to be reached, representing a 320 % improvement over single-phase cultures. Gas stripping rates, meanwhile, were controlled by rates of bioreactor agitation and, to a greater extent, aeration. A periodic gas stripping protocol ultimately enabled up to 561 ± 15 mg/L styrene to be attained. Lastly, by relieving the effects of styrene toxicity, new insight was gained regarding subsequent factors limiting its biosynthesis in E. coli and strategies for future strain improvement are discussed.

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical controls on metal(loid) mobility in the oxide zone of the Prairie Creek Deposit, NWT

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinga, Drew; Jamieson, Heather; Layton-Matthews, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Prairie Creek is an unmined high grade Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the southern Mackenzie Mountains of the Northwest Territories, located in a 320 km2 enclave surrounded by the Nahanni National Park reserve. The upper portion of the quartz-carbonate-sulphide vein mineralization has undergone extensive oxidation, forming high grade zones, rich in smithsonite (ZnCO3) and cerussite (PbCO3). This weathered zone represents a significant resource and a potential component of mine waste material. This study is focused on characterizing the geochemical and mineralogical controls on metal(loid) mobility under mine waste conditions, with particular attention to the metal carbonates as a potential source of tracemore » elements to the environment. Analyses were conducted using a combination of microanalytical techniques (electron microprobe, scanning electron microscopy with automated mineralogy, laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass spectrometry, and synchrotron-based element mapping, micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-X-ray absorbance). The elements of interest included Zn, Pb, Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se.« less

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. Methods As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Results Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = < .004). No significant differences were detected concerning the modalities’ specificities (with values between P = .98). Raters' confidence was higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography (P < .001). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT for wrist fractures proved to be similar and in some parts even higher compared to radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run. PMID:27788215

  10. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  11. Evaluation of InGaAS array detector suitability to space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauziede, L.; Beulé, K.; Boutillier, M.; Bernard, F.; Reverchon, J.-L.; Buffaz, A.

    2017-11-01

    InGaAs material has a natural cutoff wavelength of 1.65µm so it is naturally suitable for detection in Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral range. Regarding Earth Observation Spacecraft missions this spectral range can be used for the CO2 concentration measurements in the atmosphere. CNES (French Space agency) is studying a new mission, Microcarb with a spectral band centered on 1.6µm wavelength. InGaAs detector looks attractive for space application because its low dark current allows high temperature operation, reducing by the way the needed instrument resources. The Alcatel Thales III-VLab group has developed InGaAs arrays technology (320x256 & 640x512) that has been studied by CNES, using internal facilities. Performance tests and technological evaluation were performed on a 320x256 pixels array with a pitch of 30µm. The aim of this evaluation was to assess this new technology suitability for space applications. The carried out test plan includes proton radiations with Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) study, operating lifetest and evolution of performances as a function of the operating temperature.

  12. QWIP technology for both military and civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Kukkonen, Carl A.; Sirangelo, Mark N.; McQuiston, Barbara K.; Chehayeb, Riad; Kaufmann, M.

    2001-10-01

    Advanced thermal imaging infrared cameras have been a cost effective and reliable method to obtain the temperature of objects. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) based thermal imaging systems have advanced the state-of-the-art and are the most sensitive commercially available thermal systems. QWIP Technologies LLC, under exclusive agreement with Caltech University, is currently manufacturing the QWIP-ChipTM, a 320 X 256 element, bound-to-quasibound QWIP FPA. The camera performance falls within the long-wave IR band, spectrally peaked at 8.5 μm. The camera is equipped with a 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor combined with multi- tasking software, delivering a digital acquisition resolution of 12-bits using nominal power consumption of less than 50 Watts. With a variety of video interface options, remote control capability via an RS-232 connection, and an integrated control driver circuit to support motorized zoom and focus- compatible lenses, this camera design has excellent application in both the military and commercial sector. In the area of remote sensing, high-performance QWIP systems can be used for high-resolution, target recognition as part of a new system of airborne platforms (including UAVs). Such systems also have direct application in law enforcement, surveillance, industrial monitoring and road hazard detection systems. This presentation will cover the current performance of the commercial QWIP cameras, conceptual platform systems and advanced image processing for use in both military remote sensing and civilian applications currently being developed in road hazard monitoring.

  13. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects on TiO2-anatase upon UV-A and UV-A/VIS threshold irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyun; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis mediated by the anatase modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has shown antibacterial effects in medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of expanding the excitation wavelengths for photocatalytic antibacterial effects from ultraviolet (UV) into the visible light range. After deposition of salivary pellicle and adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii on anatase, different irradiation protocols were applied to induce photocatalysis: ultraviolet A (UV-A) > 320 nm; ultraviolet/visible (UV-A/VIS) light > 380 nm and > 390 nm; and VIS light 400-410 nm. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) tests and microscopic examination were used to observe the photoinduced antibacterial effects. Salivary pellicle could be photocatalytically decomposed under all irradiation protocols. In contrast, effective photocatalytic attack of bacteria could be observed by UV-A as well as by UV-A/VIS at 380 nm < λ < 390 nm only. Wavelengths above 380 nm show promise for in situ therapeutic antifouling applications.

  14. Contribution of the NADH-oxidase (Nox) to the aerobic life of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T.

    PubMed

    Jänsch, André; Freiding, Simone; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the key bacterium in traditional sourdough fermentation. The molecular background of its oxygen tolerance was investigated by comparison of wild type and NADH-oxidase (Nox) knock out mutants. The nox gene of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) coding for a NADH-oxidase (Nox) was inactivated by single crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451Δnox. By inactivation of the native NADH-oxidase gene, it was ensured that besides fructose, O(2) can react as an electron acceptor. In aerated cultures the mutant strain was only able to grow in MRS media supplemented with fructose as electron acceptor, whereas the wild type strain showed a fructose independent growth response. The use of oxygen as an external electron acceptor enables L. sanfranciscensis to shift from acetyl-phosphate into the acetate branch and gain an additionally ATP, while the reduced cofactors were regenerated by Nox-activity. In aerated cultures the wild type strain formed a fermentation ratio of lactate to acetate of 1.09 in MRS supplemented with fructose after 24 h of fermentation, while the mutant strain formed a fermentation ratio of 3.05. Additionally, L. sanfranciscensis showed manganese-dependent growth response in aerated cultures, the final OD and growth velocity was increased in media supplemented with manganese. The expression of two predicted Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transporters MntH1 and MntH2 in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) was verified by amplification of a 318 bp fragment of MntH1 and a 239 bp fragment of MntH2 from cDNA library obtained from aerobically, exponentially growing cells of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) in MRS. Moreover, the mutant strain DSM20451Δnox was more sensitive to the superoxide generating agent paraquat and showed inhibition of growth on diamide-treated MRS-plates without fructose supplementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogeography and Post-Glacial Recolonization in Wolverines (Gulo gulo) from across Their Circumpolar Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zigouris, Joanna; Schaefer, James A.; Fortin, Clément; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Interglacial-glacial cycles of the Quaternary are widely recognized in shaping phylogeographic structure. Patterns from cold adapted species can be especially informative - in particular, uncovering additional glacial refugia, identifying likely recolonization patterns, and increasing our understanding of species’ responses to climate change. We investigated phylogenetic structure of the wolverine, a wide-ranging cold adapted carnivore, using a 318 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 983 wolverines (n = 209 this study, n = 774 from GenBank) from across their full Holarctic distribution. Bayesian phylogenetic tree reconstruction and the distribution of observed pairwise haplotype differences (mismatch distribution) provided evidence of a single rapid population expansion across the wolverine’s Holarctic range. Even though molecular evidence corroborated a single refugium, significant subdivisions of population genetic structure (0.01< ΦST <0.99, P<0.05) were detected. Pairwise ΦST estimates separated Scandinavia from Russia and Mongolia, and identified five main divisions within North America - the Central Arctic, a western region, an eastern region consisting of Ontario and Quebec/Labrador, Manitoba, and California. These data are in contrast to the nearly panmictic structure observed in northwestern North America using nuclear microsatellites, but largely support the nuclear DNA separation of contemporary Manitoba and Ontario wolverines from northern populations. Historic samples (c. 1900) from the functionally extirpated eastern population of Quebec/Labrador displayed genetic similarities to contemporary Ontario wolverines. To understand these divergence patterns, four hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). The most supported hypothesis was a single Beringia incursion during the last glacial maximum that established the northwestern population, followed by a west-to-east colonization during the Holocene. This

  16. Phylogeography and post-glacial recolonization in wolverines (Gulo gulo) from across their circumpolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Zigouris, Joanna; Schaefer, James A; Fortin, Clément; Kyle, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Interglacial-glacial cycles of the Quaternary are widely recognized in shaping phylogeographic structure. Patterns from cold adapted species can be especially informative - in particular, uncovering additional glacial refugia, identifying likely recolonization patterns, and increasing our understanding of species' responses to climate change. We investigated phylogenetic structure of the wolverine, a wide-ranging cold adapted carnivore, using a 318 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 983 wolverines (n=209 this study, n=774 from GenBank) from across their full Holarctic distribution. Bayesian phylogenetic tree reconstruction and the distribution of observed pairwise haplotype differences (mismatch distribution) provided evidence of a single rapid population expansion across the wolverine's Holarctic range. Even though molecular evidence corroborated a single refugium, significant subdivisions of population genetic structure (0.01< ΦST <0.99, P<0.05) were detected. Pairwise ΦST estimates separated Scandinavia from Russia and Mongolia, and identified five main divisions within North America - the Central Arctic, a western region, an eastern region consisting of Ontario and Quebec/Labrador, Manitoba, and California. These data are in contrast to the nearly panmictic structure observed in northwestern North America using nuclear microsatellites, but largely support the nuclear DNA separation of contemporary Manitoba and Ontario wolverines from northern populations. Historic samples (c. 1900) from the functionally extirpated eastern population of Quebec/Labrador displayed genetic similarities to contemporary Ontario wolverines. To understand these divergence patterns, four hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). The most supported hypothesis was a single Beringia incursion during the last glacial maximum that established the northwestern population, followed by a west-to-east colonization during the Holocene. This pattern is

  17. Characterization of SNPs in the dopamine-β-hydroxylase gene providing new insights into its structure-function relationship.

    PubMed

    Punchaichira, Toyanji Joseph; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Kundu, Suman; Thelma, B K

    2017-07-01

    Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH, EC 1.14.17.1), an oxido-reductase that catalyses the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is largely expressed in sympathetic neurons and adrenal medulla. Several regulatory and structural variants in DBH associated with various neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular diseases and a few that may determine enzyme activity have also been identified. Due to paucity of studies on functional characterization of DBH variants, its structure-function relationship is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to characterize five non-synonymous (ns) variants that were prioritized either based on previous association studies or Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant (SIFT) algorithm. The DBH ORF with wild type (WT) and site-directed mutagenized variants were transfected into HEK293 cells to generate transient and stable lines expressing these variant enzymes. Activity was determined by UPLC-PDA and corresponding quantity by MRM HR on a TripleTOF 5600 MS respectively of spent media from stable cell lines. Homospecific activity computed for the WT and variant proteins showed a marginal decrease in A318S, W544S and R549C variants. In transient cell lines, differential secretion was observed in the case of L317P, W544S and R549C. Secretory defect in L317P was confirmed by localization in ER. R549C exhibited both decreased homospecific activity and differential secretion. Of note, all the variants were seen to be destabilizing based on in silico folding analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, lending support to our experimental observations. These novel genotype-phenotype correlations in this gene of considerable pharmacological relevance have implications for dopamine-related disorders.

  18. Tree-ring-based drought reconstruction in the Iberian Range (east of Spain) since 1694

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Cuadrat, José María; Esper, Jan; Saz, Miguel Ángel

    2016-03-01

    Droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in the Mediterranean basin with negative consequences for society, economic activities, and natural systems. Nevertheless, the study of drought recurrence and severity in Spain has been limited so far due to the relatively short instrumental period. In this work, we present a reconstruction of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) for the Iberian Range. Growth variations and climatic signals within the network are assessed developing a correlation matrix and the data combined to a single chronology integrating 336 samples from 169 trees of five different pine species distributed throughout the province of Teruel. The new chronology, calibrated against regional instrumental climatic data, shows a high and stable correlation with the July SPI integrating moisture conditions over 12 months forming the basis for a 318-year drought reconstruction. The climate signal contained in this reconstruction is highly significant ( p < 0.05) and spatially robust over the interior areas of Spain located above 1000 meters above sea level (masl). According to our SPI reconstruction, seven substantially dry and five wet periods are identified since the late seventeenth century considering ≥±1.76 standard deviations. Besides these, 36 drought and 28 pluvial years were identified. Some of these years, such as 1725, 1741, 1803, and 1879, are also revealed in other drought reconstructions in Romania and Turkey, suggesting that coherent larger-scale synoptic patterns drove these extreme deviations. Since regional drought deviations are also retained in historical documents, the tree-ring-based reconstruction presented here will allow us to cross-validate drought frequency and magnitude in a highly vulnerable region.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Skin Cancer Referral and Consultation Using Teledermoscopy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Snoswell, Centaine L; Caffery, Liam J; Whitty, Jennifer A; Soyer, H Peter; Gordon, Louisa G

    2018-06-01

    International literature has shown that teledermoscopy referral may be a viable method for skin cancer referral; however, no economic investigations have occurred in Australia. To assess the cost-effectiveness of teledermoscopy as a referral mechanism for skin cancer diagnosis and management in Australia. Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model of Australian primary care, informed by publicly available data. We compared the costs of teledermoscopy referral (electronic referral containing digital dermoscopic images) vs usual care (a written referral letter) for specialist dermatologist review of a suspected skin cancer. Cost and time in days to clinical resolution, where clinical resolution was defined as diagnosis by a dermatologist or excision by a general practitioner. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the main results. Findings from the decision-analytic model showed that the mean time to clinical resolution was 9 days (range, 1-50 days) with teledermoscopy referral compared with 35 days (range, 0-138 days) with usual care alone (difference, 26 days; 95% credible interval [CrI], 13-38 days). The estimated mean cost difference between teledermoscopy referral (A$318.39) vs usual care (A$263.75) was A$54.64 (95% CrI, A$22.69-A$97.35) per person. The incremental cost per day saved to clinical resolution was A$2.10 (95% CrI, A$0.87-A$5.29). Using teledermoscopy for skin cancer referral and triage in Australia would cost A$54.64 extra per case on average but would result in clinical resolution 26 days sooner than usual care. Implementation recommendations depend on the preferences of the Australian health system decision makers for either lower cost or expedited clinical resolution. Further research around the clinical significance of expedited clinical resolution and its importance for patients could inform implementation recommendations for the Australian setting.

  20. [Detection of pathogenic mutations in Marfan syndrome by targeted next-generation semiconductor sequencing].

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaoxia; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Jifang; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Shuyang; Zhang, Xue

    2013-06-01

    To detect pathogenic mutations in Marfan syndrome (MFS) using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and to validate the result of targeted next-generation semiconductor sequencing for the diagnosis of genetic disorders. Peripheral blood samples were collected from three MFS patients and a normal control with informed consent. Genomic DNA was isolated by standard method and then subjected to targeted sequencing using an Ion Ampliseq(TM) Inherited Disease Panel. Three multiplex PCR reactions were carried out to amplify the coding exons of 328 genes including FBN1, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. DNA fragments from different samples were ligated with barcoded sequencing adaptors. Template preparation and emulsion PCR, and Ion Sphere Particles enrichment were carried out using an Ion One Touch system. The ion sphere particles were sequenced on a 318 chip using the PGM platform. Data from the PGM runs were processed using an Ion Torrent Suite 3.2 software to generate sequence reads. After sequence alignment and extraction of SNPs and indels, all the variants were filtered against dbSNP137. DNA sequences were visualized with an Integrated Genomics Viewer. The most likely disease-causing variants were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The PGM sequencing has yielded an output of 855.80 Mb, with a > 100 × median sequencing depth and a coverage of > 98% for the targeted regions in all the four samples. After data analysis and database filtering, one known missense mutation (p.E1811K) and two novel premature termination mutations (p.E2264X and p.L871FfsX23) in the FBN1 gene were identified in the three MFS patients. All mutations were verified by conventional Sanger sequencing. Pathogenic FBN1 mutations have been identified in all patients with MFS, indicating that the targeted next-generation sequencing on the PGM sequencers can be applied for accurate and high-throughput testing of genetic disorders.

  1. Tree-ring-based drought reconstruction in the Iberian Range (east of Spain) since 1694.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Cuadrat, José María; Esper, Jan; Saz, Miguel Ángel

    2016-03-01

    Droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in the Mediterranean basin with negative consequences for society, economic activities, and natural systems. Nevertheless, the study of drought recurrence and severity in Spain has been limited so far due to the relatively short instrumental period. In this work, we present a reconstruction of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) for the Iberian Range. Growth variations and climatic signals within the network are assessed developing a correlation matrix and the data combined to a single chronology integrating 336 samples from 169 trees of five different pine species distributed throughout the province of Teruel. The new chronology, calibrated against regional instrumental climatic data, shows a high and stable correlation with the July SPI integrating moisture conditions over 12 months forming the basis for a 318-year drought reconstruction. The climate signal contained in this reconstruction is highly significant (p < 0.05) and spatially robust over the interior areas of Spain located above 1000 meters above sea level (masl). According to our SPI reconstruction, seven substantially dry and five wet periods are identified since the late seventeenth century considering ≥±1.76 standard deviations. Besides these, 36 drought and 28 pluvial years were identified. Some of these years, such as 1725, 1741, 1803, and 1879, are also revealed in other drought reconstructions in Romania and Turkey, suggesting that coherent larger-scale synoptic patterns drove these extreme deviations. Since regional drought deviations are also retained in historical documents, the tree-ring-based reconstruction presented here will allow us to cross-validate drought frequency and magnitude in a highly vulnerable region.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P4501A transcript, protein, and catalytic activity in the striped sea bream (Lithognathus mormyrus).

