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Sample records for a356 al alloy

  1. Deformation behaviour of Rheocast A356 Al alloy at microlevel considering approximated RVEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sk. Tanbir; Das, Prosenjit; Das, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    A micromechanical approach is considered here to predict the deformation behaviour of Rheocast A356 (Al-Si-Mg) alloy. Two representative volume elements (RVEs) are modelled in the finite element (FE) framework. Two dimensional approximated microstructures are generated assuming elliptic grains, based on the grain size, shape factor and area fraction of the primary Al phase of the said alloy at different processing condition. Plastic instability is shown using stress and strain distribution between the Al rich primary and Si rich eutectic phases under different boundary conditions. Boundary conditions are applied on the approximated RVEs in such a manner, so that they represent the real life situation depending on their position on a cylindrical tensile test sample. FE analysis is carried out using commercial finite element code ABAQUS without specifying any damage or failure criteria. Micro-level in-homogeneity leads to incompatible deformation between the constituent phases of the rheocast alloy and steers plastic strain localisation. Plastic stain localised regions within the RVEs are predicted as the favourable sites for void nucleation. Subsequent growth of nucleated voids leads to final failure of the materials under investigation.

  2. Wear mechanisms in hybrid composites of Graphite-20 Pct SiC in A356 Aluminum Alloy (Al-7 Pct Si-0.3 Pct Mg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, W.; Alpas, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    The wear behavior of A356 aluminum alloy (Al-7 Pct Si-0.3 Pct Mg) matrix composites reinforced with 20 vol Pct SiC particles and 3 or 10 vol Pct graphite was investigated. These hybrid composites represent the merging of two philosophies in tribological material design: soft-particle lubrication by graphite and hard-particle reinforcement by carbide particles. The wear tests were performed using a block-on-ring (SAE 52100 steel) wear machine under dry sliding conditions within a load range of 1 to 441 N. The microstructural and compositional changes that took place during wear were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXA), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The wear resistance of 3 Pct graphite-20 Pct SiC-A356 hybrid composite was comparable to 20 Pct SiC-A356 without graphite at low and medium loads. At loads below 20 N, both hybrid and 20 Pct SiC-A356 composites without graphite demonstrated wear rates up to 10 times lower than the unreinforced A356 alloy due to the load-carrying capacity of SiC particles. The wear resistance of 3 Pct graphite 20 Pct SiC-A356 was 1 to 2 times higher than 10 Pct graphite-containing hybrid composites at high loads. However, graphite addition reduced the counterface wear. The unreinforced A356 and 20 Pct SiC-A356 showed a transition from mild to severe wear at 95 N and 225 N, respectively. Hybrid composites with 3 Pct and 10 Pct graphite did not show such a transition over the entire load range, indicating that graphite improved the seizure resistance of the composites. Tribolayers, mainly consisting of a compacted mixture of graphite, iron oxides, and aluminum, were generated on the surfaces of the hybrid composites. In the hybrid composites, the elimination of the severe wear (and hence the improvement in seizure resistance) was attributed to the reduction in friction-induced surface heating due to the presence of graphite- and iron

  3. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  4. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coatings on an A356 Alloy for Improved Corrosion and Wear Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhijing

    Plasma electrolytic oxidizing (PEO) is an advanced technique that has been used to deposit thick and hard ceramic coatings on aluminium (Al) alloys. This work was however to use the PEO process to produce thin ceramic oxide coatings on an A356 Al alloy for improving corrosion and wear resistance of the alloy. Effects of current density and treatment time on surface morphologies and thickness of the PEO coatings were investigated. The improvement of galvanic corrosion properties of the coated A356 alloy vs. steel and carbon fibre were evaluated in E85 fuel or NaCl environments. Tribological properties of the coatings were studied with comparison to the uncoated A356 substrate and other commercially-used engine bore materials. The research results indicated that the PEO coatings could have excellent tribological and corrosion properties for aluminium engine applications.

  5. Use of B4C powder for preparing in situ Al-Ti-B-C inoculant in Al-Ti melt and its refining effect on A356 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuiqing; Cui, Chunxiang; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lichen; Sun, Yijiao; Shi, Jiejie; Cui, Sen; Ding, Jinhua

    2018-01-01

    A novel preparation technology of Al-Ti-B-C inoculant with uniform microstructure is prepared using B4C powder instead of graphite in Al-Ti melt reaction method in this study. It is found that the addition of B4C powder improves the wettability between carbon element and liquid aluminum and reduce the tendency to the gravity segregation simultaneously. The result shows that Al-Ti-B-C inoculant using B4C powder presents excellent grain refinement performance than the conventional approach. After T6 heat treatment, the ultimate tensile strength, the yield strength and elongation of A356 alloy are increased to 292 ± 6 MPa, 238 ± 7 MPa and 8.2% ± 0.5% from 260 ± 7 MPa, 218 ± 5 MPa and 4.9% ± 0.6% by addition of Al-Ti-B-C inoculant with a very small ratio of 0.3% in weight. The increase of strength in Al-Ti-B-C refined alloy is attributed to the grain refinement of primary α-Al, while the increase of ductility results from the submicron particles in Al-Ti-B-C inoculant adsorb impurity atoms as well as decreased grain size.

  6. Effect of Holding Pressure on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huarui; Ma, Zhen; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Hu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of holding pressure on microstructure and mechanical properties of low-pressure die cast A356 aluminum alloy was investigated. The results showed that the application of high holding pressure (300 kPa) generated castings with denser structure and superior mechanical properties. By increasing the holding pressure up to 300 kPa, the size of secondary dendrite arm spacing greatly reduced by 22.7% at the cooling rate of 1°C/s and decreased by 12.8% at 10°C/s. The Feret's diameter and aspect ratio of eutectic silicon particles decreased by 8.4 and 5.1% at the cooling rate of 1°C/s and decreased by 9.3 and 6.4% at 10°C/s, respectively. Meanwhile, the density of A356 aluminum alloy increased to 2.678 g/cm3 and the area fraction of porosity decreased to 0.035%. Thus, tensile properties of A356 aluminum alloy obtained at high holding pressure were enhanced, especially the ductility. All these could be associated with the better filling capability and faster cooling rate caused by high holding pressure. In the analytical range of experimental conditions, the correlation of mechanical properties with process parameters was established by statistical models to predict the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of low-pressure die cast A356 aluminum alloy.

  7. Investigation on the modification behavior of A356.2 alloy with Yb-La composite modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaochen; Leng, Jinfeng; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Qi; Shao, Yuewen; Teng, Xinying

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of the Yb + La addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356.2 alloy. The results show that the the grain size was refined and morphological structure of Si changed from needle-like to fine spheroidal particle by adding Yb + La. The eutectic temperature decreased from 589 °C to 581 °C and the freezing range of primary α-Al become wider after adding Yb + La. The mechanical properties showed great improvement after T6 heat treatment. The ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were increased to 279.0 MPa and 99.2 HB after T6 heat treatment which increased by 28.2% and 47.3%, respectively. The fracture mechanism was analyzed using the scanning electron microscopy and proved to be a transgranular/intergranular fracture modes.

  8. Effect of holding pressure on microstructure and fracture behavior of low-pressure die cast A356-T6 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Yun, Ying; Zhang, Huarui; Ma, Zhen; Jia, Lina; Tao, Tongxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-12-01

    The effect of different holding pressures on microstructure, tensile properties and fracture behavior of A356-T6 aluminum alloy was investigated. It was observed that the ultimate strength, yield strength and elongation of A356-T6 aluminum alloy increased with the increasing of holding pressure from 85 kPa to 300 kPa. This was attributed to the finer microstructure and the elimination of porosity defects caused by high holding pressure. The fractographs of specimens obtained under lower holding pressure displayed mixed quasi-cleavage and dimple type morphology with flat dimples and large amount of porosities. However, the fractographs of specimens obtained under high holding pressure of 300 kPa clearly exhibited a dimple morphology with small and deep dimples. The differences in the tensile fracture were attributed to the different shape of eutectic Si particle and different amount of porosity defects.

  9. Hot Extrusion of A356 Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite with Carbon Nanotube/Al2O3 Hybrid Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. H.; Babu, J. S. S.; Kang, C. G.

    2014-05-01

    Over the years, the attention of material scientists and engineers has shifted from conventional composite materials to nanocomposite materials for the development of light weight and high-performance devices. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), many researchers have tried to fabricate metal matrix composites (MMCs) with CNT reinforcements. However, CNTs exhibit low dispersibility in metal melts owing to their poor wettability and large surface-to-volume ratio. The use of an array of short fibers or hybrid reinforcements in a preform could overcome this problem and enhance the dispersion of CNTs in the matrix. In this study, multi-walled CNT/Al2O3 preform-based aluminum hybrid composites were fabricated using the infiltration method. Then, the composites were extruded to evaluate changes in its mechanical properties. In addition, the dispersion of reinforcements was investigated using a hardness test. The required extrusion pressure of hybrid MMCs increased as the Al2O3/CNT fraction increased. The deformation resistance of hybrid material was over two times that of the original A356 aluminum alloy material due to strengthening by the Al2O3/CNTs reinforcements. In addition, an unusual trend was detected; primary transition was induced by the hybrid reinforcements, as can be observed in the pressure-displacement curve. Increasing temperature of the material can help increase formability. In particular, temperatures under 623 K (350 °C) and over-incorporating reinforcements (Al2O3 20 pct, CNTs 3 pct) are not recommended owing to a significant increase in the brittleness of the hybrid material.

  10. Influence of friction stir processing on the room temperature fatigue cracking mechanisms of A356 aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nelaturu, Phalgun; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.

    Here, failure by fatigue is a common problem associated with cast aluminum alloys due to defects like shrinkage porosities, non-metallic inclusions, etc. Friction stir processing (FSP) has recently emerged as an effective technique for local modification of microstructure. This study investigates the fatigue crack initiation and growth mechanisms in cast and FSPed A356 aluminum alloy. Two sets of parameters were used to friction stir the cast alloy resulting in the complete modification the cast microstructure to a wrought microstructure. Both the FSPed microstructures exhibited severe abnormal grain growth (AGG) after heat treatment leading to a multimodal grain size distribution –more » the grain sizes ranging from a few microns to a few millimeters. One of the FSP conditions displayed an excellent improvement in fatigue life by an order of magnitude, while the other condition displayed an unexpectedly large scatter in fatigue lives. Detailed study of the fractured fatigue specimens by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) revealed that both, fatigue crack initiation and propagation, were intimately tied to the grain size as well as the grain misorientations in the microstructure.« less

  11. Influence of friction stir processing on the room temperature fatigue cracking mechanisms of A356 aluminum alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Nelaturu, Phalgun; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.; ...

    2018-01-11

    Here, failure by fatigue is a common problem associated with cast aluminum alloys due to defects like shrinkage porosities, non-metallic inclusions, etc. Friction stir processing (FSP) has recently emerged as an effective technique for local modification of microstructure. This study investigates the fatigue crack initiation and growth mechanisms in cast and FSPed A356 aluminum alloy. Two sets of parameters were used to friction stir the cast alloy resulting in the complete modification the cast microstructure to a wrought microstructure. Both the FSPed microstructures exhibited severe abnormal grain growth (AGG) after heat treatment leading to a multimodal grain size distribution –more » the grain sizes ranging from a few microns to a few millimeters. One of the FSP conditions displayed an excellent improvement in fatigue life by an order of magnitude, while the other condition displayed an unexpectedly large scatter in fatigue lives. Detailed study of the fractured fatigue specimens by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) revealed that both, fatigue crack initiation and propagation, were intimately tied to the grain size as well as the grain misorientations in the microstructure.« less

  12. Interplay among Coating Thickness, Strip Size, and Thermal and Solidification Characteristics in A356 Lost Foam Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabestari, S. G.; Divandari, M.; Ghoncheh, M. H.; Jamali, V.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of the solidification parameters of A356 alloy, e.g., dendrite arm spacing (DAS), correlation between cooling rate (CR) and DAS, hot tearing, and microstructural analysis at different coating thicknesses and strip sizes during the lost foam casting process (LFC). To achieve this goal, the DAS was measured at six coating thicknesses and six different strip sizes. In addition, thermal characteristics, such as the CR, temperatures of start and finish points of solidification, recalescence undercooling, and hot tearing susceptibility (HCSC), at five coating thicknesses were recognized from the cooling curves and their first derivative and the solid fraction curves, which have been plotted through the thermal analysis technique. The pouring temperature and strip size were fixed at 1063 K (790 °C) and 12 mm, respectively. Besides, to derive a numerical equation to predict the CR by measuring the DAS in this alloy, a microstructural evaluation was carried out on samples cast through 12-mm strip size. The results showed that both coating thickness and strip size had similar influences on the DAS, in which, by retaining one parameter at a constant value and simultaneous enhancement in the other parameter, the DAS increased significantly. Furthermore, at thinner coating layer, the higher amount of the CR was observed, which caused reduction in the temperatures of both the start and finish points of solidification. Also, increasing the CR caused a nonlinear increase in both the recalescence undercooling and the HCSC.

  13. Stress-strain time-dependent behavior of A356.0 aluminum alloy subjected to cyclic thermal and mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrahi, G. H.; Ghodrati, M.; Azadi, M.; Rezvani Rad, M.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the cyclic behavior of the A356.0 aluminum alloy under low-cycle fatigue (or isothermal) and thermo-mechanical fatigue loadings. Since the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) test is time consuming and has high costs in comparison to low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests, the purpose of this research is to use LCF test results to predict the TMF behavior of the material. A time-independent model, considering the combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law, was used to predict the TMF behavior of the material. Material constants of this model were calibrated based on room-temperature and high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests. The nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law could accurately estimate the stress-strain hysteresis loop for the LCF condition; however, for the out-of-phase TMF, the condition could not predict properly the stress value due to the strain rate effect. Therefore, a two-layer visco-plastic model and also the Johnson-Cook law were applied to improve the estimation of the stress-strain hysteresis loop. Related finite element results based on the two-layer visco-plastic model demonstrated a good agreement with experimental TMF data of the A356.0 alloy.

  14. Centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc alloy and composite A356/silicon carbide: Study and modeling of phases' and particles' segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balout, Bahaa

    Centrifugation is a casting technology that allows the production of cylindrical and graduated parts with different mechanical properties through the section. The need for materials with good quality and specific mechanical properties has been driven this technology in order to produce different types of materials such as zinc alloys and graduated metal matrix composites reinforced by hard and wear resistant particles. The goal of this research project is to study and model the eutectic macrosegregation, the solidification speed, and the speeds of solidification fronts during centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc-aluminum alloy in order to improve the part quality and increase its strength and field reliability. Moreover, the segregation of the particles during centrifugal casting of an aluminum matrix composite reinforced by silicon carbide particles (A356/SiC) is also studied to improve and control the graduation of the parts. The cooling rate, the speed, acceleration/deceleration, displacement, and segregation of the particles across the section will be modeled by discretization of Stokes' law in time in order to take into consideration the change in the centrifugal radius and melt viscosity during cooling process. This study will allow the control of the graduation degree of particles across the section in order to improve the properties and wear resistance of the composite. This composite can be used in systems where friction is critical and load is high (reinforcements of parts for the cylinders of pneumatic systems). The results show that the maximum macrosegregation zone of the eutectic across the casting section corresponds to the last point of solidification. The eutectic macrosegregation produced during centrifugal casting of thin walled part is a normal segregation which varies depending on the solidification speed and the ratio between the speeds of solidification fronts. On the other hand, it was found that the position and volume fraction of the particles

  15. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy.

    PubMed

    Dang, B; Zhang, X; Chen, Y Z; Chen, C X; Wang, H T; Liu, F

    2016-08-09

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  16. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy

    PubMed Central

    Dang, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, C. X.; Wang, H. T.; Liu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy. PMID:27502444

  17. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  18. Microstructural characterisation of Al-Si cast alloys containing rare earth additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Ibrahim, M. F.; Doty, H. W.; Samuel, F. H.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a thorough study on the effect of rare earth elements, specifically La and Ce, on the microstructure characteristics of non-modified and Sr-modified A356 and A413 alloys. Several alloys were prepared by adding 1% La and 1% Ce either individually or in combination. Microstructural characterisation was carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results showed that the individual and combined additions of La and Ce did not bring about any modification or even refinement in the eutectic Si structure. Moreover, these additions were found to negate the modification effect of Sr, particularly in the presence of La. The A356 and A413 alloys containing La and/or Ce displayed high phase volume fractions owing to the formation of Al-Si-La/Ce/(La,Ce) and Al-Ti-La/Ce intermetallic phases. DSC analysis revealed that the formation temperatures of these phases varied from 560 to 568 °C and 568 to 574 °C, respectively. This analysis also showed that the addition of La and Ce whether individually or in combination resulted in a depression in the eutectic temperature and a considerable increase in the solidification range, particularly for the A413 alloy.

  19. Substitutional alloy of Ce and Al

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V.; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L.; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small Al atoms) by compressing the Ce3Al intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce3Al metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L3-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and Al and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608

  20. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  1. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  2. FSW between Al alloy and Mg Alloy: the comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, C. B.

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to fusion weld Al alloy to Mg alloy, so by experimental optimization procedure (EOP) optimum parameters for FSW between Al alloy and Mg alloy were determined and experiment conducted using these parameters resulted in not only sound weld but also highest strength weld for 5 mm thickness of the alloys plates. One can arrive to optimum parameters by following the EOP in case of similar and dissimilar materials FSW, such as Al alloy and Mg alloy FSW. It has observed that tensile sample having least thickness intermetallics (IMs) layer has highest strength compared to sample with larger thickness of intermetallics layer and also it has observed that weld of lesser thickness plates have strength higher than welds of larger thickness plates. It has observed that, Vickers hardness in WN i.e. on the region containing layers of IMs is considerably higher, which leads to emerge of new type of laminated composite materials. It has observed that, it is the least thickness IMs layers in the weld are responsible for higher strength of weld not the ductility of the IMs formed owing to the insertion of intermediate material in the weld. It has found that coefficient of friction is =0.25, in case of bead on plate welding of Mg alloy.

  3. PEO of pre-anodized Al-Si alloys: Corrosion properties and influence of sealings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, M.; Matykina, E.; Arrabal, R.; Mingo, B.; Pardo, A.

    2015-08-01

    Voltage-controlled PEO coatings were developed on A356 aluminum alloys (gravity-cast and rheocast) with a pre-anodized layer. The influence of the alloy manufacturing process and the effect of Si-rich phase on the structure and composition of the oxide layers were evaluated using SEM, EDS and XRD. The pre-anodized oxide layer preserves the microstructure of the substrate due to the presence of secondary phases that have a different behavior relative to the matrix during anodizing. PEO coatings consisted of a mixture of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 and mullite. The corrosion behavior and the effectiveness of different sealing techniques based on salts of nickel, cobalt, cerium and phosphonic acid were also studied. Post-treatments improved the hydrophobic properties of the coatings and showed a beneficial effect, significantly increasing the coating impedance and thereby reducing the susceptibility to corrosion.

  4. Serrated yielding in Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; McShane, H.B.

    1993-05-01

    Serrated yielding (SY) during tensile testing has been observed in Al-Li alloys, both in the binary and the commercial quaternary alloys, in single crystal as well as polycrystalline materials. Serrated yielding is commonly explained by a dynamic strain aging (DSA) model developed by McCormick and van den Beukel. All the solute elements present in Al-Li alloys, viz., Mg, Cu and Li are known to give DSA and SY. Several researchers believe the DSA to be the cause of SY and they attribute the disappearance of SY simply to the removal of solute from the matrix with aging. However, this argumentmore » has serious flaws. The present paper examines this aspect critically. The authors concluded that Al-Li alloys the disappearance of serrated yielding at a certain stage of aging is not due to removal of the solute from the matrix but due to the change in the nature of the metastable [delta][prime] precipitates - from fine coherent shearable precipitates to larger noncoherent nonshearable precipitates - which prevents the formation of the deformation bands. The serrated yielding reappears with extensive over aging due to the dissolution of these precipitates in favor of the equilibrium precipitates. The equilibrium precipitates, being widely spaced, are ineffective in preventing the formation of deformation bands.« less

  5. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  6. Studies of Al-Ti Alloys by SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, K.; Atici, Y.; Keşlİ Oǧlu, K.; Yaşar, E.

    2007-04-01

    Al-Ti (1, 2 wt. %) alloys were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM observations and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses (EDX) showed that the phase structure of Al-Ti (1 %) alloy at 165 μm/s is composed of Al matrix and C, Ni, Fe and Si particles and the Al-Ti (1 %) alloys at 16 and 8 μm/s have only the Al matrix and C particles. It was also found that the Al-Ti (2 %) form the Al matrix and intermetallic TiAl.

  7. Interaction Between U-Mo Alloys and Alloys Al-Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Tarasov, B. A.; Shornikov, D. P.

    The main objective of the work is the experimental determination of the effect of doping on the kinetics of the interaction of beryllium, aluminum and uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersed in the nuclear fuel. It is shown that an increase in the content of Be in Al leads to a linear decrease in the rate of interaction of the alloy with uranium-molybdenum alloy. Besides AlBe-alloys have higher thermal and mechanical properties than other matrix alloys such as AlSi.

  8. Whisker Formation in Porosity in Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, William David; Elsayed, Ahmed; El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    An examination of the fracture surfaces of tensile test bars from Al alloy castings held in the liquid state for up to 20 minutes revealed porosity which in some cases contained whisker-like features. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in a SEM suggested that these might be oxide whiskers forming in an oxide-related pore or double oxide film defect. Such entrainment defects (also known as bifilms) may entrap a small amount of the local atmosphere when they form and become incorporated into the liquid metal. This atmosphere may be predominantly air, which then subsequently reacts with the surrounding melt, firstly by reaction with oxygen and secondly by reaction with nitrogen. A CFD model of the heat distribution associated with the reactions between the interior atmosphere of a double oxide film defect and the surrounding liquid alloy suggested that highly localized increases in temperature, up to about 2000 K to 5000 K (1727 °C to 4727 °C), could occur, over a scale of a few hundred micrometers. Such localized increases in temperature might lead to the evaporation or disassociation of oxide within the pore, followed by condensation, to form the whisker structures observed. Hydrogen might also be expected to diffuse into the bifilm and may play a role in the chemical reactions associated with the development of the bifilm.

  9. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  10. 3-Dimensional Microstructure of Al-Al3Ti Alloy Severely Deformed by ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hisashi; Hishikawa, Takahisa; Makino, Yuuki; Kunimine, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    Microstructure of Al-Al3Ti alloy deformed by Equal-Channel-Angular Pressing (ECAP) is 3-dimensionally investigated. Especially, distribution of Al3Ti particles is focused in this study. The Al-Al3Ti alloy has coarse Al3Ti platelet particles in α-Al matrix. When the Al-Al3Ti alloy is deformed by ECAP under route A, fine Al3Ti platelet particles are observed. These Al3Ti platelet particles are aligned along to deformation axis, and its plane normal is perpendicular to the deformation axis. On the other hand, Al-Al3Ti alloy ECAPed under route Bc forms several groups consisted of fine Al3Ti platelet particles. Moreover, longitudinal size of the Al3Ti particle groups is close to that of initial Al3Ti particles with 4-pass ECAP specimen. These distribution behaviors of the Al3Ti particle can be explained by plastic flow of α-Al matrix. Finally, it is concluded that distribution of Al3Ti particle in Al-Al3Ti alloy by ECAP is controlled by plastic deformation of α-Al matrix.

  11. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  12. Effect of AlB2 on the P-threshold in Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    The nucleation of primary Si in Al-Si alloys has been investigated in this work. It was found that there was a threshold concentration of P, below which AlP can not heterogeneous nucleate primary Si in Al-12 wt%Si alloy. AlB2 can not nucleate primary Si directly, but the presence of AlB2 may assist the nucleation of AlP leading to the nucleation of primary Si particles. In addition, with addition of AlB2, the nucleation efficiency of AlP can be improved in Al-18 wt%Si alloy. The orientation relationship between AlB2 and AlP has been calculated, and the adsorption model for AlB2 and AlP was proposed in this work.

  13. High-Strength Nanotwinned Al Alloys with 9R Phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Xue, Sichuang; Wang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Kwong, Anthony H; Giwa, Adenike; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Yue; Qi, Zhimin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Han; Greer, Julia R; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinghang

    2018-03-01

    Light-weight aluminum (Al) alloys have widespread applications. However, most Al alloys have inherently low mechanical strength. Nanotwins can induce high strength and ductility in metallic materials. Yet, introducing high-density growth twins into Al remains difficult due to its ultrahigh stacking-fault energy. In this study, it is shown that incorporating merely several atomic percent of Fe solutes into Al enables the formation of nanotwinned (nt) columnar grains with high-density 9R phase in Al(Fe) solid solutions. The nt Al-Fe alloy coatings reach a maximum hardness of ≈5.5 GPa, one of the strongest binary Al alloys ever created. In situ uniaxial compressions show that the nt Al-Fe alloys populated with 9R phase have flow stress exceeding 1.5 GPa, comparable to high-strength steels. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that high strength and hardening ability of Al-Fe alloys arise mainly from the high-density 9R phase and nanoscale grain sizes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

  15. Improving High-Temperature Tensile and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Al-Si-Cu-Mg Alloys Through Micro-additions of Ti, V, and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature tensile and low-cycle fatigue tests were performed to assess the influence of micro-additions of Ti, V, and Zr on the improvement of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in the as-cast condition. Addition of transition metals led to modification of microstructure where in addition to conventional phases present in the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg base, new thermally stable micro-sized Zr-Ti-V-rich phases Al21.4Si4.1Ti3.5VZr3.9, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al2.8Si3.8V1.6Zr, and Al5.1Si35.4Ti1.6Zr5.7Fe were formed. The tensile tests showed that with increasing test temperature from 298 K to 673 K (25 °C to 400 °C), the yield stress and tensile strength of the present studied alloy decreased from 161 to 84 MPa and from 261 to 102 MPa, respectively. Also, the studied alloy exhibited 18, 12, and 5 pct higher tensile strength than the alloy A356, 354 and existing Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy modified with additions of Zr, Ti, and Ni, respectively. The fatigue life of the studied alloy was substantially longer than those of the reference alloys A356 and the same Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg base with minor additions of V, Zr, and Ti in the T6 condition. Fractographic analysis after tensile tests revealed that at the lower temperature up to 473 K (200 °C), the cleavage-type brittle fracture for the precipitates and ductile fracture for the matrix were dominant while at higher temperature fully ductile-type fracture with debonding and pull-out of cracked particles was identified. It is believed that the intermetallic precipitates containing Zr, Ti, and V improve the alloy performance at increased temperatures.

  16. Viscosity of Industrially Important Zn-Al Alloys Part II: Alloys with Higher Contents of Al and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, V. M. B.; Queirós, C. S. G. P.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of Zn-Al alloys melts, with industrial interest, was measured for temperatures between 693 K and 915 K, with an oscillating cup viscometer, and estimated expanded uncertainties between 3 and 5 %, depending on the alloy. The influence of minor components, such as Si, Mg and Ce + La, on the viscosity of the alloys is discussed. An increase in the amount of Mg triggers complex melt/solidification processes while the addition of Ce and La renders alloys viscosity almost temperature independent. Furthermore, increases in Al and Si contents decrease melts viscosity and lead to an Arrhenius type behavior. This paper complements a previous study describing the viscosity of Zn-Al alloys with quasi-eutectic compositions.

  17. Al-TiH2 Composite Foams Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Ain, W. Q.; A, Azhari; Basri, S. N.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here in describes the synthesis of aluminum based titanium-hydride particulate composite by casting method and its foaming behavior of magnesium alloy. Results obtained indicate that the Al-10TiH2 composite can be synthesized successfully by casting method. Further, results also reveal that closed-cell magnesium alloy foam can be synthesized by using Al-10TiH2 composite as a foaming agent.

  18. Electrical resistivity of Al-Cu liquid binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. P.; Patel, J. J.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    Present paper deals with the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our parameter free model potential along with Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect, Hartree, Taylor and Sarkar et al local field correlation functions are used. From present results, it is seen that good agreements between present results and experimental data have been achieved. Lastly we conclude that our model potential successfully produces the data of electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy.

  19. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Be-Al Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-22

    technology (sand and mold casting) producing a coarse dendritic structure that did not produce mechanical properties appropriate for structural ... Mechanical Properties of Be-AI Alloys 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 6. AUTHOR(S) E. U. Lee K. George V. V. Agarwala H. Sanders 3. DATES...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT ~ — — This study was conducted to define the mechanical properties of a wrought 62Be-38A1 alloy and a cast 65Be-32A1

  1. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Co₂MnAl Heusler Alloys by Mechanical Alloying.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2018-02-01

    We have applied mechanical alloying (MA) to produce nanocrystalline Co2MnAl Heusler alloys using a mixture of elemental Co50Mn25Al25 powders. An optimal milling and heat treatment conditions to obtain a Co2MnAl Heusler phase with fine microstructure were investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. α-(Co, Mn, Al) FCC phases coupled with amorphous phase are obtained after 3 hours of MA without any evidence for the formation of Co2MnAl alloys. On the other hand, a Co2MnAl Heusler alloys can be obtained by the heat treatment of all MA samples up to 650 °C. X-ray diffraction result shows that the average grain size of Co2MnAl Heusler alloys prepared by MA for 5 h and heat treatment is in the range of 95 nm. The saturation magnetization of MA powders decreases with MA time due to the magnetic dilution by alloying with nonmagnetic Mn and Al elements. The magnetic hardening due to the reduction of the grain size with ball milling is also observed. However, the saturation magnetization of MA powders after heat treatment increases with MA time and reaches to a maximum value of 105 emu/g after 5 h of MA. It can be also seen that the coercivity of 5 h MA sample annealed at 650 °C is fairly low value of 25 Oe.

  2. Grain Refinement of Al-Si Hypoeutectic Alloys by Al3Ti1B Master Alloy and Ultrasonic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gui; Wang, Eric Qiang; Prasad, Arvind; Dargusch, Matthew; StJohn, David H.

    Al-Si alloys are widely used in automotive and aerospace industries due to their excellent castability, high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. However, Si poisoning severely limits the degree of grain refinement with the grain size becoming larger as the Si content increases. Generally the effect of Si poisoning is reduced by increasing the amount of master alloy added to the melt during casting. However, an alternative approach is physical grain refinement through the application of an external force (e.g. mechanical or electromagnetic stirring, intensive shearing and ultrasonic irradiation). This work compares the grain refining efficiency of three approaches to the grain refinement of a range of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys by (i) the addition of A13Ti1B master alloy, (ii) the application of Ultrasonic Treatment (UT) and (iii) the combined addition of A13Ti1B master alloy and the application of UT.

  3. Property Criteria for Automotive Al-Mg-Si Sheet Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Prillhofer, Ramona; Rank, Gunther; Berneder, Josef; Antrekowitsch, Helmut; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Pogatscher, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, property criteria for automotive Al-Mg-Si sheet alloys are outlined and investigated in the context of commercial alloys AA6016, AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6013. The parameters crucial to predicting forming behavior were determined by tensile tests, bending tests, cross-die tests, hole-expansion tests and forming limit curve analysis in the pre-aged temper after various storage periods following sheet production. Roping tests were performed to evaluate surface quality, for the deployment of these alloys as an outer panel material. Strength in service was also tested after a simulated paint bake cycle of 20 min at 185 °C, and the corrosion behavior was analyzed. The study showed that forming behavior is strongly dependent on the type of alloy and that it is influenced by the storage period after sheet production. Alloy AA6016 achieves the highest surface quality, and pre-ageing of alloy AA6013 facilitates superior strength in service. Corrosion behavior is good in AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6016, and only AA6013 shows a strong susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The results are discussed below with respect to the chemical composition, microstructure and texture of the Al-Mg-Si alloys studied, and decision-making criteria for appropriate automotive sheet alloys for specific applications are presented. PMID:28788119

  4. Removal of metallic Al and Al/Zn alloys in MSWI bottom ash by alkaline treatment.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-02-15

    In order to reduce the leaching of pollutants and remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA), an optimized alkaline pre-treatment procedure was developed in this study. The influences of alkaline conditions on the removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy were investigated, including [OH] - concentration, temperature, particle size, liquid/solid ratio and treatment duration. The experimental results showed that the optimized alkaline pre-treatment conditions to efficiently remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy was by using a minimum of 1.0mol/l [OH] - , at 55°C and with a minimal liquid/solid ratio of 5. The removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy followed an S-shape curve, in which the slow beginning stage was attributed to the protection of the oxidation layer and the quenched product around the Al and Al/Zn alloy. After 3h of the optimized alkaline pre-treatment, the leaching of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn of the treated MSWIBA was reduced by more than 90% of that of the original MSWIBA. The alkali-silica reaction test further indicated that the expansion of concrete prepared with the pre-treated MSWIBA was significantly reduced and there was no macro-crack or spalling damage on the surface of the tested specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. XAFS studies on a modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srirangam, V. S. Prakash; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Kaduk, J. A.; Miller, J. T.; Segre, C. U.; Shankar, S.

    2009-11-01

    To understand the role of Sr in doped aluminium-silicon alloys, we have conducted for the first time, Sr- K edge XAFS measurements on Al-3%Si-0.04%Sr. Aluminium-Silicon alloys are widely used in automobile and aerospace applications. Modification of these alloys with addition of trace levels of Sr (200-400 ppm) results in changing the morphology of Si eutectic from "plate" like structure to "fibrous" structure. Several theories have been proposed to understand the mechanism of modification of eutectic phases with Sr addition in these alloys, but there is no conclusive evidence in support of these theories. From our XAFS analysis, we suggest Sr-Si bonds and Sr-Sr correlations may be responsible for the morphological transformation observed in the alloy.

  6. On improving the fracture toughness of a NiAl-based alloy by mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostrubanic, J.; Koss, D. A.; Locci, I. E.; Nathal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) has been used to process the NiAl-based alloy Ni-35Al-20Fe, such that a fine-grain (about 2 microns) microstructure is obtained through the addition of 2 vol pct Y2O3 particles. When compared to a conventionally processed, coarse-grained (about 28 microns) Ni-35-20 alloy without the Y2O3 particles, the MA alloy exhibits two to three times higher fracture toughness values, despite a 50-percent increase in yield strength. Room-temperature K(O) values as high as 34 MPa sq rt m are observed, accompanied by a yield strength in excess of 1100 MPa. Fractography confirms a change in fracture characteristics of the fine-grained MA alloy.

  7. Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Al/Al and Al/Non-Al Alloys: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangbin; Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2018-05-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that has many advantages over traditional fusion welding, and has been widely adopted in the aerospace and automotive industries. This article reviews research developments in friction stir welding of dissimilar alloys systems, including combinations of aluminum alloys with Mg alloys, Cu, and steel. Microstructural evolution, hardness, tensile and fatigue properties, residual stresses, and corrosion behavior of dissimilar welds will be reported. The effects of processing parameters such as tool rotation and traverse speeds, tool position, material position, and tool geometry on the weld quality are also presented. Discussions on future research directions in friction stir welding will also be provided in the context of existing literature and future high-integrity applications.

  8. Al-Li Alloy 1441 for Fuselage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. K.; Dicus, D. L.; Fridlyander, J. N.; Sandler, V. S.

    2000-01-01

    A cooperative investigation was conducted to evaluate Al-Cu-Mg-Li alloy 1441 for long service life fuselage applications. Alloy 1441 is currently being used for fuselage applications on the Russian Be-103 amphibious aircraft, and is expected to be used for fuselage skin on a new Tupolev business class aircraft. Alloy 1441 is cold-rollable and has several attributes that make it attractive for fuselage skin applications. These attributes include lower density and higher specific modulus with similar strength as compared to conventional Al-Cu-Mg alloys. Cold-rolled 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens were tested at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and at the All-Russia Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM) in Russia to evaluate tensile properties, fracture toughness, impact resistance, fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate. In addition, fuselage panels were fabricated by Tupolev Design Bureau (TDB) using 1441 skins and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy stiffeners. The panels were subjected to cyclic pressurization fatigue tests at TDB and at LaRC to simulate fuselage pressurization/depressurization during aircraft service. This paper discusses the results from this investigation.

  9. Surface tension of substantially undercooled liquid Ti-Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Wang, H. P.; Chang, J.; Wei, B.

    2010-06-01

    It is usually difficult to undercool Ti-Al alloys on account of their high reactivity in the liquid state. This results in a serious scarcity of information on their thermophysical properties in the metastable state. Here, we report on the surface tension of a liquid Ti-Al alloy under high undercooling condition. By using the electromagnetic levitation technique, a maximum undercooling of 324 K (0.19 T L) was achieved for liquid Ti-51 at.% Al alloy. The surface tension of this alloy, which was determined over a broad temperature range 1429-2040 K, increases linearly with the enhancement of undercooling. The experimental value of the surface tension at the liquidus temperature of 1753 K is 1.094 N m-1 and its temperature coefficient is -1.422 × 10-4 N m-1 K-1. The viscosity, solute diffusion coefficient and Marangoni number of this liquid Ti-Al alloy are also derived from the measured surface tension.

  10. Milling of gamma TiAl intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranoagirre, A.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2009-11-01

    The work here exposed, is framed in the line of development of slight materials with good properties, used to reduction of weight in different components for the aviation and automotion. To use at high temperatures in slight pieces with high resistance. The superalloys of type Gamma TiAl is a attractive alternative to other titanium alloys, due to high relationship resistance/weigh and the resistance to the corrosion. This work, obtained the results in millin of three types of gamma TiAl alloys. Tools of integral hard metal are used, with different advances and cut speeds.

  11. Nanoindentation of Electropolished FeCrAl Alloy Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jordan; Aydogan, Eda; Mara, Nathan Allan

    The present report summarizes Berkovich nanoindentation modulus and hardness measurements on two candidate FeCrAl alloys (C35M and C37M) on as-received (AR) and welded samples. In addition, spherical nanoindentation stress-strain measurements were performed on individual grains to provide further information and demonstrate the applicability of these protocols to mechanically characterizing welds in FeCrAl alloys. The indentation results are compared against the reported tensile properties for these alloys to provide relationships between nanoindentation and tensile tests and insight into weldsoftening for these FeCrAl alloys. Hardness measurements revealed weld-softening for both alloys in good agreement with tensile test results. C35M showed a largermore » reduction in hardness at the weld center from the AR material compared to C37M; this is also consistent with tensile tests. In general, nanohardness was shown to be a good predictor of tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile stress for FeCrAl alloys. Spherical nanoindentation measurements revealed that the fusion zone (FZ) + heat affected zone (HAZ) has a very low defect density typical of well-annealed metals as indicated by the frequent pop-in events. Spherical nanoindentation yield strength, Berkovich hardness, and tensile yield strength measurements on the welded material all show that the C37M welded material has a higher strength than C35M welded material. From the comparison of nanoindentation and tensile tests, EBSD microstructure analysis, and information on the processing history, it can be deduced that the primary driver for weld-softening is a change in the defect structure at the grain-scale between the AR and welded material. These measurements serve as baseline data for utilizing nanoindentation for studying the effects of radiation damage on these alloys.« less

  12. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  13. Evaluation of the microstructure, secondary dendrite arm spacing, and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy castings made in sand and Fe-Cr slag molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Murthy, I.; Babu Rao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast A356 (Al-Si) alloy castings were investigated. A356 alloy was cast into three different molds composed of sand, ferrochrome (Fe-Cr) slag, and a mixture of sand and Fe-Cr. A sodium silicate-CO2 process was used to make the necessary molds. Cylindrical-shaped castings were prepared. Cast products with no porosity and a good surface finish were achieved in all of the molds. These castings were evaluated for their metallography, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), and mechanical properties, including hardness, compression, tensile, and impact properties. Furthermore, the tensile and impact samples were analyzed by fractography. The results show that faster heat transfer in the Fe-Cr slag molds than in either the silica sand or mixed molds led to lower SDAS values with a refined microstructure in the products cast in Fe-Cr slag molds. Consistent and enhanced mechanical properties were observed in the slag mold products than in the castings obtained from either sand or mixed molds. The fracture surface of the slag mold castings shows a dimple fracture morphology with a transgranular fracture nature. However, the fracture surfaces of the sand mold castings display brittle fracture. In conclusion, products cast in Fe-Cr slag molds exhibit an improved surface finish and enhanced mechanical properties compared to those of products cast in sand and mixed molds.