    PubMed

    Tom, Moshe; Shmul, Merav; Shefer, Edna; Chen, Nir; Slor, Hanoch; Rinkevich, Baruch; Herut, Barak

    2003-09-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was partially characterized in the striped sea bream (Lithognathus mormyrus) from the Mediterranean coast of Israel as part of the process of establishing the CYP1A gene as an environmental biomarker. Reverse transcription-competitive polymerase chain reaction, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay were used for evaluating transcript, protein, and catalytic activity levels, respectively, in absolute units. Highest elucidated transcript, protein, and catalytic activity levels were 0.264 +/- SD 0.084 fmol/microg total RNA, 0.88 +/- 0.52 pmol/microg total protein, and 1.11 +/- 0.52 pmol resorufin/min/microg total protein, respectively, and the lower levels were 0.009 +/- 0.007 fmol/microg total RNA, 0.17 +/- 0.08 pmol/microg total protein, and 0.11 +/- 0.06 pmol resorufin/min/microg total protein, respectively, demonstrating substantial induction potential. All alternate pairs of seven examined field samples, revealing a transcript-level ratio higher than 1.7, also demonstrated a significant difference between their transcript levels, indicating a potential to detect relatively small biomarker changes (1.7-fold) caused by environmental effects. Simultaneous triple measurements of transcript, protein, and catalytic activity were carried out in individuals from two field samples and during a 318-d decay experiment. Fish from the field samples revealed significant alternate bivariate correlation between transcript, protein, and enzymatic activity. Conflicting results were found when analyzing the decay experiment, in which both protein and catalytic activity levels decreased significantly to basal levels, in contrast to no significant change in transcript levels throughout the experiment. No significant difference was observed between males and females regarding the levels of CYP1A transcript, protein, and EROD.

  3. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  4. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (290-320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  5. Assessment of Long-Term Changes in River Stage of the Lowermost Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Long-term changes in river stage can reflect dynamics of river beds. Such changes in the lower reach of a river entering the sea can also indicate sea level rise and land subsidence. The lowermost Mississippi River has experienced changes in its stages over the past several decades which, however, have not been studied yet. Comprehensive analysis of long-term changes in stages of this river can aid in understanding its route downstream and differentiate between sediment erosion and deposition mechanics at several of its sites. In this study, we utilize long-term records on river stages along a 320-km reach of the lowermost Mississippi River from the Old River Control Structure to New Orleans in order to assess the channel dynamics of the highly engineered river. Eight locations along the reach are selected, including Red River Landing, Bayou Sara, St. Francisville, Baton Rouge, Dolandsonville, College Point, Bonnet Carre, and Carrolton. River stages at the locations are analyzed under the low-, medium-, and high-flow conditions over the past three decades. Changes in slope of the river stages between these locations are determined based on difference in their river stages and length of their reach. Preliminary results from this study show that the river stages drop systematically as the river moves downstream. The drop is very low from Red River Landing to Baton Rouge; it suddenly increases from Baton Rouge to the next site at Bonnet Carre, then decreases for the next few sites up to Carrolton. We also found that some river reaches experienced deposition while other river reaches had erosion during the past decades. This paper will present major findings in long term changes in lowermost Mississippi river stages and their slopes. It will also discuss implications of these findings for sediment accumulation and possible river diversion locations.

  6. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volumemore » CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r{sup 2} = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques.« less

  7. Optimization of the Reconstruction Interval in Neurovascular 4D-CTA Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenboom, T.C.H.; van Beurden, R.M.J.; van Teylingen, B.; Schenk, B.; Willems, P.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Time resolved whole brain CT angiography (4D-CTA) is a novel imaging technology providing information regarding blood flow. One of the factors that influence the diagnostic value of this examination is the temporal resolution, which is affected by the gantry rotation speed during acquisition and the reconstruction interval during post-processing. Post-processing determines the time spacing between two reconstructed volumes and, unlike rotation speed, does not affect radiation burden. The data sets of six patients who underwent a cranial 4D-CTA were used for this study. Raw data was acquired using a 320-slice scanner with a rotation speed of 2 Hz. The arterial to venous passage of an intravenous contrast bolus was captured during a 15 s continuous scan. The raw data was reconstructed using four different reconstruction-intervals: 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 s. The results were rated by two observers using a standardized score sheet. The appearance of each lesion was rated correctly in all readings. Scoring for quality of temporal resolution revealed a stepwise improvement from the 1.0 s interval to the 0.3 s interval, while no discernable improvement was noted between the 0.3 s and 0.2 s interval. An increase in temporal resolution may improve the diagnostic quality of cranial 4D-CTA. Using a rotation speed of 0.5 s, the optimal reconstruction interval appears to be 0.3 s, beyond which, changes can no longer be discerned. PMID:23217631

  8. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs)more » were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.« less

  9. Particle and gaseous emissions from commercial aircraft at each stage of the landing and takeoff cycle.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-01-15

    A novel technique was used to measure emission factors for commonly used commercial aircraft including a range of Boeing and Airbus airframes under real world conditions. Engine exhaust emission factors for particles in terms of particle number and mass (PM2.5), along with those for CO2 and NOx, were measured for over 280 individual aircraft during the various modes of landing/takeoff (LTO) cycle. Results from this study show that particle number, and NOx emission factors are dependent on aircraft engine thrust level. Minimum and maximum emissions factors for particle number, PM2.5, and NOx emissions were found to be in the range of 4.16 x 10(15)-5.42 x 10(16) kg(-1), 0.03-0.72 g.kg(-1), and 3.25-37.94 g.kg(-1), respectively, for all measured airframes and LTO cycle modes. Number size distributions of emitted particles for the naturally diluted aircraft plumes in each mode of LTO cycle showed that particles were predominantly in the range of 4-100 nm in diameter in all cases. In general, size distributions exhibit similar modality during all phases of the LTO cycle. A very distinct nucleation mode was observed in all particle size distributions, except for taxiing and landing of A320 aircraft. Accumulation modes were also observed in all particle size distributions. Analysis of aircraft engine emissions during LTO cycle showed that aircraft thrust level is considerably higher during taxiing than idling suggesting that International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards need to be modified as the thrust levels for taxi and idle are considered to be the same (7% of total thrust) (Environmental Protection, Annex 16, Vol. II, Aircraft Engine Emissions, 2nd ed.; ICAO--International Civil Aviation Organization: Montreal, 1993).

  10. Occupational exposure to organic solvents during paint stripping and painting operations in the aeronautical industry.

    PubMed

    Vincent, R; Poirot, P; Subra, I; Rieger, B; Cicolella, A

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of workers to methylene chloride and phenol in an aeronautical workshop was measured during stripping of paint from a Boeing B 747. Methylene chloride exposure was measured during two work days by personal air sampling, while area sampling was used for phenol. During paint stripping operations, methylene chloride air concentrations ranged from 299.2 mg/m3 (83.1 ppm) to 1888.9 mg/m3 (524.7 ppm). The exposures to methylene chloride calculated for an 8-h work day ranged from 86 mg/m3 (23.9 ppm) to 1239.5 mg/m3 (344.3 ppm). In another aeronautical workshop, exposure to organic solvents, especially ethylene glycol monoethylether acetate (EGEEA), was controlled during the painting of an Airbus A 320. The external exposure to solvents and EGEEA was measured by means of individual air sampling. The estimation of internal exposure to EGEEA was made by measuring its urinary metabolite, ethoxyacetic acid (EAA). Both measurements were made during the course of 3 days. The biological samples were taken pre- and post-shift. During painting operations, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, xylenes and EGEEA were detected in working atmospheres. For these solvents, air concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppm to 69.1 ppm. EGEEA concentrations ranged from 29.2 mg/m3 (5.4 ppm) to 150.1 mg/m3 (27.8 ppm). For biological samples, the average concentrations of EAA were 108.4 mg/g creatinine in pre-shift and 139.4 mg/g creatinine in post-shift samples. Despite the fact that workers wore protective respiratory equipment during paint spraying operations, EEA urinary concentrations are high and suggest that percutaneous uptake is the main route of exposure for EGEEA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Growth and characterization of In1-xGaxAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 strained layer superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, G.; Duran, J. M.; Reyner, C. J.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Yoon, N.; Wasserman, D.; Scheihing, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    Type-II strained layer superlattices (SLS) are an active research topic in the infrared detector community and applications for SLS detectors continue to grow. SLS detector technology has already reached the commercial market due to improvements in material quality, device design, and device fabrication. Despite this progress, the optimal superlattice design has not been established, and at various times has been believed to be InAs/GaSb, InAs/InGaSb, or InAs/InAsSb. Building on these, we investigate the properties of a new mid-wave infrared SLS material: InGaAs/InAsSb SLS. The ternary InGaAs/InAsSb SLS has three main advantages over other SLS designs: greater support for strain compensation, enhanced absorption due to increased electron-hole wavefunction overlap, and improved vertical hole mobility due to reduced hole effective mass. Here, we compare three ternary SLSs, with approximately the same bandgap (0.240 eV at 150 K), comprised of Ga fractions of 5%, 10%, and 20% to a reference sample with 0% Ga. Enhanced absorption is both theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. Furthermore, the characteristics of ternary SLS infrared detectors based on an nBn architecture are reported and exhibit nearly state-of-the-art dark current performance with minimal growth optimization. We report standard material and device characterization information, including dark current and external quantum efficiency, and provide further analysis that indicates improved quantum efficiency and vertical hole mobility. Finally, a 320×256 focal plane array built based on the In0.8Ga0.2As/InAs0.65Sb0.35 SLS design is demonstrated with promising performance.

  12. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Belley, Matthew D; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J; Chen, Benny J; Dewhirst, Mark W; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2014-03-01

    Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%-32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs.

  13. Association of the CPT1B Gene with Skeletal Muscle Fat Infiltration in Afro-Caribbean Men

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Iva; Yerges, Laura M.; Li, Hu; Gordon, Christopher L.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Nestlerode, Cara S.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Patrick, Alan L.; Wheeler, Victor W.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fat is greater in African ancestry individuals compared with whites, is associated with diabetes, and is a heritable polygenic trait. However, specific genetic factors contributing to skeletal muscle fat in humans remain to be defined. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (CPT1B) is a key enzyme in the regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, and as such is a reasonable biological candidate gene for skeletal muscle fat accumulation. Therefore, we examined the association of three nonsynonymous coding variants in CPT1B (G531L, I66V, and S427C; a fourth, A320G, could not be genotyped) and quantitative computed tomography measured tibia skeletal muscle composition and BMI among 1,774 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥40, participants of the population-based Tobago Health Study. For all variants, no significant differences were observed for BMI or total adipose tissue. Among individuals who were homozygous for the minor allele at G531L or I66V, intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) was 87% (P = 0.03) and 54% lower (P = 0.03), respectively. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was 11% (P = 0.017) and 7% (P = 0.049) higher, respectively, than among individuals without these genotypes. These associations were independent of age, body size, and muscle area. Finally, no individuals with type 2 diabetes were found among those who were homozygous for the minor allele of either at G531L and I66V whereas 14–18% of men with the major alleles had type 2 diabetes (P = 0.03 and 0.007, respectively). Our results suggest a novel association between common nonsynonymous coding variants in CPT1B and ectopic skeletal muscle fat among middle-aged and older African ancestry men. PMID:19553926

  14. Perfusion CT of the Brain and Liver and of Lung Tumors: Use of Monte Carlo Simulation for Patient Dose Estimation for Examinations With a Cone-Beam 320-MDCT Scanner.

    PubMed

    Cros, Maria; Geleijns, Jacob; Joemai, Raoul M S; Salvadó, Marçal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the patient dose from perfusion CT examinations of the brain, lung tumors, and the liver on a cone-beam 320-MDCT scanner using a Monte Carlo simulation and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A Monte Carlo simulation based on the Electron Gamma Shower Version 4 package code was used to calculate organ doses and the effective dose in the reference computational phantoms for an adult man and adult woman as published by the ICRP. Three perfusion CT acquisition protocols--brain, lung tumor, and liver perfusion--were evaluated. Additionally, dose assessments were performed for the skin and for the eye lens. Conversion factors were obtained to estimate effective doses and organ doses from the volume CT dose index and dose-length product. The sex-averaged effective doses were approximately 4 mSv for perfusion CT of the brain and were between 23 and 26 mSv for the perfusion CT body protocols. The eye lens dose from the brain perfusion CT examination was approximately 153 mGy. The sex-averaged peak entrance skin dose (ESD) was 255 mGy for the brain perfusion CT studies, 157 mGy for the lung tumor perfusion CT studies, and 172 mGy for the liver perfusion CT studies. The perfusion CT protocols for imaging the brain, lung tumors, and the liver performed on a 320-MDCT scanner yielded patient doses that are safely below the threshold doses for deterministic effects. The eye lens dose, peak ESD, and effective doses can be estimated for other clinical perfusion CT examinations from the conversion factors that were derived in this study.

  15. Ultraviolet Radiations: Skin Defense-Damage Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Chandel, Shikha; Kumar, Parveen; Verma, Vivek; Digvijay, Kumar; Tripathi, Deepika; Choudhury, Khushboo; Mitten, Sandeep Kumar; Shah, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    UV-radiations are the invisible part of light spectra having a wavelength between visible rays and X-rays. Based on wavelength, UV rays are subdivided into UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C (200-280 nm). Ultraviolet rays can have both harmful and beneficial effects. UV-C has the property of ionization thus acting as a strong mutagen, which can cause immune-mediated disease and cancer in adverse cases. Numbers of genetic factors have been identified in human involved in inducing skin cancer from UV-radiations. Certain heredity diseases have been found susceptible to UV-induced skin cancer. UV radiations activate the cutaneous immune system, which led to an inflammatory response by different mechanisms. The first line of defense mechanism against UV radiation is melanin (an epidermal pigment), and UV absorbing pigment of skin, which dissipate UV radiation as heat. Cell surface death receptor (e.g. Fas) of keratinocytes responds to UV-induced injury and elicits apoptosis to avoid malignant transformation. In addition to the formation of photo-dimers in the genome, UV also can induce mutation by generating ROS and nucleotides are highly susceptible to these free radical injuries. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) has been known to be implicated in different UV-induced damages such as pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and skin cancer. UV-B induces the formation of pre-vitamin D3 in the epidermal layer of skin. UV-induced tans act as a photoprotection by providing a sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4 and epidermal hyperplasia. There is a need to prevent the harmful effects and harness the useful effects of UV radiations.

  16. Ammonium production off central Chile (36°S) by photodegradation of phytoplankton-derived and marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Rain-Franco, Angel; Muñoz, Claudia; Fernandez, Camila

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S). The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1%) between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (280-320 nm), respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule) as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L(-1) h(-1) and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L(-1) h(-1). Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L(-1) h(-1). We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4(+) assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50-178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4(+) requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight.

  17. Automated continuous quantitative measurement of proximal airways on dynamic ventilation CT: initial experience using an ex vivo porcine lung phantom.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Moriya, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kotaro; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Teramoto, Ryuichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of continuous quantitative measurement of the proximal airways, using dynamic ventilation computed tomography (CT) and our research software. A porcine lung that was removed during meat processing was ventilated inside a chest phantom by a negative pressure cylinder (eight times per minute). This chest phantom with imitated respiratory movement was scanned by a 320-row area-detector CT scanner for approximately 9 seconds as dynamic ventilatory scanning. Obtained volume data were reconstructed every 0.35 seconds (total 8.4 seconds with 24 frames) as three-dimensional images and stored in our research software. The software automatically traced a designated airway point in all frames and measured the cross-sectional luminal area and wall area percent (WA%). The cross-sectional luminal area and WA% of the trachea and right main bronchus (RMB) were measured for this study. Two radiologists evaluated the traceability of all measurable airway points of the trachea and RMB using a three-point scale. It was judged that the software satisfactorily traced airway points throughout the dynamic ventilation CT (mean score, 2.64 at the trachea and 2.84 at the RMB). From the maximum inspiratory frame to the maximum expiratory frame, the cross-sectional luminal area of the trachea decreased 17.7% and that of the RMB 29.0%, whereas the WA% of the trachea increased 6.6% and that of the RMB 11.1%. It is feasible to measure airway dimensions automatically at designated points on dynamic ventilation CT using research software. This technique can be applied to various airway and obstructive diseases.

  18. A review of the effects of agricultural and industrial contamination on the Ebro delta biota and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, S; Mateo, R; Guitart, R

    2001-10-01

    The Ebro delta (NE Spain) is a 320 km2 wetland area of international importance for conservation. The area is devoted to rice farming and receives large amounts of pesticides. Industrial pollutants are also carried to the delta by the river. The information accumulated during the last 25 year on the effect of such pollution on the biota is reviewed in order to identify the existing gaps and needs for management. Organochlorine pesticides were legally used until 1977, which has resulted in the widespread presence of these compounds in the Ebro delta biota. Lethal, sublethal or other detrimental effects of these pesticides on wildlife in the area were poorly investigated, but negative effects on the reproduction of ducks and herons were reported. Nowadays, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the main responsible of organochlorine pollution in the area: concentrations in biota samples are higher than levels observed in nearby coastal areas, as a result of the significant PCB inputs by the river which, in 1990, were evaluated at 126 kg yr(-1). The massive use of herbicides is thought to have contributed to the elimation of macrophyte vegetation in the lagoons during the eighties, which had strong consequences on diving ducks and coot populations. Weed control is also related to the loss of biodiversity held by rice fields. The massive and inadequate use of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides (involving more than 20,000 t yr(-1) has produced some waterbird mortality events, and may have direct and indirect effects on other non-target organisms. The accumulation in the soil of lead pellets used in waterfowl shooting is estimated to kill some 16,300 waterbirds in the Ebro delta every year.