  14. Effects of NaBF4 + NaF on the Tensile and Impact Properties of Al-Si-Mg-Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zongning; Wang, Tongmin; Zhao, Yufei; Zheng, Yuanping; Kang, Huijun

    2015-05-01

    NaBF4 + NaF were found to play three roles, i.e., Fe-eliminator, grain refiner, and eutectic modifier, in treating A356 alloy with a high Fe content. The joint effects led to significant improvement in both tensile and impact properties of thus treated alloy. The multiple reactions between the NaBF4 + NaF and Al-Si-Mg-Fe system are suggested to form Fe2B, AlB2, and Na in the melt, as per thermodynamic analysis. The three are responsible for Fe removal, grain refinement, and eutectic modification, respectively. When NaBF4 and NaF are mixed in weight ratio of 1:1, an optimum addition rate is in the range between 1.0 and 2.0 wt pct for treating AlSi7Mg0.3Fe0.65 alloy, based on the results of tensile and impact tests. Excessive addition of the salt may deteriorate the mechanical properties of the alloy, basically owing to overmodification of Si and contamination of salt inclusions.

  15. Preparation of A356 Foam Aluminum by Means of Titanium Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajan, Zohair

    2017-09-01

    The effect of heating temperature and stirring time during preparation of foam aluminum alloy A356 on its relative porosity is studied. The optimum amount of the foam-forming agent, i.e., titanium hydride TiH2, facilitating uniform distribution of pores throughout the whole cross section of a hardened casting is determined. Optimum conditions are established for foam formation in a melt during stirring using a mixer are described.

  16. Microalloying Ultrafine Grained Al Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, L.; Li, J. K.; Cheng, P. M.; Liu, G.; Wang, R. H.; Chen, B. A.; Zhang, J. Y.; Sun, J.; Yang, M. X.; Yang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk ultrafine grained (UFG)/nanocrystal metals possess exceptional strength but normally poor ductility and thermal stability, which hinder their practical applications especially in high-temperature environments. Through microalloying strategy that enables the control of grains and precipitations in nanostructured regime, here we design and successfully produce a highly microstructure-stable UFG Al-Cu-Sc alloy with ~275% increment in ductility and simultaneously ~50% enhancement in yield strength compared with its Sc-free counterpart. Although the precipitations in UFG alloys are usually preferentially occurred at grain boundaries even at room temperature, minor Sc addition into the UFG Al-Cu alloys is found to effectively stabilize the as-processed microstructure, strongly suppress the θ-Al2Cu phase precipitation at grain boundary, and remarkably promote the θ′-Al2Cu nanoparticles dispersed in the grain interior in artificial aging. A similar microalloying strategy is expected to be equally effective for other UFG heat-treatable alloys. PMID:24398915

  17. Neural network potential for Al-Mg-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Giofré, Daniele; Junge, Till; Ceriotti, Michele; Curtin, William A.

    2017-10-01

    The 6000 series Al alloys, which include a few percent of Mg and Si, are important in automotive and aviation industries because of their low weight, as compared to steels, and the fact their strength can be greatly improved through engineered precipitation. To enable atomistic-level simulations of both the processing and performance of this important alloy system, a neural network (NN) potential for the ternary Al-Mg-Si has been created. Training of the NN uses an extensive database of properties computed using first-principles density functional theory, including complex precipitate phases in this alloy. The NN potential accurately reproduces most of the pure Al properties relevant to the mechanical behavior as well as heat of solution, solute-solute, and solute-vacancy interaction energies, and formation energies of small solute clusters and precipitates that are required for modeling the early stage of precipitation and mechanical strengthening. This success not only enables future detailed studies of Al-Mg-Si but also highlights the ability of NN methods to generate useful potentials in complex alloy systems.

  18. Magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Mn-Al-C powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, O.; Kageyama, N.; Kageyama, Y.; Haji, H.; Uchida, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have prepared supersaturated-solution Mn-Al-C alloy powders by mechanical alloying using a planetary high-energy mill. The starting materials were pure Mn, Al and C powers. The mechanically-alloyed powders were subjected to a two-step heating. Although starting particles are Al and Mn with additive C, the Al peak disappears with MA time. With increasing MA time, transition from α-Mn to β-Mn does not occur; the α-Mn structure maintains. At 100 h, a single phase of supersaturated-solution α-Mn is obtained. The lattice constant of α-Mn decreases with increasing MA time. From the Scherrer formula, the crystallite size at 500 h is obtained as 200Å, which does not mean amorphous state. By two-step heating, high magnetization (66 emu/g) was obtained from short-time-milled powders (t=10 h). The precursor of the as-milled powder is not a single phase α-Mn but contains small amount of fcc Al. After two-step heating, the powder changes to τ-phase. Although the saturation magnetization increases, the value is less than that by conventional bulk MnAl (88 emu/g). Meanwhile, long-time-milled powder of single α-Mn phase results in low magnetization (5.2 emu/g) after two-step heating.

  19. Defect investigations of micron sized precipitates in Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobes, B.; Korff, B.; Balarisi, O.; Eich, P.; Haaks, M.; Kohlbach, I.; Maier, K.; Sottong, R.; Staab, T. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A lot of light aluminium alloys achieve their favourable mechanical properties, especially their high strength, due to precipitation of alloying elements. This class of age hardenable Al alloys includes technologically important systems such as e.g. Al-Mg-Si or Al-Cu. During ageing different precipitates are formed according to a specific precipitation sequence, which is always directed onto the corresponding intermetallic equilibrium phase. Probing the defect state of individual precipitates requires high spatial resolution as well as high chemical sensitivity. Both can be achieved using the finely focused positron beam provided by the Bonn Positron Microprobe (BPM) [1] in combination with the High Momentum Analysis (HMA) [2]. Employing the BPM, structures in the micron range can be probed by means of the spectroscopy of the Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR). On the basis of these prerequisites single precipitates of intermetallic phases in Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu, i.e. Mg2Si and Al2Cu, were probed. A detailed interpretation of these measurements necessarily relies on theoretical calculations of the DBAR of possible annihilation sites. These were performed employing the DOPPLER program. However, previous to the DBAR calculation the structures, which partly contain vacancies, were relaxed using the ab-initio code SIESTA, i.e. the atomic positions in presence of a vacancy were recalculated.

  20. Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional Al-Sn and Al-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ɛ = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.

  1. Hydrogen permeation characteristics of some Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deventer, E. H.; Maroni, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation data are reported for two Fe-Cr-Al alloys, Type-405 SS (Cr 14-A1 0.2) and a member of the Fecralloy family of alloys (Cr 16-A1 5). The hydrogen permeability of each alloy (in a partially oxidized condition) was measured over a period of several weeks at randomly selected temperatures (between 150 and 850°C) and upstream H 2 pressures (between 2 and 1.5 × 10 4 Pa). The permeabilities showed considerable scatter with both time and temperature and were 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than those of pure iron, even in strongly reducing environments. The exponent, n, for the relationship between upstream H 2 pressure, P, and permeability, φ, ( φ ~ Pn) was closer to 0.7 than to the expected 0.5, indicating a process limited by surface effects (e.g., surface oxide films) as opposed to bulk material effects. Comparison of these results with prior permeation measurements on other Fe-Cr-Al alloys, on Fe-Cr alloys, and on pure iron shows that the presence of a few weight percent aluminum offers the best prospects for achieving low tritium permeabilities with martensitic and ferritic steels used in fusion-reactor first wall and blanket applications.

  2. Giant magnetostriction in nanoheterogeneous Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongjun; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tianli; He, Yangkun; Jiang, Chengbao

    2018-02-01

    As a potential magnetostrictive material, Fe-Al alloys exhibit excellent mechanical properties, low cost, and moderate magnetostriction, but the magnetostriction mechanism is still a mystery. Here, we elucidate the structural origin of magnetostriction in Fe-Al alloys and further improve the magnetostriction five-fold via Tb doping. Nanoinclusions with a size of 3-5 nm were found dispersed in the A2 matrix in Fe82Al18 ribbons. The structure of the nanoinclusions is identified to be tetragonally modified-D03 (L60), which are considered to create the tetragonal distortion of the matrix, leading to the enhanced magnetostriction. Furthermore, a drastic enhancement of the magnetostriction up to 5 times was achieved by trace Tb doping (0.2 at. %). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction directly revealed the increased tetragonal distortion of the matrix caused by these Tb dopants. The results further enrich the heterogeneous magnetostriction and guide the development of magnetostrictive materials.

  3. Local melting in Al-Mg-Zn-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droenen, Per-Erik; Ryum, Nils

    1994-03-01

    The internal melting of several Al-Mg-Zn-alloys has been studied by rapid upquenching in a salt bath of specimens slowly cooled at a rate of 2 °C/h down to 375 °C. The melting reaction was studied metallographically in the light- and electron-scanning microscope, and local concentrations were measured in the microprobe. Local melting of both the equilibrium phases T and η was observed to occur. There were, however, essential differences between the melting kinetics for the two phases. While the T-phase particles melted spontaneously at temperatures at or above the invariant temperature, 489 °C, and after some period of time at lower temperatures, the η-phase particles either melted spontaneously at or above the invariant temperature, T - 475 °C, or dissolved into the matrix at temperatures below 475 °C. This difference in behavior can be accounted for if the α(Al)-η section is not a quasi-binary section. The industrial implications of the internal melting in these alloys are discussed and compared to the same reaction in the Al-Mg-Si alloys. A model is developed in the Appendix to quantify the different behaviors of these two classes of alloys.

  4. Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.

  5. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  6. Study on the Anti-Poison Performance of Al-Y-P Master Alloy for Impurity Ca in Aluminum Alloys.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Min; Dong, Yu; Zhao, Degang; Wang, Yan; Teng, Xinying

    2017-11-26

    In this article, the anti-poison performance of novel Al-6Y-2P master alloy for impurity Ca in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys was investigated in detail. According to the microstructural analysis, it can be found that the primary Si and eutectic Si particles could be relatively modified and refined. In order to investigate the influence mechanism of Ca on the limited refinement performance of Al-6Y-2P master alloy, types of Al-xSi-2Ca-3Y-1P (x = 0, 6, 12, 18, and 30) alloys were prepared. It is observed that Ca takes the form of more stable Ca3P2 compounds by reacting with YP, and the surface of Ca3P2 particles are unsmooth, and even some have wrinkles in Al Al-2Ca-3Y-1P alloy. With the increase of Si content in Al-xSi-2Ca-3Y-1P (x = 6, 12, 18 and 30) systems, the multi-encapsulation structures, i.e., the phosphide (AlP and YP), hexagonal Al2Si2Ca, the Al3Si2Y2 or primary Si from inside to outside in order were examined.The excapsulation of YP and AlP caused by Al2Si2Ca might be the reason for the limited refinement effect of Al-6Y-2P master alloy for hypereutectic Al-18Si alloys.

  7. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  8. Mg-hydrogen interaction in AlGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Sunay, Ustun R.; Dashdorj, J.; Willoughby, W. R.; Allerman, A. A.

    2012-03-01

    It is well known that hydrogen passivation of Mg in Mg-doped GaN reduces free hole concentrations. While there are numerous studies of passivation of Mg in GaN, little work has been reported concerning passivation rates in AlGaN alloys. We investigated the hydrogen interaction with Mg in nitrides by measuring the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal associated with the acceptor. The samples were isothermally annealed in sequential steps ranging from 5 min - 6.6 h between 300 and 700 oC in H2:N2 (7%: 92%) or pure N2. The signal intensity decreased during the H2N2 anneal and was revived by the N2 anneal as expected; however, the rate at which the intensity changed was shown to depend on Al concentration. In addition, while all signals were quenched at 700 oC in H2:N2, a 750 oC N2 anneal reactivated only about 30% of the Mg in the alloys and 80% of the intensity in the GaN film. These data suggest that the rate of passivation and activation of Mg by hydrogen is dependent on the concentration of Al in the AlxGa-1xN layer. The EPR annealing data could prove to be beneficial in improving p-type optimization in AlGaN alloys.

  9. Application of Al-2La-1B Grain Refiner to Al-10Si-0.3Mg Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lijun; Pan, Ye; Lu, Tao; Li, Chenlin; Pi, Jinhong; Sheng, Ningyue

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the application and microstructure refining effect of an Al-2La-1B grain refiner in Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy. Compared with the traditional Al-5Ti-1B refiner, Al-2La-1B refiner shows better performances on the grain refinement of Al-10Si-0.3Mg alloy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggests that the crystallite structure features of LaB6 are beneficial to the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. Regarding the mechanical performances, tensile properties of Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy are prominently improved, due to the refined microstructures.

  10. Characterization of ZnAl cast alloys with Na addition

    SciTech Connect

    Gancarz, Tomasz, E-mail: t.gancarz@imim.pl; Cempura, Grzegorz; Skuza, Wojciech

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change and thermal, electrical and mechanical properties with the addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloys. Solders based on eutectic ZnAl containing 0.2 to 3.0 (wt.%) of Na were developed for high temperature solder. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. Thermal linear expansion and electrical resistivity measurements were performed over − 50 °C to 300 °C and 30 °C to 300 °C temperature ranges, respectively. The microstructure of the specimens was analyzed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Chemical microanalysismore » was performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on SEM and TEM. The precipitates of NaZn{sub 13} were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloy increased the electrical resistivity and reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion; however, the melting point did not change. The mechanical properties, strain and microhardness increased with Na content in alloys. - Highlights: • High temperature soldering materials of ZnAl with Na were designed and characterized. • Precipitates of NaZn{sub 13}were observed and confirmed using TEM and XRD. • Addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl cussed increased mechanical properties. • NaZn{sub 13} caused increased electrical resistivity and microhardness, and reduced the CTE.« less

  11. Electrical Transport Properties of Liquid Al-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Khambholja, S. G.; Suthar, P. H.; Jani, A. R.

    2010-06-01

    Electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of liquid Al-Cu alloys as a function of Cu concentration have been studied in the present paper. Ashcroft empty core model potential has been used to incorporate the ion-electron interaction. To incorporate the exchange and correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions viz. Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru et al., Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. have been used. The transport properties of binary system have been studied using Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. The computed values of electrical resistivity are compared with experimental data and for low Cu concentration, good agreement has been observed. Further, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity have also been predicted.

  12. Castable high-temperature Ce-modified Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; King, Alexander H.; McCall, Scott K.

    2018-05-08

    A cast alloy includes aluminum and from about 5 to about 30 weight percent of at least one material selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, and mischmetal. The cast alloy has a strengthening Al 11X 3 intermetallic phase in an amount in the range of from about 5 to about 30 weight percent, wherein X is at least one of cerium, lanthanum, and mischmetal. The Al 11X 3 intermetallic phase has a microstructure that includes at least one of lath features and rod morphological features. The morphological features have an average thickness of no more than 700 ummore » and an average spacing of no more than 10 um, the microstructure further comprising an eutectic microconstituent that comprises more than about 10 volume percent of the microstructure.« less

  13. Hardness - Yield Strength Relation of Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen Sekhar, Aluru; Nandy, Supriya; Ray, Kalyan Kumar; Das, Debdulal

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the mechanical properties of materials through indentation hardness test is an attractive method, rather than obtaining the properties through destructive approach like tensile testing. The present work emphasizes on the relation between hardness and yield strength of Al-Mg-Si alloys considering Tabor type equations. Al-0.5Mg-0.4Si alloy has been artificially aged at various temperatures (100 to 250 °C) for different time durations (0.083 to 1000 h) and the ageing response has been assessed by measuring the Vickers hardness and yield strength. Correlations of the existing data from the open literature have also been reviewed. Lastly, it has been explained that the deviation in obtained relation from Tabor’s equation is owing to the dislocation accumulation during indentation.

  14. Mechanical Characterization and Corrosion Testing of X608 Al Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stephens, Elizabeth V.

    2016-02-07

    This paper describes the mechanical characterization and corrosion testing of X608 Al alloy that is being considered for A-pillar covers for heavy-duty truck applications. Recently, PNNL developed a thermo-mechanical process to stamp A-pillar covers at room temperature using this alloy, and the full-size prototype was successfully stamped by a tier-1 supplier. This study was conducted to obtain additional important information related to the newly developed forming process, and to further improve its mechanical properties. The solutionization temperature, pre-strain and paint-bake heat-treatment were found to influence the alloy’s fabricability and mechanical properties. Natural aging effect on the formability was investigated bymore » limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Preliminary corrosion experiments showed that the employed thermo-mechanical treatments did not significantly affect the corrosion behavior of Al X608.« less

  15. Behavior of Al-Mg alloy subjected to thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian, AchiÅ£ei Dragoş; Georgiana, Minciunǎ Mirabela; Victor, Sandu Andrei; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    In the paper are shown the experimental results obtained for aluminum alloy, after application of the heat treatments by quenching solution and artificial ageing. The purpose of quenching solution treatment is to decrease the hardness and improve the machining for industrial parts made from this material. By artificial ageing treatment, the Al-Mg structure is modified, the hardness increase to the values necessary for a long exploitation of the parts.

  16. High temperature, oxidation resistant noble metal-Al alloy thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Gedwill, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermocouple is disclosed. The thermocouple is comprised of an electropositive leg formed of a noble metal-Al alloy and an electronegative leg electrically joined to form a thermocouple junction. The thermocouple provides for accurate and reproducible measurement of high temperatures (600 - 1300 C) in inert, oxidizing or reducing environments, gases, or vacuum. Furthermore, the thermocouple circumvents the need for expensive, strategic precious metals such as rhodium as a constituent component. Selective oxidation of rhodium is also thereby precluded.

  17. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  18. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  19. Mechanical Properties of the TiAl IRIS Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, Thomas; Monchoux, Jean-Philippe; Thomas, Marc; Deshayes, Christophe; Couret, Alain

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the mechanical properties at room and high temperature of the boron and tungsten containing IRIS alloy (Ti-48Al-2W-0.08B at. pct). This alloy was densified by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The resultant microstructure consists of small lamellar colonies surrounded by γ regions containing B2 precipitates. Tensile tests are performed from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Creep properties are determined at 973 K (700 °C)/300 MPa, 1023 K (750 °C)/120 MPa, and 1023 K (750 °C)/200 MPa. The tensile strength and the creep resistance at high temperature are found to be very high compared to the data reported in the current literature while a plastic elongation of 1.6 pct is preserved at room temperature. A grain size dependence of both ductility and strength is highlighted at room temperature. The deformation mechanisms are studied by post-mortem analyses on deformed samples and by in situ straining experiments, both performed in a transmission electron microscope. In particular, a low mobility of non-screw segments of dislocations at room temperature and the activation of a mixed-climb mechanism during creep have been identified. The mechanical properties of this IRIS alloy processed by SPS are compared to those of other TiAl alloys developed for high-temperature structural applications as well as to those of similar tungsten containing alloys obtained by more conventional processing techniques. Finally, the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructural features together with the elementary deformation mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Effects of Mn addition on microstructure and hardness of Al-12.6Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Prosanta; Patra, Surajit; Mondal, Manas Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this work, eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy with and without manganese (Mn) have been developed through gravity casting route. The effect of Mn concentration (0.0 wt.%, 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt%) on microstructural morphology and hardness property of the alloy has been investigated. The eutectic Al-12.6 Si alloy exhibits the presence of combine plate, needle and rod-like eutectic silicon phase with very sharp corners and coarser primary silicon particles within the α-Al phase. In addition of 1wt.% of Mn in the eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy, sharp corners of the primary Si and needle-like eutectic Si are became blunt and particles size is reduced. Further, increase in Mn concentration (2.0 wt.%) in the Al-12.6Si alloy, irregular plate shape Al6(Mn,Fe) intermetallics are formed inside the α-Al phase, but the primary and eutectic phase morphology is similar to the eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy. The volume fraction of Al6(Mn,Fe) increases and Al6(Mn,Fe) particles appear as like chain structure in the alloy with 3 wt.% Mn. An increase in Mn concentration in the Al-12.6Si alloys result in the increase in bulk hardness of the alloy as an effects of microstructure modification as well as the presence of harder Al6(Mn,Fe) phase in the developed alloy.

  1. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres; ...

    2017-03-06

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  2. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  4. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-18Si Alloy Modified with Al-3B.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunjie; Tu, Hao; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua; Su, Xuping

    2018-03-20

    An hypereutectic Al-18Si alloy was modified via an Al-3B master alloy. The effect of the added Al-3B and the modification temperature on the microstructure, tensile fracture morphologies, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using an optical microscope, Image-Pro Plus 6.0, a scanning electron microscope, and a universal testing machine. The results show that the size of the primary Si and its fraction decreased at first, and then increased as an additional amount of Al-3B was added. When the added Al-3B reached 0.2 wt %, the fraction of the primary Si in the Al-18Si alloy decreased with an increase in temperature. Compared with the unmodified Al-18Si alloy, the tensile strength and elongation of the alloy modified at 850 °C with 0.2 wt % Al-3B increased by 25% and 81%, respectively. The tensile fracture of the modified Al-18Si alloy exhibited partial ductile fracture characteristics, but there were more areas with ductile characteristics compared with that of the unmodified Al-18Si alloy.

  5. The effects of alloying elements Al and In on Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys, from first principles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Yan; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2009-01-28

    The electronic structures and formation energies of the Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)Al(x) and Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)In(x) alloys have been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The results show that both the austenite and martensite phases of Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3) alloy are stabilized by Al alloying, while they become unstable with In alloying. According to the partial density of states and structural energy analysis, different effects of Al and In alloying on the phase stability are mainly attributed to their chemical effects. The formation energy difference between the austenite and martensite phases decreases with Al or In alloying, correlating with the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The shape factor plays an important role in the decrease of the formation energy difference.

  6. Internal Friction of Austenitic Fe-Mn-C-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Kook; Jeong, Sohee; Kang, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Min

    2017-12-01

    The internal friction (IF) spectra of Fe-Mn-C-Al alloys with a face-centered-cubic (fcc) austenitic phase were measured at a wide range of temperature and frequency ( f) to understand the mechanisms of anelastic relaxations occurring particularly in Fe-Mn-C twinning-induced plasticity steels. Four IF peaks were observed at 346 K (73 °C) (P1), 389 K (116 °C) (P2), 511 K (238 °C) (P3), and 634 K (361 °C) (P4) when f was 0.1 Hz. However, when f increased to 100 Hz, whereas P1, P2, and P4 disappeared, only P3 remained without the change in peak height, but with the increased peak temperature. P3 matches well with the IF peak of Fe-high Mn-C alloys reported in the literature. The effects of chemical composition and vacancy (v) on the four IF peaks were also investigated using various alloys with different concentrations of C, Mn, Al, and vacancy. As a result, the defect pair responsible for each IF peak was found as follows: a v-v pair for P1, a C-v pair for P2, a C-C pair for P3, and a C-C-v complex (major effect) + a Mn-C pair (minor effect) for P4. These results showed that the IF peaks of Fe-Mn-C-Al alloys reported previously were caused by the reorientation of C in C-C pairs, not by the reorientation of C in Mn-C pairs.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-3Fe alloy processed by equal channel angular extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuxiao, Yu; Fang, Liu; Dazhi, Zhao; Toth, Laszlo S.

    2014-08-01

    Al-Fe alloys are attractive for applications at temperatures beyond those normally associated with the conventional aluminum alloys. Under proper solidification condition, a full eutectic microstructure can be generated in Al-Fe alloys at Fe concentration well in excess of the eutectic composition of 1.8 wt.% Fe. The microstructure in this case is characterized by the metastable regular eutectic Al-Al6Fe fibers of nano-scale in diameter, instead of the equilibrium eutectic Al-Al3Fe phase. In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-3Fe alloy with metastable Al6Fe particles deformed by equal channel angular extrusion were investigated. Severe plastic deformation results in a microstructure consisting of submicron equiaxed Al grains with a uniform distribution of submicron Al6Fe particles on the grain boundaries. The room temperature tensile properties of the alloy with this microstructure will be presented.

  8. Effect of foaming temperature on the mechanical properties of produced closed-cell A356Aluminum foams with melting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedi, N.; Mirbagheri, S. M. H.; Hoseini, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study an attempt was carried out to determine the effect of production temperature on the mechanical properties and energy absorption behavior of closed-cell A356 alloy foams under uniaxial compression test. For this purpose, three different A356 alloy closed-cell foams were synthesized at three different casting temperatures, 650 °C, 675 °C and 700 °C by adding the same amounts of granulated calcium as thickening and TiH2 as blowing agent. The samples were characterized by SEM to study the pore morphology at different foaming temperatures. Compression tests of the A356 foams were carried out to assess their mechanical properties and energy absorption behavior. The results indicated that increasing the foaming temperature from 650 °C to 675 °C and 700 °C reduces the relative density of closed cell A356 alloys by 18.3% and 38% respectively and consequently affects the compressive strength and energy absorption of cellular structures by changing them from equiaxed polyhedral closed cells to distorted cells. Also at 700 °C foaming temperature, growth of micro-pores and coalescence with other surrounding pores leads to several big voids.

  9. The growth of high-Al-content InAlGaN quaternary alloys by RF-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. Z.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. Y.; Guo, L. C.; Wang, X. H.; Xiao, H. L.; Liu, H. X.

    2007-02-01

    High-Al-content InxAlyGa1-x-yN (x = 1-10%, y = 34-45%) quaternary alloys were grown on sapphire by radio-frequency plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry, high resolution x-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence were used to characterize the InAlGaN alloys. The experimental results show that InAlGaN with an appropriate Al/In ratio (near 4.7, which is a lattice-match to the GaN under-layer) has better crystal and optical quality than the InAlGaN alloys whose Al/In ratios are far from 4.7. Some cracks and V-defects occur in high-Al/In-ratio InAlGaN alloys. In the CL image, the cracks and V-defect regions are the emission-enhanced regions.

  10. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  11. Influence of Mg on Grain Refinement of Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, K. R.; Manivannan, S.; Phanikumar, G.; Murty, B. S.; Sundarraj, Suresh

    2011-07-01

    Although the grain-refinement practice is well established for wrought Al alloys, in the case of foundry alloys such as near eutectic Al-Si alloys, the underlying mechanisms and the use of grain refiners need better understanding. Conventional grain refiners such as Al-5Ti-1B are not effective in grain refining the Al-Si alloys due to the poisoning effect of Si. In this work, we report the results of a newly developed grain refiner, which can effectively grain refine as well as modify eutectic and primary Si in near eutectic Al-Si alloys. Among the material choices, the grain refining response with Al-1Ti-3B master alloy is found to be superior compared to the conventional Al-5Ti-1B master alloy. It was also found that magnesium additions of 0.2 wt pct along with the Al-1Ti-3B master alloy further enhance the near eutectic Al-Si alloy's grain refining efficiency, thus leading to improved bulk mechanical properties. We have found that magnesium essentially scavenges the oxygen present on the surface of nucleant particles, improves wettability, and reduces the agglomeration tendency of boride particles, thereby enhancing grain refining efficiency. It allows the nucleant particles to act as potent and active nucleation sites even at levels as low as 0.2 pct in the Al-1Ti-3B master alloy.

  12. Piezomagnetic behavior of Fe-Al-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormio-Nunes, Cristina; Hubert, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    For the first time, the piezomagnetic behavior of polycrystalline Fe-Al-B alloys is accessed. Piezomagnetic factors of up to 4.0 kA m-1/MPa were reached for an interval of applied compressive stresses between 0 and -140 MPa. The experimental results together with a powerful multiscale and biphasic modeling allowed the general understanding of the magnetostrictive and piezomagnetic behaviors of these materials. The magnetic and mechanical localizations as well as homogeneous stresses were considered in the modeling and are associated to the intrinsic presence of the Fe2B phase. The interplay of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, initial susceptibility, saturation magnetostriction and texture were quantified by the model and compared to the experimental results. An improvement of the piezomagnetic factor to 15 kA m-1/MPa is predicted, for an alloy containing 20% of aluminum, by getting an adequate texture near < 100 > directions.

  13. Laser dispersing of ceramic powders into Al-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jendrzejewski, Rafał; Van Acker, Karel; Vanhoyweghen, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    The general objective of the work was formation of highly wear resistant metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layers on aluminium based Al 6061 alloy by means of laser dispersing. The surface of the substrate is locally melted by the high power diode laser beam and simultaneously powder particles are injected into molten material. The optimal process parameter window for the laser dispersing of SiC in Al 6061 has been found. The measured values of the wear rates of the sample with dispersed SiC particles are about seven times lower than that of the reference Al-substrates. Results show that laser dispersing is highly promising technology to improve the surface, mainly wear properties of light metals. However the possibilities of industrial application are still limited due to considerable laser beam power and preheating temperature applied as well low productivity because of low scanning speed, and therefore further investigations are required.

  14. Effect of Alloy Elements on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshikazu; Hisayuki, Koji; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Higashi, Kenji

    Microstructures and mechanical properties in the modified Al-Mg-Si alloys with variation in the alloy elements and their contents were investigated to enhance higher strength and ductility. Optimizing both the alloy element design and the industrial processes including heat-treatments and extrusion technology was carried out along the recent suggestion from the first principles calculation. The investigation concluded that the addition of Fe and/or Cu could recovery their lost ductility, furthermore increase their tensile strength up to 420 MPa at high elongation of 24 % after T6 condition for Al-0.8mass%Mg-1.0mass%Si-0.8mass%Cu-0.5mass%Fe alloy with excess Si content. The excellent combination between strength and ductility could be obtained by improvement to the grain boundary embitterment caused by grain boundary segregation of Si as a result from the interaction of Si with Cu or Fe with optimizing the amount of Cu and Fe contents.

  15. Structural and dynamical properties of liquid Al-Au alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.; Kolland, G.; Kobatake, H.; Brillo, J.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate temperature- and composition-dependent structural and dynamical properties of Al-Au melts. Experiments are performed to obtain accurate density and viscosity data. The system shows a strong negative excess volume, similar to other Al-based binary alloys. We develop a molecular-dynamics (MD) model of the melt based on the embedded-atom method (EAM), gauged against the available experimental liquid-state data. A rescaling of previous EAM potentials for solid-state Au and Al improves the quantitative agreement with experimental data in the melt. In the MD simulation, the admixture of Au to Al can be interpreted as causing a local compression of the less dense Al system, driven by less soft Au-Au interactions. This local compression provides a microscopic mechanism explaining the strong negative excess volume of the melt. We further discuss the concentration dependence of self- and interdiffusion and viscosity in the MD model. Al atoms are more mobile than Au, and their increased mobility is linked to a lower viscosity of the melt.

  16. Laser Cladding of γ-TiAl Intermetallic Alloy on Titanium Alloy Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliutina, Iuliia Nikolaevna; Si-Mohand, Hocine; Piolet, Romain; Missemer, Florent; Popelyukh, Albert Igorevich; Belousova, Natalya Sergeevna; Bertrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The enhancement of titanium and titanium alloy's tribological properties is of major interest in many applications such as the aerospace and automotive industry. Therefore, the current research paper investigates the laser cladding of Ti48Al2Cr2Nb powder onto Ti6242 titanium alloy substrates. The work was carried out in two steps. First, the optimal deposition parameters were defined using the so-called "combined parameters," i.e., the specific energy E specific and powder density G. Thus, the results show that those combined parameters have a significant influence on the geometry, microstructure, and microhardness of titanium aluminide-formed tracks. Then, the formation of dense, homogeneous, and defect-free coatings based on optimal parameters has been investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques as well as energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses have shown that a duplex structure consisting of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases was obtained in the coatings during laser cladding. Moreover, it was shown that produced coatings exhibit higher values of microhardness (477 ± 9 Hv0.3) and wear resistance (average friction coefficient is 0.31 and volume of worn material is 5 mm3 after 400 m) compared to those obtained with bare titanium alloy substrates (353 Hv0.3, average friction coefficient is 0.57 and a volume of worn material after 400 m is 35 mm3).

  17. Solid-solution thermodynamics in Al-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Lukina, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    The relative equilibrium concentrations of lithium atoms distributed over different electron-structural states has been estimated. The possibility of the existence of various nonequilibrium electron-structural states of Li atoms in the solid solution in Al has been substantiated thermodynamically. Upon the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution, the supersaturation on three electron-structural states of Li atoms that arises upon the quenching of the alloy can lead to the formation of lithium-containing phases in which the lithium atoms enter in one electron-structural state.

  18. Effect of Al on Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Nd Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy was investigated systematically by a series of microstructural analysis, solidification analysis and tensile tests. The results show that Al has an obvious refining effect on the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy. With increasing Al content, the grain size of the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy decreases firstly, then increases slightly after the Al content reaching 3 wt.%, and the minimum grain size of the Mg-3Nd alloy is 48 ± 4.0 μm. The refining mechanism can be attributed to the formation of Al2Nd particles, which play an important role in the heterogeneous nucleation. The strength and elongation of the Mg-3Nd alloy refined by Al also increase with increasing Al content and slightly decrease when the Al content is more than 3 wt.%, and the strengthening mechanism is attributed to the grain refinement as well as dispersed intermetallic particles. Furthermore, the microstructural thermal stability of the Mg-3Nd-3Al alloy is higher than that of the Mg-3Nd-0.5Zr alloy. Overall, the Mg-3Nd alloy with Al addition is a novel alloy with wide and potential application prospects.

  19. Oxidation behavior of Al/Cr coating on Ti2AlNb alloy at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengang; Liang, Wenping; Miao, Qiang; Chen, Bowen; Ding, Zheng; Roy, Nipon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Al/Cr coating was fabricated on the surface of Ti2AlNb alloy via rf magnetron sputtering and double glow treatment to enhance oxidation resistance. The protective coating with an outer layer of Al and inner layer of Cr has great bonding strength due to the in-diffusion of Cr and the inter-diffusion between Al and Cr to form Al-Cr alloyed layer which has great hardness. Acoustic emission curve which was detected via WS-2005 scratch tester indicates the bonding strength between Al/Cr coating and substrate is great. Morphology of Ti2AlNb alloy with Al/Cr coating after scratch test shows that the scratch is smooth without disbanding, and the depth and breadth of scratch are changed uniformly. The mass change was reduced after oxidation test due to the Al/Cr protective coating. Isothermal oxidation test at 900 °C was researched. Results indicate that Al/Cr coating provided oxidation resistance of Ti2AlNb alloy with prolonged air exposure at 900 °C. Al2O3 was detected by XRD patterns and SEM images, and was formed on the surface of Ti2AlNb alloy to protect substrate during oxidation test. A certain content of Cr is beneficial for the formation of Al2O3. Besides, Cr2O3 was produced under Al2O3 by outward diffusion of Cr to protect substrate sequentially, no cracks were discovered on Al/Cr protective coating. The process of Ti outward diffusion into surface was suppressive due to integration of Cr-Ti and Al-Ti intermetallics. A steady, adherent and continuous coated layer of Al/Cr on Ti2AlNb alloy increases oxidation resistance.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of Al-Fe-Ti-V medium entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodunrin, M. O.; Obadele, B. A.; Chown, L. H.; Olubambi, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys containing up to four multi-principal elements in equiatomic ratios are referred to as medium entropy alloys (MEA). These alloys have attracted the interest of many researchers due to the superior mechanical properties it offers over the traditional alloys. The design approach of MEA often results to simple solid solution with either body centered cubic; face centered cubic structures or both. As the consideration for introducing the alloys into several engineering application increases, there have been efforts to study the corrosion behaviour of these alloys. Previous reports have shown that some of these alloys are more susceptible to corrosion when compared with traditional alloys due to lack of protective passive film. In this research, we have developed AlFeTiV medium entropy alloys containing two elements (Ti and Al) that readily passivate when exposed to corrosive solutions. The alloys were produced in vacuum arc furnace purged with high purity argon. Open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the as-cast AlFeTiV alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4. The corrosion performance of the alloy was compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy tested under similar conditions. The results show that unlike in Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the open circuit potential of the AlFeTiV alloy move towards the negative values in both 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions indicating that self-activation occurred rapidly on immersion. Anodic polarisation of the alloys showed that AlFeTiV alloy exhibited a narrow range of passivity in both solutions. In addition, the alloys exhibited lower Ecorr and higher Icorr when compared with traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed superior corrosion resistant to the AlFeTiV alloy in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions.

  1. Processing and characterization of Al-Al3Nb prepared by mechanical alloying and equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, P.; Zafari, A.; Lui, E. W.; Xia, K.

    2017-05-01

    Mechanically alloyed Al with immiscible elements such as Nb can lead to a uniform distribution of nanoscaled precipitates which are highly stable compared to conventional alloying and with excellent interface, resulting in significant increase in strength without problems associated with nano ceramic particles in metal matrix composites. Although immiscible, Nb can be alloyed with Al through mechanical milling, forming trialuminide (Al3Nb), either directly or upon subsequent precipitation, which possesses high strength, stiffness and stability at elevated temperatures. In the present study, Al-5 at.% Nb supersaturated solid solution was achieved after prolonged ball milling and nano Al3Nb precipitates were formed during subsequent ageing at 530°C. The Al-Al3Nb powder was consolidated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 400°C, resulting in a fully dense material with a uniform distribution of nanoscaled Al3Nb precipitates in the Al matrix.

  2. EFFECT OF PRE-ALLOYING CONDITION ON THE BULK AMORPHOUS ALLOY ND(60)FE(30)AL(10).

    SciTech Connect

    OCONNOR,A.S.; LEWIS,L.H.; MCCALLUM,R.W.

    Bulk metallic glasses are materials that require only modest cooling rates to obtain amorphous solids directly from the melt. Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} has been reported to be a ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass that exhibits high coercivity, a combination unlike conventional Nd-based amorphous magnetic alloys. To clarify the relationship between short-range order and high coercivity in glassy Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10}, experiments were performed to verify the existence of a homogeneous liquid state prior to rapid solidification. Alloys were prepared by various pre-alloying routes and then melt-spun. Arc-melted alloys were prepared for melt spinning using three different protocols involving: (1)more » alloying all three elements at once, (2) forming a Nd-Fe alloy which was subsequently alloyed with Al, and (3) forming a Fe-Al alloy for subsequent alloying with Nd. XRD, DTA, and magnetic measurement data from the resultant ribbons indicate significant differences in both the glassy fraction and the crystalline phase present in the as-spun material. These observed differences are attributed to the presence of highly stable nanoscopic aluminide-and/or silicide-phases, or motes, present in the melt prior to solidification. These motes would affect the short-range order and coercivity of the resultant glassy state and are anticipated to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for crystallization.« less

  3. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  4. Solute transport and the prediction of breakaway oxidation in gamma + beta Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Al transport and the condition leading to breakaway oxidation during the cyclic oxidation of gamma + beta NiCrAl alloys have been studied. The Al concentration/distance profiles were measured after various cyclic oxidation exposures at 1200 C. It was observed that cyclic oxidation results in a decreasing Al concentration at the oxide/metal interface, maintaining a constant flux of Al to the Al2O3 scale. It was also observed that breakaway oxidation occurs when the Al concentration at the oxide/metal interface approaches zero. A numerical model was developed to simulate the diffusional transport of Al and to predict breakaway oxidation in gamma + beta NiCrAl alloys undergoing cyclic oxidation. In a comparison of two alloys with similar oxide spalling characteristics, the numerical model was shown to predict correctly the onset of breakaway oxidation in the higher Al-content alloy.

  5. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al-4Ti Master Alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-02-27

    The Al-4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al-4Ti master alloy.

  6. Dislocation loop evolution during in-situ ion irradiation of model FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Jack C.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Edmondson, Philip D.

    Model FeCrAl alloys of Fe-10%Cr-5%Al, Fe-12%Cr-4.5%Al, Fe-15%Cr-4%Al, and Fe-18%Cr-3%Al (in wt %) were irradiated with 1 MeV Kr++ ions in-situ with transmission electron microscopy to a dose of 2.5 displacements per atom (dpa) at 320 °C. In all cases, the microstructural damage consisted of dislocation loops with ½< 111 > and <100 > Burgers vectors. The proportion of ½< 111 > dislocation loops varied from ~50% in the Fe-10%Cr-5%Al model alloy and the Fe-18Cr%-3%Al model alloy to a peak of ~80% in the model Fe-15%Cr-4.5%Al alloy. The dislocation loop volume density increased with dose for all alloys and showed signsmore » of approaching an upper limit. The total loop populations at 2.5 dpa had a slight (and possibly insignificant) decline as the chromium content was increased from 10 to 15 wt %, but the Fe-18%Cr-3%Al alloy had a dislocation loop population ~50% smaller than the other model alloys. As a result, the largest dislocation loops in each alloy had image sizes of close to 20 nm in the micrographs, and the median diameters for all alloys ranged from 6 to 8 nm. Nature analysis by the inside-outside method indicated most dislocation loops were interstitial type.« less

  7. Dislocation loop evolution during in-situ ion irradiation of model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Haley, Jack C.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Edmondson, Philip D.; ...