  19. Systems Genetics Identifies a Novel Regulatory Domain of Amylose Synthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Sabiha; Samson, Irene; de Guzman, Krishna; Alhambra, Crisline Mae; Misra, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the regulation of starch biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm is crucial in tailoring digestibility without sacrificing grain quality. In this study, significant association peaks on chromosomes 6 and 7 were identified through a genomewide association study (GWAS) of debranched starch structure from grains of a 320 indica rice diversity panel using genotyping data from the high-density rice array. A systems genetics approach that interrelates starch structure data from GWAS to functional pathways from a gene regulatory network identified known genes with high correlation to the proportion of amylose and amylopectin. An SNP in the promoter region of Granule Bound Starch Synthase I was identified along with seven other SNPs to form haplotypes that discriminate samples into different phenotypic ranges of amylose. A GWAS peak on chromosome 7 between LOC_Os07g11020 and LOC_Os07g11520 indexed by a nonsynonymous SNP mutation on exon 5 of a bHLH transcription factor was found to elevate the proportion of amylose at the expense of reduced short-chain amylopectin. Linking starch structure with starch digestibility by determining the kinetics of cooked grain amylolysis of selected haplotypes revealed strong association of starch structure with estimated digestibility kinetics. Combining all results from grain quality genomics, systems genetics, and digestibility phenotyping, we propose target haplotypes for fine-tuning starch structure in rice through marker-assisted breeding that can be used to alter the digestibility of rice grain, thus offering rice consumers a new diet-based intervention to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases. PMID:27881726

  20. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    DOE PAGES

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; ...

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch,more » yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e - rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e - with 2.6 e - rms and 2.7 μV/e - rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.« less

  1. Initial Simulated FFR Investigation Using Flow Measurements in Patient-specific 3D Printed Coronary Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Lauren; Sommer, Kelsey; Izzo, Richard; Podgorsak, Alexander; Wilson, Michael; Said, Zaid; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Angel, Erin; Ionita, Ciprian N

    2017-02-11

    Accurate patient-specific phantoms for device testing or endovascular treatment planning can be 3D printed. We expand the applicability of this approach for cardiovascular disease, in particular, for CT-geometry derived benchtop measurements of Fractional Flow Reserve, the reference standard for determination of significant individual coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions. Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) images during a single heartbeat were acquired with a 320×0.5mm detector row scanner (Toshiba Aquilion ONE). These coronary CTA images were used to create 4 patient-specific cardiovascular models with various grades of stenosis: severe, <75% (n=1); moderate, 50-70% (n=1); and mild, <50% (n=2). DICOM volumetric images were segmented using a 3D workstation (Vitrea, Vital Images); the output was used to generate STL files (using AutoDesk Meshmixer), and further processed to create 3D printable geometries for flow experiments. Multi-material printed models (Stratasys Connex3) were connected to a programmable pulsatile pump, and the pressure was measured proximal and distal to the stenosis using pressure transducers. Compliance chambers were used before and after the model to modulate the pressure wave. A flow sensor was used to ensure flow rates within physiological reported values. 3D model based FFR measurements correlated well with stenosis severity. FFR measurements for each stenosis grade were: 0.8 severe, 0.7 moderate and 0.88 mild. 3D printed models of patient-specific coronary arteries allows for accurate benchtop diagnosis of FFR. This approach can be used as a future diagnostic tool or for testing CT image-based FFR methods.

  2. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample sizemore » required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the

  4. Influence of temperature and UVR on photosynthesis and morphology of four species of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Giordanino, M Valeria Fiorda; Strauch, Sebastian M; Villafañe, Virginia E; Helbling, E Walter

    2011-04-04

    During the late austral spring of 2009 we carried out experiments (4days of duration) with four cyanobacteria species, Anabaena sp., Nostoc sp., Arthrospira platensis and Microcystis sp., to assess the combined effects of temperature and solar radiation on photosynthesis performance and morphology. Two experimental temperatures (18°C and 23°C, simulating a 5°C increase under a scenario of climate change) and three radiation treatments (by using different filters/materials) were implemented: (i) P (PAR, 400-700nm), (ii) PA (PAR+UV-A, 320-700nm) and, (iii) PAB (PAR+UV-A+UV-B, 280-700nm). In general, samples under the P treatment had less decrease/higher recovery rates of effective photochemical quantum yield (Y) than those receiving UV-A or UV-A+UV-B. The effects of increased temperature were species-specific: At the end of the experiments, it was seen that increased temperature benefited photosynthetic performance of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc sp. but not of Microcystis sp. and A. platensis. Higher temperature was also associated to an increase in the chain area of Anabaena sp., and to bigger trichomes in A. platensis; however, no morphological effects were observed in Microcystis sp. In addition, in Nostoc sp. the increase in temperature counteracted the UVR impact on the reduction of the chain area. How these effects and mechanisms will affect the trophodynamics and production of aquatic ecosystems is still uncertain, but the specificity of the responses suggests that not all cyanobacteria would be equally benefited by temperature increases therefore affecting the balance and interaction among species in the water column. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Very Low Intravenous Contrast Volume Protocol for Computed Tomography Angiography Providing Comprehensive Cardiac and Vascular Assessment Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pulerwitz, Todd C.; Khalique, Omar K.; Nazif, Tamim N.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Pearson, Gregory D.N.; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Vahl, Torsten P.; Kodali, Susheel K.; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B.; D'Souza, Belinda; Po, Ming Jack; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a lifesaving procedure for many patients high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in this population, and thus a very low contrast volume (VLCV) computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol providing comprehensive cardiac and vascular imaging would be valuable. Methods 52 patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve disease, undergoing pre-TAVR CTA assessment from 2013-4 at Columbia University Medical Center were studied, including all 26 patients with CKD (eGFR<30mL/min) who underwent a novel VLCV protocol (20mL of iohexol at 2.5mL/s), and 26 standard-contrast-volume (SCV) protocol patients. Using a 320-slice volumetric scanner, the protocol included ECG-gated volume scanning of the aortic root followed by medium-pitch helical vascular scanning through the femoral arteries. Two experienced cardiologists performed aortic annulus and root measurements. Vascular image quality was assessed by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. Results VLCV patients had mean(±SD) age 86±6.5, BMI 23.9±3.4 kg/m2 with 54% men; SCV patients age 83±8.8, BMI 28.7±5.3 kg/m2, 65% men. There was excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement for annular and root measurements, and excellent agreement with 3D-transesophageal echocardiographic measurements. Both radiologists found diagnostic-quality vascular imaging in 96% of VLCV and 100% of SCV cases, with excellent inter-observer agreement. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to report the feasibility and reproducibility of measurements for a VLCV protocol for comprehensive pre-TAVR CTA. There was excellent agreement of cardiac measurements and almost all studies were diagnostic quality for vascular access assessment. PMID:27061253

  6. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  7. Effect of Initiators on Thermal Changes in Soft Tissues Using a Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Sacks, Danielle; Montanaro, Nicholas; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Javed, Fawad

    2018-06-15

    The aim was to determine the effect of various initiators on the thermal changes that occur during incisions performed in soft tissues using a diode laser. There are no studies that have assessed the effect of various initiators on the thermal changes that occur during incisions performed in soft tissues using a diode laser. Thermal changes were observed during standardized incisions in chicken breast (without skin) via thermoelements over a 10-sec irradiation period. Incisions were created using a 975 nm diode laser with a 320 μ fiber tip diameter. Incisions (10 in each group) were performed with and without an initiator (control group). Red/blue articulating paper, cork, and SureStep ® were used as initiators. The tissue was irradiated in a continuous wave mode at 3 and 6 W in room temperature (21°C). At 3 and 6 W without any initiator, the mean temperature increased by 5.7°C versus 12.4°C, respectively. Cork initiator at 3 and 6 W resulted in temperature increase by 4.88°C versus 6.21°C, respectively. Incisions made using the blue/red articulating paper-initiated tip resulted in temperature increase by 2.9/5.8°C versus 8.2/7.6°C at 3 and 6 W power settings, respectively. Initiation with SureStep resulted in temperature increase by 2.3°C and at 6 W by 4.1°C. No significant differences were recorded between the different groups, but higher temperatures were associated with higher power settings. The power settings of the diode laser and type of initiator used, both effect the degree to which the temperature of the soft tissue increases during incisions and have to be considered for the safety in soft tissue applications.

  8. Low-tube-voltage selection for non-contrast-enhanced CT: Comparison of the radiation dose in pediatric and adult phantoms.

    PubMed

    Shimonobo, Toshiaki; Funama, Yoshinori; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Oda, Seitaro; Kiguchi, Masao; Masuda, Takanori; Sakabe, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We used pediatric and adult anthropomorphic phantoms to compare the radiation dose of low- and standard tube voltage chest and abdominal non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans. We also discuss the optimal low tube voltage for non-contrast-enhanced CT. Using a female adult- and three differently-sized pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms we acquired chest and abdominal non-contrast-enhanced scans on a 320-multidetector CT volume scanner. The tube voltage was set at 80-, 100-, and 120 kVp. The tube current was automatically assigned on the CT scanner in response to the set image noise level. On each phantom and at each tube voltage we measured the surface and center dose using high-sensitivity metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. The mean surface dose of chest and abdominal CT scans in 5-year olds was 4.4 and 5.3 mGy at 80 kVp, 4.5 and 5.4 mGy at 100 kV, and 4.0 and 5.0 mGy at 120 kVp, respectively. These values were similar in our 3-pediatric phantoms (p > 0.05). The mean surface dose in the adult phantom increased from 14.7 to 19.4 mGy for chest- and from 18.7 to 24.8 mGy for abdominal CT as the tube voltage decreased from 120 to 80 kVp (p < 0.01). Compared to adults, the surface and center dose for pediatric patients is almost the same despite a decrease in the tube voltage and the low tube voltage technique can be used for non-contrast-enhanced chest- and abdominal scanning. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. InGaAs focal plane array developments at III-V Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, Anne; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Huet, Odile; Djedidi, Anis; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Bria, Toufiq; Pires, Mauricio; Decobert, Jean; Costard, Eric

    2012-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. For few years, III-VLab has been studying InGaAs imagery, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has lead to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module, exhibiting high performances in terms of dark current, uniformity and quantum efficiency. In this paper, we present the last developments achieved in our laboratory, mainly focused on increasing the pixels number to VGA format associated to pixel pitch decrease (15μm) and broadening detection spectrum toward visible wavelengths. Depending on targeted applications, different Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) have been used. Low noise ROIC have been developed by CEA LETI to fit the requirements of low light level imaging whereas logarithmic ROIC designed by NIT allows high dynamic imaging adapted for automotive safety.

  10. Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kandler; Wang, Chao-Yang

    A 1D electrochemical, lumped thermal model is used to explore pulse power limitations and thermal behavior of a 6 Ah, 72 cell, 276 V nominal Li-ion hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative/positive electrodes consistently cause end of high-rate (∼25 C) pulse discharge at the 2.7 V cell -1 minimum limit, indicating solid-state diffusion is the limiting mechanism. The 3.9 V cell -1 maximum limit, meant to protect the negative electrode from lithium deposition side reaction during charge, is overly conservative for high-rate (∼15 C) pulse charges initiated from states-of-charge (SOCs) less than 100%. Two-second maximum pulse charge rate from the 50% SOC initial condition can be increased by as much as 50% without risk of lithium deposition. Controlled to minimum/maximum voltage limits, the pack meets partnership for next generation vehicles (PNGV) power assist mode pulse power goals (at operating temperatures >16 °C), but falls short of the available energy goal. In a vehicle simulation, the pack generates heat at a 320 W rate on a US06 driving cycle at 25 °C, with more heat generated at lower temperatures. Less aggressive FUDS and HWFET cycles generate 6-12 times less heat. Contact resistance ohmic heating dominates all other mechanisms, followed by electrolyte phase ohmic heating. Reaction and electronic phase ohmic heats are negligible. A convective heat transfer coefficient of h = 10.1 W m -2 K -1 maintains cell temperature at or below the 52 °C PNGV operating limit under aggressive US06 driving.

  11. ECG-gated imaging of the left atrium and pulmonary veins: Intra-individual comparison of CTA and MRA.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, U L; Lembcke, A; Roesler, R; Schwenke, C; Huppertz, A; Streitparth, F; Taupitz, M; Hamm, B; Wagner, M

    2013-10-01

    To compare electrocardiography (ECG)-gated computed tomography angiography (CTA) with ECG-gated magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for assessment of the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Twenty-nine consecutive patients who underwent both cardiac CTA and MRA were evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CTA was performed with prospective ECG-gating using a 320 detector row CT system. Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed with prospective ECG-gating using a 1.5 T MRI system equipped with a 32 channel cardiac coil. MRA was acquired during free-breathing with a navigator-gated inversion-recovery prepared steady-state free precession sequence. Two readers independently assessed the CTA and MRA images for vascular definition of the PVs (from 0, not visualized, to 4, excellent definition) and ostial PV diameters. Variants of LA anatomy were assessed in consensus. CTA was successfully performed in all patients with a mean radiation exposure of 5.1 ± 2.2 mSv. MRA was successfully performed in 27 of 29 patients (93 %). Visual definition of PVs was rated significantly higher on CTA compared to MRA (p < 0.0001; reader 1: excellent/good ratings of CTA versus MRA: 100% versus 86%; reader 2: excellent/good ratings of CTA versus MRA: 99% versus 89%). Assessment of ostial PV diameters showed good correlation between CTA and MRA (reader 1: Pearson r = 0.91; reader 2: Pearson r = 0.82). Moreover, agreement between both imaging methods for evaluation of variants of LA anatomy was high (agreement rate of 95% (95% CI: 92-99%). ECG-gated CTA provides higher image quality compared to ECG-gated MRA. Nevertheless, both CTA and MRA provided similar information of LA anatomy and ostial PV diameters. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Etude de la stabilite d'un avion BWB (Blended Wing Body) de 200 passagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legros, Clement

    The Blended Wing Body (BWB) is a type of innovative aircraft, based on the flying wing concept. This new type of airplane shows several advantages compared to the conventional airplanes : economy of fuel, reduction of the weight of the structure, reduction of the noise and less impact on the environment, increased payload capacity. However, this kind of aircraft has a lack of stability due to the absence of vertical tail. Several studies of stability were already realized on reduced size models of BWB, but there is no study on a 200 passengers BWB. That's why, the main objective of this present study is to integrate the engines and theirs pylons into the existing conceptual design of the BWB to analyze of their impact on its static and dynamic stability over the flight envelope. The conception of the BWB was realized with the platform of design CEASIOM. The airplane, the engines and theirs pylons were obtained in the geometrical module AcBuilder of CEASIOM. The various aerodynamic coefficients are calculated thanks to Tornado program. These coefficients allow realizing the calculations of stability, in particular with the longitudinal and lateral matrices of stability. Afterward, the BWB flight envelope is created based on aeronautical data of a similar airplane, the Airbus A320. From this flight envelope, we get back several thousand possible points of flight. The last step is to check the static and dynamic stability, using the longitudinal and lateral matrices of stability and the Flying Qualities Requirements, for every point of flight. To validate our study of stability, the already existing studies of stability of the Boeing 747 will be used and compared with our model.

  13. Status of the MBE technology at leti LIR for the manufacturing of HgCdTe focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferret, P.; Zanatta, J. P.; Hamelin, R.; Cremer, S.; Million, A.; Wolny, M.; Destefanis, G.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents recent developments that have been made in Leti Infrared Laboratory in the field of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth and fabrication of medium wavelength and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR) HgCdTe devices. The techniques that lead to growth temperature and flux control are presented. Run to run composition reproducibility is investigated on runs of more than 15 consecutively grown layers. Etch pit density in the low 105 cm-2 and void density lower than 103 cm-2 are obtained routinely on CdZnTe substrates. The samples exhibit low n-type carrier concentration in the 1014 to 1015 cm-3 range and mobility in excess of 105 cm2/Vs at 77 K for epilayers with 9.5 µm cut-off wavelength. LWIR diodes, fabricated with an-on-p homojunction process present dynamic resistance area products which reach values of 8 103 Ωcm2 for a biased voltage of -50 mV and a cutoff wavelength of 9.5 µm at 77 K. A 320 × 240 plane array with a 30 µm pitch operating at 77 K in the MWIR range has been developed using HgCdTe and CdTe layers MBE grown on a Germanium substrate. Mean NEDT value of 8.8 mK together with an operability of 99.94% is obtained. We fabricated MWIR two-color detectors by the superposition of layers of HgCdTe with different compositions and a mixed MESA and planar technology. These detectors are spatially coherent and can be independently addressed. Current voltage curves of 60 × 60 µm2 photodiodes have breakdown voltage exceeding 800 mV for each diode. The cutoff wavelength at 77 K is 3.1 µm for the MWIR-1 and 5 µm for the MWIR-2.