    2017-07-06

    Model FeCrAl alloys of Fe-10%Cr-5%Al, Fe-12%Cr-4.5%Al, Fe-15%Cr-4%Al, and Fe-18%Cr-3%Al (in wt %) were irradiated with 1 MeV Kr++ ions in-situ with transmission electron microscopy to a dose of 2.5 displacements per atom (dpa) at 320 °C. In all cases, the microstructural damage consisted of dislocation loops with ½< 111 > and <100 > Burgers vectors. The proportion of ½< 111 > dislocation loops varied from ~50% in the Fe-10%Cr-5%Al model alloy and the Fe-18Cr%-3%Al model alloy to a peak of ~80% in the model Fe-15%Cr-4.5%Al alloy. The dislocation loop volume density increased with dose for all alloys and showed signsmore » of approaching an upper limit. The total loop populations at 2.5 dpa had a slight (and possibly insignificant) decline as the chromium content was increased from 10 to 15 wt %, but the Fe-18%Cr-3%Al alloy had a dislocation loop population ~50% smaller than the other model alloys. As a result, the largest dislocation loops in each alloy had image sizes of close to 20 nm in the micrographs, and the median diameters for all alloys ranged from 6 to 8 nm. Nature analysis by the inside-outside method indicated most dislocation loops were interstitial type.« less

  8. Freezing Range, Melt Quality, and Hot Tearing in Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uludağ, Muhammet; Çetin, Remzi; Dispinar, Derya

    2018-02-01

    In this study, three different aluminum-silicon alloys (A356, A413, and A380) that have different solidification morphology and solidification ranges were examined with an aim to evaluate the hot tearing susceptibility. T-shape mold and Constrained Rod Casting (CRC) mold were used for the characterization. Reduced Pressure Test (RPT) was used to quantify the casting quality by measuring bifilm index. It was found that bifilm index and solidification range have an important role on the hot tearing formation. As it is known, bifilms can cause porosity and in this case, it was shown that porosity formed by bifilms decreased hot tearing tendency. As the freezing range of alloy increases, bifilms find the time to unravel that reduces hot tearing. However, for eutectic alloy (A413), due to zero freezing range, regardless of bifilm content, hot tearing was never observed. A380.1 alloy had the highest tendency for hot tearing due to having the highest freezing range among the alloys investigated in this work.

  9. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg 2 (Zn, Al) 11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5MgAl-0.3MgAl-0.1MgAl. The cytotoxicity tests exhibited that the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy presents higher viability of MC3T3-E1 cell compared to the Zn-0.5Al alloy, which suggested good biocompatibility. The antibacterial activity result of both Zn-0.5Al and Zn-0.5Al-Mg alloys against Escherichia coli presented some antibacterial activity, while the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg significantly prohibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Thus, Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy with appropriate mechanical properties, low corrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Meili

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated. PMID:28788508

  11. Novel Heating-Induced Reversion during Crystallization of Al-based Glassy Alloys.

    PubMed

    Han, F F; Inoue, A; Han, Y; Kong, F L; Zhu, S L; Shalaan, E; Al-Marzouki, F; Greer, A L

    2017-04-13

    Thermal stability and crystallization of three multicomponent glassy alloys, Al 86 Y 7 Ni 5 Co 1 Fe 0.5 Pd 0.5 , Al 85 Y 8 Ni 5 Co 1 Fe 0.5 Pd 0.5 and Al 84 Y 9 Ni 4 Co 1.5 Fe 0.5 Pd 1 , were examined to assess the ability to form the mixture of amorphous (am) and fcc-aluminum (α-Al) phases. On heating, the glass transition into the supercooled liquid is shown by the 85Al and 84Al glasses. The crystallization sequences are [am] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + compounds] for the 86Al and 85Al alloys, and [am] → [am + α-Al + cubic Al x M y (M = Y, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd)] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + Al 3 Y + Al 9 (Co, Ni) 2  + unknown phase] for the 84Al alloy. The glass transition appears even for the 85Al alloy where the primary phase is α-Al. The heating-induced reversion from [am + α-Al + multicomponent Al x M y ] to [am + α-Al] for the 84Al alloy is abnormal, not previously observed in crystallization of glassy alloys, and seems to originate from instability of the metastable Al x M y compound, in which significant inhomogeneous strain is caused by the mixture of solute elements. This novel reversion phenomenon is encouraging for obtaining the [am + α-Al] mixture over a wide range of high temperature effective for the formation of Al-based high-strength nanostructured bulk alloys by warm working.

  12. Ni3Al-based alloys for die and tool application

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Bloom, Everett E.

    2001-01-01

    A novel Ni.sub.3 Al-based alloy exhibits strengths and hardness in excess of the standard base alloy IC-221M at temperatures of up to about 1000.degree. C. The alloy is useful in tool and die applications requiring such temperatures, and for structural elements in engineering systems exposed to such temperatures.

  13. Fatigue Resistance of Al-Cu-Li and Comparison with 7xxx Aerospace Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniélou, A.; Ronxin, J. P.; Nardin, C.; Ehrström, J. C.

    Al-Cu-Li alloys are of great interest for aerospace applications due to their good mechanical property balance, excellent corrosion resistance and reduced density. These alloys exhibit an increased resistance to fatigue in particular when compared to 7xxx alloys.

  14. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  15. Characterization of Al-Mg Alloy Aged at Low Temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Gaosong; Cullen, David A.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; ...

    2017-02-06

    For this research, long-term aged [343 K (70 °C) for 30 months and natural exposure for over 10 years] Al 5456 H116 samples were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), state-of-the-art energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) systems, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). ASTM G-67 mass loss tests of the sensitized Al 5456 alloy samples were conducted. Intragranular Mg-rich precipitates, such as Guinier–Preston (GP) zones, were confirmed in Al 5456 H116 aged at 343 K (70 °C) for 30 months, and the volume of these precipitates is 1.39 pct. β' phase is identified at the grain boundarymore » of a navy ship sample, while high-resolution STEM results reveal no intragranular precipitates. Intergranular corrosion (IGC) of Al 5456 was found to be related to the continuity of intergranular precipitates.« less

  16. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Zachary T.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  17. An Introduction to the BFS Method and Its Use to Model Binary NiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, J.; Amador, C.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys as a computationally efficient tool for aiding in the process of alloy design. An intuitive description of the BFS method is provided, followed by a formal discussion of its implementation. The method is applied to the study of the defect structure of NiAl binary alloys. The groundwork is laid for a detailed progression to higher order NiAl-based alloys linking theoretical calculations and computer simulations based on the BFS method and experimental work validating each step of the alloy design process.

  18. Band gap depiction of quaternary FeMnTiAl alloy using Hubbard (U) potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Yousuf, Saleem; Khandy, Shakeel Ahmad; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2018-05-01

    We have employed self-consistent ab-initio calculations to investigate new quaternary alloy FeMnTiAl by applying Hubbard potential (U). The alloy is found to be stable in ferromagnetic phase with cubic structure. The alloy shows half-metallic (HM) ferromagnet character. The values of minority band gap FeMnTiAl are found to be 0.33 eV respectively. Electronic charge density reveals that both types of bonds covalent as well as ionic are present in the alloy. Thus the new quaternary alloy can be proved as vital contender for spin valves and spin generator devices.

  19. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  20. A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCrAl, and NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCrAl, PWA 1480, and NiAl alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCrAl sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCrAl and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.

  1. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated model and commercial FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; Howard, Richard H.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-06-01

    The development and understanding of the mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated FeCrAl alloys is increasingly a critical need as these alloys continue to become more mature for nuclear reactor applications. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of model FeCrAl alloys and of a commercial FeCrAl alloy neutron-irradiated to up to 13.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperatures between 320 and 382 °C. Tensile tests were completed at room temperature and at 320 °C, and a subset of fractured tensile specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed typical radiation hardening and embrittlement indicative of high chromium ferritic alloys with strong chromium composition dependencies at lower doses. At and above 7.0 dpa, the mechanical properties saturated for both the commercial and model FeCrAl alloys, although brittle cleavage fracture was observed at the highest dose in the model FeCrAl alloy with the highest chromium content (18 wt %). The results suggest the composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys plays a critical role in the mechanical response of FeCrAl alloys irradiated near temperatures relevant to light water reactors.

  2. First Principles Study of Adsorption of Hydrogen on Typical Alloying Elements and Inclusions in Molten 2219 Al Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuanchun; Jia, Guangze

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the effect of the components of molten 2219 Al alloy on the hydrogen content dissolved in it, the H adsorption on various positions of alloying element clusters of Cu, Mn and Al, as well as the inclusion of Al2O3, MgO and Al4C3, were investigated by means of first principles calculation, and the thermodynamic stability of H adsorbed on each possible site was also studied on the basis of formation energy. Results show that the interaction between Al, MgO, Al4C3 and H atoms is mainly repulsive and energetically unfavorable; a favorable interaction between Cu, Mn, Al2O3 and H atoms was determined, with H being more likely to be adsorbed on the top of the third atomic layer of Cu(111), the second atomic layer of Mn(111), and the O atom in the third atomic layer of Al2O3, compared with other sites. It was found that alloying elements Cu and Mn and including Al2O3 may increase the hydrogen adsorption in the molten 2219 Al alloy with Al2O3 being the most sensitive component in this regard. PMID:28773185

  3. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  4. Microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys using Mo and Nb additions

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Bei, Hongbin; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-08-14

    The effects of Mo and Nb additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of two FeCrAl alloys were studied in this paper. Fine and uniform recrystallized grain structures (~ 20–30 μm) were achieved in both alloys through suitable annealing after warm-rolling. The formation of Fe 2Nb-type Laves phase precipitates in the Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy effectively stabilized the deformed and recrystallized microstructures. The Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy exhibited strong γ texture fiber after annealing at 650–900 °C, whereas the annealed Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy had much weaker texture. Finally, both strength and ductility decreased as the grain size increased in both alloys.

  5. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-11-05

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics.

  6. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability

    PubMed Central

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics. PMID:29113096

  7. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageingmore » at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.« less

  8. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph representation is to evaluate the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of both production mature and developmental Al-Li alloys. The researchers find for these alloys, the data clearly shows that there is no deficit in mechanical properties at lower exposure temperatures in some cases, and a signficant deficit in mechanical properties at higher exposure temperatures in all cases. Topics considered include: Al-Li alloys composition, key characteristics of Al-Li alloys and thermal exposure matrix.

  9. Novel Heating-Induced Reversion during Crystallization of Al-based Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, F. F.; Inoue, A.; Han, Y.; Kong, F. L.; Zhu, S. L.; Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Greer, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stability and crystallization of three multicomponent glassy alloys, Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, were examined to assess the ability to form the mixture of amorphous (am) and fcc-aluminum (α-Al) phases. On heating, the glass transition into the supercooled liquid is shown by the 85Al and 84Al glasses. The crystallization sequences are [am] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + compounds] for the 86Al and 85Al alloys, and [am] → [am + α-Al + cubic AlxMy (M = Y, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd)] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + Al3Y + Al9(Co, Ni)2 + unknown phase] for the 84Al alloy. The glass transition appears even for the 85Al alloy where the primary phase is α-Al. The heating-induced reversion from [am + α-Al + multicomponent AlxMy] to [am + α-Al] for the 84Al alloy is abnormal, not previously observed in crystallization of glassy alloys, and seems to originate from instability of the metastable AlxMy compound, in which significant inhomogeneous strain is caused by the mixture of solute elements. This novel reversion phenomenon is encouraging for obtaining the [am + α-Al] mixture over a wide range of high temperature effective for the formation of Al-based high-strength nanostructured bulk alloys by warm working.

  10. Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and properties of Al-Sc and Al-Mg-Sc alloys =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc

    Al(Sc) alloys represent a new class of potential alloys for high performance structural applications. The excellent properties obtained from the combination of solid-solution hardening and precipitation hardening in Al-Mg-Sc alloys make these alloys very attractive to automotive, aerospace, and structural applications. However, the Sc high cost limits the applications and the addition of cheaper alloying elements that substitutes partially Sc are not only desirable but crucial. In order to reduce the cost of Sc-containing Al alloys and maintain their mechanical properties, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Sc-Yb and Al-Mg-Sc-Yb alloys in comparison with Al-Sc and Al-Mg-Sc alloys were studied. The results showed the similarity of microstructure, hardness and aging behaviour of Al-0.24Sc-0.07Yb alloy in comparison with Al-0.28Sc alloy and Al-4 wt% Mg-0.3 wt% Sc alloy with Al-4 wt% Mg-0.24 wt% Sc-0.06 wt% Yb alloy. The approximately spheroidal Al3Sc and Al3(Sc,Yb) precipitates were uniformly distributed throughout the alpha-Al matrix. The precipitates remain fully coherent with alpha-Al matrix even after aging at high temperature for long time. In another aspect, the grain refinement in Al-Mg-Sc alloys with and without ultrasonic treatment at various pouring temperatures was investigated. The average grain size of Al-Mg-Sc alloy remarkably decreases by increasing the content of Mg or by adding 0.3 wt% of Sc. The pouring temperature has a strong effect on the microstructure of Al-1Mg-0.3Sc alloy. Lower pouring temperature leads to smaller grain size and more homogeneous microstructure. Ultrasonic vibration proved to be a potential grain refinement technique of Al-1Mg-0.3Sc. Significant grain refinement was obtained by applying ultrasonic treatment within the temperature range from 700 to 740 °C. The corrosion behaviour of Al-Sc, Al-Sc-Yb, Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Sc and Al-Mg-Sc-Yb alloys in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by immersion and potentiodynamic

  11. The Influence of Alloying and Processing on the Microstructure and Properties of Beta-NiAl.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    transformation , such as the Heusler alloys .’J. 9 ] It is the purpose of this article to report crystal structure of the parent and martensite phases and...additions, thermal and constitutional vacancies, deviations from stoichiometry, processing defects/inhomogeneities and precipitate phases on both the low ...Mn-Al Heusler alloys aged at phase , in the Ni-Al-Mn alloys quenched from high tern- low temperatures. peratures over 1000 °C.t41 In these specimens

  12. Processing-Microstructure-Property Relationships for Cold Spray Powder Deposition of Al-Cu Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    MICROSTRUCTURE - PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS FOR COLD SPRAY POWDER DEPOSITION OF Al - Cu ALLOYS by Jeremy D. Leazer June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Sarath K...basic microstructure -mechanical property relationships for cold spray deposited Al - Cu alloy coatings The microstructure of the deposited materials will...the dynamic mechanical

  13. Post Deformation Annealing Behaviour of Mg-Al-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Abu Syed Humaun; Su, Jing; Sanjari, Mehdi; Jung, In-Ho; Yue, Stephen

    In this study, effects of dynamically formed precipitates on the microstructure and texture evolutions were investigated after the post deformation annealing for various times. Two ternary alloys of Mg, Al and Sn were designed, produced and deformed at 300°C at a strain rate of 0.01s-1 to form different amounts of strain induced precipitates during deformation. Subsequent annealing at deformation temperature was performed for up to 4 hours. Microstructures and precipitation were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes and macro and micro-texture were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) techniques, respectively. It was found that certain amount of strain induced precipitates was necessary to prevent grain growth for a certain time during annealing by grain boundary pinning effect. Also, texture randomization was possible with the presence of precipitates after certain time of annealing.

  14. Nano-Scale Characterization of Al-Mg Nanocrystalline Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Evan; Ladani, Leila

    Materials with nano-scale microstructure have become increasingly popular due to their benefit of substantially increased strengths. The increase in strength as a result of decreasing grain size is defined by the Hall-Petch equation. With increased interest in miniaturization of components, methods of mechanical characterization of small volumes of material are necessary because traditional means such as tensile testing becomes increasingly difficult with such small test specimens. This study seeks to characterize elastic-plastic properties of nanocrystalline Al-5083 through nanoindentation and related data analysis techniques. By using nanoindentation, accurate predictions of the elastic modulus and hardness of the alloy were attained. Also, the employed data analysis model provided reasonable estimates of the plastic properties (strain-hardening exponent and yield stress) lending credibility to this procedure as an accurate, full mechanical characterization method.

  15. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Suxin; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g−1 for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g−1 for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials’. PMID:27402936

  16. Fatigue crack propagation behaviour of unidirectionally solidified gamma/gamma-prime-delta eutectic alloys. [Ni-Nb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretz, P. E.; Hertzberg, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation studies were carried out on unidirectionally solidified gamma/gamma-prime-delta (Ni-Nb-Al) alloys over an aluminum content range of 1.5-2.5% by weight. The variation of Al content of as-grown alloys did not significantly affect the crack growth behavior of these eutectic composites. The results indicate that the addition of Al to the eutectic dramatically improved the FCP behavior. The gamma/gamma-prime-delta alloy exhibited crack growth rates for a given stress intensity range that are an order of magnitude lower than those for the gamma-delta alloy. It is suggested that this difference in FCP behavior can be explained on the basis of stacking fault energy considerations. Extensive delaminations at the crack tip were also revealed, which contributed to the superior fatigue response. Delamination was predominantly intergranular in nature.

  17. Influence of Al content on non-equilibrium solidification behavior of Ni-Al-Ta model single crystal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Cheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Xinbao; Pei, Yanling; Li, Shusuo; Gong, Shengkai

    2016-01-01

    The non-equilibrium solidification behaviors of five Ni-Al-Ta ternary model single crystal alloys with different Al contents were investigated by experimental analysis and theoretical calculation (by JMatPro) in this study. These model alloys respectively represented the γ' phase with various volume fractions (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%) at 900 °C. It was found that with decreasing Al content, liquidus temperature of experimental alloys first decreased and then increased. Meanwhile, the solidification range showed a continued downward trend. In addition, with decreasing Al content, the primary phases of non-equilibrium solidified model alloys gradually transformed from γ' phase to γ phase, and the area fraction of which first decreased and then increased. Moreover, the interdendritic/intercellular precipitation of model alloys changed from β phase (for 100% γ') to (γ+γ')Eutectic (for 75% γ'), (γ+γ')Eutectic+γ' (for 50% γ' and 25% γ') and none interdendritic precipitation (for 0% γ'), and the last stage non-equilibrium solidification sequence of model alloys was determined by the nominal Al content and different microsegregation behaviors of Al element.

  18. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated model and commercial FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; ...

    2017-03-28

    The development and understanding of the mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated FeCrAl alloys is increasingly a critical need as these alloys continue to become more mature for nuclear reactor applications. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of model FeCrAl alloys and of a commercial FeCrAl alloy neutron-irradiated to up to 13.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperatures between 320 and 382 °C. Tensile tests were completed at room temperature and at 320 °C, and a subset of fractured tensile specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed typical radiation hardening and embrittlement indicative of high chromium ferritic alloysmore » with strong chromium composition dependencies at lower doses. At and above 7.0 dpa, the mechanical properties saturated for both the commercial and model FeCrAl alloys, although brittle cleavage fracture was observed at the highest dose in the model FeCrAl alloy with the highest chromium content (18 wt %). Finally, the results suggest the composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys plays a critical role in the mechanical response of FeCrAl alloys irradiated near temperatures relevant to light water reactors.« less

  19. Comparison of dry sliding wear and friction behavior of Al6061/SiC PMMC with Al6061 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, A. G. Shankara; Mehta, N. K.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear and friction behavior tests were conducted on Al6061 alloy and Al6061/SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) reinforced with fine particles of 5, 10 and 15 µm size having 5,7.5 and 10% weight content fabricated by stir-casting route. Cylindrical sample pins produced as per ASTM standard were tested for various parameters like SiC size, weight content, load and sliding distance affecting the wear rate or resistance and friction. Results indicated that Al6061/SiCp composites exhibited good wear resistance compared to Al6061 alloy for the tested parameters.

  20. Effect of Iron and Magnesium on Alloy AL9M Structure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, V. E.; Koltygin, A. V.; Belov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of iron impurity on the structure and properties of aluminum alloy AL9M, especially its action on magnesium distribution within the structure, is studied. The microstructure of a cast component of this alloy broken during operation is analyzed. It is shown that iron impurity has an unfavorable effect on structure and mechanical properties of a casting due to appearance of Al9Fe2Si and Al18Fe2Mg7Si10 intermetallics. Formation of these intermetallics consumes a considerable amount of magnesium and lowers the content of the Q(Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) strengthening phase in the alloy structure.

  1. Influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of NbAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Stephens, J. R.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.; Fox, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    NbAL3 is one candidate material for advanced aeropropulsion systems because of its high melting point, low density, and good oxidation resistance. Although NbAl3 has the lowest oxidation rate among the binary Nb-Al alloys, it does not form exclusive layers of protective Al2O3 scales. Recently Perkin et al., have shown the feasibility of forming alumina scales on Nb-Al alloys at greatly reduced Al contents. However, the objective was to maintain the high Al content, and hence low density, while achieving the capability of growing protective alumina scales. Alloy development followed approaches similar to those used successfully for superalloys and oxidation resistant MCrAlY coatings. Among the three elements examined (Ti, Si, and Cr) as ternary additions to Nb-Al3, Cr was the most effective in favoring the selective oxidation of Al. Nb-41Al-8Cr formed exclusive layers of alumina and had a k sub p value of 0.22 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr at 1200 C. The addition of 1 wt percent Y to this alloy was also beneficial, resulting in nearly an order of magnitude decrease in K sub p at 1200 C. Further improvements were achieved by adding about 1 wt percent Si to the quaternary alloy. The k sub p value of 0.012 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr for Nb-40Al-8Cr-1Y-1Si at 1200 C was identical to the best NiAl + Zr alloys. These NbAl3 alloys also exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for 100 hr at 1200 C, being nearly equivalent to NiAl + Zr.

  2. Phase Composition and Hardening of Castable Al - Ca - Ni - Sc Alloys Containing 0.3% Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Doroshenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The phase composition of aluminum alloys of the Al - Ca - Ni - Sc system containing 0.3 wt.% Sc is studied. It is shown that the aluminum solid solution may be in equilibrium not only with binary phases (Al4Ca, Al3Sc and Al3Ni) but also with a ternary Al9NiCa compound. The temperature of attainment of maximum hardening due to precipitation of nanoparticles of phase Al3Sc is determined for all the alloys studied. Principal possibility of creation of castable alloys based on an (Al) + Al4Ca + Al9NiCa eutectic, the hardening heat treatment of which does not require quenching, is substantiated.

  3. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol –1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap ismore » high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D 2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10 –7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  4. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol –1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap ismore » high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D 2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10 –7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  5. Assessment of phase constitution on the Al-rich region of rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W., E-mail: witorw@gmail.com

    The formation of quasicrystalline approximants in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys was investigated. Alloys of atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}, Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were produced using melt spinning and arc melting methods and their microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Up to the present there is no consensus in the literature regarding the formation of quasicrystalline phase or quasicrystalline approximants in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy. This work presents, for the first time, a detailed structural characterization of selected alloysmore » in the Al-Co-Fe-Cr system close to the atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}. The results indicated the samples to be composed, mostly, by two intermetallic phases, which are quaternary extensions of Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} and Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} and are quasicrystalline approximants. Although the Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} phase has already been reported in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the presence of the monoclinic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} is now identified for the first time in the as cast state. In the binary Al-Co system a quasicrystalline phase is known to form in a rapidly solidified alloy with composition close to the monoclinic and orthorhombic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phases. This binary quasicrystalline phase presents an average valence electron per atom (e/a) between 1.7 and 1.9; thus, in addition to the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the compositions Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were chosen to be within the region of formation of the quaternary extension of the Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phase and also within the (e/a) of 1.7 to 1.9. However, no quasicrystalline phase is present in any of the studied alloys. The Al

  6. Coating of 6028 Aluminum Alloy Using Aluminum Piston Alloy and Al-Si Alloy-Based Nanocomposites Produced by the Addition of Al-Ti5-B1 to the Matrix Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labban, Hashem F.; Abdelaziz, M.; Mahmoud, Essam R. I.

    2014-10-01

    The Al-12 pctSi alloy and aluminum-based composites reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti intermetallics exhibit good wear resistance, strength-to-weight ratio, and strength-to-cost ratio when compared to equivalent other commercial Al alloys, which make them good candidates as coating materials. In this study, structural AA 6028 alloy is used as the base material. Four different coating materials were used. The first one is Al-Si alloy that has Si content near eutectic composition. The second, third, and fourth ones are Al-6 pctSi-based reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti nano-particles produced by addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different weight percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct). The coating treatment was carried out with the aid of GTAW process. The microstructures of the base and coated materials were investigated using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX analyzer. Microhardness of the base material and the coated layer were evaluated using a microhardness tester. GTAW process results in almost sound coated layer on 6028 aluminum alloy with the used four coating materials. The coating materials of Al-12 pct Si alloy resulted in very fine dendritic Al-Si eutectic structure. The interface between the coated layer and the base metal was very clean. The coated layer was almost free from porosities or other defects. The coating materials of Al-6 pct Si-based mixed with Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct), results in coated layer consisted of matrix of fine dendrite eutectic morphology structure inside α-Al grains. Many fine in situ TiAl3 and TiB2 intermetallics were precipitated almost at the grain boundary of α-Al grains. The amounts of these precipitates are increased by increasing the addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy. The surface hardness of the 6028 aluminum alloy base metal was improved with the entire four used surface coating materials. The improvement reached to about 85 pct by the first type of

  7. Heat Treatment of Closed-Cell A356 + 4 wt.%Cu + 2 wt.%Ca Foam and Its Effect on the Foam Mechanical Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbagheri, S. M. H.; Vali, H.; Soltani, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this investigation, aluminum-silicon alloy foam is developed by adding certain amounts of copper and calcium elements in A356 alloy. Addition of 4 wt.%Cu + 2 wt.%Ca to the melt changed bubbles morphology from ellipsoid to spherical by decreasing Reynolds number and increasing Bond number. Compression behavior and energy absorption of the foams are assessed before and after aging. Solid solution treatment and aging lead to the best mechanical properties with 170% enhancement in yield strength and 185% improvement in energy absorption capacity as compared to non-heat-treated foams. The metallographic observations showed that bubbles geometry and structure in the A356 + 4wt.% Cu + 2 wt.%Ca foam are more homogeneous than the A356 foam.

  8. Enhancement of Impact Toughness by Delamination Fracture in a Low-Alloy High-Strength Steel with Al Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junjie; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Hongji; Guo, Shengwu; Liu, Yongning

    2016-12-01

    The effect of delamination toughening of martensitic steel was investigated both at room and low temperatures [253 K and 233 K (-20 °C and -40 °C)]. Two low-alloy martensitic steels with and without Al alloying were both prepared. Layered structure with white band and black matrix was observed in Al alloyed steel, while a homogeneous microstructure was displayed in the steel without Al. Both steels achieved high strength (tensile strength over 1600 MPa) and good ductility (elongation over 11 pct), but they displayed stark contrasts on impact fracture mode and Charpy impact energy. Delamination fracture occurred in Al alloyed steel and the impact energies were significantly increased both at room temperature (from 75 to 138 J, i.e., nearly improved up to 2 times) and low temperatures [from 47.9 to 71.3 J at 233 K (-40 °C)] compared with the one without Al. Alloying with Al promotes the segregation of Cr, Mn, Si and C elements to form a network structure, which is martensite with higher carbon content and higher hardness than that of the matrix. And this network structure evolved into a band structure during the hot rolling process. The difference of yield stress between the band structure and the matrix gives rise to a delamination fracture during the impact test, which increases the toughness greatly.

  9. First-principles study of alloying effects on fluorine incorporation in Al x Ga1-x N alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Feng-Xiang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2018-02-01

    Incorporation of fluorine (F) into the AlGaN layer is crucial to the fabrication of enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). However, the understanding of properties of F doping in AlGaN alloys is rather limited. Using first-principles calculations and the special quasirandom structure (SQS) approach, we investigate the alloying effects on the doping properties of F-incorporated Al x Ga1-x N alloys. We find that substitutional F on N sites (FN) and interstitial F (Fi) are dominant defects for F in Al x Ga1-x N alloys. For these two types of defects, both the global composition x and the local motif surrounding the dopant play important roles. On contrary, the incorporation of substitutional F on Ga sites (FGa) or Al sites (FAl) are affected only by the composition x. We also find that there exists a large asymmetric bowing for the effective formation energies of FN and Fi. These results are explained in terms of local structural distortion and electronic effects. The mechanism discussed in this paper can also be used in understanding doping in other semiconductor alloys.

  10. Osteoblast Cell Response on the Ti6Al4V Alloy Heat-Treated

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Díaz, Mercedes Paulina; Escudero-Rincón, María Lorenza; Arce-Estrada, Elsa Miriam; Cabrera-Sierra, Román

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to examine the effect of the microstructural changes of the Ti6Al4V alloy, two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V800) and above (Ti6Al4V1050) its β-phase transformation temperature. After each treatment, globular and lamellar microstructures were obtained. Saos-2 pre-osteoblast human osteosarcoma cells were seeded onto Ti6Al4V alloy disks and immersed in cell culture for 7 days. Electrochemical assays in situ were performed using OCP and EIS measurements. Impedance data show a passive behavior for the three Ti6Al4V alloys; additionally, enhanced impedance values were recorded for Ti6Al4V800 and Ti6Al4V1050 alloys. This passive behavior in culture medium is mostly due to the formation of TiO2 during their sterilization. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion were characterized using the SEM technique; Ti6Al4V as received and Ti6Al4V800 alloys exhibited polygonal and elongated morphology, whereas Ti6Al4V1050 alloy displayed a spherical morphology. Ti and O elements were identified by EDX analysis due to the TiO2 and signals of C, N and O, related to the formation of organic compounds from extracellular matrix. These results suggest that cell adhesion is more likely to occur on TiO2 formed in discrete α-phase regions (hcp) depending on its microstructure (grains). PMID:28772804

  11. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anggara, B. S., E-mail: anggorobs1960@yahoo.com; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to getmore » better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.« less

  12. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggara, B. S.; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  13. Influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of NbAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Stephens, J. R.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.; Fox, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    NbAl3 is one candidate material for advanced aeropropulsion systems because of its high melting point, low density, and good oxidation resistance. Although NbAl3 has the lowest oxidation rate among the binary Nb-Al alloys, it does not form exclusive layers of protective Al203 scales. Recently Perkin et al., have shown the feasibility of forming alumina scales on Nb-Al alloys at greatly reduced Al contents. However, the objective was to maintain the high Al content, and hence low density, while achieving the capability of growing protective alumina scales. Alloy development followed approaches similar to those used successfully for superalloys and oxidation resistant MCrAly coatings. Among the three elements examined (Ti, Si, and Cr) as ternary additions to Nb-Al3, Cr was the most effective in favoring the selective oxidation of Al. Nb-41Al-8Cr formed exclusive layers of alumina and had a k sub p value of 0.22 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr at 1200 C. The addition of 1 wt percent Y to this alloy was also beneficial, resulting in nearly an order of magnitude decrease in K sub p at 1200 C. Further improvements were achieved by adding about 1 wt percent Si to the quaternary alloy. The k sub p value of 0.012 mg squared/cm (sup 4)/hr for Nb-40Al-8Cr-1Y-1Si at 1200 C was identical to the best NiAl + Zr alloys. These NbAl3 alloys also exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for 100 hr at 1200 C, being nearly equivalent to NiAl + Zr.

  14. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  15. Grain Refinement of Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Zn-Mn Based Alloy by Al-Ti-B Alloy and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Yong-Ho; Jung, Chang-Gi; Lee, Sang-Chan; Lee, Seong-Hee; Son, Hyeon-Taek

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Al-5.0wt%Ti-1.0wt%B addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-extruded Al-0.15wt%Si-0.2wt%Fe-0.3wt%Cu-0.15wt%Zn-0.9wt%Mn based alloys. The Aluminum alloy melt was held at 800 °C and then poured into a mould at 200 °C. Aluminum alloys were hot-extruded into a rod that was 12 mm in thickness with a reduction ratio of 38:1. AlTiB addition to Al-0.15Si-0.2Fe-0.3Cu-0.15Zn-0.9Mn based alloys resulted in the formation of Al3Ti and TiB2 intermetallic compounds and grain refinement. With increasing of addition AlTiB, ultimate tensile strength increased from 93.38 to 99.02 to 100.01 MPa. The tensile strength of the as-extruded alloys was improved due to the formation of intermetallic compounds and grain refinement.

  16. Handbook of the Materials Properties of FeCrAl Alloys For Nuclear Power Production Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Mary A.; Field, Kevin G.

    FeCrAl alloys are a class of alloys that have seen increased interest for nuclear power applications including as accident tolerant fuel cladding, structural components for fast fission reactors, and as first wall and blanket structures for fusion reactors. FeCrAl alloys are under consideration for these applications due to their inherent corrosion resistance, stress corrosion cracking resistance, radiation-induced swelling resistance, and high temperature oxidation resistance. A substantial amount of research effort has been completed to design, develop, and begin commercial scaling of FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications over the past half a century. These efforts have led to the developmentmore » of an extensive database on material properties and process knowledge for FeCrAl alloys but not within a consolidated format. The following report is the first edition of a materials handbook to consolidate the state-of-the-art on FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications. This centralized database focuses solely on wrought FeCrAl alloys, oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, although discussed in brief, are not covered. Where appropriate, recommendations for applications of the data is provided and current knowledge gaps are identified.« less

  17. Atomistic simulations of shock-induced alloying reactions in Ni /Al nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijin; Germann, Timothy C.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2006-10-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations with a first principles-based many body potential to characterize the exothermic alloying reactions of nanostructured Ni /Al multilayers induced by shock loading. We introduce a novel technique that captures both the initial shock transit as well as the subsequent longer-time-scale Ni3Al alloy formation. Initially, the softer Al layers are shock heated to a higher temperature than the harder Ni layers as a result of a series of shock reflections from the impedance-mismatched interfaces. Once initiated, the highly exothermic alloying reactions can propagate in a self-sustained manner by mass and thermal diffusion. We also characterize the role of voids on the initiation of alloying. The interaction of the shock wave with the voids leads not only to significant local heating (hot spots) but also directly aids the intermixing between Al and Ni; both of these phenomena contribute to a significant acceleration of the alloying reactions.

  18. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternative materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  19. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternate materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  20. Precipitation of α' in neutron irradiated commercial FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Briggs, Samuel A.

    2017-08-17

    In this paper, Alkrothal 720 and Kanthal APMT™, two commercial FeCrAl alloys, were neutron irradiated up to damage doses of 7.0 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 320 to 382 °C to characterize the α' precipitation in these alloys using small-angle neutron scattering. Both alloys exhibited α' precipitation. Kanthal APMT™ exhibited higher number densities and volume fraction, a result attributed to its higher Cr content compared with Alkrothal 720. Finally, trends observed as a function of damage dose (dpa) are consistent with literature trends for both FeCr and FeCrAl alloys

  1. Effects of Thermal Exposure on Properties of Al-Li Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Doug; Stanton, William; Lawless, Kirby; Russell, Carolyn; Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Babel, Henry; Farahmand, Bahram; Schwab, David; hide

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of both developmental and production mature Al-Li alloys. The topics include: 1) Aluminum-Lithium Alloys Composition and Features; 2) Key Characteristics of Al-Li Alloys; 3) Research Approach; 4) Available and Tested Material; and 5) Thermal Exposure Matrix. The alloy temperatures, gage thickness and product forms show that there is no deficit in mechanical properties at lower exposure temperatures in some cases, and a significant deficit in mechanical properties at higher exposure temperatures in all cases.

  2. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  3. Advanced ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T

    2014-09-01

    ODS FeCrAl alloys are being developed with optimum composition and properties for accident tolerant fuel cladding. Two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-15Cr-5Al+Y2O3 alloys were fabricated by ball milling and extrusion of gas atomized metallic powder mixed with Y2O3 powder. To assess the impact of Mo on the alloy mechanical properties, one alloy contained 1%Mo. The hardness and tensile properties of the two alloys were close and higher than the values reported for fine grain PM2000 alloy. This is likely due to the combination of a very fine grain structure and the presence of nano oxide precipitates. The nano oxide dispersionmore » was however not sufficient to prevent grain boundary sliding at 800 C and the creep properties of the alloys were similar or only slightly superior to fine grain PM2000 alloy. Both alloys formed a protective alumina scale at 1200 C in air and steam and the mass gain curves were similar to curves generated with 12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+Hf or Zr) ODS alloys fabricated for a different project. To estimate the maximum temperature limit of use for the two alloys in steam, ramp tests at a rate of 5 C/min were carried out in steam. Like other ODS alloys, the two alloys showed a significant increase of the mas gains at T~ 1380 C compared with ~1480 C for wrought alloys of similar composition. The beneficial effect of Yttrium for wrought FeCrAl does not seem effective for most ODS FeCrAl alloys. Characterization of the hardness of annealed specimens revealed that the microstructure of the two alloys was not stable above 1000 C. Concurrent radiation results suggested that Cr levels <15wt% are desirable and the creep and oxidation results from the 12Cr ODS alloys indicate that a lower Cr, high strength ODS alloy with a higher maximum use temperature could be achieved.« less

  4. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Laser Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Ti-Al2O3 Coating for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthisi, A.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Adebiyi, D. I.; Popoola, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    The indispensable properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coupled with poor tribological properties and delayed bioactivity make it a subject of interest to explore in biomedical application. A quite number of numerous coatings have been employed on titanium alloys, with aim to overcome the poor properties exhibited by this alloy. In this work, the possibility of laser cladding different ad-mixed powders (Ti - 5 wt.% Al2O3 and Ti - 8wt.% Al2O3) on Ti-6Al-4V at various laser scan speed (0.6 and 0.8 m/min) were investigated. The microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion of the resultant coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Optical microscope, X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and potentiostat respectively. The electrochemical behaviour of the produced coatings was studied in a simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The microstructural results show that a defect free coating is achieved at low scan speed and ad-mixed of Ti-5 wt. % Al2O3. Cladding of Ti - Al2O3 improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy regardless of varying neither scan speed nor ad-mixed percentage. However, Ti-5 wt.% Al2O3 coating produced at low scan speed revealed the highest corrosion resistance among the coatings due to better quality coating layer. Henceforth, this coating may be suitable for biomedical applications.

  6. Evaluation of the microstructure of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Joseph R.; Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy designed to have ultrahigh strength and to serve in aerospace applications. The alloy displays significantly higher strength than competitive alloys in both naturally aged and artificially aged tempers. The strengthening phases in such tempers have been identified to, in part, explain the mechanical properties attained. In general, the alloy is strengthened by delta prime Al3Li and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in the naturally aged tempers. In artificially aged tempers in slightly underaged conditions, strengthening is provided by several phases including GP zones, theta prime Al2Cu, S prime Al2CuMg, T(sub 1) Al2CuLi, and possibly a new phase. In the peak strength artificially aged tempers, T(sub 1) is the predominant strengthening phase.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several compounds with Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between Fe-19.8Cr-4.8Al (weight percent), which is the base composition for the commercial superalloy MA956, and several carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides was analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The effect of addition of minor alloying elements, such as Ti, Y, and Y2O3, to the Fe-Cr-Al alloy on chemical compatibility between the alloy and various compounds was also analyzed. Several chemically compatible compounds that can be potential reinforcement materials and/or interface coating materials for Fe-Cr-Al based composites were identified.

  8. Effect of high power ultrasound on mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, N.; Gupta, R.; Chaudhari, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of high power ultrasonic treatment on the solidification microstructures of Al-Si alloys containing varying content of solute Si (1, 2, 3 and 5 wt %) is investigated. Large variation in microstructures is seen and refinement of primary α-Al grains is observed. It is observed that increasing the weight percentage of solute along with ultrasonic treatment resulted in finer primary phase. By increasing the solute content from 1% to 5 wt.% in Al-Si alloys, hardness increased by about 38% without and 48% with ultrasonic treatment. Tensile strength of the alloys with ultrasonic treatment is higher as compared to those without ultrasonic treated.

  9. Microstructural Evolution in Intensively Melt Sheared Direct Chill Cast Al-Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Rao, A. K. Prasada; Patel, J. B.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    The work presented here introduces the novel melt conditioned direct chill casting (MC-DC) technology, where intensive melt shearing is applied to the conventional direct-chill casting process. MC-DC casting can successfully produce high quality Al-alloy billets. The results obtained from 80 mm diameter billets cast at speed of 200 mm/min show that MC-DC casting of Al-alloys, substantially refines the microstructure and reduces macro-segregation. In this paper, we present the preliminary results and discuss microstructural evolution during MC-DC casting of Al-alloys.

  10. Progress in the Modeling of NiAl-Based Alloys Using the BFS Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, John; Garg, Anita

    1997-01-01

    The BFS method has been applied to the study of NiAl-based materials to assess the effect of alloying additions on structure. Ternary, quaternary and even pent-alloys based on Ni-rich NiAl with additions of Ti, Cr and Cu were studied. Two approaches were used, Monte Carlo simulations to determine ground state structures and analytical calculations of high symmetry configurations which give physical insight into preferred bonding. Site occupancy energetics for ternary and the more complicated case of quaternary additions were determined, and solubility limits and precipitate formation with corresponding information concerning structure and lattice parameter were also 'observed' computationally. The method was also applied to determine the composition of alloy surfaces and interfaces. Overall, the results demonstrate that the BFS method for alloys is a powerful tool for alloy design and with its simplicity and obvious advantages can be used to complement any experimental alloy design program.

  11. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  12. Superplastic formability of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Bao-Tong; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive research during the past decade shows that several aluminum lithium alloys can be processed to attain a microstructure that enables superplasticity. The high tensile stress of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049 in the T4 and T6 tempers offers tremendous potential for attaining exceptional post-SPF (superplastic formability) properties. The used SPF material is Weldalite, which was shown to induce SPF behavior in other Al-Cu-Li alloys. The superplastic behavior and resulting post-SPF mechanical properties of this alloy, which was designed to be the next major structural alloy for space applications, were evaluated. The results indicate that Weldalite alloy does indeed exhibit excellent superplasticity over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates and excellent post-SPF tensile strength at various potential service temperatures.

  13. Transformation to Ni5Al3 in a 63.0 at. pct Ni-Al alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadkikar, P. S.; Locci, I. E.; Vedula, K.; Michal, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructures of 63 at. pct P/M Ni-Al alloys with a composition close to the stoichiometry of the Ni5Al3 phase were investigated using homogenized and quenched specimens aged at low temperatures for various times. Results of analyses of XRD data and electron microscopy observations were used for quantitative phase analysis, performed to calculate the (NiAl + Ni5Al3)/Ni5Al3 phase boundary locations. The measured lattice parameters of Ni5Al3 phase formed at 823, 873, and 923 K indicated an increase in tetragonality of the phase with increasing nickel content.

  14. Investigation on the solidification course of Al-Si alloys by using a numerical Newtonian thermal analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peng; Hu, Zhiliu; Zhao, Yanjun; Huang, Qingbao

    2017-12-01

    A numerical Newtonian thermal analysis (NTA) method was carried out for online monitoring the solidification course of commercial Al-Si alloys. The solidification paths of different molten Al-Si alloys were characterized by the fraction solid curves. The variation of heat capacity of Al and Si were concerned in the determination of baseline evaluation of latent heat. In this experiment, the pure Al, Al-1Si, Al-5Si, Al-9Si, Al-13Si and Al-18Si alloys were molten at 800 °C and cooled at room temperature, respectively. The cooling curves of these alloys were measured by using K-type thermocouples. The liquidus temperatures of these alloys decreased with the increase of Si %. An obvious stage occurred at about 580 °C, which was closely related to Al-Si eutectic reaction. Different phase fractions of these alloys were supported by the microstructure observation.

  15. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al alloys with different hardening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sunggon; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Chang-Gil; Kim, Sung Joon

    2005-04-01

    The mechanical properties of precipitation hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 and strain hardened Al 5083-H32, friction stir welded with various welding parameters, were examined in the present study. 4 mm thick Al 6061-T651, Al 7075-T6, and Al 5083-H32 alloy plates were used for friction stir welding (FSW) with rotating speed varied from 1000 to 2500 rpm (rotation per minute) and welding speed ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm (m/min). Each alloy displayed slightly different trends with respect to the effect of different welding parameters on the tensile properties of the FSWed Al alloys. The tensile elongation of FSWed Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 tended to increase greatly, while the tensile strength decreased marginally, with increasing welding speed and/or decreasing rotating speed. The tensile strength and the tensile elongation of Al 6061-T651 decreased from 135 to 154 MPa and 10.6 to 17.0%, respectively, with increasing welding speed from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm at a rotating speed of 1,600 rpm. Unlike the age-hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6, the strain-hardened Al 5083-H32 showed no notable change in tensile property with varying welding parameters. The change in the strength level with different welding parameters for each alloy was not as significant as the variation in tensile elongation. It was believed that the tensile elongation of FSWed Al alloys with varying welding parameters was mainly determined by the coarse particle clustering. With respect to the change in tensile strength during friction stir welding, it is hypothesized that two competing mechanisms, recovery by friction and heat and strain hardening by plastic flow in the weld zone offset the effects of different welding parameters on the tensile strength level of FSWed Al alloys.

  16. Preparation and Bond Properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings on Mg Alloy with Sprayed Al or Diffused Mg-Al Intermetallic Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xizhi; Wang, Ying; Zou, Binglin; Gu, Lijian; Huang, Wenzhi; Cao, Xueqiang

    2014-02-01

    Sprayed Al or diffused Mg-Al layer was designed as interlayer between the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and Mg alloy substrate. The effects of the interlayer on the bond properties of the coats were investigated. Al layers were prepared by arc spraying and atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), respectively. Mg-Al diffused layer was obtained after the heat treatment of the sprayed sample (Mg alloy with APS Al coat) at 400 °C. The results show that sprayed Al interlayer does not improve the bond stability of TBCs. The failure of the TBCs on Mg alloy with Al interlayer occurs mainly due to the low strength of Al layer. Mg-Al diffused layer improves corrosion resistance of substrate and the bond interface. The TBCs on Mg alloy with Mg-Al diffused interlayer shows better bond stability than the sample of which the TBCs is directly sprayed on Mg alloy substrate by APS.

  17. Structure of Al-Fe alloys prepared by different methods after severe plastic deformation under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobromyslov, A. V.; Taluts, N. I.

    2017-06-01

    Al-Fe alloys prepared by casting, rapid quenching from the melt, and mechanical alloying from elemental powders have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness measurements in the initial state and after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion using Bridgman anvils. The relationship between the phase composition, microstructure, and the microhardness of the investigated alloys has been established.

  18. Prediction of novel alloy phases of Al with Sc or Ta

    PubMed Central

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Gibson, Mark A.; Wilson, Nick; McGregor, Kathie

    2015-01-01

    Using the evolutionary optimization algorithm, as implemented in the USPEX crystal predictor program, and first principles total energy calculations, the compositional phase diagrams for Al-Sc and Al-Ta alloy systems at zero temperature and pressure have been calculated. In addition to the known binary intermetallic phases, new potentially stable alloys, AlSc3 and AlTa7, have been identified in the Al-poor region of the phase diagram. The dynamic and thermal stability of their lattices has been confirmed from the calculated vibrational normal mode spectra in the harmonic approximation. PMID:25950915

  19. Microstructural evolution during reheating of A356 machining chips at semisolid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Xiao, Wen-long; Yamagata, Hiroshi; Ma, Chao-li

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural evolution of A356 machining chips in the semisolid state was studied at different temperatures and holding times. The results showed that the elongated α-Al grains first recrystallized in the semisolid state and then became globular with a high shape factor (SF). Both the temperature and the holding time clearly affected the grain size and SF. When the heating temperature or holding time was increased, the grain size and SF gradually increased and finally became stable. Moreover, the Vickers hardness of primary α-Al grains gradually decreased with increasing heating temperature. The optimal slurry for semisolid processing, with a good combination of grain size and SF, was obtained when the chips were held at 600°C for 15 min. The semisolid slurry of A356 chips exhibited a lower coarsening rate of α-Al grains than those produced by most of the conventional semisolid processes. The coarsening coefficient was determined to be 436 μm3·s-1 on the basis of the linear Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) relationship.

  20. 2nd Gen FeCrAl ODS Alloy Development For Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Massey, Caleb P.; Edmondson, Philip D.

    Extensive research at ORNL aims at developing advanced low-Cr high strength FeCrAl alloys for accident tolerant fuel cladding. One task focuses on the fabrication of new low Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. The first Fe-12Cr-5Al+Y 2O 3 (+ ZrO 2 or TiO 2) ODS alloys exhibited excellent tensile strength up to 800 C and good oxidation resistance in steam up to 1400 C, but very limited plastic deformation at temperature ranging from room to 800 C. To improve alloy ductility, several fabrication parameters were considered. New Fe-10-12Cr-6Al gas-atomized powders containing 0.15 to 0.5wt% Zr were procured and ballmore » milled for 10h, 20h or 40h with Y2O3. The resulting powder was then extruded at temperature ranging from 900 to 1050 C. Decreasing the ball milling time or increasing the extrusion temperature changed the alloy grain size leading to lower strength but enhanced ductility. Small variations of the Cr, Zr, O and N content did not seem to significantly impact the alloy tensile properties, and, overall, the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl alloys showed significantly better ductility than the 1st gen alloys. Tube fabrication needed for fuel cladding will require cold or warm working associated with softening heat treatments, work was therefore initiated to assess the effect of these fabrications steps on the alloy microstructure and properties. This report has been submitted as fulfillment of milestone M3FT 16OR020202091 titled, Report on 2nd Gen FeCrAl ODS Alloy Development for the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Advanced Fuel Campaign of the Fuel Cycle R&D program.« less

  1. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  2. X-ray imaging and controlled solidification of Al-Cu alloys toward microstructures by design

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy J.; Tourret, Damien; Imhoff, Seth D.; ...

    2015-01-30

    X-ray imaging, which permits the microscopic visualization of metal alloy solidification dynamics, can be coupled with controlled solidification to create microstructures by design. In this study, this x-ray image shows a process-derived composite microstructure being made from a eutectic Al-17.1 at.%Cu alloy by successive solidification and remelting steps.

  3. Softening and Hardening of Alloys of the Al - Zn System Under Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, A. I.; Polev, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The proportion of hardening and softening under plastic deformation at room temperature in metals and alloys of the Al - Zn system has been studied as dependent on the regime of preliminary heat treatment. The influence of the strain rate on the dependence of alloy hardness on the degree of plastic deformation is estimated.

  4. Effect of Rolling on High-Cycle Fatigue and Fracture of an Al - Mg - Sc Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhemchuzhnikova, D. A.; Petrov, A. P.; Eremeev, N. V.; Eremeev, V. V.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2016-07-01

    The tensile strength and fatigue properties of alloy 1575 of the Al - Mg - Sc system are studied after hot deformation (at 360°C) and subsequent cold rolling with different reduction ratios. The effect of the deformed structure on the properties and mechanisms of fracture of the alloy under cyclic tests is determined.

  5. Grain refinement of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy by novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy and its effect on mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apparao, K. Ch; Birru, Anil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy with uniform microstructure was prepared using a melt reaction process for this study. In the master alloy, basic intermetallic particles such as NbAl3, NbC act as heterogeneous nucleation substrates during the solidification of aluminium. The grain refining performance of the novel master alloy on Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy has also been investigated. It is observed that the addition of 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy can induce very effective grain refinement of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy. The average grain size of α-Al is reduced to 22.90 μm from about 61.22 μm and most importantly, the inoculation of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy with FeNb-C is not characterised by any visible poisoning effect, which is the drawback of using commercial Al-Ti-B master alloys on aluminium cast alloys. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy have been improved obviously by the addition of the 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy, including the yield strength and elongation.

  6. Grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Aoki, Takayuki; Okabe, Toru

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. The metals tested were commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), Ti-6Al-4V, experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu (1, 4, and 10 wt% Cu), and Co-Cr alloy. Each metal was cast into five blocks (3.0 x 8.0 x 30.0 mm(3)). The 3.0-mm wide surface of each block was ground using a hand-piece engine with an SiC wheel at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, and 1250 m/min) at a grinding force of 100 g. The grindability index (G-index) was determined as volume loss (mm(3)) calculated from the weight loss after 1 minute of grinding and the density of each metal. The ratio of the metal volume loss and the wheel volume loss was also calculated (G-ratio, %). Data (n = 5) were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Ti-6Al-4V and the experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher G-indexes compared with CP Ti and Co-Cr at any rotational speed except for the lowest speed (500 m/min). At 500 m/min, the G-index of Ti-6Al-4V-Cu increased as the amount of alloyed copper increased. The 4% Cu and 10% Cu alloys had significantly greater G-indexes than did 1% Cu and Ti-6Al-4V at the highest rotational speed (1250 m/min). Increasing the percentage of alloyed copper and the circumferential speed also increased the G-ratio. A slight reduction in ductility due to alloying Ti-6Al-4V with copper improved the grindability of some of the resultant Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys.

  7. Recovery of Li from alloys of Al- Li and Li- Al using engineered scavenger compounds

    DOEpatents

    Riley, W. D.; Jong, B. W.; Collins, W. K.; Gerdemann, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing lithium of high purity from lithium aluminum alloys using an engineered scavenger compound, comprising: I) preparing an engineered scavenger compound by: a) mixing and heating compounds of TiO2 and Li2CO3 at a temperature sufficient to dry the compounds and convert Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to Li.sub.2 O; and b) mixing and heating the compounds at a temperature sufficient to produce a scavenger Li.sub.2 O.3TiO.sub.2 compound; II) loading the scavenger into one of two electrode baskets in a three electrode cell reactor and placing an Al-Li alloy in a second electrode basket of the three electrode cell reactor; III) heating the cell to a temperature sufficient to enable a mixture of KCl-LiCl contained in a crucible in the cell to reach its melting point and become a molten bath; IV) immersing the baskets in the bath until an electrical connection is made between the baskets to charge the scavenger compound with Li until there is an initial current and voltage followed by a fall off ending current and voltage; and V) making a connection between the basket electrode containing engineered scavenger compound and a steel rod electrode disposed between the basket electrodes and applying a current to cause Li to leave the scavenger compound and become electrodeposited on the steel rod electrode.

  8. Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. II - Oxidation behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haasch, R. T.; Tewari, S. K.; Sircar, S.; Loxton, C. M.; Mazumder, J.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal oxidation behaviors of NbAl3 alloy synthesized by laser cladding were investigated at temperatures between 800 and 1400 C, and the effect of vanadium microalloying on the oxidation of the laser-clad alloy was examined. The oxidation kinetics of the two alloys were monitored using thermal gravimetric weight gain data, and the bulk and surface chemistries were analyzed using XRD and XPS, respectively. It was found that NbAl3 did not form an exclusive layer of protective Al2O3. The oxidation products at 800 C were found to be a mixture of Nb2O5 and Al2O3. At 1200 C, a mixture of NbAlO4, Nb2O5, and Al2O3 formed; and at 1400 C, a mixture of NbAlO4, Al2O3, NbO2, NbO(2.432), and Nb2O5 formed. The addition of V led to a dramatic increase of the oxidation rate, which may be related to the formation of (Nb, V)2O5 and VO2, which grows in preference to protective Al2O3.

  9. Mechanism of the Bauschinger effect in Al-Ge-Si alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Gan, Wei; Bong, Hyuk Jong; Lim, Hojun; ...

    2016-12-07

    Here, wrought Al-Ge-Si alloys were designed and produced to ensure dislocation bypass strengthening ("hard pin" precipitates) without significant precipitate cutting/shearing ("soft pin" precipitates). They were processed from the melt, solution heat treated and aged.

  10. Strengthening behavior of beta phase in lamellar microstructure of TiAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Seo, D. Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    β phase can be introduced to TiAl alloys by the additions of β stabilizing elements such as Cr, Nb, W, and Mo. The β phase has a body-centered cubic lattice structure and is softer than the α2 and γ phases in TiAl alloys at elevated temperatures, and hence is thought to have a detrimental effect on creep strength. However, fine β precipitates can be formed at lamellar interfaces by proper heat treatment conditions and the β interfacial precipitate improves the creep resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloys, since the phase interface of γ/β retards the motion of dislocations during creep. This paper reviews recent research on high-temperature strengthening behavior of the β phase in fully lamellar TiAl alloys.

  11. Structural and electronic properties of Ga2O3-Al2O3 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, Hartwin; Varley, Joel B.; Speck, James S.; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2018-06-01

    Ga2O3 is emerging as an important electronic material. Alloying with Al2O3 is a viable method to achieve carrier confinement, to increase the bandgap, or to modify the lattice parameters. However, the two materials have very different ground-state crystal structures (monoclinic β-gallia for Ga2O3 and corundum for Al2O3). Here, we use hybrid density functional theory calculations to assess the alloy stabilities and electronic properties of the alloys. We find that the monoclinic phase is the preferred structure for up to 71% Al incorporation, in close agreement with experimental phase diagrams, and that the ordered monoclinic AlGaO3 alloy is exceptionally stable. We also discuss bandgap bowing, lattice constants, and band offsets that can guide future synthesis and device design efforts.

  12. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.

  13. Advanced Class of FML on the Base Al-Li Alloy 1441 with Lower Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Lukina, N. F.

    Structure, composition, properties combination of specimens and components, a number of technological parameters for production of advanced FML based on high-modulus Al-Li 1441 alloy (E 79 GPa) with reduced density (d 2.6 g/m3) and optimized adhesive prepreg reinforced with high-strength high-modulus VMP glass fibres are described. Service life 1441 alloy provides the possibility of manufacture of thin sheets (up to 0.3 mm), clad and unclad. Moreover, some experience on the usage of 1441 T1, T11 sheets and shapes in Be 200 and Be 103 aircraft was accumulated. The class of FML materials based on Al-Li alloy provide an 5% improvement in weight efficiency and stiffness of skin structures as compared with those made from FML with conventional Al-Cu-Mg (2024T3 a.o.) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7475T76 a.o.) alloys.

  14. Development of interatomic potentials appropriate for simulation of devitrification of Al 90Sm 10 alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Mendelev, M. I.; Zhang, F.; Ye, Z.; ...

    2015-04-23

    In this study, a semi-empirical potential for the Al 90Sm 10 alloy is presented. The potential provides satisfactory reproduction of pure Al properties, the formation energies of a set of Al–Sm crystal phases with Sm content about 10%, and the structure of the liquid Al 90Sm 10 alloy. During molecular dynamics simulation in which the liquid alloy is cooled at a rate of 10 10 K/s, the developed potential produces a glass structure with lower ab initio energy than that produced by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) itself using a typical AIMD cooling rate of 8 ∙10 13 K/s. Basedmore » on these facts the developed potential should be suitable for simulations of phase transformations in the Al 90Sm 10 alloy.« less

  15. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental validation of the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Zhenke; Zhang, F; Miller, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    NiAl-type precipitate-strengthened ferritic steels have been known as potential materials for the steam turbine applications. In this study, thermodynamic descriptions of the B2-NiAl type nano-scaled precipitates and body-centered-cubic (BCC) Fe matrix phase for four alloys based on the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo system were developed as a function of the alloy composition at the aging temperature. The calculated phase structure, composition, and volume fraction were validated by the experimental investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. With the ability to accurately predict the key microstructural features related to the mechanical properties in a given alloy system, the established thermodynamic model inmore » the current study may significantly accelerate the alloy design process of the NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels.« less

  16. EFFECT OF Mg AND TEMPERATURE ON Fe-Al ALLOY LAYER IN Fe/(Zn-6%Al-x%Mg) SOLID-LIQUID DIFFUSION COUPLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liu; Liu, Ya-Ling; Liu, Ya; Peng, Hao-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hua; Su, Xu-Ping

    Fe/(Zn-6%Al-x%Mg) solid-liquid diffusion couples were kept at various temperatures for different periods of time to investigate the formation and growth of the Fe-Al alloy layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the constituents and morphology of the Fe-Al alloy layer. It was found that the Fe2Al5Znx phase layer forms close to the iron sheet and the FeAl3Znx phase layer forms near the side of the melted Zn-6%Al-3%Mg in diffusion couples. When the Fe/(Zn-6%Al-3%Mg) diffusion couple is kept at 510∘C for more than 15min, a continuous Fe-Al alloy layer is formed on the interface of the diffusion couple. Among all Fe/(Zn-6%Al-x%Mg) solid-liquid diffusion couples, the Fe-Al alloy layer on the interface of the Fe/(Zn-6% Al-3% Mg) diffusion couple is the thinnest. The Fe-Al alloy layer forms only when the diffusion temperature is above 475∘. These results show that the Fe-Al alloy layer in Fe/(Zn-6%Al-x%Mg) solid-liquid diffusion couples is composed of Fe2Al5Znx and FeAl3Znx phase layers. Increasing the diffusing temperature and time period would promote the formation and growth of the Fe-Al alloy layer. When the Mg content in the Fe/(Zn-6%Al-x%Mg) diffusion couples is 3%, the growth of the Fe-Al alloy layer is inhibited. These results may explain why there is no obvious Fe-Al alloy layer formed on the interface of steel with a Zn-6%Al-3%Mg coating.

  17. Durability Assessment of Various Gamma TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad; Draper, Sue; Pereira, Mike; Zhuang, Wyman

    2003-01-01

    Seven cast and one wrought gamma-alloys were ballistically impacted and tested under high cycle fatigue. The fatigue strength of each alloy was characterized as a function of initial flaw size and modeled using a threshold-based fracture mechanics approach.

  18. Fabrication of Carbon Nanofibers/A356 Nanocomposites by High-Intensity Ultrasonic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Jie; Yan, Hong

    2018-06-01

    A356 alloy reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was fabricated by high-intensity ultrasonic vibration processing. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The distribution of CNFs became more and more uniform with the increase of ultrasonic power, and the mechanical properties of nanocomposites were significantly enhanced accordingly. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and microhardness of the nanocomposite increased by 38.3, 21.9, and 43.2 pct, respectively, at a CNF content of 0.9 wt pct compared with the matrix without CNF addition. The improvement in mechanical properties was the effect of CNFs on the thermal expansion mismatch strengthening of the nanocomposite, the grain refinement of the nanocomposite, and the load transfer from the matrix to the nanofibers.

  19. Fabrication of Carbon Nanofibers/A356 Nanocomposites by High-Intensity Ultrasonic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Jie; Yan, Hong

    2018-03-01

    A356 alloy reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was fabricated by high-intensity ultrasonic vibration processing. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The distribution of CNFs became more and more uniform with the increase of ultrasonic power, and the mechanical properties of nanocomposites were significantly enhanced accordingly. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and microhardness of the nanocomposite increased by 38.3, 21.9, and 43.2 pct, respectively, at a CNF content of 0.9 wt pct compared with the matrix without CNF addition. The improvement in mechanical properties was the effect of CNFs on the thermal expansion mismatch strengthening of the nanocomposite, the grain refinement of the nanocomposite, and the load transfer from the matrix to the nanofibers.

  20. Advanced TEM characterization of oxide nanoparticles in ODS Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T; Pint, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    For oxide nanoparticles present in three oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys containing additions of (1) Y 2O 3 (125Y), (2) Y 2O 3 + ZrO 2 (125YZ), and (3) Y 2O 3 + HfO 2 (125YH), were investigated using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, in all three alloys nano-sized (<3.5 nm) oxide particles distributed uniformly throughout the microstructure were characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques. In the 125Y alloy, mainly Al 2O 3 and yttrium–aluminum garnet (YAG) phases (Y 3Al 5O 12) were present, while in the 125YZ alloy, additional Zr(C,N) precipitates were identified. The 125YH alloy had themore » most complex precipitation sequence whereby in addition to the YAG and Al 2O 3 phases, Hf(C,N), Y 2Hf 2O 7, and HfO 2 precipitates were also found. The presence of HfO 2 was mainly due to the incomplete incorporation of HfO 2 powder during mechanical alloying of the 125YH alloy. The alloy having the highest total number density of the oxides, the smallest grain size, and the highest Vickers hardness was the 125YZ alloy indicating, that Y 2O 3 + ZrO 2 additions had the strongest effect on grain size and tensile properties. Finally, high-temperature mechanical testing will be addressed in the near future, while irradiation studies are underway to investigate the irradiation resistance of these new ODS FeCrAl alloys.« less

  1. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  2. Effect of Al and Cr Content on Air and Steam Oxidation of FeCrAl Alloys and Commercial APMT Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.

    2017-03-09

    To develop the next generation of accident-tolerant fuel cladding for light-water nuclear reactors, wrought FeCrAlY alloys with varying amounts of Cr and Al and commercial Kanthal APMT alloy were evaluated for short-term (4 h) oxidation resistance in steam and air at 1200–1475 °C. Model alloys with lower Cr contents and higher Al contents were evaluated in this paper as lower Cr contents are desirable for radiation damage resistance during operation. As expected, a synergistic effect was found between the Cr and Al contents to enable protective Al 2O 3 formation under these conditions. Characterization of the alumina scales formed inmore » steam found that the scale morphology was affected by the alloy Y content and detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detected Y segregation along scale grain boundaries at 1200 °C. However, after 4 h at 1475 °C, Y and Hf were not segregated to the oxide grain boundaries formed on APMT and the scale had a single layer structure. Finally, compared to oxidation in air, STEM characterization of the outer scale showed differences in the Fe and Cr distributions in steam.« less

  3. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Hoelzer, David T.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO 2 or ZrO 2. Themore » new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.« less

  4. Effect of magnesium content on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of centrifugally cast functionally graded A356-Mg2Si in situ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Subhash Chandra; Chattopadhyay, K.; Chakrabarty, I.

    2018-04-01

    Functionally graded A356 alloy (Al–7.2Si–0.3Mg) –Mg2Si in situ composites have been synthesized via centrifugal casting route. Mg2Si particles tend to migrate towards the core of the tubular product by centrifugal force. The in situ formed Mg2Si particles in composites are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Optical, Scanning Electron and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Apart from primary blocky Mg2Si particles the matrix contains other phases viz. Al-Si eutectic, pseudo-binary Al-Mg2Si eutectic and Al-Fe-Si intermetallics. Density is found to decrease and %porosity is increased with increase in volume fraction of Mg2Si. Maximum hardness was observed at the inner core region due to maximum segregation of Mg2Si particles and gradually decreases towards the outer periphery region. The dry sliding wear was evaluated with varying parameters such as normal loads (N) and sliding distances (m). A substantial increase in wear resistance at the inner core region is observed. From the worn surface characterization, the wear mechanisms have been explained.

  5. Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in Al-Zr-Y alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haiyan, E-mail: gaohaiyan@sjtu.edu.cn

    Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in aged Al-Zr-Y alloy was investigated through atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and first principles calculations. The results show that short-bar-shaped D0{sub 19}-Al{sub 3}Y with some Zr atoms dissolved in precipitated at the very beginning of decomposition and worked as heterogeneous nuclei for L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}Zr with spherical morphology after being aged at 400 °C for 2 h. Quasi-static coarsening happened as the aging treatment lasted from 2 h to 200 h. However, distribution of Zr and Y atoms in Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) is nearly uniform and Al{submore » 3}(Zr,Y) do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}RE core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure which observed in other RE containing Al-Zr-RE alloys with L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}RE as nuclei. First principles calculations revealed that binding energy between Y and Zr is strong during the growth of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y), which led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms and attribute to the evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y). - Highlights: •Al{sub 3}Y precipitated firstly and then became nuclei for Al{sub 3}Zr during aging of Al-Zr-Y. •Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}Y core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure. •Strong binding between Y and Zr led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms.« less

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Compatibility of Several Reinforcement Materials with Beta Phase NiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compatibility of several reinforcement materials with beta phase NiAl alloys within the concentration range 40 to 50 at. percent Al have been analyzed from thermodynamic considerations at 1373 and 1573 K. The reinforcement materials considered in this study include carbides, borides, oxides, nitrides, beryllides, and silicides. Thermodynamic data for NiAl alloys have been reviewed and activity of Ni and Al in the beta phase have been derived at 1373 and 1573 K. Criteria for chemical compatibility between the reinforcement material and the matrix have been defined and several chemically compatible reinforcement materials have been defined.

  7. Effect of friction stir processing on tribological properties of Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktarer, S. M.; Sekban, D. M.; Yanar, H.; Purçek, G.

    2017-02-01

    As-cast Al-12Si alloy was processed by single-pass friction stir processing (FSP), and its effect on mainly friction and wear properties of processed alloy was studied in detail. The needle-shaped eutectic silicon particles were fragmented by intense plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization during FSP. The fragmented and homogenously distributed Si particles throughout the improve the mechanical properties and wear behavior of Al-12Si alloy. The wear mechanisms for this improvement were examined and the possible reasons were discussed.

  8. A surface analytical examination of Stringer particles in Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, L. A.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1983-01-01

    A surface analytical examination of powder metallurgy processed Al-Li-Cu alloys was conducted. The oxide stringer particles often found in these alloys was characterized. Particle characterization is important to more fully understand their impact on the stress corrosion and fracture properties of the alloy. The techniques used were SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) and SAM (Scanning Auger Microscopy). The results indicate that the oxide stringer particles contain both Al and Li with relatively high Li content and the Li compounds may be associated with the stringer particles, thereby locally depleting the adjacent matrix of Li solute.

  9. Comparison Study on Additive Manufacturing (AM) and Powder Metallurgy (PM) AlSi10Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Moon, S. K.; Yao, X.; Bi, G.; Shen, J.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloys fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) and powder metallurgy (PM) routes were investigated and compared. The microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy assisted with electron-dispersive spectroscopy. The crystalline features were studied by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Room-temperature tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements were performed to characterize the mechanical properties. It was found that the AM alloy had coarser Al grains but much finer Si precipitates compared with the PM alloy. Consequently, the AM alloy showed more than 100% increment in strength and hardness compared with the PM alloy due to the presence of ultrafine forms of Si, while exhibiting moderate ductility.

  10. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  11. Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arkady; Schaefer, Arseny; Chikova, Оlga; Borodianskiy, Konstantin

    2017-07-11

    One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi₇Fe₁ casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals' microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al 10 SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al₂O₃ precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work.

  12. Diffusional transport and predicting oxidative failure during cyclic oxidation of beta-NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Vinarcik, E. J.; Barrett, C. A.; Doychak, J.

    1992-01-01

    Nickel aluminides (NiAl) containing 40-50 at. percent Al and up to 0.1 at. percent Zr have been studied following cyclic oxidation at 1200, 1300, 1350 and 1400 C. The selective oxidation of aluminum resulted in the formation of protective Al2O3 scales on each alloy composition at each temperature. However, repeated cycling eventually resulted in the gradual formation of less protective NiAl2O4. The appearance of the NiAl2O4, signaling the end of the protective scale-forming capability of the alloy, was related to the presence of gamma-prime-(Ni3Al) which formed as a result of the loss of aluminum from the sample. A simple methodology is presented to predict the protective life of beta-NiAl alloys. This method predicts the oxidative lifetime due to aluminum depletion when the aluminum concentration decreases to a critical concentration. The time interval preceding NiAl2O4 formation (i.e., the lifetime based on protective Al2O3 formation) and predicted lifetimes are compared and discussed. Use of the method to predict the maximum use temperature for NiAl-Zr alloys is also discussed.

  13. Mechanical strength and microstructure of laser-welded Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy castings.

    PubMed

    Srimaneepong, Viritpon; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Equo; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2005-12-01

    Mechanical properties of laser-welded castings of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, CP Ti, and Co-Cr alloy were investigated and compared to the unwelded castings using a tensile test. Dumbbell-shaped specimens were cut at the center, and two halves of the specimens were welded with an Nd:YAG laser welding machine at 220 or 260 V of laser voltage. The mechanical strength of 260 V groups was higher than that of 220 V groups for Ti-6Al-7Nb and Co-Cr alloys except for CP Ti. All 260 V laser-welded castings of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and CP Ti, which fractured outside the welded joints, exhibited ductile characteristics, while all laser-welded Co-Cr alloy castings, which fractured within the welded joints, showed brittle characteristics. This study proved that the mechanical strength of laser-welded Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and CP Ti castings was as high as that of unwelded castings, while the mechanical properties of laser-welded alloy joints were influenced by microstructural changes.

  14. Application of in situ thermography for evaluating the high-cycle and very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg (T6).

    PubMed

    Krewerth, D; Weidner, A; Biermann, H

    2013-12-01

    The present paper illustrates the application of infrared thermal measurements for the investigation of crack initiation point and crack propagation in the high-cycle and the very high-cycle fatigue range of cast AlSi7Mg alloy (A356). The influence of casting defects, their location, size and amount was studied both by fractography and thermography. Besides internal and surface fatigue crack initiation as a further crack initiation type multiple fatigue crack initiation was observed via in situ thermography which can be well correlated with the results from fractography obtained by SEM investigations. In addition, crack propagation was studied by the development of the temperature measured via thermography. Moreover, the frequency influence on high-cycle fatigue behaviour was investigated. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and thermography can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of crack initiation and propagation in the VHCF regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Ag-doped TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfah, Ika Maria; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Murnandityas, Arnita Rut; Slamet

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is focused on comparative behavior of nanotubes growth on Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy using electrochemical anodization method. These alloys were anodized in electrolytes solution containing glycerol, water and 0.5wt.% of NH4F. Silver-doped TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized using photo-assisted deposition (PAD) at various Ag loading concentration in 0.05 M, 0.10 M, and 0.15 M. The phase composition and morphological characteristics were investigated by XRD and FESEM/EDX, respectively. The surface wettability was measured by contact angle meter. The results showed that TiO2 nanotubes can be grown on these surface alloys. XRD profiles revealed crystal formation of anatase, rutile and Ag on these surface alloys. According to FESEM images, the average nanotube diameter of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy are 134 nm and 120 nm, respectively. EDX-Mapping analysis showed that Ag desposited over surface of TiO2 nanotubes. The surface wettability indicated hydrophilicity properties on Ti-4Al-4V alloy and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy surface. This study may contribute to the development of silver-doped TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy can be considered in various photocatalytic applications such as biomedical devicesdue to photocatalytic mechanism and antibacterial ability.

  16. First Principles Study of Adsorption of Hydrogen on Typical Alloying Elements and Inclusions in Molten 2219 Al Alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuanchun; Xiao, Zhengbing; Jia, Guangze

    2017-07-19

    To better understand the effect of the components of molten 2219 Al alloy on the hydrogen content dissolved in it, the H adsorption on various positions of alloying element clusters of Cu, Mn and Al, as well as the inclusion of Al₂O₃, MgO and Al₄C₃, were investigated by means of first principles calculation, and the thermodynamic stability of H adsorbed on each possible site was also studied on the basis of formation energy. Results show that the interaction between Al, MgO, Al₄C₃ and H atoms is mainly repulsive and energetically unfavorable; a favorable interaction between Cu, Mn, Al₂O₃ and H atoms was determined, with H being more likely to be adsorbed on the top of the third atomic layer of Cu(111), the second atomic layer of Mn(111), and the O atom in the third atomic layer of Al₂O₃, compared with other sites. It was found that alloying elements Cu and Mn and including Al₂O₃ may increase the hydrogen adsorption in the molten 2219 Al alloy with Al₂O₃ being the most sensitive component in this regard.

  17. Length scale of the dendritic microstructure affecting tensile properties of Al-(Ag)-(Cu) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Roberto N.; Faria, Jonas D.; Brito, Crystopher; Veríssimo, Nathalia C.; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2016-12-01

    The dependence of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of Al-Cu, Al-Ag and Al-Ag-Cu alloys is experimentally investigated. These alloys were directionally solidified (DS) under a wide range of cooling rates (Ṫ), permitting extensive microstructural scales to be examined. Experimental growth laws are proposed relating the primary dendritic arm spacing, λ1 to Ṫ and tensile properties to λ1. It is shown that the most significant effect of the scale of λ1 on the tensile properties is that of the ternary alloy, which is attributed to the more homogeneous distribution of the eutectic mixture for smaller λ1 and by the combined reinforcement roles of the intermetallics present in the ternary eutectic: Al2Cu and nonequilibrium Ag3Al.

  18. Bulk Al-Al3Zr composite prepared by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorshid, E.; Enayati, M. H.; Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Paydar, M. H.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk Al/Al3Zr composite was prepared by a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and hot extrusion processes. Elemental Al and Zr powders were milled for up to 10 h and heat treated at 600°C for 1 h to form stable Al3Zr. The prepared Al3Zr powder was then mixed with the pure Al powder to produce an Al-Al3Zr composite. The composite powder was finally consolidated by hot extrusion at 550°C. The mechanical properties of consolidated samples were evaluated by hardness and tension tests at room and elevated temperatures. The results show that annealing of the 10-h-milled powder at 600°C for 1 h led to the formation of a stable Al3Zr phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed that the formation of Al3Zr began with the nucleation of a metastable phase, which subsequently transformed to the stable tetragonal Al3Zr structure. The tension yield strength of the Al-10wt%Al3Zr composite was determined to be 103 MPa, which is approximately twice that for pure Al (53 MPa). The yield stress of the Al/Al3Zr composite at 300°C is just 10% lower than that at room temperature, which demonstrates the strong potential for the prepared composite to be used in high-temperature structural applications.

  19. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-10-01

    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb-17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb-17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3 + ZrO2 (125YZ), (3) Y2O3 + HfO2 (125YH), and (4) Y2O3 + TiO2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb-17Li for 1000 h at 700 °C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb-17Li with small mass change after testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experienced the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (∼1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all four ODS alloys, which extended 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb-17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.

  20. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-07-09

    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb–17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb–17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y 2O 3 (125Y), (2) Y 2O 3+ZrO 2 (125YZ), (3) Y 2O 3+HfO 2 (125YH), and (4) Y 2O 3+TiO 2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb–17Li for 1000 h at 700°C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb–17Li with small mass change aftermore » testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experienced the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO 2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (~1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all 4 ODS alloys, which extended through 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb–17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.« less

  1. Microhardness and morphologic characteristics of rapidly solidified Al-12Si-8Ni-5Nd alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaköse, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    Al-Si-Ni-Nd alloys with a nominal composition of Al-12 wt.% Si-8 wt.% Ni-5 wt.% Nd alloy are prepared by a conventional casting (ingot) and melt spinning technique at different cooling rates ( ν). The effects of the rapid solidification rate on the microstructures and microhardness performances of the specimen alloys are investigated in detail. The results obtained by the XRD, SEM and DSC show that the ingot and melt spun alloys have a multiphase structure. When ν is 5 m/s, the alloy consists of four phases namely α-Al, intermetallic Al3Ni, Al11Nd3, and fcc Si. The melt-spun ribbons are completely composed of α-Al and eutectic Si phases, and primary silicon is not observed when ν increases to 20 m/s, 25 m/s, 30 m/s and 35 m/s. The XRD analysis indicated that the solubility of Si in the α-Al matrix increases greatly with the rapid solidification. The change in microhardness is discussed based on the microstructural observations. The microhardness values of the melt spun ribbons are about three times higher than those of ingot counterparts.

  2. Study of Cu-Al-Ni-Ga as high-temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qingsuo

    2018-03-01

    The effect of Ga element on the microstructure, mechanical properties and shape memory effect of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa (wt%) high-temperature shape memory alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, XRD and compression test. The microstructure observation results showed that the Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa ( x = 0.5 and 1.0) alloys displayed dual-phase morphology which consisted of 18R martensite and (Al, Ga)Cu phase, and their grain size was about several hundred microns, smaller than that of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni alloy. The compression test results proved that the mechanical properties of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa alloys were improved by addition of Ga element owing to the grain refinement and solid solution strengthening, and the compressive fracture strains were 11.5% for x = 0.5 and 14.9% for x = 1.0, respectively. When the pre-strain was 8%, the shape memory effect of 4.2 and 4.6% were obtained for Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-0.5 Ga and Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-1.0 Ga alloys after being heated to 400 °C for 1 min.