  14. SU-E-T-501: Initial Orthovoltage Beam Profile Analysis of a Small Brass MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Loughery, B; Snyder, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To create brass leaves for an orthovoltage MLC and take initial beam profile measurements. Methods The low-energy MLC was designed in previous work. Brass was chosen for its self-lubrication and low cost. Stock brass rectangles (30cm × 1.0cm × 0.5cm) were ordered with pre-cut gear rack along the topmost long edges. Leaf designs were translated into G-code, then cut with a Tormach CNC-1100 mill. Intense bowing was observed in the beam direction, which required straightening via an in-house jig. Straightened leaves were placed into MLC assembly and mounted to a 320 kVp orthovoltage tube. EDR2 film was irradiated inmore » four situations: MLC open so one edge was isocentric, and MLC open more than isocentric, completely closed MLC, and an open field shot with the MLC removed. The first two scans tested penumbra for our rectangular edges due to unfocused design. The final two scans tested transmission and interleaf leakage. All four experiments were set to 120 kVp and 10 mA for two minutes. Results Transmission and interleaf leakage were found to be zero. Interleaf leakage is faintly visible on film, but undetected by our film scanner despite high spatial resolution. Penumbra at isocenter was found to be 0.72mm, which matched the penumbras of true field edges. Penumbra off-isocenter was 1.1mm. Mechanically, leaves are moving smoothly once straightened. Conclusion Beam profiles through our brass MLC are acceptable. Leaves attenuate and move as designed. Looking forward, we intend to animate our MLC to deliver more complicated treatment plans.« less

  15. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    PubMed

    Talakić, Emina; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz; Schoellnast, Helmut

    2017-10-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. • SAF and SCL are statistically significantly correlated with HVPG • SCL showed stronger correlation with HVPG than SAF • 125 ml/min/100 ml SCL-cut-off yielded 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity for severe PH • HAF, PVF and HPI showed no statistically significant correlation with HVPG.

  16. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    PubMed Central

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigning a single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs. PMID:24593746

  17. SETI observational program in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Colomb, F.; Cristina Martín, M.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.

    Due to the scarce SETI research in the Southern Hemisphere, we decided to begin an observation of a series of southern stars at 21 cm and 18 cm, using the facilities of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR). One of the two 30 m radiotelescopes was used since October 1986, for a search of narrow frequency (2.2 kHz resolution) band signal in the direction of nearby stars. We have selected for this plan 78 stars between -40° and -90° of declination and distances less than 50 l.y. In this paper we present the first results of this program at HI and OH line. We describe a 320 h parasitic program at OH line using the data of Comet Halley observations. Following a suggestion of Dr I. Almár we began in November 1987, a series of observations around the SETI Ellipsoid originated in the SN1987A at 18 cm. We describe the observations around the stars HD21899 and HD100623, following a suggestion of Alexei Arkhipov. We have initiated contacts with The Planetary Society to expand our SETI activities. It is our hope that at the time of this Symposium we can announce the details of this agreement, which could include the construction of a 8.4 million channel ultranarrowband spectrum analyzer, designed by Professor Paul Horowitz of Harvard University. This agreement was announced on 8 October 1988 at The Planetary Society Toronto SETI Conference. The 8.4 million channel spectrum analyzer called META II, was built during 1989, at Harvard University by J. C. Olalde and E. Hurrell, under the supervision of Professor Paul Horowitz. META II was officially dedicated on 12 October 1990 and is in operation with the antenna 2 of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía.

  18. Line Pilots' Attitudes about and Experience with Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    A survey of line pilots' attitudes about flight deck automation was conducted by the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine (RAF IAM, Farnborough, UK) under the sponsorship of the United Kingdom s Civil Aviation Authority and in cooperation with IATA (the International Air Transport Association). Survey freehand comments given by pilots operating 13 types of commercial transports across five manufacturers (Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed, and McDonnell-Douglas) and 57 air carriers/organizations were analyzed by NASA. These data provide a "lessons learned" knowledge base which may be used for the definition of guidelines for flight deck automation and its associated crew interface within the High Speed Research Program. The aircraft chosen for analysis represented a progression of levels of automation sophistication and complexity, from "Basic" types (e.g., B727, DC9), through "Transition" types (e.g., A300, Concorde), to two levels of glass cockpits (e.g., Glass 1: e.g., A310; Glass 2: e.g., B747-400). This paper reports the results of analyses of comments from pilots flying commercial transport types having the highest level of automation sophistication (B757/B767, B747-400, and A320). Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction. The goal of these analyses is to contribute to the definition of guidelines which may be used during design of future aircraft flight decks.

  19. TU-G-204-03: Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement Using First Pass Analysis and Maximum Slope Models

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, L; Ziemer, B; Sadeghi, B

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of dynamic CT myocardial perfusion measurement using first pass analysis (FPA) and maximum slope models. Methods: A swine animal model was prepared by percutaneous advancement of an angioplasty balloon into the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce varying degrees of stenosis. Maximal hyperaemia was achieved in the LAD with an intracoronary adenosine drip (240 µg/min). Serial microsphere and contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 30 mL, 5mL/s) injections were made over a range of induced stenoses, and dynamic imaging was performed using a 320-row CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA. The FPAmore » CT perfusion technique was used to make vessel-specific myocardial perfusion measurements. CT perfusion measurements using the FPA and maximum slope models were validated using colored microspheres as the reference gold standard. Results: Perfusion measurements using the FPA technique (P-FPA) showed good correlation with minimal offset when compared to perfusion measurements using microspheres (P- Micro) as the reference standard (P -FPA = 0.96 P-Micro + 0.05, R{sup 2} = 0.97, RMSE = 0.19 mL/min/g). In contrast, the maximum slope model technique (P-MS) was shown to underestimate perfusion when compared to microsphere perfusion measurements (P-MS = 0.42 P -Micro −0.48, R{sup 2} = 0.94, RMSE = 3.3 mL/min/g). Conclusion: The results indicate the potential for significant improvements in accuracy of dynamic CT myocardial perfusion measurement using the first pass analysis technique as compared with the standard maximum slope model.« less

  20. Ammonium Production off Central Chile (36°S) by Photodegradation of Phytoplankton-Derived and Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Rain-Franco, Angel; Muñoz, Claudia; Fernandez, Camila

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S). The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1%) between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm), respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule) as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L−1 h−1 and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L−1 h−1. Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L−1 h−1. We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4 + assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50–178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4 + requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight. PMID:24968138

  1. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  2. Responses of a marine red tide alga Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae) to long-term UV radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Gao, Kunshan; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-02-09

    UV radiation (280-400 nm) is known to affect phytoplankton in negative, neutral and positive ways depending on the species or levels of irradiation energy. However, little has been documented on how photosynthetic physiology and growth of red tide alga respond to UVR in a long-term period. We exposed the cells of the marine red tide diatom Skeletonema costatum for 6 days to simulated solar radiations with UV-A (320-400 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (295-400 nm) and examined their changes in photosynthesis and growth. Presence of UV-B continuously reduced the effective photosynthetic quantum yield of PSII, and resulted in complete growth inhibition and death of cells. When UV-B or UV-B+UV-A was screened off, the growth rate decreased initially but regained thereafter. UV-absorbing compounds and carotenoids increased in response to the exposures with UVR. However, mechanisms for photoprotection associated with the increased carotenoids or UV-absorbing compounds were not adequate under the continuous exposure to a constant level of UV-B (0.09 Wm(-2), DNA-weighted). In contrast, under solar radiation screened off UV-B, the photoprotection was first accomplished by an initial increase of carotenoids and a later increase in UV-absorbing compounds. The overall response of this red tide alga to prolonged UV exposures indicates that S. costatum is a UV-B-sensitive species and increased UV-B irradiance would influence the formation of its blooms.

  3. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  4. Sound-mapping a coniferous forest—Perspectives for biodiversity monitoring and noise mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael; Tzanopoulos, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic diversity indices have been proposed as low-cost biodiversity monitoring tools. The acoustic diversity of a soundscape can be indicative of the richness of an acoustic community and the structural/vegetation characteristics of a habitat. There is a need to apply these methods to landscapes that are ecologically and/or economically important. We investigate the relationship between the acoustic properties of a coniferous forest with stand-age and structure. We sampled a 73 point grid in part of the UK’s largest man-made lowland coniferous plantation forest, covering a 320ha mosaic of different aged stands. Forest stands ranged from 0–85 years old providing an age-gradient. Short soundscape recordings were collected from each grid point on multiple mornings (between 6am-11am) to capture the dawn chorus. We repeated the study during July/August in 2014 and again in 2015. Five acoustic indices were calculated for a total of 889 two minute samples. Moderate relationships between acoustic diversity with forest stand-age and vegetation characteristics (canopy height; canopy cover) were observed. Ordinations suggest that as structural complexity and forest age increases, the higher frequency bands (4-10KHz) become more represented in the soundscape. A strong linear relationship was observed between distance to the nearest road and the ratio of anthropogenic noise to biological sounds within the soundscape. Similar acoustic patterns were observed in both years, though acoustic diversity was generally lower in 2014, which was likely due to differences in wind conditions between years. Our results suggest that developing these relatively low-cost acoustic monitoring methods to inform adaptive management of production landscapes, may lead to improved biodiversity monitoring. The methods may also prove useful for modelling road noise, landscape planning and noise mitigation. PMID:29320514

  5. SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch,more » yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e - rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e - with 2.6 e - rms and 2.7 μV/e - rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.« less

  6. The PROGINS polymorphism of the human progesterone receptor diminishes the response to progesterone.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Delvoux, Bert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Groothuis, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    The human progesterone receptor (PR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and two isoforms, (PRA and PRB), can be distinguished. PROGINS, a PR polymorphic variant, affects PRA and PRB and acts as a risk-modulating factor in several gynaecological disorders. Little is known about the functional consequences of this variant. Here, we characterise the properties of PROGINS with respect to transcription, mRNA maturation, protein activity and proliferation. PROGINS is characterised by a 320 bp PV/HS-1 Alu insertion in intron G and two point mutations, V660L in exon 4 and H770H (silent substitution) in exon 5. The Alu element contains a half oestrogen-response element/Sp1-binding site (Alu-ERE/Sp1), which acts as an in-cis intronic enhancer leading to increased transcription of the PROGINS allele in response to 17beta-oestradiol. Moreover, Alu insertions in the human genome are frequently methylated. Our data indicate that the PROGINS-Alu does not affect gene transcription due to DNA methylation. However, the Alu element reduced the stability of the PROGINS transcript compared with the CP allele and does not generate splice variants. The amino acid substitution (V600L) in exon 4 leads to differences in PR phosphorylation and degradation in the two PR variants upon ligand binding, most likely as a result of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the two PR variants. As a consequence, the PR-L660 (PROGINS) variant (1) displays decreased transactivation activity in a luciferase reporter system and (2) is less efficient in opposing cell proliferation in hamster ovarian cells expressing human PRA, when compared with the PR-V660 (most common variant). Taken together, our results indicate that the PROGINS variant of PR is less responsive to progestin compared with the most common PR because of (i) reduced amounts of gene transcript and (ii) decreased protein activity.

  7. Diode laser to treat small oral vascular malformations: A prospective case series study.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Christian; Sacchetto, Luca; Zanette, Gastone; Sivolella, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    The current work examined a consecutive series of patients presenting vascular malformations (VMs) and venous lakes (VLs) of the lip and oral mucosa who were treated with transmucosal diode laser applications and assessed over a 1 year period. Fifty-nine patients (31 males and 28 females) presenting low-flow VMs or VLs of the oral cavity were treated transmucosally using a diode laser (with an 830 nm operating wavelength and 1.6 W output power) with a 320 µm diameter flexible fiber. All the lesions were assessed 7 days, 30 days, and 1 year after the laser treatment, and the lesion reduction percentage was scored on a one to five scale. The patients were also asked to assess their pain perception daily during the 7 days following the treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). There were no procedure-related intra- or post-operative complications; only modest pain intensity was reported. Thirty days after the treatment, lesion reduction was described as excellent or good in 52 cases; it was fair or poor in 7. Six patients (F:M ratio 2:4) required a second diode laser application. At the 1 year follow-up, volume reduction was complete in 48 out of 59 patients; there were five recurrences (F:M ratio 3:2). No relevant gender-related differences were noted. The use of diode laser application to treat small oral VMs and VLs was associated to shorter operating times and fewer postoperative complications with respect to the scapel surgery approach. More than one session may nevertheless be required if the anomaly is larger than 10 mm. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:111-116, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Initial simulated FFR investigation using flow measurements in patient-specific 3D printed coronary phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Lauren; Sommer, Kelsey; Izzo, Richard; Podgorsak, Alexander; Wilson, Michael; Said, Zaid; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Angel, Erin; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific phantoms for device testing or endovascular treatment planning can be 3D printed. We expand the applicability of this approach for cardiovascular disease, in particular, for CT-geometry derived benchtop measurements of Fractional Flow Reserve, the reference standard for determination of significant individual coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions. Materials and Methods: Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) images during a single heartbeat were acquired with a 320x0.5mm detector row scanner (Toshiba Aquilion ONE). These coronary CTA images were used to create 4 patientspecific cardiovascular models with various grades of stenosis: severe, <75% (n=1); moderate, 50-70% (n=1); and mild, <50% (n=2). DICOM volumetric images were segmented using a 3D workstation (Vitrea, Vital Images); the output was used to generate STL files (using AutoDesk Meshmixer), and further processed to create 3D printable geometries for flow experiments. Multi-material printed models (Stratasys Connex3) were connected to a programmable pulsatile pump, and the pressure was measured proximal and distal to the stenosis using pressure transducers. Compliance chambers were used before and after the model to modulate the pressure wave. A flow sensor was used to ensure flow rates within physiological reported values. Results: 3D model based FFR measurements correlated well with stenosis severity. FFR measurements for each stenosis grade were: 0.8 severe, 0.7 moderate and 0.88 mild. Conclusions: 3D printed models of patient-specific coronary arteries allows for accurate benchtop diagnosis of FFR. This approach can be used as a future diagnostic tool or for testing CT image-based FFR methods.

  9. Impact of debris dams on hyporheic interaction along a semi-arid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautz, Laura K.; Siegel, Donald I.; Bauer, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Hyporheic exchange increases the potential for solute retention in streams by slowing downstream transport and increasing solute contact with the substrate. Hyporheic exchange may be a major mechanism to remove nutrients in semi-arid watersheds, where livestock have damaged stream riparian zones and contributed nutrients to stream channels. Debris dams, such as beaver dams and anthropogenic log dams, may increase hyporheic interactions by slowing stream water velocity, increasing flow complexity and diverting water to the subsurface.Here, we report the results of chloride tracer injection experiments done to evaluate hyporheic interaction along a 320 m reach of Red Canyon Creek, a second order stream in the semi-arid Wind River Range of Wyoming. The study site is part of a rangeland watershed managed by The Nature Conservancy of Wyoming, and used as a hydrologic field site by the University of Missouri Branson Geologic Field Station. The creek reach we investigated has debris dams and tight meanders that hypothetically should enhance hyporheic interaction. Breakthrough curves of chloride measured during the field experiment were modelled with OTIS-P, a one-dimensional, surface-water, solute-transport model from which we extracted the storage exchange rate and cross-sectional area of the storage zone As for hyporheic exchange. Along gaining reaches of the stream reach, short-term hyporheic interactions associated with debris dams were comparable to those associated with severe meanders. In contrast, along the non-gaining reach, stream water was diverted to the subsurface by debris dams and captured by large-scale near-stream flow paths. Overall, hyporheic exchange rates along Red Canyon Creek during snowmelt recession equal or exceed exchange rates observed during baseflow at other streams.

  10. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  11. Paleoceanographic history of the Lower Bengal Fan during the last glacial cycle - IODP Expedition 354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Lantzsch, H.; Das, S. K.; Williams, T.; Adhikari, R. R.; Jia, G.; Fox, L. R.; Ge, J.; Manoj, M. C.; Savian, J. F.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Sharma, B.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled a ~320 km long transect of seven sites on the Lower Bengal Fan at 8o N in the Northern Indian Ocean. The sediments cores recovered record a complex relationship between turbiditic and hemipelagic environments. This variability offers a unique opportunity to link our understanding of tectonic and terrestrial processes with climate and oceanography. With the exception the westernmost Site U1454, all sites show a several meter thick, hemipelagic top layer, usually representing Late Quaternary sediment. We present physical, geochemical and stable isotopic properties of this interval to establish a time frame and assess the paleoceanographic development of the region during the last glacial cycle. We sampled Site U1452C-1H continuously for the uppermost 480 cm of hemipelagic sediment in 2-cm increments. Preliminary results indicate the Toba Ash 1 (0.74 ka) is a distinct time marker in all physical properties. Furthermore, wet-bulk density as well as color reflectance b* (the red-green component) and L* (the lightness) show a dominant precession cyclicity. Hence, we are able to provide an insolation-tuned chronology for the last 200 ka (MIS1 - 7) as a preliminary age model. These records agree well with d18O records retrieved from Chinese caves. We will present a preliminary paleoceanographic proxy data to reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS), ice volume, marine biological productivity, nutrient supply, and deep-water circulation. These oceanographic and climate conditions are linked to changes in monsoonal strength and terrestrial input using sedimentary proxies to reconstruct chemical weathering and sediment sources and transport time. This work addresses one of the primary cruise objectives - linking monsoon variability, regional and global climate, and Bay of Bengal sediment deposition.