  3. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  4. An important factor powerfully influencing the Al Ni-based alloys' glass-forming ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Zhang; Xiufang, Bian; Chunxia, Fu; Na, Han; Jiankun, Zhou; Weimin, Wang

    2005-12-01

    In order to get better glass-forming abilities (GFAs), Ni atoms are partially replaced by Cu and Co atoms in Al84Ni12Zr4 alloys. Thermal analysis shows that the reduced crystallization temperature Trx has no direct correlation with the GFA of the alloys. However, it is notable that prepeaks have been found in the total structure factors of the amorphous Al84Ni(12-x)Zr4Cux and Al84Ni(12-x)Zr4Cox alloys. In addition, the results prove that the intensity of the prepeaks influences the GFA powerfully. The amorphous alloys with larger intensity of the prepeak show better GFA. The influence of prepeaks on the GFA can be explained by the atomic configuration difference among the liquid, crystal and glass states.

  5. Identification of strengthening phases in Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (tm) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Microstructure property relationships were determined for a family of ultrahigh strength weldable Al-Cu-Li based alloys referred to as Weldalite (tm) alloys. The highest strength variant of this family, Weldalite 049, has a high Cu/Li wt pct. ratio with a nominal composition of Al-6.3Cu-1.3Li-0.4Ag-0.4Mg-0.14Zr. Increasing the alloy's lithium content above 1.3 wt pct. resulted in a decrease in both yield and ultimate tensile strength. Strength was shown to be strongly dependent on lithium content, with a maximum in strength occurring in the range of about 1.1 to 1.4 wt pct. lithium. The strengthening phases present in Weldalite 049 (1.3Li) and an Al-6.3Cu-1.9Li-0.4Mg-0.14Zr alloy were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    DOEpatents

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  7. Improve sensitization and corrosion resistance of an Al-Mg alloy by optimization of grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianfeng; Heckman, Nathan M.; Velasco, Leonardo; Hodge, Andrea M.

    2016-05-01

    The sensitization and subsequent intergranular corrosion of Al-5.3 wt.% Mg alloy has been shown to be an important factor in stress corrosion cracking of Al-Mg alloys. Understanding sensitization requires the review of grain boundary character on the precipitation process which can assist in developing and designing alloys with improved corrosion resistance. This study shows that the degree of precipitation in Al-Mg alloy is dependent on grain boundary misorientation angle, adjacent grain boundary planes and grain boundary types. The results show that the misorientation angle is the most important factor influencing precipitation in grain boundaries of the Al-Mg alloy. Low angle grain boundaries (≤15°) have better immunity to precipitation and grain boundary acid attack. High angle grain boundaries (>15°) are vulnerable to grain boundary acid attack. Grain boundaries with adjacent plane orientations near to {100} have potential for immunity to precipitation and grain boundary acid attack. This work shows that low Σ (Σ ≤ 29) coincident site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries have thinner β precipitates. Modified nitric acid mass loss test and polarization test demonstrated that the global corrosion resistance of sputtered Al-Mg alloy is enhanced. This may be attributed to the increased fractions of low Σ (Σ ≤ 29) CSL grain boundaries after sputtering.

  8. Influence of testing environment on the room temperature ductility of FeAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Nathal, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of testing atmospheres (air, O2, N2, and vacuum) on the room-temperature ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-40Al-0.5B, and Fe-50Al alloys were investigated. The results confirmed the decrease in room-temperature ductility of Fe-rich FeAl alloys by the interaction of the aluminide with water vapor, reported previously by Liu et al. (1989). The highest ductilities were measured in the atmosphere with the lowest moisture levels, i.e., in vacuum. It was found that significant ductility is still restricted to Fe-rich alloys (Fe-40Al), as the Fe-50Al alloy remained brittle under all testing conditions. It was also found that slow cooling after annealing was beneficial, and the effect was additive to the environmental effect. The highest ductility measurements in this study were 9 percent elongation in furnace-cooled Fe-40Al and in Fe-40Al-0.5B, when tested in vacuum.

  9. Development of a TiAl Alloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couret, Alain; Voisin, Thomas; Thomas, Marc; Monchoux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a consolidated powder metallurgy process for which the powder sintering is achieved through an applied electric current. The present article aims to describe the method we employed to develop a TiAl-based alloy adjusted for this SPS process. Owing to its enhanced mechanical properties, this alloy was found to fully match the industrial specifications for the aeronautic and automotive industries, which require a high strength at high temperature and a reasonably good ductility at room temperature. A step-by-step method was followed for this alloy development. Starting from a basic study on the as-SPSed GE alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) in which the influence of the microstructure was studied, the microstructure-alloy composition relationships were then investigated to increase the mechanical properties. As a result of this study, we concluded that tungsten had to be the major alloying element to improve the resistance at high temperature and a careful addition of boron would serve the properties at room temperature. Thus, we developed the IRIS alloy (Ti-48Al-2W-0.08B). Its microstructure and mechanical properties are described here.

  10. Development of weldable, corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide (FeAl) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Wang, X.L.

    1997-04-01

    A boron-microalloyed FeAl alloy (Fe-36Al-0.2Mo-0.05Zr-0.13C, at.%, with 100-400 appm B) with improved weldability and mechanical properties was developed in FY 1994. A new scale-up and industry technology development phase for this work began in FY 1995, pursuing two parallel paths. One path was developing monolithic FeAl component and application technology, and the other was developing coating/cladding technology for alloy steels, stainless steels and other Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. In FY 1995, it was found that cast FeAl alloys had good strength at 700-750{degrees}C, and some (2.5%) ductility in air at room-temperature. Hot-extruded FeAl with refined grain size was found to have ductilitymore » and to also have good impact-toughness at room-temperature. Further, it was discovered that powder-metallurgy (P/M) FeAl, consolidated by direct hot-extrusion at 950-1000{degrees}C to have an ultra fine-grained microstructure, had the highest ductility, strength and impact-toughness ever seen in such intermetallic alloys.« less

  11. Effect of Al and Y2O3 on Mechanical Properties in Mechanically Alloyed Nanograin Ni-Based Alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Seok; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The effects of aluminum and Y2O3 on the mechanical properties in nano grain Ni-based alloys have been investigated. The test specimens are prepared by mechanical alloying at an Ar atmosphere. The addition of Y2O3 and Al may cause an increase in the tensile strength at room temperature, 400 °C and 600 °C. However, it was confirmed that the increase of tensile strength at room temperature and 400 °C was predominantly caused by addition of Y2O3, while that at 600 °C was mainly due to addition of Al. These results can be attributed to the dispersion strengthening of Y2O3, preventing the formation of Cr2O3 and the change of fracture mode at 600 °C by the addition of Al.

  12. Nanosized-Particle Dispersion-Strengthened Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by the Double Mechanical Alloying Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungseok

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process. The particle size of a Al3Ti phase was 30 nm or less, and the particles were uniformly distributed. These particles remained in a fine state in the matrix without growth and coarsening, even after the hot extrusion process. The microstructure of hot extruded alloys consisted of a uniform distribution of Al3Ti particles and other dispersoids in the Al matrix.

  13. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Li Based Alloys Processed by Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Jung, Chang-Gi; Son, Hyeon-Taek

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum and its alloys, due to their low density, high specific strength and high corrosion resistance amongst various structural materials, are used in a wide range of industrial applications for different aqueous solutions. In the present study, we studied effects of Ce addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-2Li-1Cu-0.8Mg-0.1Zr alloys. The melt was held at 780 °C for 20 min and poured into a mold. And as-cast Al alloys were hot-extruded into a plate that was 4 mm in thickness with a reduction ratio of 14:1. The extruded plates were held at 540 °C for 4 hr in water quenching to solution treatment them. As-extruded Al-2Li-1Cu-0.8Mg-0.1Zr-xCe (x = 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 wt.%) alloys are composed of Al, AlLi, AlCuLi and Al11Ce3 phases. By increasing the Ce content from 0 to 1.2 wt.%, the Al11Ce3 phase is increased, after solution treatment the AlLi and AlCuLi phases are decreased. With increasing Ce addition from 0 to 1.2 wt.%, the average grain size of the as-extruded Al alloys were decreased slightly from 100.7, 113.74, 84.3, 74.7 and 61.7 μm and ultimate tensile strength was decreased slightly from 267.59, 264.92, 237.40, 220.93 and 207.83 MPa at room temperature. After solution treatment, ultimate tensile strength was measured with 205.13, 198.12, 195.50, 198.27 and 208.01 MPa at room temperature.

  14. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to improve the strength and fracture toughness combination of P/M 2124 Al alloys in accordance with NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Two (2) P/M compositions based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.12 and 0.60 wt. pct. Zr were selected for investigation. The rapid solidification rates produced by atomization were observed to prohibit the precipitation of coarse, primary Al3Zr in both alloys. A major portion of the Zr precipitated as finely distributed, coherent Al3Zr phases during vacuum preheating and solution heat treatment. The proper balance between Cu and Mg contents eliminated undissolved, soluble constituents such as Al2CuMg and Al2Cu during atomization. The resultant extruded microstructures produced a unique combination of strength and fracture toughness. An increase in the volume fraction of coherent Al3Zr, unlike incoherent Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoids, strengthened the P/M Al base alloy either directly by dislocation-precipitate interactions, indirectly by a retardation of recrystallization, or a combination of both mechanisms. Furthermore, coherent Al3Zr does not appear to degrade toughness to the extent that incoherent Al20Cu2Mn3 does. Consequently, the addition of 0.60 wt. pct. Zr to the base alloy, incorporated with a 774K (935 F) solution heat treatment temperature, produces an alloy which exceeds all tensile property and fracture toughness goals for damage tolerant and fatigue resistant applications in the naturally aged condition.

  15. The fracture resistance of 1420 and 1421 Al-Mg-Li alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birt, M. J.; Hafley, R. A.; Wagner, J. A.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    The resistance to stable crack growth in 1420-T6 (Al-5Mg-2.1Li-0.1Zr-0.01Sc, less than 0.06Fe, in wt pct) and 1421-T6 (Al-4.7Mg-1.9Li-0.09Zr-0.2Sc, less than 0.06Fe) Al-Mg-Li alloys was investigated, based on the R curves generated in accordance with ASTM E561-86 and fractography analyses. The crack resistance of 1420 and 1421 alloys was found to be comparable to that of the conventional Space Shuttle External Tank Al alloy, 2219-T87. The main differences in the fracture behaviors arose from differences in the alloys' microstructures. In the case of 1420 alloy, a slightly enhanced toughness behavior was observed, due to the T-phase precipitates, which may have promoted more homogeneous deformation and enhanced microvoid coalescence. In the case of 1421 alloy, the addition of Sc led to a refined grain size and resulted in slightly reduced toughness.

  16. Database on Performance of Neutron Irradiated FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Littrell, Ken

    The present report summarizes and discusses the database on radiation tolerance for Generation I, Generation II, and commercial FeCrAl alloys. This database has been built upon mechanical testing and microstructural characterization on selected alloys irradiated within the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to doses of 13.8 dpa at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 550°C. The structure and performance of these irradiated alloys were characterized using advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective of developing this database is to enhance the rapid development of a mechanistic understanding on the radiation tolerancemore » of FeCrAl alloys, thereby enabling informed decisions on the optimization of composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys for application as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. This report is structured to provide a brief summary of critical results related to the database on radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.« less

  17. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; ...

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition.more » Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.« less

  18. Combination of experimental and numerical methods for mechanical characterization of Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglova, A.; Roland, M.; Diebels, S.; Mücklich, F.

    2017-10-01

    In general, mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys strongly depend on the morphology and arrangement of microconstituents, such as primary aluminium dendrites, silicon particles, etc. Therefore, a detailed characterization of morphological and mechanical properties of the alloys is necessary to better understand the relations between the underlined properties and to tailor the material’s microstructure to the specific application needs. The mechanical characterization usually implies numerical simulations and mechanical tests, which allow to investigate the influence of different microstructural aspects on different scales. In this study, the uniaxial tension and compression tests have been carried out on Al-Si alloys having different microstructures. The mechanical behavior of the alloys has been interpreted with respect to the morphology of the microconstituents and has been correlated with the results of numerical simulations. The advantages and limitations of the experimental and numerical methods have been disclosed and the importance of combining both techniques for the interpretation of the mechanical behavior of Al-Si alloys has been shown. Thereby, it has been suggested that the density of Si particles and the size of Al dendrites are more important for the strengthening of the alloys than the size-shape features of the eutectic Si induced by the modification.

  19. Research of Mechanical Property Gradient Distribution of Al-Cu Alloy in Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Sui, Yanwei; Liu, Aihui; Li, Bangsheng; Guo, Jingjie

    Al-Cu alloy castings are obtained using centrifugal casting. The regularity of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy castings with the same centrifugal radius at different positions is investigated. The result shows that the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and microscope hardness exhibit the following gradient distribution characteristic — high on both sides and low on the center. The trend of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy increases with the increase in the rotation speed. Moreover, the mechanical properties of casting centerline two sides have asymmetry. The reason is that the grain size of casting centerline two sides and Al2Cu phase and Cu content change correspondingly.

  20. Designing Gamma TiAl Alloys (K5 Based) for Use at 840 C and Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Won; Kim, Sang-Lan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate how carbon additions and Al content variation affects RT tensile properties and creep performance in gamma TiAl alloys. On the basis of the results from the work four alloys were selected within the composition range of Ti-(44.7-47.0) Al-(1.0-1.7)Cr-3.0Nb-0.2W-0.2B-(0.23-0.43)C-(0, 0.2)Si. Through extensive annealing/aging experiments, detailed observations of microstructure evolution, property measurements and analyses, comprehensive understanding was made in the carbide formation process. It was found that creep properties depend on the distribution of carbide particles, which is controlled not only by the aging process but also the amount ratio fo Al and carbon. From the results and analysis, new creep-resistant alloy compositions are suggested for further development.

  1. Effect of different alloyed layers on the high temperature oxidation behavior of newly developed Ti 2AlNb-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Pingze; Zhao, Haofeng; Wang, Ling; Xie, Aigen

    2011-01-01

    The application of titanium aluminide orthorhombic alloys (O-phase alloys) as potential materials in aircraft and jet engines was limited by their poor oxidation resistance at high temperature. The Ti 2AlNb-based alloys were chromised (Cr), chromium-tungstened (Cr-W) and nickel-chromised (Ni-Cr) by the double glow plasma surface alloying process to improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. The discontinuous oxidative behavior of Cr, Cr-W and Ni-Cr alloyed layers on Ti 2AlNb-based alloy at 1093 K was explored in this study. After exposing at 1093 K, the TiO 2 layer was formed on the bare alloy and accompanied by the occurrence of crack, which promoted oxidation rate. The oxidation behavior of Ti 2AlNb-based alloys was improved by surface alloying due to the formation of protective Al 2O 3 scale or continuous and dense NiCr 2O 4 film. The Ni-Cr alloyed layer presented the best high-temperature oxidation resistance among three alloyed layers.

  2. Microstructure, Phase Occurrence, and Corrosion Behavior of As-Solidified and As-Annealed Al-Pd Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďuriška, Libor; Palcut, Marián; Špoták, Martin; Černičková, Ivona; Gondek, Ján; Priputen, Pavol; Čička, Roman; Janičkovič, Dušan; Janovec, Jozef

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we studied the microstructure, phase constitution, and corrosion performance of Al88Pd12, Al77Pd23, Al72Pd28, and Al67Pd33 alloys (metal concentrations are given in at.%). The alloys were prepared by repeated arc melting of Al and Pd granules in argon atmosphere. The as-solidified samples were further annealed at 700 °C for 500 h. The microstructure and phase constitution of the as-solidified and as-annealed alloys were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The alloys were found to consist of (Al), ɛ n ( Al3Pd), and δ (Al3Pd2) in various fractions. The corrosion testing of the alloys was performed in aqueous NaCl (0.6 M) using a standard 3-electrode cell monitored by potentiostat. The corrosion current densities and corrosion potentials were determined by Tafel extrapolation. The corrosion potentials of the alloys were found between - 763 and - 841 mV versus Ag/AgCl. An active alloy dissolution has been observed, and it has been found that (Al) was excavated, whereas Al in ɛ n was de-alloyed. The effects of bulk chemical composition, phase occurrence and microstructure on the corrosion behavior are evaluated. The local nobilities of ɛ n and δ are discussed. Finally, the conclusions about the alloy's corrosion resistance in saline solutions are provided.

  3. Hafnium influence on the microstructure of FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geanta, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Stanciu, E.-M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to their special properties at high temperatures, FeCrAl alloys micro-alloyed with Zr can be regarded as potential materials for use at nuclear power plants, generation 4R. These materials are resistant to oxidation at high temperatures, to corrosion, erosion and to the penetrating radiations in liquid metal environments. Also, these are able to form continuously, by the self-generation process of an oxide coating with high adhesive strength. The protective oxide layers must be textured and regenerable, with a good mechanical strength, so that crack and peeling can not appear. To improve the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the oxide layer, we introduced limited quantities of Zr, Ti, Y, Hf, Ce in the range of 1-3%wt in the FeCrAl alloy. These elements, with very high affinity to the oxygen, are capable to stabilize the alumina structure and to improve the oxide adherence to the metallic substrate. FeCrAl alloys microalloyed with Hf were prepared using VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) unit, under high argon purity atmosphere. Three different experimental alloys have been prepared using the same metallic matrix of Fe-14Cr-5Al, by adding of 0.5%wt Hf, 1.0%wt Hf and respectively 1.5%wt Hf. The microhardness values for the experimental alloys have been in the range 154 ... 157 HV0.2. EDAX analyses have been performed to determine chemical composition on the oxide layer and in the bulk of sample and SEM analyze has been done to determine the microstructural features. The results have shown the capacity of FeCrAl alloy to form oxide layers, with different texture and rich in elements such as Al and Hf.

  4. Effects of Thermal Exposure on Properties of Al-Li Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Stanton, William; Lawless, Kirby; Russell, Carolyn; Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Babel, Henry; Farahmand, Bahram; Schwab, David; hide

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium (Al-Li) alloys offer significant performance benefits for aerospace structural applications due to their higher specific properties compared with conventional Al alloys. For example, the application of Al-Li alloy 2195 to the space shuffle external cryogenic fuel tank resulted in weight savings of over 7,000 lb, enabling successful deployment of International Space Station components. The composition and heat treatment of 2195 were optimized specifically for strength-toughness considerations for an expendable cryogenic tank. Time-dependent properties related to reliability, such as thermal stability, fatigue, and corrosion, will be of significant interest when materials are evaluated for a reusable cryotank structure. Literature surveys have indicated that there is limited thermal exposure data on Al-Li alloys. The effort reported here was designed to establish the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties and microstructure of Al-Li alloys C458, L277, and 2195 in plate gages. Tensile, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance were evaluated for both parent metal and friction stir welds (FSW) after exposure to temperatures as high as 300 F for up to 1000 hrs. Microstructural changes were evaluated with thermal exposure in order to correlate with the observed data trends. The ambient temperature parent metal data showed an increase in strength and reduction in elongation after exposure at lower temperatures. Strength reached a peak with intermediate temperature exposure followed by a decrease at highest exposure temperature. Friction stir welds of all alloys showed a drop in elongation with increased length of exposure. Understanding the effect of thermal exposure on the properties and microstructure of Al-Li alloys must be considered in defining service limiting temperatures and exposure times for a reusable cryotank structure.

  5. Effect of Ag and Cu Contents on the Age Hardning Behavior of Al-Zn-Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Katsumi; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Yoshida, Tomoo; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsuda, Kenji

    Al-Zn-Mg alloy has been known as one of the aluminum alloys with the good age-hardening ability and the high strength among commercial aluminum alloys. The mechanical property of the limited ductility, however, is required to further improvement. In this work, three alloys, which were added Cu or Ag into the Al-Zn-Mg-Si alloy, were prepared to compare the effect of the additional elements on the aging behavior. The content of Ag and Cu were 0.2 at.% and 0.2at.%, respectively. The age-hardening behavior and microstructures of those alloys were investigated by hardness measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. Ag or Cu added alloy showed higher peak hardness than Ag or Cu free alloy. According to addition of Ag or Cu, the number density of the precipitates increased than Ag or Cu free alloy.

  6. Atomistic Modeling of Quaternary Alloys: Ti and Cu in NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Wilson, Allen W.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garces, Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    The change in site preference in NiAl(Ti,Cu) alloys with concentration is examined experimentally via ALCHEMI and theoretically using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. Results for the site occupancy of Ti and Cu additions as a function of concentration are determined experimentally for five alloys. These results are reproduced with large-scale BFS-based Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. The original set of five alloys is extended to 25 concentrations, which are modeled by means of the BFS method for alloys, showing in more detail the compositional range over which major changes in behavior occur. A simple but powerful approach based on the definition of atomic local environments also is introduced to describe energetically the interactions between the various elements and therefore to explain the observed behavior.

  7. High-Efficiency Inhibition of Gravity Segregation in Al-Bi Immiscible Alloys by Adding Lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Peng; Zhang, Jinyang; Geng, Haoran; Teng, Xinying; Zhao, Degang; Yang, Zhongxi; Wang, Yi; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Xun

    2018-05-01

    The inhibition of gravity segregation has been a long-standing challenge in fabrication and applications of homogeneous immiscible alloys. Therefore, the effect of rare-earth La on the gravity segregation of Al-Bi immiscible alloys was investigated to understand the homogenization mechanism. The results showed that the addition of La can completely suppress the gravity segregation. This is attributed to the nucleation of Bi-rich liquid phase on the in-situ produced LaBi2 phase and the change of the shape of LaBi2@Bi droplets. In addition, a novel strategy is developed to prepare the homogeneous immiscible alloys through the addition of rare-earth elements. This strategy not only is applicable to other immiscible alloys, but also is conducive to finding more elements to suppress the gravity segregation. This study provided a useful reference for the fabrication of the homogeneous immiscible alloys.

  8. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy.

    PubMed

    Pola, Annalisa; Montesano, Lorenzo; Tocci, Marialaura; La Vecchia, Giovina Marina

    2017-03-03

    Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  9. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Pola, Annalisa; Montesano, Lorenzo; Tocci, Marialaura; La Vecchia, Giovina Marina

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself. PMID:28772617

  10. Precipitate statistics in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy from scanning precession electron diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunde, J. K.; Paulsen, Ø.; Wenner, S.; Holmestad, R.

    2017-09-01

    The key microstructural feature providing strength to age-hardenable Al alloys is nanoscale precipitates. Alloy development requires a reliable statistical assessment of these precipitates, in order to link the microstructure with material properties. Here, it is demonstrated that scanning precession electron diffraction combined with computational analysis enable the semi-automated extraction of precipitate statistics in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy. Among the main findings is the precipitate number density, which agrees well with a conventional method based on manual counting and measurements. By virtue of its data analysis objectivity, our methodology is therefore seen as an advantageous alternative to existing routines, offering reproducibility and efficiency in alloy statistics. Additional results include improved qualitative information on phase distributions. The developed procedure is generic and applicable to any material containing nanoscale precipitates.

  11. Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.

    2015-08-01

    Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through <111>-twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.

  12. Microstructure Evolution of AlSi10Mg(Cu) Alloy Related to Isothermal Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cai, Cheng; Geng, Huifang; Wang, Shifu; Gong, Boxue; Zhang, Zheng

    2018-05-16

    The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance changes of AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy under different isothermal exposure conditions have been investigated by tensile experiments and electrochemical testing. The results show that isothermal exposure has a significant influence on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Tensile strength is more sensitive to the higher exposure temperature, while the corrosion resistance is greater affected by the lower exposure temperature and shorter time. Microstructure evolution of AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy related to different isothermal exposure condition has also been studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the isothermal exposure changed the type and density of nanoscale precipitates in the alloy, which in turn induced the change of performance of the alloy.

  13. Solidification and Microstructure of Ni-Containing Al-Si-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li; Ren, Luyang; Geng, Xinyu; Hu, Henry; Nie, Xueyuan; Tjong, Jimi

    2018-01-01

    2 wt. % nickel (Ni) addition was introduced into a conventional cast aluminum alloy A380. The influence of transition alloying element nickel on the solidification behavior of cast aluminum alloy A380 was investigated via thermal analyses based on temperature measurements recorded on cooling curves. The corresponding first and second derivatives of the cooling curves were derived to reveal the details of phase changes during solidification. The nucleation of the primary α-Al phase and eutectic phases were analyzed. The microstructure analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that different types and amount of eutectic phases are present in the tested two alloys. The introduction of Ni forms the complex Ni-containing intermetallic phases with Cu and Al.

  14. Microstructure Evolution of AlSi10Mg(Cu) Alloy Related to Isothermal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Cheng; Geng, Huifang; Wang, Shifu; Gong, Boxue; Zhang, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance changes of AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy under different isothermal exposure conditions have been investigated by tensile experiments and electrochemical testing. The results show that isothermal exposure has a significant influence on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Tensile strength is more sensitive to the higher exposure temperature, while the corrosion resistance is greater affected by the lower exposure temperature and shorter time. Microstructure evolution of AlSi10Mg(Cu) alloy related to different isothermal exposure condition has also been studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the isothermal exposure changed the type and density of nanoscale precipitates in the alloy, which in turn induced the change of performance of the alloy. PMID:29772678

  15. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  16. Design, properties, and weldability of advanced oxidation-resistant FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Gussev, M. N.; Field, K. G.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2017-05-05

    FeCrAl alloys are promising as corrosion- and oxidation-resistance materials for extreme high-temperature applications. However, further alloy design and improvement requires a delicate balance between workability, weldability, propensity for '-phase formation, among other factors. Here, a series of advanced oxidant resistant FeCrAl alloys were produced and investigated. Variants with Al (+2%), Nb (+1%), and TiC (0.1, 0.3, and 1%) additions over the reference alloy (Fe-13%Cr-5%Al) were characterized in detail before and after controlled laser beam welding using tensile tests with digital image correlation, SEM-EBSD analysis, and fractography. All investigated alloys demonstrated yield stress in the weldment over 500 MPa; no welding-inducedmore » cracking was observed. However, it was shown that the increase in the Al-content over 5% was detrimental leading to a brittle fracture mechanism and decreased ductility in the weldment. At the same time, Nb and TiC additions were beneficial for preventing grain growth and reducing local softening (yield stress reduction) in the heat-affected zone. The 1% TiC addition also effectively refined grain size in the weldment.« less

  17. CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR OF AS-QUENCHED Al-Cu-Mn ALLOY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xia-Wei; Zhu, Jing-Chuan; Nong, Zhi-Sheng; Ye, Mao; Lai, Zhong-Hong; Liu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The hot flow stress of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy was modeled using the constitutive equations. The as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy were treated with isothermal hot compression tests in the temperature range of 350-500°C, the strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The hyperbolic sine equation was found to be appropriate for flow stress modeling and prediction. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, a constitutive equation is a relation between 0.2 pct yield stress and deformation conditions (strain rate and deformation temperature) was established. The corresponding hot deformation activation energy (Q) for as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy was determined to be 251.314 kJ/mol. Parameters of constitutive equation of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy were calculated at different small strains (≤ 0.01). The calculated flow stresses from the constitutive equation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Therefore, this constitutive equation can be used as an accurate temperature-stress model to solve the problems of quench distortion of Al-Cu-Mn alloy parts.

  18. Design, properties, and weldability of advanced oxidation-resistant FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, M. N.; Field, K. G.; Yamamoto, Y.

    FeCrAl alloys are promising as corrosion- and oxidation-resistance materials for extreme high-temperature applications. However, further alloy design and improvement requires a delicate balance between workability, weldability, propensity for '-phase formation, among other factors. Here, a series of advanced oxidant resistant FeCrAl alloys were produced and investigated. Variants with Al (+2%), Nb (+1%), and TiC (0.1, 0.3, and 1%) additions over the reference alloy (Fe-13%Cr-5%Al) were characterized in detail before and after controlled laser beam welding using tensile tests with digital image correlation, SEM-EBSD analysis, and fractography. All investigated alloys demonstrated yield stress in the weldment over 500 MPa; no welding-inducedmore » cracking was observed. However, it was shown that the increase in the Al-content over 5% was detrimental leading to a brittle fracture mechanism and decreased ductility in the weldment. At the same time, Nb and TiC additions were beneficial for preventing grain growth and reducing local softening (yield stress reduction) in the heat-affected zone. The 1% TiC addition also effectively refined grain size in the weldment.« less

  19. Microstructure and properties of thermally sprayed Al-Sn-based alloys for plain bearing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, T.; Driver, L. C.; Harris, S. J.; McCartney, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    Al-Sn plain bearings for automotive applications traditionally comprise a multilayer structure. Conventionally, bearing manufacturing involves casting the Al-Sn alloy and roll-bonding to a steel backing strip. Recently, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spraying has been used as a novel alternative manufacturing route. The present project extends previous work on ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys to quaternary systems, which contain specific additions for potentially enhanced properties. Two alloys were studied in detail, namely, Al-20wt.%Sn-1wt.%Cu-2wt.%Ni and Al-20wt.%Sn-1wt.%Cu-7wt.%Si. This article will describe the microstructural evolution of these alloys following HVOF spraying onto steel substrates and subsequent heat treatment. The microstructures of powders and coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the phases were identified by x-ray diffraction. Coating microhardnesses were determined under both as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions, and by the differences related to the microstructures that developed. Finally, the wear behavior of the sprayed and heat-treated coatings in hot engine oil was measured using an industry standard test and was compared with that of previous work on a ternary alloy.

  20. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  1. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl3 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianhua; He, Jiansheng; Tang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl3 particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl3 particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl3 particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl3 particles prepared through different processes was almost identical. PMID:28773987

  2. Microstructures and microhardness evolutions of melt-spun Al-8Ni-5Nd-4Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karakoese, Ercan, E-mail: ekarakose@karatekin.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-03-15

    Al-Ni-Nd-Si alloy with nominal composition of Al-8 wt.%Ni-5 wt.%Nd-4 wt.%Si was rapidly solidified by using melt-spinning technique to examine the influence of the cooling rate/conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties. The resulting conventional cast (ingot) and melt-spun ribbons were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and Vickers microhardness tester. The ingot alloys consists of four phases namely {alpha}-Al, intermetallic Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 11}Nd{sub 3} and fcc Si. Melt-spun ribbons are completely composed of {alpha}-Al phase. The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results show that themore » microstructures of rapidly solidified ribbons are clearly different from their ingot alloy. The change in microhardness is discussed based on the microstructural observations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid solidification allows a reduction in grain size, extended solid solution ranges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed the matrix lattice parameter increases with increasing wheel speed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt-spun ribbons consist of partly amorphous phases embedded in crystalline phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution.« less

  3. Effect of alloying elements and heat treatment on the fracture toughness of Ti-Al-Nb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, S.V.; Gogia, A.K.; Banerjee, D.

    The fracture toughness and toughening mechanisms of Ti{sub 3}Al based alloy compositions covering a large range of Nb, small variations in Al and quaternary substitutions of Nb have been studied in a variety of heat treated conditions designed to vary the volume fractions of the constituents phases. It was found that the B2 phase of these alloys failed by cleavage in a coarse grained condition but in a ductile manner when fine grained. A higher Nb and a lower Al content improved the cleavage fracture stress of the B2 phase while replacement of a part of Nb and a lowermore » Al content improved the cleavage fracture stress of the B2 phase while replacement of a part of Nb with Mo or Ta had no significant effect. Heat treatments which result in a two phase microstructure ({alpha}{sub 2} + {beta}/B2) exhibited a trend of increasing fracture toughness with increasing volume fraction of {beta}/B2 up to about 60--80 volume fraction of {beta}/B2. This behavior was largely explained by quantifying the role of crack tip blunting. The effect of alloying elements on fracture toughness in two phase microstructures was similar to that observed in the coarse grained B2 condition.« less

  4. Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

    2011-07-01

    An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems.

  5. In Situ Assessment of Lattice in an Al-Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, A. J.; Obstalecki, M.; Tayon, W.; Hernquist, M.; Mudrock, R.; Kenesei, P.; Lienert, U.

    2013-01-01

    The lattice strains of individual grains are measured in an Al-Li alloy, AA 2195, using high-energy X-ray diffraction at a synchrotron source. The diffraction of individual grains in this highly textured production alloy was isolated through use of a depth-defining aperture. It is shown that hydrostatic stress, and in turn the stress triaxiality, can vary significantly from grain to grain.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przewlocka, H.; Siedlecka, J.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys containing up to 7.2% Al and from 18 to 30% Al was studied. Kinetic measurements were conducted using the isothermal gravimetric method in the range of 1073-1223 K and 1073-1373 K for 50 hours. The methods used in studies of the mechanism of oxidation included: X-ray microanalysis, X-ray structural analysis, metallographic analysis and marker tests.

  7. Fractional Brownian motion of an Al nanosphere in liquid Al-Si alloy under electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Takeshi; Howe, J. M.; Jesser, W. A.; Murayama, M.

    2004-05-01

    Fractional forces and Brownian motion are expected to govern the behavior of nanoscale metallic solids in liquids, but such systems have not been studied. We investigated the motion of a crystalline Al nanosphere inside a partially molten Al-Si alloy particle, using an electron beam to both stimulate and observe the motion of the nanosphere. The irregular motion observed was quantified as antipersistant fractional Brownian motion. Analysis of possible phenomena contributing to the motion demonstrates that the incident electrons provide the fractional force that moves the Al nanosphere and that gravity and the oxide shell on the partially molten particle cause the antipersistant behavior.

  8. [delta] precipitation in an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, K.S.; Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Gokhale, A.A.

    1994-05-15

    AlLi based [delta] phase has an NaTl structure (i.e., a diamond cubic) with a = 0.637nm and is an equilibrium phase in the binary Al-Li system. In heat treated binary Al-Li alloys of appropriate compositions, [delta] phase can format grain boundaries as well as within the grains. In commercially heat treated Al-Li-Cu alloys of 2090 specification, the grain boundary precipitate [delta] of the binary Al-Li system is replaced by a combination of T[sub 2](Al[sub 6]CuLi[sub 3]), R(Al[sub 5]CuLi[sub 3]) and T[sub 1](Al[sub 2]CuLi) phases. In similarly treated Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys of 8090 specification, the copper rich T[sub 2] phase, present inmore » the form of Al[sub 6]CuLi[sub 3[minus]x]Mg[sub x], is known to be the major coarse g.b. precipitate. The presence of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg based C phase at the grain boundaries of the commercially heat treated 8090 alloys has also been documented. No detailed study has yet been carried out to verify whether the [delta] phase can be present at the grain boundaries of the commercially heat treated 8090 alloys. Given the correlations between the g.b. phase morphology, g.b. phase chemistry, and the stress corrosion cracking resistance of these alloys, it is important that the g.b. precipitates be examined and identified. In this paper results using TEM are presented to show that the [delta] phase can be present in varying amounts at the grain boundaries in an 8090 alloy when heat treated in the temperature range of 170--350 C. An examination is also made of the [delta] precipitation within the grain to establish that the T[sub 2]/[alpha]-Al interface is the dominant nucleation site for the noncoherent [delta] phase.« less

  9. Thermophysical properties of substantially undercooled liquid Ti-Al-Nb ternary alloy measured by electromagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Wang, H. P.; Wei, B.

    2013-03-01

    The thermophysical properties of undercooled liquid alloys at high temperature are usually difficult to measure by experiment. Here, we report the specific heat of liquid Ti45Al45Nb10 ternary alloy in the undercooled state. By using electromagnetic levitation technique, a maximum undercooling of 287 K (0.15 T L) is achieved for this alloy. Its specific heat is determined to be 32.72 ± 2.51 J mol-1 K-1 over a broad temperature range of 1578-2010 K.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of microstructural features of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos-Borja, M.; Pizzo, P. P.; Larson, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of aluminum-lithium-copper alloys was conducted. The principal purpose is to characterize the nature, size, and distribution of stringer particles which result from the powder metallurgy (P/M) processing of these alloys. Microstructural features associated with the stringer particles are reported that help explain the stress corrosion susceptibility of the powder metallurgy-processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. In addition, matrix precipitation events are documented for a variety of heat treatments and process variations. Hot rolling is observed to significant alter the nature of matrix precipitation, and the observations are correlated with concomitant mechanical property variations.

  11. Evolution of Primary Fe-Rich Compounds in Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, Alberto; Capuzzi, Stefano; Timelli, Giulio

    Although iron is usually added in die cast Al-Si foundry alloys to prevent die soldering, primary Fe-rich particles are generally considered as "hardspot" inclusions which compromise the mechanical properties of the alloy, namely ductility and toughness. As there is no economical methods to remove the Fe excess in secondary Al-Si alloys at this time, the control of solidification process and chemical composition of the alloy is a common industrial practice to overcome the negative effects connected with the presence of Fe-rich particles. In this work, the size and morphology as well as the nucleation density of primary Fe-rich particles have been studied as function of cooling rate and alloy chemical composition for secondary Al-Si-Cu alloys. The solidification experiments were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry whereas morphology investigations were conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mcrosegregations and chemical composition of primary Fe-rich particles were examined by energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  12. The effects of zinc addition on the environmental stability of Al-Li alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, Raymond J.; Stoner, Glenn E.

    1990-01-01

    It was found that relatively small addition of Zn can improve the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Al-Li alloys. However, the mechanism by which this is accomplished is unclear. The role that Zn plays in altering the behavior of Alloy 8090 is investigated. Early results suggest that Zn additions increase the volume fraction of delta(Al3Li) precipitation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on these alloys confirms this. The four alloys studied each had initial compositions lying in the 8090 window and had varying amounts of Zn added to them. Alloy 8090, like other Al-Li alloys, displays a delta' precipitate free zone (PFZ) upon artificial aging along the grain and subgrain boundaries. However Zn additions greatly decreased or eliminated a delta' PFZ after 100 hours at 160 C. This implies that the subgrain boundary precipitation kinetics are being altered and suppressed. Furthermore, there appears to be a window of Zn concentration above which a delta ' PFZ can reappear with the nucleation and growth of a currently unidentified precipitate on the boundaries. Polarization experiments were performed and the results presented. The experiments were performed in deaerated 3.5 w/o NaCl in both as received (T3) condition and at peak aging of 100 hours at 160 C. The aging profile was determined via Vickers Hardness tests.

  13. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  14. Microstructural Evolution of Al-1Fe (Weight Percent) Alloy During Accumulative Continuous Extrusion Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-Guo; Tie, Di; Shang, Ying-Qiu; Jin, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Chao

    2018-04-01

    As a new microstructure refining method, accumulative continuous extrusion forming (ACEF) cannot only refine metal matrix but also refine the phases that exist in it. In order to detect the refinements of grain and second phase during the process, Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy was processed by ACEF, and the microstructural evolution was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the average grain size of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy decreased from 13 to 1.2 μm, and blocky Al3Fe phase with an average length of 300 nm was granulated to Al3Fe particle with an average diameter of 200 nm, after one pass of ACEF. Refinement of grain was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), and the granulation of Al3Fe phase included the spheroidization resulting from deformation heat and the fragmentation caused by the coupling effects of strain and thermal effect. The spheroidization worked in almost the entire deformation process, while the fragmentation required strain accumulation. However, fragmentation contributed more than spheroidization. Al3Fe particle stimulated the formation of substructure and retarded the migration of recrystallized grain boundary, but the effect of Al3Fe phase on refinement of grain could only be determined by the contrastive investigation of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy and pure Al.

  15. Strength properties and structure of a submicrocrystalline Al-Mg-Mn alloy under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A. N.; Brodova, I. G.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The results of studying the strength of a submicrocrystalline aluminum A5083 alloy (chemical composition was 4.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.11Si-0.23Fe-0.03Cr-0.02Cu-0.06Ti wt % and Al base) under shockwave compression are presented. The submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy was produced in the process of dynamic channel-angular pressing at a strain rate of 104 s-1. The average size of crystallites in the alloy was 180-460 nm. Hugoniot elastic limit σHEL, dynamic yield stress σy, and the spall strength σSP of the submicrocrystalline alloy were determined based on the free-surface velocity profiles of samples during shock compression. It has been established that upon shock compression, the σHEL and σy of the submicrocrystalline alloy are higher than those of the coarse-grained alloy and σsp does not depend on the grain size. The maximum value of σHEL reached for the submicrocrystalline alloy is 0.66 GPa, which is greater than that in the coarse-crystalline alloy by 78%. The dynamic yield stress is σy = 0.31 GPa, which is higher than that of the coarse-crystalline alloy by 63%. The spall strength is σsp = 1.49 GPa. The evolution of the submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy during shock compression was studied. It has been established that a mixed nonequilibrium grain-subgrain structure with a fragment size of about 400 nm is retained after shock compression, and the dislocation density and the hardness of the alloy are increased.

  16. Processing, physical metallurgy and creep of NiAl + Ta and NiAl + Nb alloys. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, Viren M.

    1988-01-01

    Powder processed NiAl + Ta alloys containing 1, 2, and 4.5 at percent tantalum and NiAl + Nb alloys containing 1 and 2 at percent niobium were developed for improved creep properties. In addition, a cast alloy with 5 at percent tantalum was also studied. Hot extrusion parameters for processing alloys with 1 and 2 at percent of tantalum or niobium were designed. The NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy could be vacuum hot pressed successfully, even though it could not be extruded. All the phases in the multiphase alloys were identified and the phase transformations studied. The Ni2AlTa in NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy transforms into a liquid phase above 1700 K. Solutionizing and annealing below this temperature gives rise to a uniform distribution of fine second phase precipitates. Compressive creep properties were evaluated at 1300 K using constant load and constant velocity tests. In the higher strain rate region single phase NiAl + 1 at percent Ta and NiAl + 1 at percent Nb alloys exhibit a stress exponent of 5 characteristic of climb controlled dislocation creep. In slower strain rate regime diffusional creep becomes important. The two phase alloys containing 2 to 5 at percent Ta and 2 at percent Nb show considerable improvement over binary NiAl and single phase alloys. Loose dislocation networks and tangles stabilized by the precipitates were found in the as crept microstructure. The cast alloy which has larger grains and a distribution of fine precipitates shows the maximum improvement over binary NiAl.

  17. Production of al-si alloy feedstocks using the solvent hot mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J. Q.; Han, K. Q.; Yu, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    Powder injection molding is a promising low-cost technique for net shape processing of metal and ceramic components. This study aimed to investigate a new method for preparing aluminium (Al) – silicon (Si) alloy feedstock using the solvent hot mixing process. For this purpose, micron-sized Al-Si (20 wt. %) alloy powder was mixed with a binder consisting of 55 wt. % carnauba wax, 45 wt. % high-density polyethylene, and 3 wt. % stearic acid in a hot xylene bath. The scanning electron microscopy technique, thermogravimetric analysis, density measurement and torque measurements were used to verify the homogeneity of the feedstock. Moreover, the feedstock was chosen to perform the molding, debinding cycle and sintering. An Al-Si (20 wt. %) alloy part was successfully produced using this new method.

  18. Nb-Based Nb-Al-Fe Alloys: Solidification Behavior and High-Temperature Phase Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Frank; Philips, Noah

    2018-03-01

    High-melting Nb-based alloys hold significant promise for the development of novel high-temperature materials for structural applications. In order to understand the effect of alloying elements Al and Fe, the Nb-rich part of the ternary Nb-Al-Fe system was investigated. A series of Nb-rich ternary alloys were synthesized from high-purity Nb, Al, and Fe metals by arc melting. Solidification paths were identified and the liquidus surface of the Nb corner of the ternary system was established by analysis of the as-melted microstructures and thermal analysis. Complementary analysis of heat-treated samples yielded isothermal sections at 1723 K and 1873 K (1450 °C and 1600 °C).

  19. Irradiation-enhanced α' precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; ...

    2016-02-17

    We have irradiated the model FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions (Fe(10–18)Cr(10–6)Al at.%) with a neutron at ~ 320 to damage levels of ~ 7 displacements per atom (dpa) to investigate the compositional influence on the formation of irradiation-induced Cr-rich α' precipitates using atom probe tomography. In all alloys, significant number densities of these precipitates were observed. Cluster compositions were investigated and it was found that the average cluster Cr content ranged between 51.1 and 62.5 at.% dependent on initial compositions. Furthermore, this is significantly lower than the Cr-content of α' in binary FeCr alloys. As a result, significant partitioning ofmore » the Al from the α' precipitates was also observed.« less

  20. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; ...

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory insidemore » the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.« less

  1. Characteristics and porcelain bond strength of (Ti,Al)N coating on dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwok-Hung; Duh, Jeng-Gong; Shin, Daehwan; Cagna, David R; Cronin, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a novel titanium-aluminum nitride film, or (Ti,Al)N film, on the bond strength between a dental porcelain and two nickel-based dental alloy substrates was investigated. A thin layer of (Ti,Al)N film was deposited on flat metal samples using a reactive radio-frequency sputtering method. A uniform thickness of porcelain was applied to the film- coated metal samples. Metal-ceramic specimens were subjected to three-point bending, and failure loads were recorded. Bond strengths between the porcelain and (Ti,Al)N-coated metal alloys ranged from 159.0 +/- 11.7 N to 278.0 +/- 12.3 N. These values were significantly greater (p< 0.05) than bond strengths recorded for control samples that did not incorporate the (Ti,Al)N film. An electron probe microanalyzer with a line profile mode was used to characterize the interface between the (Ti,Al)N film and the porcelain. Results of this investigation suggest that the (Ti,Al)N film (1) increases the flexural bond strength between dental porcelain and nickel-based alloy substrates by permitting elemental diffusion, (2) interferes with the surface oxide formation that characteristically originates from the nickel-based metal alloy substrate, and (3) provides an appropriate oxide layer for porcelain application. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 516-521, 2002

  2. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-06-01

    FeCrAl, an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In this study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. The total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  3. Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of the properties of Al-Cu-Li-Mg alloy sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.; Dolgova, M. I.; Kabanova, Yu. A.

    2017-10-01

    The formation of the anisotropy of the mechanical properties, the texture, and the phase composition of thin-sheet Al-4.3Cu-1.4Li-0.4Mg and Al-1.8Li-1.8Cu-0.9 Mg alloys have been studied by X-ray diffraction and tensile tests. Various types of anisotropy of the strength properties of the alloys have been revealed: normal anisotropy (strength in the longitudinal direction is higher than that in the transverse direction) in the Al-4.3Cu-1.4Li-0.4Mg alloy and inverse anisotropy in the Al-1.8Li-1.8Cu-0.9Mg alloy. It is shown that the anisotropy of the strength properties is dependent not only on the texture of a solid solution, but also on the content and the texture of the δ' (Al3Li) and T1 (Al2CuLi) phases and their coherency and compatibility of deformation with the matrix.

  4. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, Paul D.

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) processmore » to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D 84 < 32 μm). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 μm. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 μm to 104 μm. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase α + DO 3 structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.« less

  5. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al₂O₃ oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commerciallymore » available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.« less

  6. Evaluation of an Al-Ce alloy for laser additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Plotkowski, A.; Rios, O.; Sridharan, N.; ...

    2016-12-27

    Our present research in metal additive manufacturing (AM) focuses on designing processing parameters around existing alloys designed for traditional manufacturing. However, to maximize the benefits of AM, alloys should be designed to specifically take advantage of the unique thermal conditions of these processes. Furthermore, our study focuses on the development of a design methodology for alloys in AM, using a newly developed Al-Ce alloy as an initial case study. To evaluate the candidacy of this system for fusion based additive manufacturing, single-line laser melts were made on cast Al-12Ce plates using three different beam velocities (100, 200, and 300 mm/min).more » The microstructure was evaluated in the as-melted and heat treated conditions (24 hrs at 300°C). An extremely fine microstructure was observed within the weld pools, evolving from eutectic at the outer solid-liquid boundaries to a primary Al FCC dendritic/cellular structure nearer the melt-pool centerline. We rationalized the observed microstructures through the construction of a microstructure selection map for the Al-Ce binary system, which will be used to enable future alloy design. Interestingly, the heat treated samples exhibited no microstructural coarsening.« less

  7. Precipitation process in a Mg–Gd–Y alloy grain-refined by Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jichun; CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800; Zhu, Suming, E-mail: suming.zhu@monash.edu

    2014-02-15

    The precipitation process in Mg–10Gd–3Y (wt.%) alloy grain-refined by 0.8 wt.% Al addition has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The alloy was given a solution treatment at 520 °C for 6 h plus 550 °C for 7 h before ageing at 250 °C. Plate-shaped intermetallic particles with the 18R-type long-period stacking ordered structure were observed in the solution-treated state. Upon isothermal ageing at 250 °C, the following precipitation sequence was identified for the α-Mg supersaturated solution: β″ (D0{sub 19}) → β′ (bco) → β{sub 1} (fcc) → β (fcc). The observed precipitation process and age hardening response in themore » Al grain-refined Mg–10Gd–3Y alloy are compared with those reported in the Zr grain-refined counterpart. - Highlights: • The precipitation process in Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.8Al (wt.%) alloy has been investigated. • Particles with the 18R-type LPSO structure were observed in the solution state. • Upon ageing at 250 °C, the precipitation sequence is: β″ → β′ → β1 (fcc) → β. • The Al grain-refined alloy has a lower hardness than the Zr refined counterpart.« less

  8. X-ray and optical crystallographic parameters investigations of high frequency induction melted Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys.

    PubMed

    Bourbia, A; Draissia, M; Bedboudi, H; Boulkhessaim, S; Debili, M Y

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the microstructural strengthening mechanisms of aluminium by means of hard alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina fine particles. A broad of understanding views covering materials preparations, elaboration process, characterization techniques and associated microstructural characteristic parameters measurements is given. In order to investigate the microstructural characteristic parameters and the mechanical strengthening mechanisms of pure aluminium by hard fine particles, a set of Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys samples were made under vacuum by high fusion temperature melting, the high frequency (HF) process, and rapidly solidified under ambient temperature from a mixture of cold-compacted high-pure fine Al and alpha-Al(2)O(3) powders. The as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, optical microscopy observations and Vickers microhardness tests in both brut and heat-treated states. It was found that the as-solidified HF Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys with compositions below 4 wt.% (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) are single-phase microstructures of the solid solution FCC Al phase and over two-phase microstructures of the solid solution FCC Al and the Rhombohedral alpha-Al(2)O(3) phases. The optical micrographs reveal the presence of a grain size refinement in these alloys. Vickers microhardness of the as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) is increased by means of pure fine alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina particles. These combined effects of strengthening and grain size refinement observed in the as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys are essentially due to a strengthening of Al by the alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina particles insertion in the (HF) melted and rapidly solidified alloys.

  9. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  10. High Strength, Nano-Structured Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ADDRESS(ES) 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211...University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory...being researched and implemented. To that effect,muchprogress has been achieved in thedevelopment of high strengthMg alloys through solid solution

  11. Investigations on Mechanical Behaviour of Micro Graphite Particulates Reinforced Al-7Si Alloy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, N.; Mahendra, K. V.; Nagaral, Madeva

    2018-02-01

    Micro particulates reinforced metal matrix composites are finding wide range of applications in automotive and sports equipment manufacturing industries. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop Al-7Si-micro graphite particulates reinforced composites by using liquid melt method. 3 and 6 wt. % of micro graphite particulates were added to the Al-7Si base matrix. Microstructural characterization was done by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope. Mechanical behaviour of Al-7Si-3 and 6 wt. % composites were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of micro graphite particulates in the Al-7Si alloy matrix. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of B and C elements in graphite reinforced composites. Further, it was noted that ultimate tensile and yield strength of Al-7Si alloy increased with the addition of 3 and 6wt. % of graphite particulates. Hardness of graphite reinforced composites was lesser than the base matrix.

  12. Preferential site occupancy of alloying elements in TiAl-based phases

    SciTech Connect

    Holec, David, E-mail: david.holec@unileoben.ac.at; Reddy, Rajeev K.; Klein, Thomas

    2016-05-28

    First principles calculations are used to study the preferential occupation of ternary alloying additions into the binary Ti-Al phases, namely, γ-TiAl, α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al, β{sub o}-TiAl, and B19-TiAl. While the early transition metals (TMs, group IVB, VB, and VIB elements) prefer to substitute for Ti atoms in the γ-, α{sub 2}-, and B19-phases, they preferentially occupy Al sites in the β{sub o}-TiAl. Si is, in this context, an anomaly, as it prefers to sit on the Al sublattice for all four phases. B and C are shown to prefer octahedral Ti-rich interstitial positions instead of substitutional incorporation. The site preferencemore » energy is linked with the alloying-induced changes of energy of formation, hence alloying-related (de)stabilisation of the phases. We further show that the phase-stabilisation effect of early TMs on β{sub o}-phase has a different origin depending on their valency. Finally, an extensive comparison of our predictions with available theoretical and experimental data (which is, however, limited mostly to the γ-phase) shows a consistent picture.« less

  13. Liquid-liquid phase separation and core-shell structure of ternary Al-In-Sn immiscible alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Degang; Bo, Lin; Wang, Lin; Li, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the liquid-liquid phase separation of four kinds of ternary immiscible Al-In-Sn melts was investigated with resistivity and thermodynamics method. The nonlinear changes in ρ-T and DSC curves of Al-In-Sn immiscible alloys above monotectic reaction temperature revealed the occurrence of liquid-liquid phase separation of Al-In-Sn melts. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscible gap of ternary Al-In-Sn alloys were lower than those of binary Al-In alloy. With the Al content decreasing, the immiscible gap of Al-In-Sn alloy decreased. The composition of Al80In10Sn10, Al70In15Sn15, Al60In20Sn20 and Al50In25Sn25 was located in the immiscible zone of Al-In-Sn system. Due to the differences of Stokes effect, Marangoni convection and immiscible gap, the solidification morphology of four kinds of Al-In-Sn monotectic alloy was different. The core–shell structure of Al-In-Sn monotectic alloy can form within a certain range of composition.

  14. EBSD and Nanoindentation-Correlated Study of Delamination Fracture in Al-Li Alloy 2090

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Crooks, Roy E.; Domack, Marcia S.; Wagner, John A.; Elmustafa, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Al-Li alloys offer attractive combinations of high strength and low density. However, a tendency for delamination fracture has limited their use. A better understanding of the delamination mechanisms may identify methods to control delaminations through processing modifications. A combination of new techniques has been used to evaluate delamination fracture in Al-Li alloys. Both high quality electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) information and valid nanoindentation measurements were obtained from fractured test specimens. Correlations were drawn between nano-scale hardness variations and local texture along delaminating boundaries. Intriguing findings were observed for delamination fracture through the combined analysis of grain orientation, Taylor factor, and kernel average misorientation.

  15. Thermodynamics, Solubility, and Diffusivity of Oxygen in Titanium and Ti-Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Gopal M.

    1992-01-01

    Titanium aluminides and titanium aluminide-based composites are attractive candidate materials for high-temperature structural applications. As these materials may be exposed to oxidizing environments durine their use at elevated temperatures, it is essential that they possess a good oxidation resistance. Previous studies have shown that the oxidation resistance of Al-rich alloys in the Ti-Al system is superior to that of the Ti-rich alloys. The scales formed on the surface of the Al-rich and Ti-rich alloys have been reported to be predominantly Al2O3 and TiO2, respectively. Since the relative stabilities of the oxides of Al and Ti at various temperatures and oxygen pressures can be assessed from their thermodynamic data, it is possible, With the help of thermodynamic calculations, to determine the compositions of the alloys which would form scales of Al2O3, TiO(x) or a ternary oxide such as TiAl2O5 during oxidation at a given temperature. The thermodynamic calculations require reliable activity data for the Ti-Al system. These data have not been determined for the entire composition and temperature range of interest. Using the data available in the literature, recently performed thermodynamic calculations and concluded that the stable oxide changed from TiO to Al2O3 in the existence region of the tial phase. In the case of titanium aluminide-based composites, another major concern is the mutual chemical compatibility of the matrix material with the reinforcement phase. Fibers of SiC, TiB2 and Al2O3 are currently being investigated for reinforcement of titanium aluminide matrices.

  16. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    PubMed

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-11-30

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al 15 (Fe,Cr)₃Si₂ or α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn)₃Si₂ phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  17. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr)3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5. PMID:28774094

  18. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  20. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation on Structure and Properties of Al-Sc-Ta and Al-Sc-Ti Alloys.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Alla; Monastyrska, Tetiana; Davydenko, Olexandr; Molebny, Oleh; Polishchuk, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying. It was demonstrated that SPD of the alloys resulted in the segregation of the material into active and inactive zones which formed a banded structure. The active zones were shown to be bands of localized plastic deformation. The distance between zones was found to be independent of the accumulated strain degree and was in the range of 0.6-1 μm. Dynamic recrystallization in the active zones was observed using TEM. The dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by the formation of disclinations, deformation bands, low-angle, and high-angle boundaries, i.e., rotational deformation modes developed. The dynamic recrystallization was more intense during the non-monotonous deformation as compared with the monotonous one, which was confirmed by the reduction of texture degree in the materials after ECAH.

  1. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation on Structure and Properties of Al-Sc-Ta and Al-Sc-Ti Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezina, Alla; Monastyrska, Tetiana; Davydenko, Olexandr; Molebny, Oleh; Polishchuk, Sergey

    2017-03-01

    The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying. It was demonstrated that SPD of the alloys resulted in the segregation of the material into active and inactive zones which formed a banded structure. The active zones were shown to be bands of localized plastic deformation. The distance between zones was found to be independent of the accumulated strain degree and was in the range of 0.6-1 μm. Dynamic recrystallization in the active zones was observed using TEM. The dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by the formation of disclinations, deformation bands, low-angle, and high-angle boundaries, i.e., rotational deformation modes developed. The dynamic recrystallization was more intense during the non-monotonous deformation as compared with the monotonous one, which was confirmed by the reduction of texture degree in the materials after ECAH.

  2. Evolution of rapidly solidified NiAlCu(B) alloy microstructure.

    PubMed

    Czeppe, Tomasz; Ochin, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    This study concerned phase transformations observed after rapid solidification and annealing at 500, 700 and 800 degrees C in 56.3 Ni-39.9 Al-3.8 Cu-0.06 B (E1) and 59.8 Ni-36.0 Al-4.3 Cu-0.06 B (E2) alloys (composition in at.%). Injection casting led to a homogeneous structure of very small, one-phase grains (2-4 microm in size). In both alloys, the phase observed at room temperature was martensite of L1(0) structure. The process of the formation of the Ni(5)Al(3) phase by atomic reordering proceeded at 285-394 degrees C in the case of E1 alloy and 450-550 degrees C in the case of E2 alloy. Further decomposition into NiAl (beta) and Ni(3)Al (gamma') phases, the microstructure and crystallography of the phases depended on the path of transformations, proceeding in the investigated case through the transformation of martensite crystallographic variants. This preserved precise crystallographic orientation between the subsequent phases, very stable plate-like morphology and very small beta + gamma' grains after annealing at 800 degrees C.

  3. Microstructure and Tensile/Corrosion Properties Relationships of Directionally Solidified Al-Cu-Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Adilson V.; Lima, Thiago S.; Vida, Talita A.; Brito, Crystopher; Garcia, Amauri; Cheung, Noé

    2018-03-01

    Al-Cu-Ni alloys are of scientific and technological interest due to high strength/high temperature applications, based on the reinforcement originated from the interaction between the Al-rich phase and intermetallic composites. The nature, morphology, size, volume fraction and dispersion of IMCs particles throughout the Al-rich matrix are important factors determining the resulting mechanical and chemical properties. The present work aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of 1wt%Ni into Al-5wt%Cu and Al-15wt%Cu alloys on the solidification rate, macrosegregation, microstructure features and the interrelations of such characteristics on tensile and corrosion properties. A directional solidification technique is used permitting a wide range of microstructural scales to be examined. Experimental growth laws relating the primary and secondary dendritic spacings to growth rate and solidification cooling rate are proposed, and Hall-Petch type equations are derived relating the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to the primary dendritic spacing. Considering a compromise between ultimate tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the examined alloys samples from both alloys castings it is shown that the samples having more refined microstructures are associated with the highest values of such properties.

  4. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

  5. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, O.B.; Lear, K.L.

    1998-03-10

    The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g., Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3--1.6 {mu}m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation. 10 figs.

  6. Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

    2013-10-01

    An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

  7. Influence of Alloying Elements on the Mechanical Properties of PtAl2 from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yong; Shi, Chang-Shuai

    2018-04-01

    Although PtAl2 is a promising high-temperature alloy, the improvement of its strength is still a big challenge. To solve this problem, we apply first-principles calculations to study the influence of alloying elements on the structural stability, elastic properties and brittle-or-ductile behavior of PtAl2. The results show that alloying elements prefer to occupy the Al site in comparison to the Pt site. Importantly, the calculated bulk modulus of doped PtAl2 is much larger than that of the parent PtAl2 due to the formation of TM-Pt and TM-Al bonds. In addition, alloying elements effectively improve the ductility of PtAl2. Finally, our work can provide new information to improve the mechanical properties of Pt-Al high-temperature materials.

  8. Effect of mechanical alloying and heat treatment on the behavior of fe - 28% al - 5% cr powder with nanocrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.; Liu, H. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Xu, G. O.; Zheng, Z. X.

    2012-05-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of alloy Fe - 28% Al - 5% Cr (at.%) obtained by mechanical alloying from powdered iron, aluminum, and preliminarily alloyed Fe - 20% Cr are studied. The chemical composition is shown to be homogenized. The changes in the structure and in the morphology of the particles in the process of ball milling and subsequent heat treatment are determined. The alloying is shown to occur by the mechanism of continuous diffusion mixing.

  9. Relationship between microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Colić, Miodrag; Rudolf, Rebeka; Stamenković, Dragoslav; Anzel, Ivan; Vucević, Dragana; Jenko, Monika; Lazić, Vojkan; Lojen, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been investigated as materials for medical devices, but their biomedical application is still limited. The aim of this work was to compare the microstructure, corrosion and cytotoxicity in vitro of a Cu-Al-Ni SMA. Rapidly solidified (RS) thin ribbons, manufactured via melt spinning, were used for the tests. The control alloy was a permanent mould casting of the same composition, but without shape memory effect. The results show that RS ribbons are significantly more resistant to corrosion compared with the control alloy, as judged by the lesser release of Cu and Ni into the conditioning medium. These results correlate with the finding that RS ribbons were not cytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts and rat thymocytes. In addition, the RS ribbon conditioning medium inhibited cellular proliferation and IL-2 production by activated rat splenocytes to a much lesser extent. The inhibitory effects were almost completely abolished by conditioning the RS ribbons in culture medium for 4 weeks. Microstructural analysis showed that RS ribbons are martensitic, with boron particles as a minor phase. In contrast, the control Cu-Al-Ni alloy had a complex multiphase microstructure. Examination of the alloy surfaces after conditioning by energy dispersive X-ray and Auger electron spectroscopy showed the formation of Cu and Al oxide layers and confirmed that the metals in RS ribbons are less susceptible to oxidation and corrosion compared with the control alloy. In conclusion, these results suggest that rapid solidification significantly improves the corrosion stability and biocompatibility in vitro of Cu-Al-Ni SMA ribbons.

  10. Adsorption of oxygen on low-index surfaces of the TiAl{sub 3} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Latyshev, A. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Kulkova, S. E., E-mail: kulkova@ms.tsc.ru

    Method of the projector augmented waves in the plane-wave basis within the generalized-gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional has been used to study oxygen adsorption on (001), (100), and (110) low-index surfaces of the TiAl{sub 3} alloy. It has been established that the sites that are most energetically preferred for the adsorption of oxygen are hollow (H) positions on the (001) surface and bridge (B) positions on the (110) and (100) surfaces. Structural and electronic factors that define their energy preference have been discussed. Changes in the atomic and electronic structure of subsurface layers that occur as the oxygen concentrationmore » increases to three monolayers have been analyzed. It has been shown that the formation of chemical bonds of oxygen with both components of the alloy leads to the appearance of states that are split-off from the bottoms of their valence bands, which is accompanied by the formation of a forbidden gap at the Fermi level and by a weakening of the Ti–Al metallic bonds in the alloy. On the Al-terminated (001) and (110) surfaces, the oxidation of aluminum dominates over that of titanium. On the whole, the binding energy of oxygen on the low-index surfaces with a mixed termination is higher than that at the aluminum-terminated surface. The calculation of the diffusion of oxygen in the TiAl{sub 3} alloy has shown that the lowest barriers correspond to the diffusion between tetrahedral positions in the (001) plane; the diffusion of oxygen in the [001] direction occurs through octahedral and tetrahedral positions. An increase in the concentration of aluminum in the alloy favors a reduction in the height of the energy barriers as compared to the corresponding barriers in the γ-TiAl alloy.« less

  11. Effect of Impact Damage on the Fatigue Response of TiAl Alloy-ABB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Nazmy, M. Y.; Staubli, M.; Clemens, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gamma-TiAl to withstand potential foreign or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma-TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. In the present study, the impact resistance of TiAl alloy ABB-2 was determined and compared to the impact resistance of Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr. Specimens were impacted with four different impact conditions with impact energies ranging from 0.22 to 6.09 J. After impacting, the impact damage was characterized by crack lengths on both the front and backside of the impact. Due to the flat nature of gamma-TiAl's S-N (stress vs. cycles to failure) curve, step fatigue tests were used to determine the fatigue strength after impacting. Impact damage increased with increasing impact energy and led to a reduction in the fatigue strength of the alloy. For similar crack lengths, the fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 was similar to the fatigue strength of impacted Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, even though the tensile properties of the two alloys are significantly different. Similar to Ti(48)Al(2)Nb(2)Cr, ABB-2 showed a classical mean stress dependence on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of impacted ABB-2 could be accurately predicted using a threshold analysis.

  12. Literature review report on atomistic modeling tools for FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Schwen, Daniel; Martinez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This reports summarizes the literature review results on atomistic tools, particularly interatomic potentials used in molecular dynamics simulations, for FeCrAl ternary alloys. FeCrAl has recently been identified as a possible cladding concept for accident tolerant fuels for its superior corrosion resistance. Along with several other concepts, an initial evaluation and recommendation are desired for FeCrAl before it’s used in realistic fuels. For this purpose, sufficient understanding on the in-reactor behavior of FeCrAl needs to be grained in a relatively short timeframe, and multiscale modeling and simulations have been selected as an efficient measure to supplement experiments and in-reactor testing formore » better understanding on FeCrAl. For the limited knowledge on FeCrAl alloys, the multiscale modeling approach relies on atomistic simulations to obtain the missing material parameters and properties. As a first step, atomistic tools have to be identified and this is the purpose of the present report. It was noticed during the literature survey that no interatomic potentials currently available for FeCrAl. Here, we summarize the interatomic potentials available for FeCr alloys for possible molecular dynamics studies using FeCr as surrogate materials. Other atomistic methods such as lattice kinetic Monte Carlo are also included in this report. A couple of research topics at the atomic scale are suggested based on the literature survey.« less

  13. Osteogenic potential of a novel microarc oxidized coating formed on Ti6Al4V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaping; Lou, Jin; Zeng, Lilan; Xiang, Junhuai; Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Fucheng; Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Rongfa

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility, Ti6Al4V alloys are processed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in a novel electrolyte of phytic acid, a natural organic phosphorus-containing matter. The MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytocompatibility of Ti6A14V alloys before and after MAO were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the fabricated MAO coatings were composed of rutile, anatase, TiP2O7 as well as some OH- groups, exhibiting the excellent hydrophilicity and a porous structure with small micro pores. No cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1cells was observed in this study. In particular, MAO treated Ti6Al4V alloys presented comparable cell adhesion and proliferation as well as significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and collagen secretion in comparison with the untreated control. The results suggest that the Ti6Al4V alloys treated by MAO in phytic acid can be used as implants for orthopaedic applications, providing a simple and practical method to widen clinical acceptance of titanium alloys.

  14. Phase relations in Ti-Al-Nb alloys at 1200 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayana, C.; Lee, D.S.

    1992-03-15

    This paper reports that titanium aluminides based on both Ti{sub 3}Al ({alpha}{sub 2}) and TiAl ({gamma}) have received considerable attention during the past few years as potential candidates for high temperature structural applications in the aerospace industry. This has been due to the attractive combination of properties such as low density, high specific strength, elevated temperature strength and modulus retention, excellent creep resistance and high resistance to oxidation. A serious handicap in using these alloys has been their vary poor ductility. Refinement of grain size, addition of ternary and quaternary alloying elements (e.g., Nb, Mn and Ta) and microstructural refinementsmore » through either innovative heat treatments or by production of nanometer-sized grains through mechanical alloying or magnetron sputtering methods have been explored to increase the ductility. Amongst these approaches, addition of alloying elements, especially of niobium, has proven extremely beneficial. Thus, there have been several investigations in recent years on the constitution, microstructure and properties of ternary Ti-Al-Nb alloys.« less

  15. Microstructural evolution during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys in the Al-Cu-Li Ag-Mg subsystem were developed that exhibit desirable combinations of strength and ductility. These Weldalite (trademark) alloys, are unique for Al-Cu-Li alloys in that with or without a prior cold stretching operation, they obtain excellent strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. This is significant because it enables complex, near-net shape products such as forgings and super plastically formed parts to be heat treated to ultra-high strengths. On the other hand, commercial extrusions, rolled plates and sheets of other Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a cold stretching operation before artificial aging to the highest strength tempers to introduce dislocations that provide low-energy nucleation sites for strengthening precipitates such as the T(sub 1) phase. The variation in yield strength (YS) with Li content in the near-peak aged condition for these Weldalite (trademark) alloys and the associated microstructures were examined, and the results are discussed.

  16. Rare-earth metals in nickel aluminide-based alloys: III. Structure and properties of multicomponent Ni3Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyleva, O. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Kazanskaya, N. K.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility of increasing the life of heterophase cast light Ni3Al-based superalloys at temperatures higher than 0.8 T m of Ni3Al is studied when their directional structure is additionally stabilized by nanoprecipitates, which form upon additional alloying of these alloys by refractory and active metals, and using special methods for preparing and melting of an alloy charge. The effect of the method of introducing the main components and refractory reaction-active and surface-active alloying elements into Ni3Al-based cast superalloys, which are thermally stable natural composite materials of the eutectic type, on the structure-phase state and the life of these alloys is studied. When these alloys are melted, it is necessary to perform a set of measures to form particles of refractory oxide cores covered with the β-NiAl phase and, then, γ'prim-Ni3Al phase precipitates during solidification. The latter phase forms the outer shell of grain nuclei, which provides high thermal stability and hot strength of an intermetallic compound-based alloy. As a result, a modified structure that is stabilized by the nanoprecipitates of nickel and aluminum lanthanides and the nanoprecipitates of phases containing refractory metals is formed. This structure enhances the life of the alloy at 1000 °C by a factor of 1.8-2.5.

  17. Weldability of high toughness Fe-12% Ni alloys containing Ti, Al or Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devletian, J. H.; Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three exceptionally high-toughness Fe-12%Ni alloys designed for cryogenic service were welded using the GTA welding process. Evaluation of weldability included equivalent energy (KIed) fracture toughness tests, transverse-weld tensile tests at -196 and 25 C and weld crack sensitivity tests. The Fe-12%Ni-0.25%Ti alloy proved extremely weldable for cryogenic applications, having weld and HAZ properties comparable with those of the wrought base alloy. The Fe-12%Ni-0.5%Al had good weld properties only after the weld joint was heat treated. The Fe-12%Ni-0.25%Nb alloy was not considered weldable for cryogenic use because of its poor weld joint properties at -196 C and its susceptibility to hot cracking.

  18. Microstructure-property relationships in Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, were studied. Specifically, the microstructural features along with tensile strength, weldability, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were studied for Weldalite (tm) 049 type alloys with Li contents ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 wt. pct. The tensile properties of Weldalite 049 and Weldalite 049 reinforced with TiB2 particles fabricated using the XD (tm) process were also evaluated at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an experimental alloy, similar in composition to Weldalite 049 but without the Ag+Mg, was fabricated. The microstructure of this alloy was compared with that of Weldalite 049 in the T6 condition to assess the effect of Ag+Mg on nucleation of strengthening phases in the absence of cold work.

  19. Effect of Thermodiffusion Nitriding on Cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohrelyuk, I. M.; Tkachuk, O. V.; Proskurnyak, R. V.; Boiko, N. M.; Kluchivska, O. Yu.; Stoika, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The nitrided layer was formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by the thermodiffusion saturation in nitrogen at the atmospheric pressure. The study of the vitality of pseudonormal human embryo kidney cells of the HEK293T line showed that their cultivation in the presence of the untreated alloy sample is accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in the number of living cells compared with the control sample (untreated cells), whereas their cultivation in the presence of the nitrided alloy sample does not change the cell number considerably. In addition, it was shown that cell behavior in the presence of the nitrided sample differs only slightly from the control sample, whereas the growth of cells in the presence of the untreated alloy differed significantly from that in the control sample, demonstrating small groups of cells instead of their big clusters.

  20. Modeling creep deformation of a two-phase TiAI/Ti3Al alloy with a lamellar microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeusz, Michael F.; Wert, John A.

    1994-10-01

    A two-phase TiAl/Ti3Al alloy with a lamellar microstructure has been previously shown to exhibit a lower minimum creep rate than the minimum creep rates of the constituent TiAl and Ti3Al single-phase alloys. Fiducial-line experiments described in the present article demonstrate that the creep rates of the constituent phases within the two-phase TiAl/Ti3Al lamellar alloy tested in compression are more than an order of magnitude lower than the creep rates of single-phase TiAl and Ti3Al alloys tested in compression at the same stress and temperature. Additionally, the fiducial-line experiments show that no interfacial sliding of the phases in the TiAl/Ti3Al lamellar alloy occurs during creep. The lower creep rate of the lamellar alloy is attributed to enhanced hardening of the constituent phases within the lamellar microstructure. A composite-strength model has been formulated to predict the creep rate of the lamellar alloy, taking into account the lower creep rates of the constituent phases within the lamellar micro-structure. Application of the model yields a very good correlation between predicted and experimentally observed minimum creep rates over moderate stress and temperature ranges.

  1. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part II: Mechanical and thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systemsmore » (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.« less

  2. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part II: Mechanical and thermal properties

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres; ...

    2017-03-08

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systemsmore » (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.« less

  3. Constitution of pseudobinary hypoeutectic beta-NiAl + alpha-V alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, J. D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of pseudobinary eutectics between NiAl (beta) and V (alpha) at high temperatures was investigated as a possible way of improving the ductility and toughness of the alloy. It is found that a pseudobinary eutectic, characterized by a large beta+alpha field, is formed in the Ni-Al-V ternary system below about 1370 C. The high-temperature solubility of V in beta is about 14 percent, decreasing markedly with decreasing temperature and increasing Al content above 50 at. pct Al. The pseudobinary hypoeutectic exibits crack resistance under indentation loading.

  4. Evolution of Grain Boundary Precipitates in an Al-Cu-Li Alloy During Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Noémie; Kairy, Shravan K.; Yan, Yuanming; Birbilis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The grain boundary microstructure of Al-Cu-Li alloy AA2050 was investigated for different isothermal aging times to rationalize intergranular corrosion (IGC) characteristics. In the underaged condition, the dominant grain boundary precipitates are fine T1 (Al2CuLi). Extended aging revealed that grain boundaries were decorated by large T1 precipitates and S' phase (Al2CuMg), with S' growth not dimensionally constrained. Such a transition in the precipitate type at grain boundaries is a unique feature of the Al-Cu-Li system.

  5. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al3Zr and Al3Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al3Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al3Zr-core or Al3Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms. PMID:29677155

  6. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  7. Carbon fibers coated with graphene reinforced TiAl alloy composite with high strength and toughness.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sen; Cui, Chunxiang; Xie, Jiaqi; Liu, Shuangjin; Shi, Jiejie

    2018-02-05

    To meet the more rigorous requirement in aerospace industry, recent studies on strengthening and toughening TiAl alloys mostly focus on high Nb addition, which inevitably bring in an increasing of density. In this study, a carbon fibers coated with graphene reinforced TiAl alloy composite was fabricated by powder metallurgy, melt spun and vacuum melting. This composite got remarkable mechanical properties combined with a prominent density reduction. In contrast with pure TiAl ingots, this sample exhibits an average fracture strain from 16% up to 26.27%, and an average strength from 1801 MPa up to 2312 MPa. Thus, we can achieve a new method to fabricate this low-density, good mechanical performance TiAl composite which could bring in more opportunities for application in aerospace industry.

  8. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) alloys offer significant performance benefits for aerospace structural applications due to their higher specific properties compared with conventional aluminum alloys. For example, the application of an Al-Li alloy to the space shuttle external cryogenic fuel tank contributed to the weight savings that enabled successful deployment of International Space Station components. The composition and heat treatment of this alloy were optimized specifically for strength-toughness considerations for an expendable cryogenic tank. Time dependent properties related to reliability, such as thermal stability, fatigue, and corrosion, will be of significant interest when materials are evaluated for a reusable cryotank structure. As most aerospace structural hardware is weight sensitive, a reusable cryotank will be designed to the limits of the materials mechanical properties. Therefore, this effort was designed to establish the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one relatively production mature alloy and two developmental alloys C458 and L277. Tensile and fracture toughness behavior was evaluated after exposure to temperatures as high as 3oooF for up to IO00 hrs. Microstructural changes were also evaluated to correlate with the observed data trends. The ambient temperature parent metal data showed an increase in strength and reduction in elongation after exposure at lower temperatures. Strength reached a peak with intermediate temperature exposure followed by a decrease at highest exposure temperature. Characterizing the effect of thermal exposure on the properties of Al-Li alloys is important to defining a service limiting temperature, exposure time, and end-of-life properties.

  9. Lattice mismatch modeling of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwon; Roy, Shibayan; Watkins, Thomas R.

    We present a theoretical framework to accurately predict the lattice mismatch between the fcc matrix and precipitates in the multi-component aluminum alloys as a function of temperature and composition. We use a computational thermodynamic approach to model the lattice parameters of the multi-component fcc solid solution and θ'-Al2Cu precipitate phase. Better agreement between the predicted lattice parameters of fcc aluminum in five commercial alloys (206, 319, 356, A356, and A356 + 0.5Cu) and experimental data from the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXD) has been obtained when simulating supersaturated rather than equilibrium solid solutions. We use the thermal expansion coefficient of thermodynamicallymore » stable θ-Al2Cu to describe temperature-dependent lattice parameters of meta-stable θ' and to show good agreement with the SXD data. Both coherent and semi-coherent interface mismatches between the fcc aluminum matrix and θ' in Al-Cu alloys are presented as a function of temperature. Our calculation results show that the concentration of solute atoms, particularly Cu, in the matrix greatly affects the lattice mismatch« less

  10. 27Al, 63Cu NMR spectroscopy and electrical transport in Heusler Cu-Mn-Al alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Perekos, A. O.; Kokorin, V. V.; Trachevskii, V. V.; Konoplyuk, S. M.; Vashchuk, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ultrafine powder of the Heusler Cu-13,1Mn-12,6Al (wt.%) alloy produced by electrical spark dispersion (ESD) in ethanol and the pellets prepared by pressing of the powders and aged in various gas environment (air, Ar, vacuum) were studied by XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic and electric transport methods. The constituent phases were identified as b.c.c. α-Cu-Mn-Al, f.c.c. γ-Cu-Mn-Al, Cu2MnAl, and oxides. The sizes of the coherently scattering domains (CSD) and the saturation magnetizations were in the range of 4-90 nm and 0-1.5 Am2/kg, respectively. 27Al and 63Cu NMR spectra of the powders and pellets have shown hyperfine structure caused by contributions from atomic nuclei of the constituent phases. The aging of pellets in different gas environments had effect on their phase composition but no effect on dispersion of the phases. In contrast to the as-cast alloy, electrical resistance of the pellets evidenced semiconducting behavior at elevated temperatures due to the presence of metal oxides formed on the surfaces of nanoparticles.

  11. Surface treatment process of Al-Mg alloy powder by BTSPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Gao, Xinbao; Lu, Yanling; Du, Fengzhen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dazhi; Chen, Xuefang

    2018-04-01

    The surface of Al-Mg alloy powder was treated by BTSPS(bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide) in order to avoid easy oxidation in air. The pH value, reaction temperature, reaction time, and reaction concentration were used as test conditions. The results show that the BTSPS can form a protected film on the surface of Al-Mg alloy powder. Select the best test solution by orthogonal test. The study found that the reaction time and reaction temperature have the biggest influence on the two indexes of the orthogonal test (melting enthalpy of heat and enthalpy of oxidation). The optimal conditions were as follows: pH value is 8, reaction concentration is 2%, reaction temperature is 25 °C, reaction time is 2 h. The oxidation weight gain of the alloy reached 74.45% and the decomposition temperature of silane film is 181.8 °C.