  12. Prospective study of the 532 nm laser (KTP) versus diode laser 980 nm in the resection of hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Bargiela-Pérez, Patricia; González-Merchán, Jorge; Díaz-Sánchez, Rosa; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Volland, Gerd; Joergens, Martin; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the resection of hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa comparing the 532nm laser (KTP), versus diode 980nm laser, considering pain, scarring, inflammation and drug consumption that occurred postoperatively with each lasers. Material and Methods A prospective study of consecutive series of 20 patients in two groups that presents hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. The choice of the KTP laser or diode 980nm laser for the surgery was made randomly. The power used was 1.5W in both groups in a continuous wave mode with a 320 μm optical fiber. Parameters of pain, scarring, inflammation and consumption of drugs were recorded by a Numerical Rating Scale and evaluated postoperatively. These recordings were made the day of the surgery, 24 hours after, 14 and 28 days after. Results Pain and inflammation was light - moderate. The consumption of paracetamol was somewhat higher in the diode 980nm laser versus the KTP laser after 24 hours, although data was not statistically significant; significant differences were found after 28 days in regards to pain (p = 0.023) and inflammation (p = 0.023), but always in the absence parameter so we find no pain in both lasers. Scarring in the two types of laser showed no differences along the visits, with not detected scar retractable. Conclusions Although there is a slight histological difference regarding the KTP laser in the oral soft tissues for clinical use, both wavelengths are very suitable for excision of oral fibroma. Key words:Laser surgery, Laser therapy, oral surgery, soft tissue, 980 nm diode laser, 532 nm KTP laser. PMID:29274158

  13. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Variation as a Proximate Base for Inter- and Intraspecific Behavioral Differences in Bonobos and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5′ promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼360 bp in this region (+/− DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:25405348

  14. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that interferons-β and -γ Interact in a multiplicative manner to disrupt herpes simplex virus replication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, William P.; Halford, Keith J.; Pierce, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the innate interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, can act in concert with IFN-γto synergistically inhibit the replication of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The significance of this observation is not yet agreed upon in large part because the nature and magnitude of the interaction between IFN-α/β and IFN-γ is not well defined. In the current study, we resolve this issue by demonstrating three points. First, the hyperbolic tangent function, tanh (x  ), can be used to describe the individual effects of IFN-β or IFN-γ on HSV-1 replication over a 320,000-fold range of IFN concentration. Second, pharmacological methods prove that IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a greater-than-additive manner to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Finally, the potency with which combinations of IFN-β and IFN-γ inhibit HSV-1 replication is accurately predicted by multiplying the individual inhibitory effects of each cytokine. Thus, IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a multiplicative manner. We infer that a primary antiviral function of IFN-γ lies in its capacity to multiply the potency with which IFN-α/β restricts HSV-1 replication in vivo. This hypothesis has important ramifications for understanding how T lymphocyte-secreted cytokines such as IFN-γ can force herpesviruses into a latent state without destroying the neurons or leukocytes that continue to harbor these viral infections for the lifetime of the host.

  15. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  16. Wide field of view CT and acromioclavicular joint instability: A technical innovation.

    PubMed

    Dyer, David R; Troupis, John M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin

    2015-06-01

    A 21-year-old female with a traumatic shoulder injury is investigated and managed for symptoms relating to this injury. Pathology at the acromioclavicular joint is detected clinically; however, clinical examination and multiple imaging modalities do not reach a unified diagnosis on the grading of this acromioclavicular joint injury. When management appropriate to that suggested injury grading fail to help the patient's symptoms, further investigation methods were utilised. Wide field of view, dynamic CT (4D CT) is conducted on the patient's affected shoulder using a 320 × 0.5 mm detector multislice CT. Scans were conducted with a static table as the patient completed three movements of the affected shoulder. Capturing multiple data sets per second over a z-axis of 16 cm, measurements of the acromioclavicular joint were made, to show dynamic changes at the joint. Acromioclavicular (AC) joint translations were witnessed in three planes (a previously unrecognised pathology in the grading of acromioclavicular joint injuries). Translation in multiple planes was also not evident on careful clinical examination of this patient. AC joint width, anterior-posterior translation, superior-inferior translation and coracoclavicular width were measured with planar reconstructions while volume-rendered images and dynamic sequences aiding visual understanding of the pathology. Wide field of view dynamic CT (4D CT) is an accurate and quick modality to diagnose complex acromioclavicular joint injury. It provides dynamic information that no other modality can; 4D CT shows future benefits for clinical approach to diagnosis and management of acromioclavicular joint injury, and other musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. A teleconnection between subtropical convection and higher latitude wave activity in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Antonio DeJesus

    Rossby waves are waves in potential vorticity that propagate along the extratropical tropopause and can be impacted by the advection of low-PV air originating from the subtropics. In this study, the subtropical precipitation influence on the extratropical Rossby wave activity during the Atlantic winter season is investigated for a ten year period. Using both TRMM and TIGGE 12-Hr forecasted precipitation data, heavy precipitation events were identified near the footprints regions of warm conveyor belts in the northern Atlantic, specifically in the Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda region. The extratropical Rossby waves were then analyzed using PV on a 320K surface. By use of wavelet transforms, the amplitude of the Rossby waves were analyzed as a function of wavelength and longitude. The interaction between a single heavy precipitation event and the extratropical Rossby waves was examined for the days preceding and the week following the event. A climatological analysis of heavy precipitation events was conducted on the winter seasons from 2006 - 2015. Case study and climatological analysis identified the following: A ridge in the Northern Atlantic undergoes amplification downstream of the heavy precipitation event in the days following the event. A southerly flow, likely associated with a warm conveyor belt, connects the region of the heavy precipitation event and the extratropical tropopause. The interaction was most prominent during the late winter season and during the heaviest of precipitation events. The teleconnection identified in this study highlights a mechanism by which cloud-scale subtropical precipitation is connected to synoptic scale extratropical dynamics in the Atlantic.

  18. Temporal resolution measurement of 128-slice dual source and 320-row area detector computed tomography scanners in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Takashi; Nishimaru, Eiji; Niwa, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the temporal resolution (TR) of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners using the impulse method, and assess the actual maximum TR at respective helical acquisition modes. To assess the actual TR of helical acquisition modes of a 128-slice dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and a 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) scanner, we assessed the TRs of various acquisition combinations of a pitch factor (P) and gantry rotation time (R). The TR of the helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner continuously improved with a shorter gantry rotation time and greater pitch factor. However, for the 320-row ADCT scanner, the TR with a pitch factor of <1.0 was almost equal to the gantry rotation time, whereas with pitch factor of >1.0, it was approximately one half of the gantry rotation time. The maximum TR values of single- and dual-source helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner were 0.138 (R/P=0.285/1.5) and 0.074s (R/P=0.285/3.2), and the maximum TR values of the 64×0.5- and 160×0.5-mm detector configurations of the helical acquisition modes for the 320-row ADCT scanner were 0.120 (R/P=0.275/1.375) and 0.195s (R/P=0.3/0.6), respectively. Because the TR of a CT scanner is not accurately depicted in the specifications of the individual scanner, appropriate acquisition conditions should be determined based on the actual TR measurement. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Matrix Size on the Image Quality of Ultra-high-resolution CT of the Lung: Comparison of 512 × 512, 1024 × 1024, and 2048 × 2048.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akinori; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Honda, Osamu; Kikuchi, Noriko; Miyata, Tomo; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Uranishi, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-01-16

    This study aimed to assess the effect of matrix size on the spatial resolution and image quality of ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT). Slit phantoms and 11 cadaveric lungs were scanned on U-HRCT. Slit phantom scans were reconstructed using a 20-mm field of view (FOV) with 1024 matrix size and a 320-mm FOV with 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Cadaveric lung scans were reconstructed using 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Three observers subjectively scored the images on a three-point scale (1 = worst, 3 = best), in terms of overall image quality, noise, streak artifact, vessel, bronchi, and image findings. The median score of the three observers was evaluated by Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction. Noise was measured quantitatively and evaluated with the Tukey test. A P value of <.05 was considered significant. The maximum spatial resolution was 0.14 mm; among the 320-mm FOV images, the 2048 matrix had the highest resolution and was significantly better than the 1024 matrix in terms of overall quality, solid nodule, ground-glass opacity, emphysema, intralobular reticulation, honeycombing, and clarity of vessels (P < .05). Both the 2048 and 1024 matrices performed significantly better than the 512 matrix (P < .001), except for noise and streak artifact. The visual and quantitative noise decreased significantly in the order of 512, 1024, and 2048 (P < .001). In U-HRCT scans, a large matrix size maintained the spatial resolution and improved the image quality and assessment of lung diseases, despite an increase in image noise, when compared to a 512 matrix size. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Policy reform to shift the health and human rights environment for vulnerable groups: the case of Kyrgyzstan's Instruction 417.

    PubMed

    Beletsky, Leo; Thomas, Rachel; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Artamonova, Irina; Shumskaya, Natalya; Dooronbekova, Aijan; Mukambetov, Aibek; Doyle, Heather; Tolson, Rebecca

    2012-12-15

    Police activities shape behavior and health outcomes among drug users, sex workers, and other vulnerable groups. Interventions to change the policing of drug consumption and sex work in ways that facilitate public health programming and respect for human rights have included policy reforms, education, and litigation. In 2009, the Kyrgyz government promulgated "Instruction 417," prohibiting police interference with "harm reduction" programs, re-enforcing citizen rights, addressing police occupational safety concerns, and institutionalizing police-public health collaboration. Although ample evidence points to gaps between intended and actual impact of policy and other structural interventions, there is little research on the impact of initiatives designed to align policing, health, and human rights. We conducted a police officer survey to assess links between Instruction 417 knowledge and legal and public health knowledge, attitudes towards harm reduction programs, and intended practices targeting vulnerable groups. In a 319-officer sample, 79% understood key due process regulations, 71.1% correctly characterized law on sex work, 54.3% understood syringe possession law, while only 44.4% reported familiarity with Instruction 417. Most (72.9%) expressed positive attitudes toward condom distribution, while only 56% viewed syringe access favorably. Almost half (44%) agreed that police should refer vulnerable groups to disease prevention programs, but only 20% reported doing so. In multivariate analysis, knowledge of Instruction 417 was associated with significantly better knowledge about (aOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.12-3.00) and attitudes towards harm reduction programs (aOR=3.81, 95%CI:1.35-10.75), and knowledge of due process for the detention of sex workers (aOR=2.53, 95%CI:1.33-4.80). Younger, junior officers and those in rural areas may not be well-informed about the policy. While reflecting positively on Instruction 417 as a structural approach to aligning policing and

  1. Human protein Staufen-2 promotes HIV-1 proliferation by positively regulating RNA export activity of viral protein Rev.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Atoshi; Benjamin, Ronald; Balakrishnan, Kannan; Ghosh, Payel; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2014-02-13

    The export of intron containing viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step in the life cycle of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). As the eukaryotic system does not permit the transport of intron containing RNA out of the nucleus, HIV-1 makes a regulatory protein, Rev, that mediates the transportation of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby playing a decisive role in the generation of new infectious virus particles. Therefore, the host factors modulating the RNA export activity of Rev can be major determinants of virus production in an infected cell. In this study, human Staufen-2 (hStau-2) was identified as a host factor interacting with HIV-1 Rev through affinity chromatography followed by MALDI analyses. Our experiments involving transient expressions, siRNA mediated knockdowns and infection assays conclusively established that hStau-2 is a positive regulator of HIV-1 pathogenesis. We demonstrated that Rev-hStau-2 interactions positively regulated the RNA export activity of Rev and promoted progeny virus synthesis. The Rev-hStau-2 interaction was independent of RNA despite both being RNA binding proteins. hStau-2 mutant, with mutations at Q314R-A318F-K319E, deficient of binding Rev, failed to promote hStau-2 dependent Rev activity and viral production, validating the essentiality of this protein-protein interaction. The expression of this positive regulator was elevated upon HIV-1 infection in both human T-lymphocyte and astrocyte cell lines. With this study, we establish that human Staufen-2, a host factor which is up-regulated upon HIV-1 infection, interacts with HIV-1 Rev, thereby promoting its RNA export activity and progeny virus formation. Altogether, our study provides new insights into the emerging role of the Staufen family of mRNA transporters in host-pathogen interaction and supports the notion that obliterating interactions between viral and host proteins that positively

  2. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea)

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Nathaniel K.; Batta-Lona, Paola G.; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O’Neill, Michael J.; O’Neill, Rachel J.

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni. Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  3. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea).

    PubMed

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Batta-Lona, Paola G; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2016-10-30

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  4. VOSED: a tool for the characterization of developing planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Gutiérrez, R.; Delgado, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Merín, B.

    2007-08-01

    The transition phase from optically thick disks around young pre-main sequence stars to optically thin debris disks around Vega type stars is not well understood and plays an important role in the theory of planet formation. One of the most promising methods to characterize this process is the fitting of the observed SED with disk models. However, despite its potential, this technique is affected by two major problems if a non-VO methodology is used: on the one hand, SEDs building requires accessing to a variety of astronomical services which provide, in most of the cases, heterogeneous information. On the other hand, model fitting demands a tremendous amount of work and time which makes it very inefficient even for a modest dataset. This is an important issue considering the large volume of data that missions like Spitzer is producing. In the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) we have developed VOSED an application that permits to characterize the protoplanetary disks around young stars taking advantage of the already existing VO standards and tools. The application allows the user to gather photometric and spectroscopic information from a number of VO services, trace the SED, and fit the photospheric contribution with a stellar model and the IR excess with a disk model. The Kurucz models described in Castelli et al. (1997, A&A, 318, 841) are used to reproduce the photospheric contribution whereas the grid of models of accretion disks irradiated by their central stars developed by D'Alessio et al. (2005, ) is used for the disk contribution. In both cases, the models are retrieved from the SVO Theoretical Model Web Server using the TSAP protocol. As pointed out before, model fitting constitutes a fundamental step in the analysis process. VOSED includes a tool to estimate the model parameters (both stellar and disk) based on bayesian inference. The main aim of the tool

  5. WE-FG-207B-06: Plaque Composition Measurement with Dual Energy Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C; Ding, H; Malkasian, S

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing arterial plaque composition in terms of water, lipid and protein or calcium using dual energy computed tomography. Characterization of plaque composition can potentially help distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. Methods: Simulations studies were performed by the CT simulator based on ASTRA tomography toolbox. The beam energy for dual energy images was selected to be 80 kVp and 135 kVp. The radiation dose and energy spectrum for the CT simulator were carefully calibrated with respect to a 320-slice CT scanner. A digital chest phantom was constructed using Matlab for calibration and plaque measurement. Puremore » water, lipid, protein or calcium was used for calibration and a mixture of different volume percentages of these materials were used for validation purposes. Non-calcified plaque was simulated using water, lipid and protein with volumetric percentage range of 35%∼65%, 5%∼60% and 5%∼40%, respectively. Calcified plaque was simulated using water, lipid and calcium with volumetric percentage range of 50%∼80%, 8%∼45% and 3%∼13%, respectively. We employed iterative sinogram processing (ISP) to reduce the beam hardening effect in the simulation to improve the decomposition results. Results: The simulated known composition and dual energy decomposition results were in good agreement. Water, lipid and protein (calcium) mixtures were decomposed into water, lipid and protein (calcium) contents. The RMS errors of volumetric percentage for the water, lipid and protein (non-calcified plaque) decomposition, as compared to known values, were estimated to be approximately 5.74%, 2.54%, and 0.95% respectively. The RMS errors of volumetric percentage for the water, lipid and Calcium (calcified plaque) decomposition, as compared to known values, were estimated to be approximately 7.4%, 8.64%, and 0.08% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the dual energy decomposition can

  6. Expedition 354 on the Bengal fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in the Bengal fan generated a comprehensive record of Himalayan erosion over the Neogene and Quaternary. It documents the interplay between Himalayan tectonic and the monsoon. The fan is predominantly composed of detrital turbiditic sediments originating from Himalayan rivers, and transported through the delta and shelf canyon, supplying turbidity currents loaded with a wide spectrum of grain sizes. Turbiditic deposition makes that record at a given site is discontinuous which was the reason for an E-W transect approach. Exp. 354 drilled seven sites along a 320 km E-W transect at 8°N allowing the restitution of an almost complete record of Himalayan erosion at the scale of the Neogene. In spite of the transect's extension, a long absence of deposition was observed between 0.6 to 1.2 Ma indicating that turbiditic depocenter was derived more to the West for ca. 600 kyr. Turbidites have clear Himalayan origin with close mineralogical and isotopic analogy with those of the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments. Geochemistry shows relatively stable compositions throughout the Neogene and Quaternary and reveal a very weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. Concentrations in mobile elements such as Na and K relative to Al are significantly higher than in modern sediments suggesting that weathering is amplified in the modern time. Low weathering of the sediments at 8°N indicates that erosion was dominated by physical processes and that transport is rapid enough to prevent evolution of particles in the floodplain. In the modern Himalaya, low weathering is achieved primarily by landslides and rapid transfer through the floodplain, i.e. limited recycling of sediment deposited in the floodplain. Both processes are favoured by the seasonality and the intensity of the monsoon. Although relatively stable, source tracers such as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and detrital carbonate compositions show organised variations with time

  7. Very low intravenous contrast volume protocol for computed tomography angiography providing comprehensive cardiac and vascular assessment prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Pulerwitz, Todd C; Khalique, Omar K; Nazif, Tamim N; Rozenshtein, Anna; Pearson, Gregory D N; Hahn, Rebecca T; Vahl, Torsten P; Kodali, Susheel K; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B; D'Souza, Belinda; Po, Ming Jack; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a lifesaving procedure for many patients high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in this population, and thus a very low contrast volume (VLCV) computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol providing comprehensive cardiac and vascular imaging would be valuable. 52 patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve disease, undergoing pre-TAVR CTA assessment from 2013-4 at Columbia University Medical Center were studied, including all 26 patients with CKD (eGFR<30 mL/min) who underwent a novel VLCV protocol (20 mL of iohexol at 2.5 mL/s), and 26 standard-contrast-volume (SCV) protocol patients. Using a 320-slice volumetric scanner, the protocol included ECG-gated volume scanning of the aortic root followed by medium-pitch helical vascular scanning through the femoral arteries. Two experienced cardiologists performed aortic annulus and root measurements. Vascular image quality was assessed by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. VLCV patients had mean (±SD) age 86 ± 6.5, BMI 23.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) with 54% men; SCV patients age 83 ± 8.8, BMI 28.7 ± 5.3 kg/m(2), 65% men. There was excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement for annular and root measurements, and excellent agreement with 3D-transesophageal echocardiographic measurements. Both radiologists found diagnostic-quality vascular imaging in 96% of VLCV and 100% of SCV cases, with excellent inter-observer agreement. This study is the first of its kind to report the feasibility and reproducibility of measurements for a VLCV protocol for comprehensive pre-TAVR CTA. There was excellent agreement of cardiac measurements and almost all studies were diagnostic quality for vascular access assessment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

    2004-12-01

    The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage

  9. Surface temperature and thermal penetration depth of Nd:YAG laser applied to enamel and dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph; Goodis, Harold E.; Berns, Michael W.