  12. A Novel Process for Joining Ti Alloy and Al Alloy using Two-Stage Sintering Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Luping; Liu, Wensheng; Ma, Yunzhu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The major challenges for conventional diffusion bonding of joining Ti alloy and Al alloy are the undesirable interfacial reaction, low matrixes and joint strength. To avoid the problem in diffusion bonding, a novel two-stage sintering powder metallurgy process is developed. In the present work, the interface characterization and joint performance of the bonds obtained by powder metallurgy bonding are investigated and are compared with the diffusion bonded Ti/Al joints obtained with the same and the optimized process parameters. The results show that no intermetallic compound is visible in the Ti/Al joint obtained by powder metallurgy bonding, while a new layer formed at the joint diffusion bonded with the same parameters. The maximum tensile strength of joint obtained by diffusion bonding is 58 MPa, while a higher tensile strength reaching 111 MPa for a bond made by powder metallurgy bonding. Brittle fractures occur at all the bonds. It is shown that the powder metallurgy bonding of Ti/Al is better than diffusion bonding. The results of this study should benefit the bonding quality.

  13. Analysis of NiAlTa precipitates in beta-NiAl + 2 at. pct Ta alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, V.; Michal, G. M.; Vedula, K.; Nathal, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from experiments performed to identify the precipitates, and their orientation in the matrix, in a beta-NiAl alloy containing 2 at. pct. Ta after undergoing creep test at 1300 K. Test specimens formed by extruding hot powders were compressed at 1300 K for about 50 hr at a strain rate averaging 6/1 million per sec. The specimens were then thinned and examined under an electron microscope and by X-ray diffractometry. An intermetallic NiAlTa compound with a hexagonal Cl4 structure appeared as second phase precipitates in the samples, exhibiting plate-like shapes and a habit plane close to (012). The prism planes of the hexagonal NiAlTa precipitates paralleled the closest packed planes in the cubic beta-NiAl matrix.

  14. Effect of alumina on grain refinement of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Sarangi, B.; Sachan, N. K.

    2018-03-01

    The size, volume fraction and distribution of primary as well as eutectic silicon affect the mechanical properties of the Al-Si hypereutectic alloys. It is very difficult for the simultaneous refinement and modification of primary and secondary Si particles in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys through traditional processes. This paper explores the role of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles on Si particles in the course of solidification in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at particular pouring temperature. The present study involves incorporation of varying contents dispersed γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles into a molten base metal during stir casting and followed by solidification. It has been reported that the synthesized composites having good interfacial bonding (wetting) between the dispersed phase and the liquid matrix was achieved in order to provide improved mechanical properties of the composite. The cast product of hypereutectic Al-16Si alloy with the reinforcement of nanoparticles, illustrated a significant improvement in both wear behaviour and hardness. The dry sliding wear test has been performed on a group of specimens with varying parameters (different loads and sliding velocities) in a pin on disc wear testing machine. Moreover, the wear rate and specific wear rate also affected in different load and different sliding velocities. However in XRD analysis of the samples, the enhancement of wear resistance as well as hardness was due to the formation of brittle phases like SiO2, Al2O3 and Al-rich intermetallic compounds. The hardness value of the materials increases nearly 6% in addition to increase in the density of only 0.8%. As per literature, the large plate eutectic Si particles were modified in to the fine core particles and it acquires enough potential for various applications.

  15. Are new TiNbZr alloys potential substitutes of the Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications? An electrochemical corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Roselino; Hammer, Peter; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Rocha, Luís Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the electrochemical behavior of new Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti35Nb10Zr alloys in artificial saliva at 37 °C to verify if they are indicated to be used as biomaterials in dentistry as alternatives to Ti6Al4V alloys in terms of corrosion protection efficiency of the material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were carried out for different periods of time (0.5-216 h) in a three-electrode cell, where the working electrode (Ti alloys) was exposed to artificial saliva at 37 °C. The near-surface region of the alloys was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All alloys exhibited an increase in corrosion potential with the immersion time, indicating the growth and stabilization of the passive film. Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti6Al4V alloys had their EIS results interpreted by a double-layer circuit, while the Ti35Nb10Zr alloy was modeled by a one-layer circuit. In general, the new TiNbZr alloys showed similar behavior to that observed for the Ti6Al4V. XPS results suggest, in the case of the TiNbZr alloys, the presence of a thicker passive layer containing a lower fraction of TiO2 phase than that of Ti6Al4V. After long-term immersion, all alloys develop a calcium phosphate phase on the surface. The new TiNbZr alloys appear as potential candidates to be used as a substitute to Ti6Al4V in the manufacturing of dental implant-abutment sets.

  16. Influence of Sc on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yukun; Du, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Zhen; Fu, Junwei; Zhou, Shi'ang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of Mg, Cu, Sc and Zr combined additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hypoeutectic Al-Si cast alloy were systematically investigated. Characterization techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brinell hardness tester and universal testing machine were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results showed that Sc served as modifier on the microstructure of Al-3Si-0.45Mg-0.45Cu-0.2Zr alloys, including modification of eutectic Si and grains. Extraordinarily, grain refinement was found to be related to the primary particles, which exhibited a close orientation to matrix. After T6 heat treatment, the grain structures were composed of nano-scaled secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitates and spherical eutectic Si. Combined with T6 heat treatment, the highest hardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation were achieved in 0.56 wt.% Sc-modified alloy. Interestingly, the strength and ductility had a similar tendency. This paper demonstrated that combined additions of Mg, Cu, Sc and Zr could significantly improve the microstructure and performance of the hypoeutectic Al-Si cast alloy.

  17. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  18. Solute transport during the cyclic oxidation of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Important requirements for protective coatings of Ni-Cr-Al alloys for gas turbine superalloys are resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling, resistance to thermal fatigue cracking. The resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling is discussed. The resistance to thermal fatigue cracking is also considered.

  19. Rare Earth Element Yttrium Modified Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructure, Degradation Properties and Hardness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yuan, Fulai; Zhao, Mingchun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Yang, Youwen; Yang, Sheng; Shuai, Cijun

    2017-01-01

    The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser rapid melting. The results showed that the degradation rate of AZ61 magnesium alloy was slowed down by adding Y. This was attributed to the reduction of Mg17Al12 phase and the formation of Al2Y phase that has a more active potential, which decreased galvanic corrosion resulting from its coupling with the anodic matrix phase. Meanwhile, the hardness increased as Y contents increased due to the uniform distribution of the Al2Y and Mg17Al12 phases. However, as the Y contents increased further, the formation of excessive Al2Y phase resulted in the increasing of degradation rate and the decreasing of hardness due to its agglomeration. PMID:28772837

  20. Solidification of Al-Sn-Cu Based Immiscible Alloys under Intense Shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Doernberg, E.; Patel, J. B.; Fan, Z.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2009-09-01

    The growing importance of Al-Sn based alloys as materials for engineering applications necessitates the development of uniform microstructures with improved performance. Guided by the recently thermodynamically assessed Al-Sn-Cu system, two model immiscible alloys, Al-45Sn-10Cu and Al-20Sn-10Cu, were selected to investigate the effects of intensive melt shearing provided by the novel melt conditioning by advanced shear technology (MCAST) unit on the uniform dispersion of the soft Sn phase in a hard Al matrix. Our experimental results have confirmed that intensive melt shearing is an effective way to achieve fine and uniform dispersion of the soft phase without macro-demixing, and that such dispersed microstructure can be further refined in alloys with precipitation of the primary Al phase prior to the demixing reaction. In addition, it was found that melt shearing at 200 rpm and 60 seconds will be adequate to produce fine and uniform dispersion of the Sn phase, and that higher shearing speed and prolonged shearing time can only achieve minor further refinement.

  1. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Al-Co-Cr-Ni-(Fe or Si) Multicomponent High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Alfano, J. P.; Martens, R. L.; Weaver, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a class of alloys that are being considered for a number of applications. In the present study, the microstructures and 1050°C oxidation behaviors of two HEAs, Al10Cr22.5Co22.5Ni22.5Fe22.5 (at.%) and Al20Cr25Co25Ni25Si5 have been investigated along with Al15Cr10Co35Ni35Si5, which is a high-temperature shape-memory alloy. Oxide formation occurred via selective oxidation in a manner that was consistent with the oxide formation model devised by Giggins and Pettit for model Ni-Cr-Al alloys. The lower Al content alloy formed an external Cr2O3 scale and an internal subscale consisting of Al2O3 and AlN precipitates. The higher Al content alloys exhibited smaller mass gains and formed external Al2O3 scales without any internal oxidation of the alloys.

  2. Band gap tuning of amorphous Al oxides by Zr alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J.; Jones, N. C.

    2016-08-29

    The optical band gap and electronic structure of amorphous Al-Zr mixed oxides with Zr content ranging from 4.8 to 21.9% were determined using vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The light scattering by the nano-porous structure of alumina at low wavelengths was estimated based on the Mie scattering theory. The dependence of the optical band gap of the Al-Zr mixed oxides on the Zr content deviates from linearity and decreases from 7.3 eV for pure anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 6.45 eV for Al-Zr mixed oxides with a Zr content of 21.9%. With increasing Zr content, the conduction band minimum changes non-linearlymore » as well. Fitting of the energy band gap values resulted in a bowing parameter of ∼2 eV. The band gap bowing of the mixed oxides is assigned to the presence of the Zr d-electron states localized below the conduction band minimum of anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less

  3. A Performance Comparison Study of Uncoated and TiAlN Coated Carbide End Mill on Machining of the Al-35Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, S.; Hekimoglu, A. P.; Turgut, Y.; Haciosmanoglu, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, Al-35Zn alloy was produced by permanent mold casting. To investigate the cutting performance of uncoated and TiAlN coated carbide end mills on this alloy, a series of tests were carried out in the CNC vertical machining center at a constant cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results obtained from the tests showed that uncoated carbide end mill have lower cutting force and surface roughness than TiAlN coated carbide end mill. These observations are discussed in terms of the alloys properties, cutting tool surfaces, and friction and wear behavior between the cutting tool and the material.

  4. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun; Mangum, John; Zakutayev, Andriy; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the Crx Al1 -x N system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in Crx Al1 -x N alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structure upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that Crx Al1 -x N has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that Crx Al1 -x N is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position Crx Al1 -x N as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.

  5. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the CrxAl1-xN system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in CrxAl1-xN alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structuremore » upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that CrxAl1-xN has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that CrxAl1-xN is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position CrxAl1-xN as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.« less

  6. Fabrication and characterization of nano-Y2O3 and Al2O3 dispersed W-Ni alloys by mechanical alloying and pressureless conventional sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talekar, V. R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Nano Y2O3 and Al2O3 dispersed W-Ni alloys with nominal composition of W89Ni10 (Y2O3)1 (alloy A), W89Ni10 (Al2O3)1 (alloy B) were mechanically alloyed for 10 h followed by compaction at 0.5 GPa pressure with 5 min of dwell time and conventional sintering at 1400°C with 2 h soaking time in Ar atmosphere with Ar flow rate of 100 ml/min. The microstructure of milled and sintered alloy was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Elemental mapping. Minimum crystallite size of 31.9 nm and maximum lattice strain, dislocation density of 0.23%, 9.12(1016/m2) respectively was found in alloy A at 10 h of milling. Uneven and coarse particles at 0 h of milling converted to elongated flake shape at 10 h of milling. Bimodal (fine and coarse) particle size distribution is revealed in both the alloys and minimum particle size of 0.69 μm is achieved in 10 h milled alloy A. Evidences of formation of intermetallic phases like Y2WO6, Y6WO12 and Y10W2O21 in sintered alloy A and Al2(WO4)3, NiAl10O16, NiAl2O4 and AlWO4 in sintered alloy B were revealed by XRD pattern and SEM micrograph. Minimum grain size of 1.50 μm was recorded in sintered alloy A. Both faceted and spherical W matrix is evident in both the alloys which suggests occurrence of both solid phase and liquid phase sintering. Maximum % relative sintered density and hardness of 85.29% and 5.13 GPa respectively was found in alloy A. Wear study at 20N force at 25 rpm for 15 min on ball on plate wear tester revealed that minimum wear depth (48.99 μm) and wear track width (272 μm) was found for alloy A as compared to alloy B.

  7. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Studies of Si-doped AlGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, K. B.; Li, J.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2002-03-01

    Si-doped n-type Al x Ga_1-x N alloys with x between 0.3 and 0.5 were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy and variable temperature Hall-effect measurements were employed to study the optical and electrical properties of these epilayers. Our electrical data revealed that the conductivity of Si-doped Al x Ga_1-x N alloys (x > 0.4) increases with an increase of the Si doping concentration (N_Si) for a fixed x value and exhibits a sharp increase around N_Si= 1x10 ^18cm-3, suggesting the existence of a critical Si doping concentration needed to convert insulating Al x Ga_1-x N alloys (x > 0.4) to n-type conductivity. Time-resolved PL studies also showed that PL decay lifetime and activation energy decrease sharply when Si-doping concentration increases from N_Si= 0 to 1x10 ^18cm-3and then followed by gradual decreases as N_Si further increases. Our results thus suggest that Si-doping reduces the effect of carrier localization in Al x Ga_1-x N alloys and a sharp drop in carrier localization energy occurs at N_Si= 1x10 ^18cm-3, which is the critical Si-doping concentration needed to fill up the localized states in Al x Ga_1-x N alloys (x > 0.4). The implications of these results to UV optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  8. Wetting of TiC by Al-Cu alloys and interfacial characterization.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A

    2007-07-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions that occurred between molten Al-Cu alloys (1, 4, 8, 20, 33, and 100 wt% Cu) and solid TiC substrates were studied by the sessile drop technique in the temperature range of 800-1130 degrees C. The effect of wetting behavior on the interfacial reaction layer was studied. All the Al-Cu alloys react with TiC at the interface forming an extensive reaction layer. The interface thickness varied with the samples, and depends on the temperature, chemical composition of the alloy and the time of the test. Wetting increases with increasing concentration of copper in the Al-Cu alloy at 800 and 900 degrees C. In contrast, at higher temperature such as 1000 degrees C wetting decreases with increasing copper content. The spreading kinetics and the work of adhesion were evaluated. The high values of activation energies indicated that spreading is not a simple viscosity controlled phenomenon but is a chemical reaction process. The spreading of the aluminum drop is observed to occur according to the formation of Al4C3, CuAl2O4, CuAl2, TiCux mainly, leading to a decreases in the contact angle. As the contact angle decreases the work of adhesion increases with increasing temperature. Al-Cu/TiC assemblies showed cohesive fracture corresponding to a strong interface. However, using pure Cu the adhesion work is poor, and the percentage of cohesion work is also too low (27-34%).

  9. Microstructural evolution of single Ni 2TiAl or hierarchical NiAl/Ni 2 TiAl precipitates in Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti ferritic alloys during thermal treatment for elevated-temperature applications

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; ...

    2017-01-07

    Precipitate features, such as the size, morphology, and distribution, are important parameters determining the mechanical properties of semi- or fully-coherent precipitatehardened alloys at elevated temperatures. In this study, the microstructural formation and evolution of recently-developed Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti alloys with superior creep resistance have been systematically investigated using transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and atom-probe tomography (APT). These alloys were designed by adding 2 or 4 weight percent (wt. %) Ti into a NiAl-hardened ferritic alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-6.5Al-10Cr-10Ni-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B in wt. %. These alloys were, then, subjected to a homogenization treatment at 1,473 K for 0.5 hour, followedmore » by aging treatments at 973 K for 1 ~ 500 hours. In the homogenization-treated case, both alloys contain a primary L21-type Ni 2TiAl precipitate, but with the distinct size and morphology of the precipitates and precipitate/matrix interface structures. In the subsequent aging treatments, the 2 wt. % Ti alloy establishes a hierarchical-precipitate structure consisting of a fine network of a B2-type NiAl phase within the parent L2 1-type Ni2TiAl precipitate, while the 4 wt. % Ti alloy retains the single Ni 2TiAl precipitate. It was found that the hierarchical structure is more effective in remaining the coherent interface during the growth/coarsening of the precipitate. The formation of the different types of the precipitates, and their effects on the microstructural evolution are discussed, and the driving forces for these features are identified from the competition between the interface energy and elastic interactions due to the lattice misfit and misfit dislocations.« less

  10. Microstructural evolution of single Ni 2TiAl or hierarchical NiAl/Ni 2 TiAl precipitates in Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti ferritic alloys during thermal treatment for elevated-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    Precipitate features, such as the size, morphology, and distribution, are important parameters determining the mechanical properties of semi- or fully-coherent precipitatehardened alloys at elevated temperatures. In this study, the microstructural formation and evolution of recently-developed Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti alloys with superior creep resistance have been systematically investigated using transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and atom-probe tomography (APT). These alloys were designed by adding 2 or 4 weight percent (wt. %) Ti into a NiAl-hardened ferritic alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-6.5Al-10Cr-10Ni-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B in wt. %. These alloys were, then, subjected to a homogenization treatment at 1,473 K for 0.5 hour, followedmore » by aging treatments at 973 K for 1 ~ 500 hours. In the homogenization-treated case, both alloys contain a primary L21-type Ni 2TiAl precipitate, but with the distinct size and morphology of the precipitates and precipitate/matrix interface structures. In the subsequent aging treatments, the 2 wt. % Ti alloy establishes a hierarchical-precipitate structure consisting of a fine network of a B2-type NiAl phase within the parent L2 1-type Ni2TiAl precipitate, while the 4 wt. % Ti alloy retains the single Ni 2TiAl precipitate. It was found that the hierarchical structure is more effective in remaining the coherent interface during the growth/coarsening of the precipitate. The formation of the different types of the precipitates, and their effects on the microstructural evolution are discussed, and the driving forces for these features are identified from the competition between the interface energy and elastic interactions due to the lattice misfit and misfit dislocations.« less

  11. Effects of Hot Rolling on Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Zn-22 wt.% Al Alloy at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. H.; Cao, Q. D.; Ma, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Tang, W.; Zhang, X. P.

    2016-09-01

    The effects of the reduction ratio (RR) on the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of the Zn-22 wt.% Al (Zn-22Al) alloy were investigated. Various grain sizes from 0.68 to 1.13 μm were obtained by controlled RRs. Tensile and LCF tests were carried out at room temperature. Superplasticity and cyclic softening were observed. Strength and ductility of the rolled Zn-22Al alloy increased with the RR, owing to the decrease in its grain size. The RR did not affect the cyclic softening behavior of the alloy. The fatigue life of the alloy decreased with increasing strain amplitude, while the fatigue life first decreased and then increased with increasing RR. The longest fatigue life was observed for the alloy rolled at a RR of 60%. A bilinear Coffin-Manson relationship was observed to hold true for this alloy.

  12. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  13. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation behavior of two nickel-aluminum alloys (Ni3AL and NiAl) with additions of chromium, silicon, and titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Santoro, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    The alloys Ni3Al and NiAl with and without 1 and 3 atomic percent chromium, silicon, and titanium replacing the aluminum were cyclically oxidized at 1200 C for times to 200 hours, and the results were compared with those obtained with the alloy B-1900 subjected to the same oxidation process. The evaluation was based on metal recession, specific weight change, metallography, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The oxidation resistance of Ni3Al was improved by Si, unaffected by Ti, and degraded by Cr. The oxidation resistance of NiAl was slightly improved by Ti, unaffected by Si, and degraded by Cr. The oxidation resistance of Ni3Al with 1 atomic percent Si was nearly equal to that of NiAl. Alloy B-1900 exhibited oxidation resistance comparable to that of Ni3Al + Cr compositions.

  14. Modified Welding Technique of a Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Alloy for Higher Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B. R.; Gupta, R. K.; Biju, S.; Sinha, P. P.

    GTAW process is used for welding of pressure vessels made of hypo-eutectic Al-Cu alloy AA2219 containing 6.3% Cu. As welded Yield strength of the alloy was found to be in the range of 140-150 MPa, using conventional single pass GTAW technique on both AC and DCSP modes. Interestingly, it was also found that weld-strength decreased with increase in thickness of the weld coupons. Welding metallurgy of AA2219 Al alloy was critically reviewed and factors responsible for lower properties were identified. Multipass GTAW on DCSP mode was postulated to improve the weld strength of this alloy. A systematic experimentation using 12 mm thick plates was carried out and YS of 200 MPa has been achieved in the as welded condition. Thorough characterization including optical and electron microscopy was conducted to validate the metallurgical phenomena attributable to improvement in weld strength. This paper presents the conceptual understanding of welding metallurgy of AA2219 alloy and validation by experiments, which could lead to better weld properties using multipass GTAW on DCSP mode.

  15. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2017-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are common biomedical materials owing to their combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Powder metallurgy (PM) techniques can be used to fabricate biomaterials with tailored properties because changing the processing parameters, such as the sintering temperature, products with different level of porosity and mechanical performances can be obtained. This study addresses the production of the biomedical Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy by means of the master alloy addition variant of the PM blending elemental approach. The sintering parameters investigated guarantee that the complete diffusion of the alloying elements and the homogenization of the microstructure is achieved. The sintering of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy induces a total shrinkage between 7.4% and 10.7% and the level of porosity decreases from 6.2% to 4.7% with the increment of the sintering temperature. Vickers hardness (280-300 HV30) and tensile properties (different combination of strength and elongation around 900MPa and 3%) are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion and Potentiostatic Polarization of an Al-Cu-Li Alloy under Tensile Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-feng; Zheng, Zi-qiao

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of an Al-3.8Cu-1.5Li-0.5Zn-0.5Mg-0.3Mn alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution was studied through using slow strain rate tension(SSRT). The potentiodynamic polarization and anodic potentiostastic polarization of the stressed and stress free alloy with T6 temper were investigated. The tensile stress decreased the break down potential. The alloy was sensitive to intergranular SCC (IGSCC), due to the continuous distribution of anodic phase of T2(Al6CuLi3) along the grain boundary. During the potentiostastic polarization, the current-time curve of the stressed alloy displayed a repeated transient feature that the current increased suddenly followed by a slower recovery, and corrosion crack appeared along the grain boundary. While the stress free alloy did not show this current feature and corrosion crack along the grain boundary. The repeated current transient was associated with the crack tip propagation and crack wall passivation. This feature may be used to analyze the SCC process.

  17. Accumulative Roll Bonding and Post-Deformation Annealing of Cu-Al-Mn Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Ahmad Ostovari; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Afrasiabi, Yaser

    2014-12-01

    Accumulative roll bonding is a severe plastic deformation process used for Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of grain refinement of Cu-9.5Al-8.2Mn (in wt.%) shape memory alloy using accumulative roll bonding and post-deformation annealing. The alloy was successfully subjected to 5 passes of accumulative roll bonding at 600 °C. The microstructure, properties as well as post-deformation annealing of this alloy were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, and bend and tensile testing. The results showed that after 5 passes of ARB at 600 °C, specimens possessed α + β microstructure with the refined grains, but martensite phases and consequently shape memory effect completely disappeared. Post-deformation annealing was carried out at 700 °C, and the martensite phase with the smallest grain size (less than 40 μm) was obtained after 150 s of annealing at 700 °C. It was found that after 5 passes of ARB and post-deformation annealing, the stability of SME during thermal cycling improved. Also, tensile properties of alloys significantly improved after post-deformation annealing.

  18. Nanocrystallization of Zr-Cu-Ni-Al-Au glassy alloys during severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kamisato, Ryo; Yamasaki, Tohru; Adachi, Hiroki; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko

    2014-08-01

    A study has been carried out into the formation of nanocrystalline grains during high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation of Zr65Cu17Ni5Al10Au3 bulk alloys prepared using tilt casting. As a preliminary to this, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were carried out on as-cast Zr65+xCu17-xNi5Al10Au3 (x=0~5 at.%) and Zr65Cu20Ni5Al10Au3 alloys, in order to determine the effect on the microstructure of the excess Zr content x and the presence of Au. From the XRD patterns, it was determined that all of the alloys had a metallic glassy nature. For Zr65Cu17Ni5Al10Au3, the DSC results indicated the presence of a wide supercooled liquid region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) of 644 K and the crystallization temperature of 763 K, where the stable body-centered tetragonal Zr2Cu phase was formed. In contrast, for the Zr65+xCu17-xNi5Al10Au3 alloys, precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (I-phase) was observed in the supercooled liquid region at about 715 K. HPT deformation of the Zr65Cu17Ni5Al10Au3 alloys was carried out under a high pressure of 5 GPa. Both as-cast specimens and those annealed at Tg-50 K for 90 min were used. Following a single HPT rotation (N=1), transmission electron microscopy identified the presence of face- centered cubic Zr2Ni precipitates in the as-cast alloy, with a size of about 50 nm. For the annealed alloy, a high density of I-phase precipitates with sizes of less than 10 nm was observed following HPT with N=10, indicating that the combination of severe plastic deformation and annealing is effective at producing extremely small grains.

  19. Effect of solidification parameters on mechanical properties of directionally solidified Al-Rich Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çadırlı, Emin

    2013-05-01

    Al(100-x)-Cux alloys (x=3 wt%, 6 wt%, 15 wt%, 24 wt% and 33 wt%) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under steady-state conditions by using a Bridgman-type directional solidification furnace. Solidification parameters (G, V and ), microstructure parameters (λ1, λ2 and λE) and mechanical properties (HV, σ) of the Al-Cu alloys were measured. Microstructure parameters were expressed as functions of solidification parameters by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of HV, σ on the cooling rate, microstructure parameters and composition were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of the solidified samples was increased by increasing the cooling rate and Cu content, but decreased with increasing microstructure parameters. The microscopic fracture surfaces of the different samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Fractographic analysis of the tensile fracture surfaces showed that the type of fracture significantly changed from ductile to brittle depending on the composition.

  20. The Effect of High Temperature Corrosion on Mechanical Behavior of a GAMMA-TiAl Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenyue; Ma, Yue; Gong, Shengkai

    The mechanical properties of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy were discussed after the high temperature corrosion tests carried out with salt mixture of 75wt. % Na2SO4 and 25wt. % NaCl at 800°C. The microstructure of the alloy after corrosion was observed by SEM and the fracture behavior of the corroded and uncorroded alloys was investigated by means of the three-point bending tests. It has been shown that the corrosion path was mainly along the lamellar structure and rough surface with a large number of corrosion pits formed during the high temperature corrosion. The experimental results also indicated that the bearing capacity of bending fracture descended evidently due to the molten salt corrosion at high temperature, which only had remarkable effects on the surface state of the alloy. The microcracks inside the alloy always propagated along the phase interfaces and grain boundaries while the corrosion pits on salt-deposited surface became the main crack initiation location in corroded alloy. The stress concentration caused by corrosion was considered as the essential reason of the property reduction, which decreased the energy barrier of crack nucleation and shortened the incubation period.

  1. Synthesis of As-Cast Ti-Al-V Alloy from Titanium-Rich Material by Thermite Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chu; Dou, Zhi He; Zhang, Ting An; Zhang, Hui Jie; Yi, Xin; Su, Jian Ming

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel methodology for preparing as-cast Ti-Al-V alloy directly from titanium-rich material through a thermite reduction. The new method is shown to be feasible through a thermodynamics and dynamics analysis. The as-cast Ti-Al-V alloys synthesized from titanium dioxide, rutile, and high-titanium slag were analyzed by an x-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, and an oxygen/nitrogen/hydrogen analyzer. The results indicate that the alloy is composed of a Ti-Al-V matrix and Al2O3 inclusions. The Al and V contents in the matrix are close to the mass ratio of Ti-6Al-4V (Al: 5.5-6.8 wt.%, V: 3.5-4.5 wt.%). The Si and Fe in the alloys synthesized from rutile and high-titanium slag can be used as alloying elements in low-cost titanium alloys. The present method is expected to be useful for preparing Ti-Al-V alloys at a low production cost.

  2. Effect of Ga Addition on Morphology and Recovery of Primary Si During Al-Si Alloy Solidification Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwei; Bai, Xiaolong; Li, Yanlei; Ban, Boyuan; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The effect of Ga addition on alloy macrostructure, morphology and recovery rate of primary Si during the Al-Si-Ga alloy solvent refining process of silicon was studied in this work. The addition of Ga to Al-Si alloy could change the morphology of the primary Si. The average plate thickness of the primary Si increases with increase of Ga content. With the increase of Ga content, the average plate length of the primary Si crystals becomes larger when the Ga content is less than 5% in the Al-30%Si-xGa alloy, but becomes smaller when the Ga content exceeds 5%. Al-Si-Ga alloys consist of three types, primary Si, GaxAl1-x, (α-Al+Si+β-Ga) eutectic. (111) is the preferred growth surface of the plate-like primary Si. The recovery rate of the primary Si increases with the increase of Ga content. When the Ga content increased to 20% in Al-30%Si-xGa alloy, the relative recovery rate of the primary Si increased to 50.41% than that in Al-30%Si alloy.

  3. Preparation of silicon target material by adding Al-B master alloy in directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengting; Wang, Kai; Ren, Shiqiang; Jiang, Dachuan; Tan, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The silicon target material was prepared by adding Al-6B master alloy in directional solidification. The microstructure was characterized and the resistivity was studied in this work. The results showed that the purity of the silicon target material was more than 99.999% (5N). The resistivity was ranges from 0.002 to 0.030 Ω·cm along the ingot height. It was revealed that the particles of AlB2 in Al-6B master alloy would react spontaneously and generate clusters of [B] and [Al] in molten silicon at 1723 K. After directional solidification, the content of B and Al were increasing gradually with the increase of solidified fraction. The measured values of B were in good agreement with the curve of the Scheil equation below 80% of the ingot height. The mean concentration of B was about 17.20 ppmw and the mean concentration of Al was about 8.07 ppmw after directional solidification. The measured values of Al were fitting well with the curve of values which the effective segregation coefficient was 0.00378. It was observed that B co-doped Al in directional solidification polysilicon could regulate resistivity mutually. This work provides the theoretical basis and technical support for industrial production of the silicon target material.

  4. Microstructure and growth mechanism of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al ceramic matrix composite made by directed oxidation of Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, C.D.; Lai, M.O.; Cotterell, B.

    Since the Lanxide process was advanced for forming of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic composite by directed oxidation of Al alloys, much work has been done with various mechanisms being proposed. The mechanisms have claimed that only certain dopants are essential to the growth process. Nevertheless, no united consensus has yet been reached. In the present work, Al alloy containing 5% Mg was oxidized in air for 12 hours at 1,150 C with or without surface dopants of MgO or Pd. The resultant composites showed very different microstructures. Without any surface doping, the alloy did not develop any portion of compositemore » as the initial intimate oxide film stops further oxidation. This intimate oxide film can either be broken off by mechanical means or penetrated by reaction with surface dopants, so that the composite can grow and develop. The results show that the previously reported incubation time is not only related to reaction processes but also to the initial mechanical disturbances. Doping with Pd made the composite darker in color as the grains of the alumina ceramic matrix and inclusions of Al metal are finer. This shows that Pd may make the top oxide layer less intimate, and more nucleation sites are therefore available for oxidation. A new model is presented for oxide sustained growth based on the existence of oxygen active top surface layer and the capillary flow of molten metal around ceramic phase.« less

  5. Simultaneous measurements of photoemission and morphology of various Al alloys during mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Li, W.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2006-11-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of strain and photoelectron emission from high purity Al (1350), Al-Mg (5052), Al-Mn (3003), Al-Cu (2024), and Al-Mg-Si (6061) alloys under uniaxial tension due to pulsed excimer laser radiation (248nm). The emission of low-energy photoelectrons is sensitive to deformation-induced changes in surface morphology, including the formation of slip lines and slip bands. Alloy composition and surface treatment significantly influence the photoemission during deformation. Surface oxide enhances the signal-to-noise level during photoemission measurement. In the early stage of deformation (strain ⩽0.04), photoemission intensity increases gradually in a nonlinear fashion. While subsequent photoemission increases almost linearly with strain until failure in samples with thin oxide layer (˜31Å), there are two linear segments of photoemission for the samples with oxide of 45Å. The onset of strain localization corresponds to the intersection point of two linear segments, usually at a strain of 0.08-0.20. A constitutive model incorporating microstructure evolution and work hardening during tensile deformation is proposed to qualitatively interpret the growth of the photoemission as a function of strain. Photoemissions from various alloys are interpreted in the light of surface treatment, work function, composition, and microstructural development during deformation.

  6. Simulation and experimental analysis of nanoindentation and mechanical properties of amorphous NiAl alloys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Fang, Te-Hua; Cheng, Po-Chien; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Chao, Kuan-Chi

    2015-06-01

    This paper used numerical and experimental methods to investigate the mechanical properties of amorphous NiAl alloys during the nanoindentation process. A simulation was performed using the many-body tight-binding potential method. Temperature, plastic deformation, elastic recovery, and hardness were evaluated. The experimental method was based on nanoindentation measurements, allowing a precise prediction of Young's modulus and hardness values for comparison with the simulation results. The indentation simulation results showed a significant increase of NiAl hardness and elastic recovery with increasing Ni content. Furthermore, the results showed that hardness and Young's modulus increase with increasing Ni content. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Adhesion test of amorphous NiAl alloys at room temperature is also described in this study.

  7. Direct observation of atomic-scale origins of local dissolution in Al-Cu-Mg alloys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, B.; Wang, J.; Wu, B.; Oguzie, E. E.; Luo, K.; Ma, X. L.

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic chemical inhomogeneities are anticipated to induce dissimilarities in surface potentials, which control corrosion initiation of alloys at the atomic scale. Precise understanding of corrosion is therefore hampered by lack of definite information describing how atomistic heterogeneities regulate the process. Here, using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques, we systematically analyzed the Al20Cu2Mn3 second phase of 2024Al and successfully observed that atomic-scale segregation of Cu at defect sites induced preferential dissolution of the adjacent zones. We define an “atomic-scale galvanic cell”, composed of zones rich in Cu and its surrounding matrix. Our findings provide vital information linking atomic-scale microstructure and pitting mechanism, particularly for Al-Cu-Mg alloys. The resolution achieved also enables understanding of dealloying mechanisms and further streamlines our comprehension of the concept of general corrosion. PMID:28000750

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Al-12Si Alloy Via Pulsed Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, R.; Milligan, J.; Paliwal, M.; Brochu, M.

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is experiencing a research and commercialization craze in almost all industrial sectors. However, to date, AM has been limited to a small numbers of alloys. With respect to aluminum, two alloys received some attention: Al-12Si and Al-10Si-1Mg. In both cases, fully dense components have been achieved using a continuous-wave selective laser melting system. In this article, a new approach of selective laser melting using a pulsed-laser source as opposed to a continuous-wave laser is proposed. Pulse selective laser melting (P-SLM) would allow for greater control over the heat input and thus further optimization possibilities of the microstructure. P-SLM was demonstrated using the Al-12Si system. Si refinement below 200 nm was achieved throughout the component. Density up to 95% and high hardness of above 135 HV were obtained. The solidification mechanism is also explained.

  9. Synthesis of porous Cu from Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Vani, V.; Kwon, O. J.; Hong, S. M.; Fleury, E.

    2011-07-01

    The formation of a porous Cu structure from cast Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys has been studied using a selective corrosion technique. Two alkaline solutions were selected based on the electrochemical properties of the constituent elements. Selective corrosion of Al and Co was achieved by chemical immersion of the cast Al-Cu-Co alloy in both 5 M NaOH and 0.5 M Na2CO3 solutions; values for BET surface-to-weight ratio of up to 30 m2/g could be reached. Microstructural analyses indicated that the architecture of the resulting porous structures was composed of a needle-type phase, remaining from the decagonal phase, in addition to Cu and Cu-Co phases.

  10. Superplastic Deformation Mechanisms of Superfine/Nanocrystalline Duplex PM-TiAl-Based Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xuebo; Duan, Zhenxin; Pei, Wen; Chen, Hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the equiaxed superfine/nanocrystalline duplex PM-TiAl-based alloy with (γ + α2) microstructure, Ti-45Al-5Nb (at %), has been synthesized by high-energy ball milling and vacuum hot pressing sintering. Superplastic deformation behavior has been investigated at 1000 °C and 1050 °C with strain rates from 5 × 10−5 s−1 to 1 × 10−3 s−1. The effects of deformation on the microstructure and mechanical behaviors of high Nb containing TiAl alloy have been characterized and analyzed. The results showed that, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy was 58.7 MPa at 1000 °C and 10.5 MPa at 1050 °C with a strain rate of 5 × 10−5 s−1, while the elongation was 121% and 233%, respectively. The alloy exhibited superplastic elongation at 1000 and 1050 °C with an exponent (m) of 0.48 and 0.45. The main softening mechanism was dynamic recrystallization of γ grains; the dislocation slip and γ/γ interface twinning were responsible for superplastic deformation. The orientation relationship of γ/γ interface twinning obeyed the classical one: (001)γ//(110)γ. PMID:28925971

  11. Microstructural Influence on Mechanical Properties in Plasma Microwelding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, M.; Bag, S.

    2016-11-01

    The complexity of joining Ti6Al4V alloy enhances with reduction in sheet thickness. The present work puts emphasis on microplasma arc welding (MPAW) of 500-μm-thick Ti6Al4V alloy in butt joint configuration. Using controlled and regulated arc current, the MPAW process is specifically designed to use in joining of thin sheet components over a wide range of process parameters. The weld quality is assessed by carefully controlling the process parameters and by reducing the formation of oxides. The combined effect of welding speed and current on the weld joint properties is evaluated for joining of Ti6Al4V alloy. The macro- and microstructural characterizations of the weldment by optical microscopy as well as the analysis of mechanical properties by microtensile and microhardness test have been performed. The weld joint quality is affected by specifically designed fixture that controls the oxidation of the joint and introduces high cooling rate. Hence, the solidified microstructure of welded specimen influences the mechanical properties of the joint. The butt joint of titanium alloy by MPAW at optimal process parameters is of very high quality, without any internal defects and with minimum residual distortion.

  12. Effects of Solute Concentrations on Kinetic Pathways in Ni-Al-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Weninger, Jessica; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic pathways resulting from the formation of coherent gamma'-precipitates from the gamma-matrix are studied for two Ni-Al-Cr alloys with similar gamma'-precipitate volume fractions at 873 K. The details of the phase decompositions of Ni-7.5Al-8.5Cr at.% and Ni-5.2Al-14.2Cr at.% for aging times from 1/6 to 1024 h are investigated by atom-probe tomography, and are found to differ significantly from a mean-field description of coarsening. The morphologies of the gamma'-precipitates of the alloys are similar, though the degrees of gamma'-precipitate coagulation and coalescence differ. Quantification within the framework of classical nucleation theory reveals that differences in the chemical driving forces for phase decomposition result in differences in the nucleation behavior of the two alloys. The temporal evolution of the gamma'-precipitate average radii and the gamma-matrix supersaturations follow the predictions of classical coarsening models. The compositional trajectories of the gamma-matrix phases of the alloys are found to follow approximately the equilibrium tie-lines, while the trajectories of the gamma'-precipitates do not, resulting in significant differences in the partitioning ratios of the solute elements.

  13. The response of macrophages to a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Colić, Miodrag; Tomić, Sergej; Rudolf, Rebeka; Anzel, Ivan; Lojen, Gorazd

    2010-09-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been investigated as materials for medical devices, but little is known about their biocompatibility. The aim of this work was to study the response of rat peritoneal macrophages (PMØ) to a Cu-Al-Ni SMA in vitro, by measuring the functional activity of mitochondria, necrosis, apoptosis, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Rapidly solidified (RS) thin ribbons were used for the tests. The control alloy was a permanent mold casting of the same composition, but without the shape memory effect. Our results showed that the control alloy was severely cytotoxic, whereas RS ribbons induced neither necrosis nor apoptosis of PMØ. These findings correlated with the data that RS ribbons are significantly more resistant to corrosion compared to the control alloy, as judged by the lesser release of Cu and Ni in the conditioning medium. However, the ribbons generated intracellular reactive oxygen species and upregulated the production of IL-6 by PMØ. These effects were almost completely abolished by conditioning the RS ribbons for 5 weeks. In conclusion, RS significantly improves the corrosion stability and biocompatibility of Cu-Al-Ni SMA. The biocompatibility of this functional material could be additionally enhanced by conditioning the ribbons in cell culture medium.