    1992-06-01

    The determination of the thermal effects of Nd:YAG laser energy on enamel and dentin is critical in understanding the clinical applications of caries removal and surface modification. Recently extracted non-carious third molars were sterilized with gamma irradiation. Calculus and cementum were removed using scaling instruments and 600 grit sand paper. The smear layer produced by sanding was removed with a solution of 0.5 M EDTA (pH 7.4) for two minutes. Enamel and dentin surfaces were exposed to a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 150 microsecond(s) pulse duration. Laser energy was delivered to the teeth with a 320 micrometers diameter fiberoptic delivery system, for exposure times of 1, 10 and 30 seconds. Laser parameters varied from 0.3 to 3.0 W, 10 to 30 Hz and 30 to 150 mJ/pulse. Other conditions included applications of hot coffee, carbide bur in a dental air-cooled turbine drill and soldering iron. Infrared thermography was used to measure the maximum surface temperature on, and thermal penetration distance into enamel and dentin. Thermographic data were analyzed with a video image processor to determine the diameter of maximum surface temperature and thermal penetration distance of each treatment. Between/within statistical analysis of variance (p

  10. Core Noise: Implications of Emerging N+3 Designs and Acoustic Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of the core-noise implications of NASA's primary N+3 aircraft concepts. These concepts are the MIT/P&W D8.5 Double Bubble design, the Boeing/GE SUGAR Volt hybrid gas-turbine/electric engine concept, the NASA N3-X Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion aircraft, and the NASA TBW-XN Truss-Braced Wing concept. The first two are future concepts for the Boeing 737/Airbus A320 US transcontinental mission of 180 passengers and a maximum range of 3000 nm. The last two are future concepts for the Boeing 777 transpacific mission of 350 passengers and a 7500 nm range. Sections of the presentation cover: turbofan design trends on the N+1.5 time frame and the already emerging importance of core noise; the NASA N+3 concepts and associated core-noise challenges; the historical trends for the engine bypass ratio (BPR), overall pressure ratio (OPR), and combustor exit temperature; and brief discussion of a noise research roadmap being developed to address the core-noise challenges identified for the N+3 concepts. The N+3 conceptual aircraft have (i) ultra-high bypass ratios, in the rage of 18 - 30, accomplished by either having a small-size, high-power-density core, an hybrid design which allows for an increased fan size, or by utilizing a turboelectric distributed propulsion design; and (ii) very high OPR in the 50 - 70 range. These trends will elevate the overall importance of turbomachinery core noise. The N+3 conceptual designs specify the need for the development and application of advanced liners and passive and active control strategies to reduce the core noise. Current engineering prediction of core noise uses semi-empirical methods based on older turbofan engines, with (at best) updates for more recent designs. The models have not seen the same level of development and maturity as those for fan and jet noise and are grossly inadequate for the designs considered for the N+3 time frame. An aggressive program for the development of updated noise

  11. Modifying effects of 5-azacytidine on metal-containing proteins profile in Guerin carcinoma with different sensitivity to cytostatics.

    PubMed

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Y V; Naleskina, L A; Borikun, T V; Burlaka, A P; Todor, I N; Demash, D V; Yalovenko, T M; Zadvornyi, T V; Pavlova, A O; Storchay, D M; Lukianova, N Yu

    2016-12-01

    To assess the influence of the treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) on the profile of metal-containing proteins and factors of their regulation in Guerin carcinoma cells in vivo. The study was conducted on Wistar rats transplanted with wild-type Guerin carcinoma (Guerin/WT) and its strains resistant to cisplatin (Guerin/CP) or doxorubicin (Guerin/Dox). Animals were distributed in 6 groups treated with 5-aza and control animals without treatment. 5-Aza was injected by i.v. route (1 injection in 4 days at a dose of 2 mg/kg starting from the 4 th day after tumor transplantation, 4 injections in total). Ferritin levels in blood serum and tumor tissue were measured by ELISA, transferrin and free iron complexes - by low-temperature EPR, miRNA-200b, -133a and -320a levels and promoter methylation - by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The study has shown that 5-aza treatment caused demethylation of promoter regions of fth1 and tfr1 genes in all studied Guerin carcinoma strains. 5-Aza treatment resulted in a significant decrease of ferritin levels in tumor tissue (by 32.1% in Guerin/WT strain, by 29.8% in Guerin/Dox and by 69.1% in Guerin/CP). These events were accompanied by 3.5-fold and 2-fold increase of free iron complexes levels in tumor tissue of doxorubicin and cisplatin resistant strains, respectively. Also, 5-aza treatment resulted in significantly elevated levels of miR-200b, -133a, 320a expression in tumor tissue. After 5-aza treatment, ferritin levels in blood serum of animals with Guerin/Dox were increased by 23.9%, while in Guerin/Wt and Guerin/CP they were decreased by 17 and 16%, respectively. Alterations of epigenetic regulation upon in vivo treatment with 5-aza change the levels of metal-containing proteins due to DNA demethylation and altered miRNA expression profiles in Guerin carcinoma cells.

  12. Changes in activation energy and kinetics of heat-activated persulfate oxidation of phenol in response to changes in pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Li, Haiyan; Chi, Liping; Chen, Hongkun; Chen, Changzhao

    2017-12-01

    Persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S 2 O 8 2- ) is the newest oxidant used for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remediation of soil and groundwater. The present study investigated impacts of solution pH, temperature, and persulfate concentration on the reaction rate constant (k 1 ), activation energy (E a ), and reaction order of the heat-activated persulfate process. Phenol was chosen as the model organic contaminant. As temperature increased from 30 °C to 70 °C, k 1 exhibited a significant increase from 0.003 h -1 ∼0.962 h -1 (pH 1.3-13.9) to 1.184 h -1 ∼9.91 h -1 (pH 1.3-13.9), which corroborated with the activation of persulfate using heat. As pH increased from 1.3 to 13.9, k 1 exhibited a 4.3-fold increase at 70 °C and a 320-fold increase at 30 °C, thereby suggesting that: 1) the phenol oxidation rate increased under alkaline conditions, and 2) the enhancement of reaction rate due to alkaline activation was more pronounced at a lower temperature. Increasing pH significantly reduced E a from 139.7 ± 1.3 kJ/mol at pH 1.3 to 52.0 ± 3.3 kJ/mol at pH 13.9. In contrast to changing pH, increasing persulfate concentration from 20 to 320 mM significantly increased k 1 but did not affect E a . Changes in E a suggest that persulfate oxidation of phenol experienced different reaction pathways or elementary reaction sequences as the pH changed from 1.3 to 13.9. In addition, the k 1 and E a data also suggest that a minimal pH threshold of ∼11 was required for the effective alkaline activation of persulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lunar pyroclastic deposits as seen by the Mini-SAR on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Spudis, P.; Bussey, B.; Neisch, C.

    2009-12-01

    The principal objective of the Mini-SAR (synthetic aperture radar) instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft is the investigation of permanently shadowed regions in the lunar polar regions. But additional radar observations have been made of selected non-polar targets for comparison with observations of polar targets, as well as for their own intrinsic scientific merit. These non-polar targets include former Apollo and other landing sites, lunar pyroclastic deposits, and select fresh and degraded impact craters. Here we focus on observations of a maar-type volcanic feature on the floor of Schrödinger Basin, which has been previously interpreted as a pyroclastic deposit [1]. Lunar pyroclastic deposits have a unique physical texture - glass spheres - resulting from their origin in fire fountains associated with basaltic eruptions. Schrödinger Basin is a 320 km diameter peak ring basin centered at 75°S, 138°E. Based on crater counts and superposition relationships, it appears to be only slightly older than the Orientale Basin, making it among the youngest and freshest lunar basins of its size [2]. Mini-SAR observations cover half of the basin closest to the south pole, including a portion of the central smooth plains material. Circular polarization ratio (CPR) values for the dark mantle deposits on the floor of Schrödinger are 0.2 to 0.3, which are lower than the median value of about 0.5 for the surrounding terrain. High CPR values can result from rough, rocky surfaces or from the presence of ice. Since the floor of Schrödinger is not in shadow, low CPR values here are likely indicative of a low abundance of scattering elements (e.g., rocks), consistent with the known properties of pyroclastic deposits. Comparisons of the radar return of the Schrödinger floor deposits with other dark mantle deposits are ongoing. [1] Shoemaker, E.M. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1851-1854. [2] Wilhelms, D.E. (1987) USGS Prof Paper 1348, 302 pp.

  14. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  15. Recent developments using TowerJazz SiGe BiCMOS platform for mmWave and THz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Howard, David; Preisler, Edward J.; Racanelli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the highest speed 240GHz/340GHz FT/FMAX NPN which is now available for product designs in the SBC18H4 process variant of TowerJazz's mature 0.18μm SBC18 silicon germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology platform. NFMIN of ~2dB at 50GHz has been obtained with these NPNs. We also describe the integration of earlier generation NPNs with FT/FMAX of 240GHz/280GHz into SBC13H3, a 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS technology platform. Next, we detail the integration of the deep silicon via (DSV), through silicon via (TSV), high-resistivity substrate, sub-field stitching and hybrid-stitching capability into the 0.18μm SBC18 technology platform to enable higher performance and highly integrated product designs. The integration of SBC18H3 into a thick-film SOI substrate, with essentially unchanged FT and FMAX, is also described. We also report on recent circuit demonstrations using the SBC18H3 platform: (1) a 4-element phased-array 70-100GHz broadband transmit and receive chip with flat saturated power greater than 5dBm and conversion gain of 33dB; (2) a fully integrated W-band 9-element phase-controllable array with responsivity of 800MV/W and receiver NETD is 0.45K with 20ms integration time; (3) a 16-element 4x4 phased-array transmitter with scanning in both the E- and H-planes with maximum EIRP of 23-25 dBm at 100-110GHz; (4) a power efficient 200GHz VCO with -7.25dBm output power and tuning range of 3.5%; and (5) a 320GHz 16-element imaging receiver array with responsivity of 18KV/W at 315GHz, a 3dB bandwidth of 25GHz and a low NEP of 34pW/Hz1/2. Wafer-scale large-die implementation of the phased-arrays and mmWave imagers using stitching in TowerJazz SBC18 process are also discussed.

  16. Mechanical Design of High Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is working to develop a methodology for the optimization and design of the high lift system for future subsonic airliners with the involvement of two partners. Aerodynamic analysis methods for two dimensional and three dimensional wing performance with flaps and slats deployed are being developed through a grant with the aeronautical department of the University of California Davis, and a flap and slat mechanism design procedure is being developed through a contract with PKCR, Inc., of Seattle, WA. This report documents the work that has been completed in the contract with PKCR on mechanism design. Flap mechanism designs have been completed for seven (7) different mechanisms with a total of twelve (12) different layouts all for a common single slotted flap configuration. The seven mechanisms are as follows: Simple Hinge, Upside Down/Upright Four Bar Linkage (two layouts), Upside Down Four Bar Linkages (three versions), Airbus A330/340 Link/Track Mechanism, Airbus A320 Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), Boeing Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), and Boeing 767 Hinged Beam Four Bar Linkage. In addition, a single layout has been made to investigate the growth potential from a single slotted flap to a vane/main double slotted flap using the Boeing Link/Track Mechanism. All layouts show Fowler motion and gap progression of the flap from stowed to a fully deployed position, and evaluations based on spanwise continuity, fairing size and number, complexity, reliability and maintainability and weight as well as Fowler motion and gap progression are presented. For slat design, the options have been limited to mechanisms for a shallow leading edge slat. Three (3) different layouts are presented for maximum slat angles of 20 deg, 15 deg and 1O deg all mechanized with a rack and pinion drive similar to that on the Boeing 757 airplane. Based on the work of Ljungstroem in Sweden, this type of slat design appears to shift the lift curve so that

  17. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Medjoubi, K.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2015-12-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 104 photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm2 pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm2. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  18. Lightweight uncooled TWS equipped with catadioptric optics and microscan mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, A.; Jerominek, H.; Doucet, M.; Lagacé, F.; Desnoyers, N.; Bernier, S.; Mercier, L.; Boucher, M.-A.; Jacob, M.; Alain, C.; Pope, T. D.; Laou, P.

    2006-05-01

    A rugged lightweight thermal weapon sight (TWS) prototype was developed at INO in collaboration with DRDC-Valcartier. This TWS model is based on uncooled bolometer technology, ultralight catadioptric optics, ruggedized mechanics and electronics, and extensive onboard processing capabilities. The TWS prototype operates in a single 8-12 μm infrared (IR) band. It is equipped with a unique lightweight athermalized catadioptric objective and a bolometric IR imager with an INO focal plane array (FPA). Microscan technology allows the use of a 160 x 120 pixel FPA with a pitch of 50 μm to achieve a 320 × 240 pixel resolution image thereby avoiding the size (larger optics) and cost (expensive IR optical components) penalties associated with the use of larger format arrays. The TWS is equipped with a miniature shutter for automatic offset calibration. Based on the operation of the FPA at 100 frames per second (fps), real-time imaging with 320 x 240 pixel resolution at 25 fps is available. This TWS is also equipped with a high resolution (857 x 600 pixels) OLED color microdisplay and an integrated wireless digital RF link. The sight has an adjustable and selectable electronic reticule or crosshair (five possible reticules) and a manual focus from 5 m to infinity standoff distance. Processing capabilities are added to introduce specific functionalities such as image inversion (black hot and white hot), image enhancement, and pixel smoothing. This TWS prototype is very lightweight (~ 1100 grams) and compact (volume of 93 cubic inches). It offers human size target detection at 800 m and recognition at 200 m (Johnson criteria). With 6 Li AA batteries, it operates continuously for 5 hours and 20 minutes at room temperature. It can operate over the temperature range of -30 °C to +40 °C and its housing is completely sealed. The TWS is adapted to weaver or Picatinny rail mounting. The overall design of the TWS prototype is based on feedbacks of users to achieve improved user

  19. The application of STEP-technology® for particle and protein dispersion detection studies in biopharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Gross-Rother, J; Herrmann, N; Blech, M; Pinnapireddy, S R; Garidel, P; Bakowsky, U

    2018-05-30

    Particle detection and analysis techniques are essential in biopharmaceutical industries to evaluate the quality of various parenteral formulations regarding product safety, product quality and to meet the regulations set by the authority agencies. Several particle analysis systems are available on the market, but for the operator, it is quite challenging to identify the suitable method to analyze the sample. At the same time these techniques are the basis to gain a better understanding in biophysical processes, e.g. protein interaction and aggregation processes. The STEP-Technology® (Space and Time resolved Extinction Profiles), as used in the analytical photocentrifuge LUMiSizer®, has been shown to be an effective and promising technique to investigate particle suspensions and emulsions in various fields. In this study, we evaluated the potentials and limitations of this technique for biopharmaceutical model samples. For a first experimental approach, we measured silica and polystyrene (PS) particle standard suspensions with given particle density and refractive index (RI). The concluding evaluation was performed using a variety of relevant data sets to demonstrate the significant influences of the particle density for the final particle size distribution (PSD). The most challenging property required for successful detection, turbidity, was stated and limits have been set based on the depicted absorbance value at 320 nm (A320 values). Furthermore, we produced chemically cross-linked protein particle suspensions to model physically "stable" protein aggregates. These results of LUMiSizer® analysis have been compared to the orthogonal methods of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and micro-flow imaging (MFI). Sedimentation velocity distributions showed similar tendencies, but the PSDs and absolute size values could not be obtained. In conclusion, we could demonstrate some applications as well as limitations of this technique

  20. SciTech Connect

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H., E-mail: jsmith@magnet.fsu.edu; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 ×more » 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.« less

  1. TH-CD-206-07: Determination of Patient-Specific Myocardial Mass at Risk Using Computed Tomography Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, L; Ziemer, B; Malkasian, S

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a patient-specific coronary perfusion territory assignment algorithm that uses CT angiography (CTA) and a minimum-cost-path approach to assign coronary perfusion territories on a voxel-by-voxel basis for determination of myocardial mass at risk. Methods: Intravenous (IV) contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) was injected centrally into five swine (35–45 kg) and CTA was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA. Additionally, a 4F catheter was advanced into the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA) and contrast (30 mg/mL iodine, 10 mL, 1.5more » mL/s) was directly injected into each coronary artery for isolation of reference coronary perfusion territories. Semiautomatic myocardial segmentation of the CTA data was then performed and the centerlines of the LAD, LCX, and RCA were digitally extracted through image processing. Individual coronary perfusion territories were then assigned using a minimum-cost-path approach, and were quantitatively compared to the reference coronary perfusion territories. Results: The results of the coronary perfusion territory assignment algorithm were in good agreement with the reference coronary perfusion territories. The average volumetric assignment error from mitral orifice to apex was 5.5 ± 1.1%, corresponding to 2.1 ± 0.7 grams of myocardial mass misassigned for each coronary perfusion territory. Conclusion: The results indicate that accurate coronary perfusion territory assignment is possible on a voxel-by-voxel basis using CTA data and an assignment algorithm based on a minimum-cost-path approach. Thus, the technique can potentially be used to accurately determine patient-specific myocardial mass at risk distal to a coronary stenosis, improving coronary lesion assessment and treatment. Conflict of Interest (only if applicable): Grant funding from Toshiba America Medical Systems.« less

  2. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    SciTech Connect

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application formore » tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs.« less

  3. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  4. Structure and builtup of the Middle Bengal Fan at 8°N from multichannel seismic surveys and the IODP Expedition 354 drilling transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Bergmann, F.; Schwenk, T.; Lantzsch, H.; Bahk, J. J.; Weber, M. E.; France-Lanord, C.; Klaus, A.

    2016-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 to the Bengal Fan drilled a 320 km long e-W transect at 8°N with 7 drill sites, fully covering the uppermost 150-200 meters of fan deposits at distances of 50 km, originating from Himalayan mountain ranges and the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system. A major goal of this transect approach was to ensure a continuous record of turbiditic material delivered over the last appx. 1 million year, considering frequent longitudinal depocenter shifts of the active channel. By extensively utilizing the new half-APC coring technique, high quality and high recovery cores could be retrieved representing a wide range of grain sizes from hemipelagic deposits through clay rich turbidites to coarse silt and sandy units. Up to medium sand grain sizes were retrieved within the basal units of levees, which correspond to high-reflectivity units in high-resolution multichannel seismic profiles. Finely laminated sections with mm to cm-thick turbidites represents levee formations. At Site U1453 for example, core logging and downhole logging data confirm the representative sampling based on a very good match of several physical property data sets. An expanded section was cored at Site U1454, where the presumably currently active channel has built a levee, which likely represents major sediment supply within the last 30 kyr. A spatial grid of seismic and echosounder data in the vicinity of the active channel reveals a high spatial variability in sedimentation rates and distinct depocenter shifts in response to changes in channel geometry. Site U1452 has provided a full record a levee growth including interlevee sedimentation, sandy basal units characterized by a lobe formation, and a pronounced fining upward trend following the phase of channel erosion and levee builtup. From all sites, detailed comparisons of physical and sedimentological shipboard results with seismic data will be presented. Expedition 354 has provided a unique sample and data set to better understand fan

  5. Evolution of the Middle Bengal Fan at 8°N in the Oligocene to Pliocene - Preliminary Results from IODP Expedition 354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkhard, Spiess; Tilmann, Schwenk; Fenna, Bergmann; Christian, France-Lanord; Adam, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Three deep penetration and additional four shallow sites were drilled during IODP Expedition 354 in the Bay of Bengal at 8°N in February-March 2015 across a 320 km-long transect to study Neogene Bengal fan deposition. The three deeper sites located on top of the elevated crustal features of the Ninetyeast Ridge (Site U1451) and 85°Ridge (Site U1455/DSDP Site 218) as well as central between them (Site U1450) shall provide the stratigraphic framework for the Oligocene to Pliocene reconstruction of fan deposition and sedimentary fluxes driven by monsoon evolution and Himalayan erosion and weathering. Based on shipboard biostratigraphy, drilled material reach back in geologic time to the late Miocene (Site U1450), middle Miocene (Site U1455) and Oligocene (Site U1451). While core recovery was generally severely reduced due to the presence of unconsolidated sand and silt units, half-length APC coring technology provided valuable sand samples/recovery down to ~800 meters below seafloor. Increased compaction/diagenesis of units indicating the temporary absence of fan deposition due to major depocenter shifts, comprising of calcarous clay units of mostly pelagic origin, required a change to rotary coring between 600 and 800 mbsf, and thus the presence of sand is mostly uncertain for those deeper sections. However, derived from penetration rates, a high proportion of sand is anticipated back to early Miocene or Oligocene times. The calcareous clay units serve as stratigraphic marker horizons, which turned out to be suitable for seismic correlation across the drilling transect. This in turn allows to determine sedimentary budgets and overall fan growth for numerous time slices. Recovered sediments have Himalayan mineralogical and geochemical signatures suitable to analyze time series of erosion, weathering and changes in source regions as well as impacts on the global carbon cycle. Miocene shifts in terrestrial vegetation, in sediment budget and in style of sediment

  6. SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, R; Sinclair, L; Mench, A

    Purpose: To introduce and investigate effective diameter ratios as a new patient metric for use in computed tomography protocol selection as a supplement to patient-specific size parameter data. Methods: The metrics of outer effective diameter and inner effective diameter were measured for 7 post-mortem subjects scanned with a standardized chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP) protocol on a 320-slice MDCT scanner. The outer effective diameter was calculated by obtaining the anterior/posterior and lateral dimensions of the imaged anatomy at the middle of the scan range using Effective Diameter= SQRT(AP height*Lat Width). The inner effective diameter was calculated with the same equation using the APmore » and Lat dimensions of the anatomy excluding the adipose tissue. The ratio of outer to inner effective diameter was calculated for each subject. A relationship to BMI, weight, and CTDI conversion coefficients was investigated. Results: For the largest subject with BMI of 43.85 kg/m2 and weight of 255 lbs the diameter ratio was calculated as 1.33. For the second largest subject with BMI of 33.5 kg/m2 and weight of 192.4 lbs the diameter ratio was measured as 1.43, indicating a larger percentage of adipose tissue in the second largest subject’s anatomical composition. For the smallest subject at BMI of 17.4 kg/m2 and weight of 86 lbs a similar tissue composition was indicated as a subject with BMI of 24.2 kg/m2 and weight of 136 lbs as they had the same diameter ratios of 1.11. Conclusion: The diameter ratio proves to contain information about anatomical composition that the BMI and weight alone do not. The utility of this metric is still being examined but could prove useful for determining MDCT techniques and for giving a more in depth detail of the composition of a patient’s body habitus.« less

  7. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  8. Description of various test scenarios for temporary blinding of pilots by means of bright optical radiation during darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2011-06-01

    Up to now the knowledge is limited as far as adverse effects are concerned which are the result of temporary blinding from high brightness optical products, like laser pointers, but it is mandatory to be aware of the degree and influence on various visual functions of persons performing challenging activities, especially under mesopic or even scotopic conditions. Therefore various test scenarios have been designed in the laboratory and bright optical radiation from highbrightness LEDs and laser products applied as light sources in order to simulate the temporary blinding of pilots during a night-flight, especially during landing. As an important realistic test object the primary flight display (PFD) of a commercial aircraft has been integrated in the respective test set-up and various alignments on the PFD could be adjusted in order to measure the time duration which is needed to regain the ability to read the respective data on the PFD after an exposure. The pilot's flight deck lighting situation from a full flight simulator A 320 has been incorporated in the test scenarios. The level of exposure of the subjects has been limited well below the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) and the exposure duration was chosen up to a maximum of 10 s. A total of 28 subjects have been included in various tests. As a critical value especially the visual search time (VST) was determined. A significant increase of VST between 2.5 s and 8 s after foveal irradiation has been determined in a specially designed test with a primary flight display (PFD) whereas an increase of 9.1 s for peripheral and 9.9 s for frontal irradiation resulted in an exercise (flight maneuver) with a Microsoft flight-simulator. Various pupil diameters and aversion responses of the subjects during the irradiation might be responsible for the relatively large spread of data, but on the other hand a simple mean value would not comply with the spectrum of functional relationships and possible individual inherent

  9. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  10. Morphological alterations of periodontal pocket epithelium following Nd:YAG laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chun-Chan; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Tomohisa; Sanaoka, Atsushi; Mitani, Akio; Noguchi, Toshihide

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to examine morphologic alterations in the periodontal pocket epithelium with presence or absence of clinical inflammation following the use of the Neodymium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation. Subgingival Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been proposed as an alternative technique for treatment of chronic periodontitis. Several published studies have reported the clinical outcomes of such treatment. Twenty patients, diagnosed with moderate chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. A total of 32 sites was identified and divided into a control (n=18) and laser-treated test groups (n=14). Probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded for all sites. Test sites were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser using parameters of 2 W, 200 mJ pulse energy, and 10 pps delivered through a 320 μm diameter tip. Total laser treatment time ranged from 1 to 2 min. Following treatment, all specimens were harvested via biopsy and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histologic examination. Control group specimens, depending upon initial PD, exhibited either a relatively smooth and intact epithelium with little desquamation (PD≤3 mm), or increasing degrees of epithelial desquamation and leukocytic infiltration at a PD of ≥4 mm. In the laser-treated test group, the specimens with PD≤3 mm that were BOP negative (-) exhibited a thin layer of epithelium that was disrupted. In the specimens with initial PD of ≥4 mm, complete removal of the epithelium whose extent and degree were increasing, was observed in the inflamed portion, while epithelium remained in the uninflamed portion. The SEM and histologic findings demonstrated the feasibility of ablating pocket epithelium with an Nd:YAG laser irradiation using parameters of 2 W of power (200 mJ, 10 pps). Furthermore, the presence or absence of clinical inflammation appeared to have an impact on the degree of laser

  11. SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, L; Ziemer, B; Lipinski, J

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a low-dose, first-pass-analysis (FPA) dynamic computed tomography angiography and perfusion (CTAP) technique, for whole-organ anatomical and functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: An angioplasty balloon was advanced into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of five swine (35–45 kg) to induce several levels of stenosis at maximal hyperemia (intracoronary adenosine, 240 µg/min). Reference fluorescence microspheres and intravenous contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) were injected centrally and dynamic imaging was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA. Twenty volume scans were acquired per stenosismore » level to capture complete aortic and myocardial enhancement curves, but only two volume scans were used for whole-organ dynamic FPA CTAP measurement. All CTAP measurements in the LAD were compared to the reference microsphere perfusion measurements using linear regression, concordance correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The result of dynamic FPA CTAP measurement in the LAD was in good agreement with the reference microsphere perfusion measurement (P-CTAP = 1.01 P-MICRO + 0.16, R{sup 2} = 0.95). The root mean square error (RMSE) and difference (RMSD) of measurement were 0.51 mL/min/g and 0.47 mL/min/g, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated negligible systematic measurement bias. Additionally, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was found to be ρ = 0.97, indicating excellent agreement between dynamic FPA CTAP measurement and the reference microsphere perfusion measurement. Lastly, the effective dose of the proposed technique using the “simulated” two-volume scan CTAP acquisition protocol was 2.6 mSv; much lower than the ∼10 mSv effective dose of current dynamic CTP techniques alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the potential for significant improvements in CAD assessment through low-dose, quantitative dynamic FPA

  12. Technetium Sorption By Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Arai, Yuji

    2013-07-18

    steady state conditions are established to permit measuring more representative K{sub d} and solubility values under these experimental conditions. The purpose of this revision is to correct K{sub d} values reported in the original document. This document reports results for the first 56 days of a 319 day experiment. After the experiment had finished and all the data were compiled for QA/QC analysis, a mistake in the K{sub d} calculations was found. The K{sub d} values reported in revision 0 of this report were essentially one order of magnitude higher than the actual values. In this revision, the text references to K{sub d} values have been updated along with the data in Figure 2 and Appendix B. Between the time the original document was issued, Janurary 2012, and this document was issued, a final report (Estes et al. 2012; SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0) describing all the corrected data for the 319 day experiment was issued. This document does not contain any data that is not already reported in the final report (SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0).« less

  13. Increased Oxygenation of the Oceans Since the Mid-Cenozoic as Constrained by Cr/Co and Os/Ir Ratios in Oxic Pelagic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Lee, C.

    2005-12-01

    sediments must account for a significant proportion of the burial output of that element. In this case, we assume that this element is oxic-loving. Results of this work reveal that V, Cr, and Co may be particularly redox-sensitive: V and Cr precipitate in reducing environments while Co precipitates in more oxidizing environments. Results of our study, combined with existing data from the literature, show that Cr/Co ratios decrease with depth in DSDP596, 39, 801A, 319, 321, 465A, 577 in the N and S Pacific. After correcting for sedimentation rate, it is shown that the variation of Cr/Co versus time in all of these cores converge, which suggests that the variations in Cr/Co reflect a true variation in seawater composition. This also supported by the lack of sedimentation constrained by Cr/Co and Ce flux. Cr/Co remains low during the Cretaceous but begins to rise at ~25Ma across the entire Pacific. If the Cr/Co and Os/Ir ratio of inputs to the ocean have not changed much, this trend also matches that Os/Ir in the DSDP 596 site in the south Pacific. One interpretation of these results is that there has been a decrease in the area of anoxic/suboxic sedimentation beginning at this time. If correct, the implication is that there was a fundamental change in the redox conditions of the ocean in the mid-Cenozoic. We speculate that this might have been related to mid-Cenozoic global cooling, which may have increased the efficiency of the oceanic circulation system.

  14. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dongz@whu.edu.cn; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan

    priori information about the tumor position, shape, and size. Additionally, an appropriate cluster number for spectral clustering can be determined by the same algorithm, thus the automatic segmentation of the tumor region is achieved. Results: To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from different patients receiving HIFU therapy were segmented, and the obtained tumor contours were compared with those delineated by an experienced radiologist. For area-based evaluation results, the mean values of the true positive ratio, the false positive ratio, and the similarity were 94.42%, 4.71%, and 90.21%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.54%, 3.12%, and 3.50%, respectively. For distance-based evaluation results, the mean values of the normalized Hausdorff distance and the normalized mean absolute distance were 4.93% and 0.90%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.22% and 0.34%, respectively. The running time of the segmentation process was 12.9 s for a 318 × 333 (pixels) image. Conclusions: Experiments show that the proposed method can segment the tumor region accurately and efficiently with less manual intervention, which provides for the possibility of automatic segmentation and real-time guidance in HIFU therapy.« less

  15. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  16. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper decisive advance on the detector development for the astronomical applications that require very fast operation. Since the CCD220 and OCAM2 major success, new detector developments started in Europe either for visible and IR wavelengths. Funded by ESO and the FP7 Opticon European network, the NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with strong ESO involvement. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate and providing digital outputs. A camera development, based on this CMOS device and also funded by the Opticon European network, is ongoing. Another major AO wavefront sensing detector development concerns IR detectors based on Avalanche Photodiode (e- APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter offers a 320x255 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3 microns, with less than 2 e readout noise at 1600 fps. A rectangular window can also be programmed to speed up even more the frame rate when the full frame readout is not required. The high QE response, in the range of 70%, is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using pulse tube cryocoolers was developed in the frame of this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. The characterization results of this device are presented here. Readout noise as low as 1.7 e at 1600 fps has been measured with a 3 microns wavelength cut-off chip and a multiplication gain of 14 obtained with a limited photodiode polarization of 8V. This device also exhibits excellent linearity, lower than 1%. The pulse tube cooling allows smart and easy cooling down to 55 K. Vibrations investigations using centroiding and FFT measurements were performed proving that the miniature pulse tube does not induce measurable vibrations to the optical bench, allowing use of this

  17. A study of power cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, Andrew Urban

    A real fluid heat engine power cycle analysis code has been developed for analyzing the zero dimensional performance of a general recuperated, recompression, precompression supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle with reheat and a unique shaft configuration. With the proposed shaft configuration, several smaller compressor-turbine pairs could be placed inside of a pressure vessel in order to avoid high speed, high pressure rotating seals. The small compressor-turbine pairs would share some resemblance with a turbocharger assembly. Variation in fluid properties within the heat exchangers is taken into account by discretizing zero dimensional heat exchangers. The cycle analysis code allows for multiple reheat stages, as well as an option for the main compressor to be powered by a dedicated turbine or an electrical motor. Variation in performance with respect to design heat exchanger pressure drops and minimum temperature differences, precompressor pressure ratio, main compressor pressure ratio, recompression mass fraction, main compressor inlet pressure, and low temperature recuperator mass fraction have been explored throughout a range of each design parameter. Turbomachinery isentropic efficiencies are implemented and the sensitivity of the cycle performance and the optimal design parameters is explored. Sensitivity of the cycle performance and optimal design parameters is studied with respect to the minimum heat rejection temperature and the maximum heat addition temperature. A hybrid stochastic and gradient based optimization technique has been used to optimize critical design parameters for maximum engine thermal efficiency. A parallel design exploration mode was also developed in order to rapidly conduct the parameter sweeps in this design space exploration. A cycle thermal efficiency of 49.6% is predicted with a 320K [47°C] minimum temperature and 923K [650°C] maximum temperature. The real fluid heat engine power cycle analysis code was expanded to study a

  18. Feasibility of Selective Catheter-Directed Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Using Ultralow-Dose Intracoronary Contrast Injection in a Swine Model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Youngtaek; Shin, Sanghoon; Park, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Arsanjani, Reza; ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Ha, Seongmin; Jang, Yeonggul; Jeon, Byunghwan; Jung, Sunghee; Park, Se-Il; Sung, Ji Min; Shim, Hackjoon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Selective catheter-directed intracoronary contrast injected coronary computed tomography angiography (selective CCTA) has recently been introduced for on-site evaluation of coronary artery disease during coronary artery catheterization. In this study, we aimed to develop a feasible protocol for selective CCTA using ultralow-dose contrast medium as compared with conventional intravenous CCTA (IV CCTA). A novel combined system incorporating coronary angiography and a 320-detector row computed tomographic scanner was used to study 4 swine (35-40 kg) under animal institutional review board approval. A selective CCTA scan was simultaneously performed with an injection of 13.13 mgI/mL of modulated contrast medium at multiple different injection rates including 2, 3, and 4 mL/s and different total injection volumes of either 20 or 30 mL. Intravenous CCTA was performed with 60 mL of contrast medium, followed by 30 mL of saline chaser at 5 mL/s. Coronary mean and peak intensity, transluminal attenuation gradient, as well as 3-dimensional maximum intensity projections were obtained. Attenuation values (mean ± standard error, in Hounsfield units [HUs]) of selective CCTA for the left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) using the various combinations of injection rates and total injection volumes were as follows: 20 mL at 2 mL/s (LAD, 270.3 ± 20.4 HU; RCA, 322.6 ± 7.4 HU), 20 mL at 3 mL/s (LAD, 262.9 ± 20.4 HU; RCA, 264.7 ± 7.4 HU), 30 mL at 3 mL/s (LAD, 276.8 ± 20.4 HU; RCA, 274.0 ± 7.4 HU), 20 mL at 4 mL/s (LAD, 268.0 ± 20.4 HU; RCA, 277.7 ± 7.4 HU), and 30 mL at 4 mL/s (LAD, 251.3 ± 20.4 HU; RCA, 334.7 ± 7.4 HU). The representative protocol of the selective CCTA studies produced results within the optimal enhancement range (approximately 250-350 HU) for all segments, and comparison of transluminal attenuation gradient data with selective CCTA and IV CCTA studies demonstrated that the former method was more homogenous (-1.5245 and -1.7558 for

  19. PBS Plus Facebook: The Old And New Communication Of Climate Science (Please "Like" And "Share" This Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional and innovative communications strategies were combined in "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM; writer & director Geoff Haines-Stiles, producer Erna Akuginow, presenter Richard Alley). We attempted both a clear and accessible presentation of some key essentials of current climate science and an experiment in new messaging and new media for outreach and education. ETOM is a 3-part TV series broadcast by PBS ("…one of the more interesting documentary series to come along in years", said the New York Times) and a 320 plus page tradebook, with 110 pages of footnotes referencing peer-reviewed science, published by Norton. But it's also a lively and growing Facebook page with a clear voice sharing positive examples of how renewable energy can reduce polluting emissions here in the US and worldwide, alongside headlines of climate science, and a website—relaunched for the 2012 Earth Day PBS broadcasts—where all three programs can be streamed, and teachers can register to download HD segments for classroom use. The TV programs were designed to offer a highly accessible statement of core climate science, literally explaining how ice cores show us today's climate is changing in ways not seen in the last 800,000 thousand years and why physics and chemistry let us know "It's Us" who are changing CO2 levels in the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels. But the project's outreach components also includes a "Science Pub" in a converted theater in Portland, where the audience consumes food, drink and climate science, and "Adventures of a Climate Scientist in the Age of Politics and Punditry," a dynamic live performance recorded for TV and the web. Messaging includes a Navy Rear Admiral in dress whites explaining why the Pentagon believes climate change is real, and scenes showing Marines and Army implementing solar technologies to enhance mission security and reduce their carbon bootprint. Similarly, outreach events at the North Carolina Museum of Natural

  20. IrLaW an OGC compliant infrared thermography measurement system developed on mini PC with real time computing capabilities for long term monitoring of transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, J.; Averty, R.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project is to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, uncooled infrared camera is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its relative low cost on the market. Infrared thermography, when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey), requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The system studied and developed uses a fast Ethernet camera FLIR A320 [1] coupled with a VAISALA WXT520 [2] weather station and a light GPS unit [3] for positioning and dating. It can be used with other Ethernet infrared cameras (i.e. visible ones) but requires to be able to access measured data at raw level. In the present study, it has been made possible thanks to a specific agreement signed with FLIR Company. The prototype system studied and developed is implemented on low cost small computer that integrates a GPU card to allow real time parallel computing [4] of simplified radiometric [5] heat balance using information measured with the weather station. An HMI was developed under Linux using OpenSource and complementary pieces of software developed at IFSTTAR. This new HMI called "IrLaW" has various functionalities that let it compliant to be use in

  1. The Himalaya-Bengal Fan source to sink system - new insights by correlation of re-processed seismic data and IODP Expedition 354 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Fenna; Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkard; France-Lanord, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan, hosted in the northern Indian Ocean, is the largest submarine fan on Earth. Fan evolution started in the Early Eocene as a direct response to the collision of India with the Asian continent in Middle Paleocene times. Subsequently the Himalayan plateau uplift was initiated. Thereby generated interactions with the regional climate caused the evolution of the Indian monsoonal system. Drained by the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra, ~ 80% of eroded Himalayan sediments are deposited in the Bengal Fan. Hence, the Fan provides the most complete record of the Himalayan history and is well suited to investigate the direct link between the tectonic uplift and the climate evolution of the region. Sediments are transported onto the deep sea fan by turbidity currents building up chan-nel-levee systems. These channel-levee systems are the main architectural elements of the Bengal Fan and are suspected to have their onset in Late Miocene times. Frequent channel avulsion on the upper fan led to the abandonment of old channels and formation of new channel-levee systems or even channel-reoccupation. This complex erosional/depositional system involves lateral depocenter migration, probably on millennial timescales. Conse-quently, investigations of the Himalaya as sediment source begins with a comprehensive understanding of transport, deposition and modification within the Bengal Fan sediment sink. In February/March 2015 the IODP Expedition 354 drilled at 7 sites along a ~320 km long E-W transect at 8° N. Aiming at the recovery of pre-fan deposits and deposits of the Pliocene and Upper Miocene Fan evolution, three deep sites (900 - 1200 mbsf) were realized. These where complemented by four shallow sites (200-300 mbsf) for a detailed study of the depos-its of the last 1-2 million years, including the latest known channel activities (Holocene times). Several channel-levee systems and inter-channel deposits were drilled, active at different times of Fan evolution. To

  2. Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. The LGSD is a scaling of the NGSD with 1760x1680 pixels and 3 e readout noise (goal 1e) at 700 Hz (goal 1000 Hz) frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: advanced CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS back thinned and back illuminated device for very high QE, full digital outputs with signal digital conversion on chip. In addition, the CMOS technology is extremely robust in a telescope environment. Both detectors will be used on the European ELT but also interest potentially all giant telescopes under development. Additional developments also started for wavefront sensing in the infrared based on a new technological breakthrough using ultra low noise Avalanche Photodiode (APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter will offer a 320x240 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3.2 microns, with 2 e readout noise at 1500 Hz frame rate. The high QE response is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using liquid nitrogen free pulse tube cryocoolers is currently developed for this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. First results of this project are detailed here. These programs are held with several partners, among them are the French astronomical laboratories (LAM, OHP, IPAG), the detector manufacturers (e2v technologies, Sofradir, CEA/LETI) and other partners (ESO, ONERA, IAC, GTC). Funding is: Opticon FP6 and FP7 from European Commission, ESO, CNRS and Université de Provence, Sofradir, ONERA, CEA/LETI and the French FUI (DGCIS).

  3. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Aging of transport infrastructures combined with traffic and climatic solicitations contribute to the reduction of their performances. To address and quantify the resilience of civil engineering structure, investigations on robust, fast and efficient methods are required. Among research works carried out at IFSTTAR, methods for long term monitoring face an increasing demand. Such works take benefits of this last decade technological progresses in ICT domain. The present study follows the ISTIMES European project [1], which aimed at demonstrate the ability of different electromagnetic sensing techniques, processing methods and ICT architecture, to be used for long term monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. Thanks to this project a multi-sensing techniques system, able to date and synchronize measurements carried out by infrared thermography coupled with various measurements data (i.e. weather parameters), have been designed, developed and implemented on real site [2]. Among experiments carried out on real transport infrastructure, it has been shown, for the "Musmesci" bridge deck (Italy), that by using infrared thermal image sequence with weather measurements during sevral days it was possible to develop analysis methods able to produce qualitative and quantitative data [3]. In the present study, added functionalities were designed and added to the "IrLAW" system in order to reach full autonomy in term of power supply, very long term measurement capability (at least 1 year) and automated data base feeding. The surveyed civil engineering structures consist in two concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T weight each. One of the two beams was damage by high energy mechanical impact at the IFSTTAR falling rocks test station facilities located in the French Alpes [4]. The system is composed of one IR uncooled microbolometric camera (FLIR SC325) with a 320X240 Focal Plane Array detector in band III, a weather station VAISALA WXT520, a GPS, a failover power supply

  4. Calibration of coronary calcium scores determined using iterative image reconstruction (AIDR 3D) at 120, 100, and 80 kVp

    SciTech Connect

    Blobel, Joerg, E-mail: Joerg.Blobel@toshiba-medical.eu; Mews, Juergen; Schuijf, Joanne D.

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) radiation dose reduction is frequently achieved by applying lower tube voltages and using iterative reconstruction (IR). For calcium scoring, the reference protocol at 120 kVp with filtered back projection (FBP) is still used, because kVp and IR may influence the Agatston score (AS) and volume score (VS). The authors present a two-step method to optimize dose: first, to determine the lowest feasible exposure and highest noise thresholds; second, to define a calibration method that ensures that the AS and VS are similar to the reference protocol. Methods: AS and VS were measured for an anthropomorphic thoracicmore » phantom that includes a calcium calibration module. The phantom was scanned on a 320-row CT scanner, at tube voltages of 120 kVp using FBP, and 120, 100, and 80 kVp using adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR 3D) reconstruction. The minimum CTDIs were determined based on three objective quality criteria. Calibration was performed to estimate adjusted CT number thresholds for the lower kVp acquisitions. Finally, the accuracies of the total and individual insert scores at dose level close to the minimum CTDI level were investigated and compared to low (FBP{sub LD} − 120) and high (FBP{sub HD} − 120) dose reference protocols (based on ten repeated acquisitions for each group). Results: IR allows the exposure to be reduced by 69% at 120 kVp, with no significant effect on the total scores when averaged over all included dose steps and compared to FBP-120 (AS: 693 vs 699, p = 0.182; VS: 588 vs 587 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.569). Also when averaged over ten repeated scans and compared to FBP{sub HD} − 120 (AS: 709 vs 704, p = 0.435; VS: 604 vs 601 mm{sup 3}, p = 0.479), there is no statistical significant effect. Reducing the peak tube voltage allows even greater dose reductions: 73% at 100 kVp and 76% at 80 kVp. The calibrated CT number thresholds for analysis at 120, 100, and 80 kVp were, respectively, 130, 133, and 160 HU

  5. Assessing vulnerability to vegetation growth on earth dikes using geophysical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, Benjamin; Saracco, Ginette; Peyras, Laurent; Vennetier, Michel; Mériaux, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is prone to a plethora of natural hazards including floods. Vegetation growth in hydraulic earth structures, such as flood protections or channel levees and dams, may induce several degradation mechanisms leading to a risk of failure. Typically, trees' rooting generates two types of risks: internal erosion from root development in earth embankments, and external erosion (slopes and crest) which is often related to trees uprooting. To better assess how woody vegetation can compromise levee integrity, we designed a methodology using acoustical and complex electrical tomography as non destructives methods to spot dangerous roots in the embankment. Our work has been first initiated during laboratory experiments; we performed soundings in controlled conditions to determine both acoustical and electrical intrinsic behavior of our root samples. By comparison with soil samples we expected to point out specific signatures that would be useful for the roots anomaly identification in real conditions. Measurements were repeated on several samples to ensure statistical interpretation. With help of an ultrasonic transmission device, we identified significant relative velocity differences of compressional waves propagation between soil and root samples. We also studied spectral properties using wavelet processing method as an additional parameter of root distinction with the surrounding soil. In the case of electrical soundings, complex resistivity was measured and we computed resistivity spectra. Amplitude of resistivity term showed us that root material behaves as an insulator compared to the soil. With the phase resistivity term information, root can also be seen as an electric power capacitance and reveals maximum polarization effect located around 1Hz. Then, as experimental device for the field measurements, we selected a 320 cm high poplar (Populus) planted in a homogeneous loamy-clayed soil, which is the same soil used in laboratory experiment to

  6. Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation.

    PubMed

    Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David

    2012-05-01

    Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D(vol)) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). 4D(vol) CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological "tumor" objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D(vol) CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D(vol) CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D(vol) CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a significantly different PDF from the

  7. Fullerenes, Organics and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The status of DIB research has strongly advanced since 20 years [1], as well as the quest for fullerenes, PAHs and large organics in space. In 1994 we reported the discovery of two near IR diffuse bands coincident with C60+, confirmed in subsequent years [2-6] and now by latest laboratory experiments. A number of DIB observational studies have been published, dealing with: DIB surveys [1,7-10]; measurements of DIB families, correlations and environment dependences [11-14]; extragalactic DIBs [15, 16]. Resolved substructures were detected [17,18] and compared to predicted rotational contours by large molecules [19]. Polarisation studies provided upper limits constraints [20, 21]. DIBs carriers have been linked with organic molecules observed in the interstellar medium [22-25] such as IR bands (assigned to PAHs), Extended Red Emission or recently detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME, assigned to spinning dust) and with spectroscopic IR emission bands measured with ISO or Spitzer. Fullerenes and PAHs have been proposed to explain some DIBs and specific molecules were searched in DIB spectra [eg 2-6, 26-31]. These could be present in various dehydrogenation and ionisation conditions [32,33]. Experiments in the laboratory and in space [eg 34-36] allow to measure the survival and by-products of these molecules. We review DIB observational results and their interpretation, and discuss the presence of large organics, fullerenes, PAHs, graphenes in space. References [1] Herbig, G. 1995 ARA&A33, 19; [2] Foing, B. & Ehrenfreund, P. 1994 Natur 369, 296; [3] Foing, B. & Ehrenfreund, P. 1997 A&A317, L59; [4] Foing, B. & Ehrenfreund, P. 1995 ASSL202, 65; [5] Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B. H. 1997 AdSpR19, 1033; [6] Galazutdinov, G. A. et al. 2000 MNRAS317, 750; [7] Jenniskens, P., Desert, F.-X. 1994 A&AS106, 39; [8] Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 1997 A&A318, L28; [9] Tuairisg, S. Ó. et al. 2000 A&AS142, 225; [10] Cox, N. et al. 2005 A&A438, 187; [11] Cami, J. et al. 1997A&A.326, 822

  8. Water-level altitudes 2010 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2009 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    -foot rise (2009-10), from a 25-foot decline to a 35-foot rise (2005-10), from a 40-foot decline to an 80-foot rise (1990-2010), and from a 140-foot decline to a 200-foot rise (1977-2010). In 2010, water-level-altitude contours for the Evangeline aquifer ranged from 300 feet below datum in north-central Harris County to 200 feet above datum at the boundary of Waller, Montgomery, and Grimes Counties. Water-level-altitude changes in the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 58-foot decline to a 69-foot rise (2009-10), from an 80-foot decline to an 80-foot rise (2005-10), from a 200-foot decline to a 220-foot rise (1990-2010), and from a 320-foot decline to a 220-foot rise (1977-2010). In 2010, water-level-altitude contours for the Jasper aquifer ranged from 200 feet below datum in south-central Montgomery County to 250 feet above datum in eastern-central Grimes County. Water-level-altitude changes in the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 39-foot decline to a 39-foot rise (2009-10), from a 110-foot decline to no change (2005-10), and from a 180-foot decline to no change (2000-10). Compaction of subsurface materials (mostly in the clay layers) composing the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers was recorded continuously at 13 borehole extensometers at 11 sites. For the period of record beginning in 1973, or later, and ending in December 2009, cumulative clay compaction data measured by 12 extensometers ranged from 0.088 foot at the Texas City-Moses Lake site to 3.559 foot at the Addicks site. The rate of compaction varies from site to site because of differences in groundwater withdrawals near each site and differences among sites in the clay-to-sand ratio in the subsurface materials. Therefore, it is not possible to extrapolate or infer a rate of clay compaction for an area based on the rate of compaction measured at a nearby extensometer.

  9. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  10. Water-level altitudes 2016 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973–2015 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Ramage, Jason K.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2016-10-07

    changes in effective stress caused by changes in groundwater withdrawal from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers.In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Chicot aquifer ranged from 200 feet (ft) below the vertical datum (North American Vertical Datum of 1988; hereinafter, datum) in a localized area in northwestern Harris County to 200 ft above datum in west-central Montgomery County. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 39-ft decline to a 26-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 30-ft decline to a 20-ft rise (2011–16), from a 140-ft decline to a 160-ft rise (1990–2016), and from a 120-ft decline to a 200-ft rise (1977–2016). In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Evangeline aquifer ranged from 250 ft below datum in three separate areas in south-central Montgomery County and extending into north-central Harris County, in west-central Harris County, and in southwestern Harris County to 200 ft above datum in southeastern Grimes and northwestern Montgomery Counties. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 65-ft decline to a 61-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 60-ft decline to a 40-ft rise (2011–16), from a 160-ft decline to a 160-ft rise (1990–2016), and from a 320-ft decline to a 240-ft rise (1977–2016). In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Jasper aquifer ranged from 200 ft below datum in south-central Montgomery County extending into north-central Harris County to 250 ft above datum in northwestern Montgomery County and extending into eastern Grimes County and southwestern Walker County. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 38-ft decline to a 51-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 60-ft decline to a 40-ft rise