  14. Superplastic Deformation Mechanisms of Superfine/Nanocrystalline Duplex PM-TiAl-Based Alloy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuebo; Duan, Zhenxin; Pei, Wen; Chen, Hua

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, the equiaxed superfine/nanocrystalline duplex PM-TiAl-based alloy with (γ + α₂) microstructure, Ti-45Al-5Nb (at %), has been synthesized by high-energy ball milling and vacuum hot pressing sintering. Superplastic deformation behavior has been investigated at 1000 °C and 1050 °C with strain rates from 5 × 10 -5 s -1 to 1 × 10 -3 s -1 . The effects of deformation on the microstructure and mechanical behaviors of high Nb containing TiAl alloy have been characterized and analyzed. The results showed that, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy was 58.7 MPa at 1000 °C and 10.5 MPa at 1050 °C with a strain rate of 5 × 10 -5 s -1 , while the elongation was 121% and 233%, respectively. The alloy exhibited superplastic elongation at 1000 and 1050 °C with an exponent (m) of 0.48 and 0.45. The main softening mechanism was dynamic recrystallization of γ grains; the dislocation slip and γ/γ interface twinning were responsible for superplastic deformation. The orientation relationship of γ/γ interface twinning obeyed the classical one: (001) γ //(110) γ .

  15. Dislocation loop formation in model FeCrAl alloys after neutron irradiation below 1 dpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.

    2017-11-01

    FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions and microstructures are under consideration for accident-tolerant fuel cladding, but limited details exist on dislocation loop formation and growth for this class of alloys under neutron irradiation. Four model FeCrAl alloys with chromium contents ranging from 10.01 to 17.51 wt % and aluminum contents of 4.78 to 2.93 wt % were neutron irradiated to doses of 0.3-0.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures of 335-355 °C. On-zone STEM imaging revealed a mixed population of black dots and larger dislocation loops with either a / 2 〈 111 〉 or a 〈 100 〉 Burgers vectors. Weak composition dependencies were observed and varied depending on whether the defect size, number density, or ratio of defect types was of interest. Results were found to mirror those of previous studies on FeCrAl and FeCr alloys irradiated under similar conditions, although distinct differences exist.

  16. Dislocation loop formation in model FeCrAl alloys after neutron irradiation below 1 dpa

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; ...

    2017-08-01

    FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions and microstructures are under consideration for accident-tolerant fuel cladding, but limited details exist on dislocation loop formation and growth for this class of alloys under neutron irradiation. Four model FeCrAl alloys with chromium contents ranging from 10.01 to 17.51 wt % and alunimum contents of 4.78 to 2.93 wt % were neutron irradiated to doses of 0.3–0.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures of 335–355°C. On-zone STEM imaging revealed a mixed population of black dots and larger dislocation loops with either a/2< 111 > or a< 100 > Burgers vectors. Weak composition dependencies were observedmore » and varied depending on whether the defect size, number density, or ratio of defect types was of interest. Here, the results were found to mirror those of previous studies on FeCrAl and FeCr alloys irradiated under similar conditions, although distinct differences exist.« less

  17. Creep forming of an Al-Mg-Li alloy for aeronautic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Wael; Giraud, Eliane; Fredj, Montassar; Dal Santo, Philippe; van der Veen, Sjoerd

    2016-10-01

    Creep forming of Al-Mg-Li alloy sheets is studied. An instrumented bulging machine is used to form a double curvature panel at a reduced scale. The deformation of the work-sheet is ensured by a 7475 aluminum alloy lost sheet deformed by a gas pressure applied on its upper surface. A numerical model using the ABAQUS software is developed in order to obtain the pressure law and to ensure the forming conditions during the cycle. This model is validated by comparing experiments and numerical results in terms of deformed shape and thickness evolution.

  18. Comparison of corrosion performance and mechanisms of Al-Cu alloys with and without Li addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Christine; Rouault, Sacha

    The corrosion behaviour (intergranular corrosion, exfoliation and SCC) of alloy 2050 (AlCuLi) has been evaluated as a function of tempering and compared with some 2xxx Li free alloys. They show a similar qualitative behaviour: sensitivity to corrosion in underaged conditions, desensitization near peak age and re-sensitization in overaged conditions. The desentization can be rationalized on the basis of microstructural investigations and electrochemical measurements: preferential dissolution in underaged conditions is attributed to a Cu depleted zone near grain boundary. The re-sensitization in an overaged temper needs further investigations.

  19. Enhanced fatigue performance of porous coated Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apachitei, I.; Leoni, A.; Riemslag, A. C.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Duszczyk, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biofunctional coatings are necessary to improve integration of titanium implants in the host tissue but they may be detrimental for the implant fatigue properties. This study presents an attempt towards enhancement of the in vitro fatigue strength of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated Ti6Al4V alloy by applying shot peening process prior to coating. The electrolytic oxidation was performed in calcium acetate and calcium glycerophosphate electrolytes that allowed formation of porous oxide coatings with high surface free energy and apatite like ability. A deformed surface layer coupled with induced residual compressive stresses seem to affect oxide growth rate and fatigue behavior of the titanium alloy.

  20. A Study on Sealing Process of Anodized Al Alloy Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Sonoko; Ishikawa, Yuuichi

    Since sealing is an important process to improve the corrosion resistance in practical application of anodized aluminum, we prepared anodic oxide films on A5052 alloy in an oxalic acid bath and a sulfuric acid bath, sealed them at various conditions, and analyzed them by scanning electron microscopy, acid-dissolution examination, admittance measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The pore radius of the oxalic acid anodized film was about 5 times larger than that of sulfuric acid anodized film, while the corrosion resistance of the former showed about 2 times higher value than the latter with the same sealed state and amount of hydroxide formed by sealing process of the former was 6 times larger than the latter, respectively. Steam sealing formed dense hydroxide and boiling water sealing formed big coral-like hydroxide, whereas the corrosion resistance of the film sealed by the former showed about 1.5 times higher value than that sealed by the latter, respectively. Thus microstructure of anodic oxide films and their surface morphology after sealing process clearly depended on their anodizing solution and the sealing condition and showed obvious relation to electric and corrosive properties.

  1. Fabrication of Intermetallic Titanium Alloy Based on Ti2AlNb by Rapid Quenching of Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, K. S.; Serov, M. M.; Umarova, O. Z.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of fabrication of rapidly quenched fibers from alloy Ti - 22Al - 27Nb by extracting a hanging melt drop is studied. The special features of the production of electrodes for spraying the fibers by sintering mechanically alloyed powdered components of the alloy, i.e., titanium hydride, niobium, and aluminum dust, are studied. The rapidly quenched fibers with homogeneous phase composition and fine-grained structure produced from alloy Ti - 22Al - 27Nb are suitable for manufacturing compact semiproducts by hot pressing.

  2. Corrosion Mechanisms in Brazed Al-Base Alloy Sandwich Structures as a Function of Braze Alloy and Process Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    aeration solution for 8 hours. A concentrated Nitric acid (HNO3) dip for 15 seconds removed corrosion products prior to post-exposure SEM imaging [25...32 to -37°C under a liquid nitrogen chill at 11.2 V for one minute [10]. The electropolishing solution was a mixture of 1/3 concentrated Nitric acid ...DATES COVERED (From - To) 03/27/06-12/31/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Corrosion Mechanisms in Brazed Al-Base Alloy Sandwich Structures as a Function

  3. Oxidation studies of Fe10CrAl-RE alloys exposed to Pb at 550 °C for 10,000 h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejenstam, Jesper; Halvarsson, Mats; Weidow, Jonathan; Jönsson, Bo; Szakalos, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Five experimental FeCrAl-RE alloys have been exposed up to 10,000 h in stagnant liquid Pb at 550 °C. The test matrix consisted of three 10 wt.% Cr alloys, with an Al content ranging from 4 to 8 wt.% (10Cr-4Al, 10Cr-6Al and 10Cr-8Al), one alloy without additions of reactive elements (RE) (10Cr-6Al), and one reference alloy with 21 wt.% Cr and 5 wt.% Al (21Cr-5Al). The evaluation showed a clear difference in oxidation properties, and it was possible to divide the alloys into two distinct groups. A critical Al concentration in the interval of 4-6 wt.% at the given RE content was required to form a thin protective oxide. However, the absence of RE addition in one of the two 10Cr-6Al alloys resulted in a significant reduction in oxidation resistance, comparable with 10Cr-4Al. None of the alloys were severely corroded, however Pb penetrated to a relatively large extent into the porous oxide of the low performing alloys. A 100 nm thick oxide scale, partly consisting of alumina (Al2O3), was observed for the high performing 10Cr-6Al alloy. The Fe10CrAl-RE alloys showed overall very good corrosion resistance and are hence a promising new alloy category for liquid Pb applications.

  4. Secondary Al-Si-Mg High-pressure Die Casting Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Dominik; Pogatscher, Stefan; Hummel, Marc; Fragner, Werner; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2015-03-01

    Al-Si-Mg-based secondary cast alloys are attractive candidates for thin-walled high-pressure die castings for applications in the transport industry. The present study investigates the effect of manganese additions at high cooling rates on microstructure, mechanical properties, and on the dominating fracture mechanisms of alloy AlSi10Mg with an elevated iron concentration. Systematic variations of the Mn content from 0.20 to 0.85 wt pct at a constant Fe content of 0.55 wt pct illustrate the key changes in type, phase fraction, and shape of the Fe-containing intermetallic phases, and the corresponding influence on the alloy's ductility. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC), an optimal range of the Mn content between 0.40 and 0.60 wt pct, equivalent to a Mn/Fe ratio of approximately 1, has been identified. At these Mn and Fe contents, the high cooling rates obtained in HPDC result in the formation of fine and homogeneously distributed α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase, and crack initiation is transferred from AlFeSi intermetallics to eutectic silicon. The study interprets the microstructure-property relationship in the light of thermodynamic calculations which reveal a significant increase in undercooling of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase with increased Mn content. It concludes that the interdependence of the well-defined Mn/Fe ratio and the high cooling rate in HPDC can generate superior ductility in secondary AlSi10Mg cast alloys.

  5. Magnetic and transport properties of amorphous Ce-Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amakai, Yusuke; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Momono, Naoki; Takano, Hideaki; Kuwai, Tomohiko

    2018-05-01

    Amorphous (a-)Ce50Al50 has been prepared by DC high-rate sputter method. The structure of the obtained sample has been confirmed to have an amorphous structure because there are no Bragg peaks in the X-ray diffraction measurement and have a clear exothermic peak by the differential scanning calorimetry measurement. We have measured the resistivity ρ, magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat Cp and thermoelectric power S for a-Ce50Al50. The temperature dependence of ρ exhibits a small temperature dependence less than 10% in the whole temperature region. χ follows a Curie-Weiss behavior in the high-temperature region of T>90 K. The effective paramagnetic moment peff, estimated from C is 2.18 μB/Ce-atom. The low-temperature Cp/T increases rapidly with decreasing temperature and tends to a saturation. S(T) exhibits negative values in a wide temperature region. A minimum of S appear at around 60 K, and S decreases linearly with decreasing temperature down to 10 K. The low-temperature S is almost 0 μV/K down to 2 K. From these results, we have pointed out that present a-Ce50Al50 would be an incoherent Kondo material.

  6. Metallurgical Parameters Controlling the Eutectic Silicon Charateristics in Be-Treated Al-Si-Mg Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed F.; Elgallad, Emad M.; Valtierra, Salvador; Doty, Herbert W.; Samuel, Fawzy H.

    2016-01-01

    The present work was carried out on Al-7%Si-0.4%Mg-X alloy (where X = Mg, Fe, Sr or Be), where the effect of solidification rate on the eutectic silicon characteristics was investigated. Two solidification rates corresponding to dendrite arm spacings (DAS) of 24 and 65 μm were employed. Samples with 24 μm DAS were solution heat-treated at 540 °C for 5 and 12 h prior to quenching in warm water at 65 °C. Eutectic Si particle charateristics were measured using an image analyzer. The results show that the addition of 0.05% Be leads to partial modification of the Si particles. Full modification was only obtained when Sr was added in an amount of 150–200 ppm, depending on the applied solidification rate. Increasing the amount of Mg to 0.8% in Sr-modified alloys leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of Sr as the main modifier. Similar observations were made when the Fe content was increased in Be-treated alloys due to the Be-Fe interaction. Over-modification results in the precipitation of hard Sr-rich particles, mainly Al4SrSi2, whereas overheating causes incipient melting of the Al-Cu eutectic and hence the surrounding matrix. Both factors lead to a deterioration in the alloy mechanical properties. Furthermore, the presence of long, acicular Si particles accelerates the occurrence of fracture and, as a result, yields poor ductility. In low iron (less than 0.1 wt%) Al-Si-Mg alloys, the mechanical properties in the as cast, as well as heat treated conditions, are mainly controlled by the eutectic Si charatersitics. Increasing the iron content and, hence, the volume fraction of Fe-based intermetallics leads to a complex fracture mode. PMID:28787877

  7. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  8. Effects of Annealing Process on the Formability of Friction Stir Welded Al-Li Alloy 2195 Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Bradford, Vann; Russell, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Large rocket cryogenic tank domes have typically been fabricated using Al-Cu based alloys like Al-Cu alloy 2219. The use of aluminum-lithium based alloys for rocket fuel tank domes can reduce weight because aluminum-lithium alloys have lower density and higher strength than Al-Cu alloy 2219. However, Al-Li alloys have rarely been used to fabricate rocket fuel tank domes because of the inherent low formability characteristic that make them susceptible to cracking during the forming operations. The ability to form metal by stretch forming or spin forming without excessive thinning or necking depends on the strain hardening exponent "n". The stain hardening exponent is a measure of how rapidly a metal becomes stronger and harder. A high strain hardening exponent is beneficial to a material's ability to uniformly distribute the imposed strain. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel annealing process that can achieve a work hardening exponent on the order of 0.27 to 0.29, which is approximately 50% higher than what is typically obtained for Al-Li alloys using the conventional method. The strain hardening exponent of the Al-Li alloy plates or blanks heat treated using the conventional method is typically on the order of 0.17 to 0.19. The effects of this novel annealing process on the formability of friction stir welded Al-Li alloy blanks are being studied at Marshall Space Flight Center. The formability ratings will be generated using the strain hardening exponent, strain rate sensitivity and forming range. The effects of forming temperature on the formability will also be studied. The objective of this work is to study the deformation behavior of the friction stir welded Al-Li alloy 2195 blank and determine the formability enhancement by the new annealing process.

  9. Characterization of disk-laser dissimilar welding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V to aluminum alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Corrado, Gaetano; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    Both technical and economic reasons suggest to join dissimilar metals, benefiting from the specific properties of each material in order to perform flexible design. Adhesive bonding and mechanical joining have been traditionally used although adhesives fail to be effective in high-temperature environments and mechanical joining are not adequate for leak-tight joints. Friction stir welding is a valid alternative, even being difficult to perform for specific joint geometries and thin plates. The attention has therefore been shifted to laser welding. Interest has been shown in welding titanium to aluminum, especially in the aviation industry, in order to benefit from both corrosive resistance and strength properties of the former, and low weight and cost of the latter. Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and aluminum alloy 2024 are considered in this work, being them among the most common ones in aerospace and automotive industries. Laser welding is thought to be particularly useful in reducing the heat affected zones and providing deep penetrative beads. Nevertheless, many challenges arise in welding dissimilar metals and the aim is further complicated considering the specific features of the alloys in exam, being them susceptible to oxidation on the upper surface and porosity formation in the fused zone. As many variables are involved, a systematic approach is used to perform the process and to characterize the beads referring to their shape and mechanical features, since a mixture of phases and structures is formed in the fused zone after recrystallization.

  10. CeLa enhanced corrosion resistance of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloy for lithium battery shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiandi; Ding, Dongyan; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Zhou; Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua; Chen, Renzong; Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    Effects of CeLa addition on the localized corrosion and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe lithium battery shell alloy were investigated by immersion testing and electrochemical testing in 0.6 M NaCl solution at different temperatures. Experimental results indicated that CeLa addition resulted in the formation of AlCuCe/La (Al8Cu4Ce and Al6Cu6La) local cathodes and corrosion activity of the main intermetallic particles decreased in the order of Al2CuMg, AlCuCe/La, Al6(Mn, Fe). Corrosion potential shifted positively due to CeLa alloying. Corrosion current density of the CeLa-containing alloy was lower than that of the CeLa-free alloy at room temperature. At room temperature, there was no obvious surface passivation for both alloys. At 80 °C CeLa addition resulted in a wide passive region at the anode polarization region. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis also indicated that corrosion resistance of the CeLa-containing alloy was much higher than that of the CeLa-free alloy.

  11. The comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties between 14Cr-Al and 14Cr-Ti ferritic ODS alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian; Mo, Kun; ...

    2016-03-03

    In this study, two kinds of 14Cr ODS alloys (14Cr-Al and 14Cr-Ti) were investigated to reveal the different effects between Al and Ti on the microstructures and mechanical properties of 14Cr ferritic ODS alloys. The microstructure information such as grains, minor phases of these two alloys has been investigated by high-energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction tensile test was applied to investigate the mechanical properties of these two alloys. The lattice strains of different phases through the entire tensile deformation process in these two alloys were analyzed to calculate their elastic stresses.more » From the comparison of elastic stress, the strengthening capability of Y 2Ti 2O 7 is better than TiN in 14Cr-Ti, and the strengthening capability of YAH is much better than YAM and AlN in 14Cr-Al ODS. The dislocation densities of 14Cr-Ti and 14Cr-Al ODS alloys during tensile deformation were also examined by modified Williamson-Hall analyses of peak broadening, respectively. In conclusion, the different increasing speed of dislocation density with plastic deformation reveals the better strengthening effect of Y-Ti-O particles in 14Cr-Ti ODS than that of Y-Al-O particles in 14Cr-Al ODS alloy.« less

  12. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiTiFeAlCu High-Entropy Alloys with Exceptional Nano-precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Wang, Sibing; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Three novel NiTiFeAlCu high-entropy alloys, which consist of nano-precipitates with face-centered cubic structure and matrix with body-centered cubic structure, were fabricated to investigate microstructures and mechanical properties. With the increase in Ni and Ti contents, the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is enhanced, while the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is lowered. Plenty of dislocations can be observed in the Ni32Ti32Fe12Al12Cu12 high-entropy alloy. The size of nano-precipitates decreases with the increase in Ni and Ti contents, while lattice distortion becomes more and more severe with the increase in Ni and Ti contents. The existence of nano-precipitates, dislocations and lattice distortion is responsible for the increase in the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy, but it has an adverse influence on the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy. Ni20Ti20Fe20Al20Cu20 alloy exhibits the substantial ability of plastic deformation and a characteristic of steady flow at 850 and 1000 °C. This phenomenon is attributed to a competition between the increase in the dislocation density induced by plastic strain and the decrease in the dislocation density due to the dynamic recrystallization.

  13. Interface characterization of Cu-Mo coating deposited on Ti-Al alloys by arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shengqiang; Li, Fei; Wu, Ting; Yin, Xianglin; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2015-03-01

    Cu-Mo pseudobinary alloys are promising candidates as electrode materials in CoSb3-based skutterudite thermoelectric (TE) devices for TE power generation. In this study, Cu-Mo coatings were deposited onto Ti-Al substrates by applying a dual-wire electric arc spraying coating technique. The microstructure of the surfaces, cross sections and coating interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). Cu-Mo coatings showed a typical banded splat with compact microstructures, and have no coarse pores nor micro-cracks. The thermal shock resistance of the Cu-Mo coating was also investigated to show good combinations with Ti-Al substrates. After 50 thermal shock cycles, there were no cracks observed at the interface. In contrast, the test of the thermal shock resistance of the Cu coating on the Ti-Al substrate was also investigated. Due to a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between Cu and Ti-Al alloys, the Cu coating flaked from the Ti-Al substrate completely after 10 thermal shock cycles. The contact resistivity of the Ti-Al/Cu-Mo interface was about 1.6 μΩṡcm2 and this value was unchanged after 50 thermal shock cycles, indicating the low electric resistance and high thermal stability of the Cu-Mo/Ti-Al interface.

  14. Performance Comparison of Al-Ti Master Alloys with Different Microstructures in Grain Refinement of Commercial Purity Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wanwu; Xia, Tiandong; Zhao, Wenjun

    2014-05-07

    Three types of Al-5Ti master alloys were synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum. Performance comparison of Al-5Ti master alloy in grain refinement of commercial purity Al with different additions (0.6%, 1.0%, 1.6%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) and holding time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) were investigated. The results show that Al-5Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl₃ particles clearly has better refining efficiency than the master alloy with mixed TiAl₃ particles and the master alloy with needle-like TiAl₃ particles. The structures of master alloys, differing by sizes, morphologies and quantities of TiAl₃ crystals, were found to affect the pattern of the grain refining properties with the holding time. The grain refinement effect was revealed to reduce markedly for master alloys with needle-like TiAl₃ crystals and to show the further significant improvement at a longer holding time for the master alloy containing both larger needle-like and blocky TiAl₃ particles. For the master alloy with finer blocky particles, the grain refining effect did not obviously decrease during the whole studied range of the holding time.

  15. Grain growth in nanocrystalline iron and Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Hamed; Zomorodian, Amir

    2010-02-01

    The effects of the annealing temperature and time, cryomilling in liquid nitrogen, and the addition of aluminum powder on the thermal stability and grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline iron were modeled using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique. The developed model can be used as a guide for the quantification of the grain growth by considering the effects of annealing temperature and time. The model also quantified the effect of Al on the thermal stability of cryomilled nanocrystalline Fe. The model results showed that the cryomilling of Fe has a tangible effect on the stabilization of the nanostructure.

  16. The microstructure, mechanical stress, texture, and electromigration behavior of Al-Pd alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodbell, K. P.; Knorr, D. B.; Mis, J. D.

    1993-06-01

    As the minimum feature size of interconnect lines decreases below 0.5 urn, the need to control the line microstructure becomes increasingly important. The alloy content, deposition process, fabrication method, and thermal history all determine the microstructure of an interconnect, which, in turn, affects its performance and reliability. The motivation for this work was to characterize the microstructure of various sputtered Al-Pd alloys (Al-0.3wt.%Pd, Al-2Cu-0.3Pd, and Al-0.3Nb-0.3Pd) vs sputtered Al-Cu control samples (Al-0.5Cu and Al-2Cu) and to assess the role of grain size, mechanical stress, and crystallographic texture on the electromigration behavior of submicrometer wide lines. The grain size, mechanical stress, and texture of blanket films were measured as a function of annealing. The as-deposited film stress was tensile and followed a similar stress history on heating for all of the films; on cooling, however, significant differences were observed between the Al-Pd and Al-Cu films in the shape of their stress-temperature-curves. A strong (111) crystallographic texture was typically found for Al-Cu films deposited on SiO2. A stronger (111) texture resulted when Al-Cu was deposited on 25 nm titanium. Al-0.3Pd films, however, exhibited either a weak (111) or (220) texture when deposited on SiO2, which reverted to a strong (111) texture when deposited on 25 nm titanium. The electromigration lifetimes of passivated, ≈0.7 μm wide lines at 250°C and 2.5 × 106 A/cm2 for both single and multi-level samples (separated with W studs) are reported. The electromigration behavior of Al-0.3Pd was found to be less dependent on film microstructure than on the annealing atmosphere used, i.e. forming gas (90% N2-10%H2) annealed Al-0.3Pd films were superior to all of the alloys investigated, while annealing in only N2 resulted in poor lifetimes.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part II—Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Porter, Wallace D.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systems (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.

  18. Mechanical property, biocorrosion and in vitro biocompatibility evaluations of Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys for future cardiovascular stent application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W R; Zheng, Y F; Leeflang, M A; Zhou, J

    2013-11-01

    Mg-Li-based alloys were investigated for future cardiovascular stent application as they possess excellent ductility. However, Mg-Li binary alloys exhibited reduced mechanical strengths due to the presence of lithium. To improve the mechanical strengths of Mg-Li binary alloys, aluminum and rare earth (RE) elements were added to form Mg-Li-Al ternary and Mg-Li-Al-RE quarternary alloys. In the present study, six Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys were fabricated. Their microstructures, mechanical properties and biocorrosion behavior were evaluated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, tensile tests, immersion tests and electrochemical measurements. Microstructure characterization indicated that grain sizes were moderately refined by the addition of rare earth elements. Tensile testing showed that enhanced mechanical strengths were obtained, while electrochemical and immersion tests showed reduced corrosion resistance caused by intermetallic compounds distributed throughout the magnesium matrix in the rare-earth-containing Mg-Li alloys. Cytotoxicity assays, hemolysis tests as well as platelet adhesion tests were performed to evaluate in vitro biocompatibilities of the Mg-Li-based alloys. The results of cytotoxicity assays clearly showed that the Mg-3.5Li-2Al-2RE, Mg-3.5Li-4Al-2RE and Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE alloys suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation after 5day incubation, while the Mg-3.5Li, Mg-8.5Li and Mg-8.5Li-1Al alloys were proven to be tolerated. In the case of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the Mg-Li-based alloys showed no significantly reduced cell viabilities except for the Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE alloy, with no obvious differences in cell viability between different culture periods. With the exception of Mg-8.5Li-2Al-2RE, all of the other Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys exhibited acceptable hemolysis ratios, and no sign of thrombogenicity was found. These in vitro experimental results indicate the potential of Mg-Li-(Al

  19. Electronic structure studies of a clock-reconstructed Al/Pd(1 0 0) surface alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Janet E.; Tainter, Craig J.

    We have employed solid-state Fenske-Hall band structure calculations to examine the electronic structure of Al/Pd(1 0 0), a surface alloy that undergoes a reconstruction, or rearrangement, of the atoms in the top few surface layers. Surface alloys are materials that consist primarily of a single elemental metal, but which have a bimetallic surface composition that is only a few atomic layers in thickness. The results of this study indicate that reconstruction into a clock configuration simultaneously optimizes the intralayer bonding within the surface plane and the bonding between the first and second atomic layers. These results also allow us to examine the fundamental relationship between the electronic and physical structures of this reconstructed surface alloy.

  20. Electrodeposition and characterisation of Al-W alloy films from ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlich, D.; Wachner, D.; Müller, M.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.

    2018-06-01

    Al–W alloy films were prepared by electrodeposition using anhydrous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic-liquid solution with aluminium chloride in a ratio of 1:1.5. As a commercially available tungsten precursor, tungsten hexachloride was used. The metal is dissolved in the ionic liquid at concentrations up to 0.06 mol/l. The deposition took place outside the glove box with a continuous argon stream over the electrolyte at a temperature of 60 °C with a current density of 1 A/m2. Resulting alloys show a tungsten content higher than 20 wt% (3.5 at%). The phase composition of Al-W alloys was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the chemical composition was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).

  1. Influence of microstructure on the fretting resistance of Al-Cu-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Jessica; Cazottes, Sophie; Daniélou, Armelle; Fouvry, Siegfried; Buffiere, Jean-Yves

    The resistance of two Al-Cu-Li alloys (2050 and 2196) to fretting has been investigated. For each material two heat treatments have been studied (T8 and low temperature ageing). Fretting tests with a cylinder-plane configuration have been performed in the partial slip regime. The results obtained show that the low temperature temper gives a better resistance to fretting crack initiation and propagation than the T8 temper for both alloys. The 3D shape of the fretting cracks has been observed by high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Multiple initiation sites were observed below the contact. In their early stages of development, the fretting cracks grow approximately radially within the material leading to thumb nail cracks which eventually merge laterally. The difference in fretting resistance is analysed with respect to the 3D fracture surface of the fretting cracks in relation with the alloys precipitation state.

  2. Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth characteristics of two Al-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Bhaskar; Lisagor, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of strength, fracture resistance, and fatigue crack growth rate on the aging conditions of two alloy compositions based on Al-3.7Cu-1.85Mg-0.2Mn is investigated. Mechanical properties were evaluated in two heat treatment conditions and in two orientations (longitudinal and transverse). Compact tension specimens were used to determine fatigue crack growth characteristics and fracture resistance. The aging response was monitored on coupons using hardness measurements determined with a standard Rockwell hardness tester. Fracture resistance is found to increase with increasing yield strength during artificial aging of age-hardenable 2124-Zr alloys processed by powder metallurgy techniques. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing strength. It is argued that these changes are related to deformation modes of the alloys; a homogeneous deformation mode tends to increase fracture resistance and to decrease the resistance to the fatigue crack propagation rate.

  3. Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)→La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and βLi phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

  4. Atom probe tomographic studies of precipitation in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys.

    PubMed

    Knipling, Keith E; Dunand, David C; Seidman, David N

    2007-12-01

    Atom probe tomography was utilized to measure directly the chemical compositions of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates with a metastable L1(2) structure formed in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys upon aging at 375 degrees C or 425 degrees C. The alloys exhibit an inhomogeneous distribution of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates, as a result of a nonuniform dendritic distribution of solute atoms after casting. At these aging temperatures, the Zr:Ti atomic ratio in the precipitates is about 10 and 5, respectively, indicating that Ti remains mainly in solid solution rather than partitioning to the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. This is interpreted as being due to the very small diffusivity of Ti in alpha-Al, consistent with prior studies on Al-Sc-Ti and Al-Sc-Zr alloys, where the slower diffusing Zr and Ti atoms make up a small fraction of the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. Unlike those alloys, however, the present Al-Zr-Ti alloys exhibit no interfacial segregation of Ti at the matrix/precipitate heterophase interface, a result that may be affected by a significant disparity in the evaporation fields of the alpha-Al matrix and Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates and/or a lack of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface.

  5. Radiation Resistance of the U(Al, Si)3 Alloy: Ion-Induced Disordering

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Gili; Horak, Pavel; Vacik, Jiri; Mykytenko, Natalia; Rafailov, Gennady; Dahan, Itzchak; Fuks, David; Kiv, Arik

    2018-01-01

    During the exploitation of nuclear reactors, various U-Al based ternary intermetallides are formed in the fuel-cladding interaction layer. Structure and physical properties of these intermetallides determine the radiation resistance of cladding and, ultimately, the reliability and lifetime of the nuclear reactor. In current research, U(Al, Si)3 composition was studied as a potential constituent of an interaction layer. Phase content of the alloy of an interest was ordered U(Al, Si)3, structure of which was reported earlier, and pure Al (constituting less than 20 vol % of the alloy). This alloy was investigated prior and after the irradiation performed by Ar ions at 30 keV. The irradiation was performed on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL, Japan) samples, characterized before and after the irradiation process. Irradiation induced disorder accompanied by stress relief. Furthermore, it was found that there is a dose threshold for disordering of the crystalline matter in the irradiated region. Irradiation at doses equal or higher than this threshold resulted in almost solely disordered phase. Using the program “Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter” (SRIM), the parameters of penetration of Ar ions into the irradiated samples were estimated. Based on these estimations, the dose threshold for ion-induced disordering of the studied material was assessed. PMID:29393870

  6. Effects of ultrasonic vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high alloying TiAl

    PubMed Central

    Ruirun, Chen; Deshuang, Zheng; Tengfei, Ma; Hongsheng, Ding; Yanqing, Su; Jingjie, Guo; Hengzhi, Fu

    2017-01-01

    To modify the microstructure and enhance performances, the ultrasonic vibration is applied in the mould casting of TiAl alloy. The effects and mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on the solidifying microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated and the model for predicting lamellar colony size is established. After ultrasonic vibration, the coarse microstructure is well modified and lamellar colony is refined from 534 μm to 56 μm. Most of precipitated phases are dissolved into the lamellar colony leading to a homogenous element distribution. The phase ratio of α2-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl is increased, and the chemical composition is promoted to more close to equilibrium level by weakening the influence of β-alloying elements. The microhardness and yield strength are gradually improved by 23.72% and 181.88% due to the fine grain strengthening, while the compressive strength is enhanced by 24.47% through solution strengthening. The critical ultrasonic intensity (Ib) for TiAl alloy is estimated at 220 W cm−2 and the model for average lamellar colony size is established as . The ultrasonic refinement efficiency exponentially increases as the ultrasonic vibration time with a theoretic limit maximum value of Elim = 88% and the dominating refinement mechanism by ultrasonic vibration is the cavitation-enhanced nucleation rather than cavitation-induced dendrite fragmentation. PMID:28117451

  7. Dislocation loop models for the high temperature creep of Al-5.5 at.% Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    An, S.U.; Blum, W.

    1995-04-15

    The Al-5.5 at.% Mg alloy is a typical class I type solution hardened material. The dislocation loop models proposed by Orlova and Cadek and by Mills et al., respectively are widely applied models in describing the high temperature creep behavior of the Al-5.5 at.% Mg alloy. These models, however, are in conflict in explaining dislocation loop theory. Orlova and Cadek suggest that in class I solution hardened alloys screw dislocations are relatively easier to migrate because they are subject to a smaller resistance in motion than edge dislocations. Consequently, the migration rate of screw dislocations is higher than that ofmore » edge dislocations. However, since dislocation loops are composed of both screw and edge components, the overall migration rate of screw dislocations are reduced by that of the edge component. Mills et al. on the contrary, used a different dislocation loop model. As the loop grows while it moves, it takes on the shape of an ellipsoid due to the unbalance in growth rate, the score segment moving much easier than the edge. Therefore, as shown in the results of the stress reduction tests, rapid elastic ({Delta} {var_epsilon}{sub el}) and anelastic contraction ({Delta} {var_epsilon}{sub an}) occur simultaneously directly after stress reduction. During the movement of the dislocation loop, the screw component hence becomes severely curved, while the edge component retains a straight line. This has been proved through dislocation structure observations by TEM.« less

  8. Time-Temperature-Precipitation Behavior in Al-Li Alloy 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. S.; Bhat, B. N.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) behavior in aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) 2195 alloy. Al-Li 2195 (nominally Al + 4 percent Cu + 1 percent Li + 0.3 percent Ag + 0.3 percent Mg + 0.1 percent Zr) was initially solutionized for 1 hr at 950 F and then stretched 3 percent. Heat treatments were conducted for up to 100 hr at temperatures ranging from 200 to 1,000 F. TTP diagrams were determined for both matrix and subgrain boundaries. Depending upon heat treatment conditions, precipitate phases (such as GP zone, theta'', theta', theta, delta', T1, TB, and T2) were found in the alloy. The TTP diagrams were applied as a guide to avoid T1 precipitation at subgrain boundaries, as part of an effort to improve the alloy's cryogenic fracture toughness (CFT). New understanding of TTP behavior was instrumental in the development of a two-step artificial aging treatment that significantly enhanced CFT in Al-Li 2195.

  9. Ductility and fracture in B2 FeAl alloys. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimp, Martin A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of B2FeAl alloys was studied. Stoichiometric Fe-50Al exhibits totally brittle behavior while iron-rich Fe-40Al yields and displays about 3% total strain. This change in behavior results from large decreases in the yield strength with iron-rich deviations from stoichiometry while the fracture stress remains essentially constant. Single crystal studies show that these yield strength decreases are directly related to decreases in the critical resolved shear stress for a group of zone axes /111/ set of (110) planes slip. This behavior is rationalized in terms of the decrease in antiphase boundary energy with decreasing aluminum content. The addition of boron results in improvements in the mechanical behavior of alloys on the iron-rich side of stoichiometry. These improvements are increased brittle fracture stresses of near-stoichiometric alloys, and enhanced ductility of up to 6% in Fe-40Al. These effects were attributed to increased grain boundary adhesion as reflected by changes in fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular failure. The increases in yield strength, which are observed in both polycrystals and single crystals, result from the quenching in of large numbers of thermal vacancies. Hall-Petch plots show that the cooling rate effects are a direct result of changes in the Hall-Petch intercept/lattice resistance flow.

  10. Radiation Resistance of the U(Al, Si)₃ Alloy: Ion-Induced Disordering.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Louisa; Yaniv, Gili; Horak, Pavel; Vacik, Jiri; Mykytenko, Natalia; Rafailov, Gennady; Dahan, Itzchak; Fuks, David; Kiv, Arik

    2018-02-02

    During the exploitation of nuclear reactors, various U-Al based ternary intermetallides are formed in the fuel-cladding interaction layer. Structure and physical properties of these intermetallides determine the radiation resistance of cladding and, ultimately, the reliability and lifetime of the nuclear reactor. In current research, U(Al, Si)₃ composition was studied as a potential constituent of an interaction layer. Phase content of the alloy of an interest was ordered U(Al, Si)₃, structure of which was reported earlier, and pure Al (constituting less than 20 vol % of the alloy). This alloy was investigated prior and after the irradiation performed by Ar ions at 30 keV. The irradiation was performed on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL, Japan) samples, characterized before and after the irradiation process. Irradiation induced disorder accompanied by stress relief. Furthermore, it was found that there is a dose threshold for disordering of the crystalline matter in the irradiated region. Irradiation at doses equal or higher than this threshold resulted in almost solely disordered phase. Using the program "Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter" (SRIM), the parameters of penetration of Ar ions into the irradiated samples were estimated. Based on these estimations, the dose threshold for ion-induced disordering of the studied material was assessed.

  11. Time Temperature-Precipitation Behavior in An Al-Cu-Li Alloy 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. S.; Bhat, B. N.

    1999-01-01

    Al-Cu-Li alloy 2195, with its combination of good cryogenic properties, low density, and high modulus, has been selected by NASA to be the main structural alloy of the Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT) for the Space Shuttle. Alloy 2195 is strengthened by an aging treatment that precipitates a particular precipitate, labeled as T1(Al2CuLi). Other phases, such as GP zone, (theta)', (theta)", theta, (delta)', S' are also present in this alloy when artificially aged. Cryogenic strength and fracture toughness are critical to the -SLWT application, since the SLWT will house liquid oxygen and hydrogen. Motivation for the Time-Temperature-Precipitation (TTP) study at lower temperature (lower than 350 F) comes in part from a recent study by Chen, The study found that the cryogenic fracture toughness of alloy 2195 is greatly influenced by the phases present in the matrix and subgrain boundaries. Therefore, the understanding of TTP behavior can help develop a guideline to select appropriate heat treatment conditions for the desirable applications. The study of TTP behavior at higher temperature (400 to 1000 F) was prompted by the fact that the SLWT requires a welded construction. Heat conduction from the weld pool affects the microstructure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), which leads to changes in the mechanical properties. Furthermore, the SLWT may need repair welding for more than one time and any additional thermal cycles will increase precipitate instability and promote phase transformation. As a result considerable changes in HAZ microstructure and mechanical properties are expected during the construction of the SLWT. Therefore, the TTP diagrams can serve to understand the thermal history of the alloy by analyzing the welded microstructure. In the case welding, the effects of thermal cycles on the microstructure and mechanical properties can be predicted with the aid of the TTP diagrams. The 2195 alloy (nominally Al + 4 pct Cu + 1 pct Li + 0.3 pct Ag + 0.3 pct Mg + 0

  12. Letter Report Documenting Progress of Second Generation ATF FeCrAl Alloy Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, Y.; Field, K. G.

    2014-06-10

    Development of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl alloy has been initiated, and a candidate alloy was selected for trial tube fabrication through hot-extrusion and gun-drilling processes. Four alloys based on Fe-13Cr-4.5Al-0.15Y in weight percent were newly cast with minor alloying additions of Mo, Si, Nb, and C to promote solid-solution and second-phase precipitate strengthening. The alloy compositions were selected with guidance from computational thermodynamic tools. The lab-scale heats of ~ 600g were arc-melted and drop-cast, homogenized, hot-forged and -rolled, and then annealed producing plate shape samples. An alloy with Mo and Nb additions (C35MN) processed at 800°C exhibits very finemore » sub-grain structure with the sub-grain size of 1-3μm which exhibited more than 25% better yield and tensile strengths together with decent ductility compared to the other FeCrAl alloys at room temperature. It was found that the Nb addition was key to improving thermal stability of the fine sub-grain structure. Optimally, grains of less than 30 microns are desired, with grains up to and order of magnitude in desired produced through Nb addition. Scale-up effort of the C35MN alloy was made in collaboration with a commercial cast company who has a capability of vacuum induction melting. A 39lb columnar ingot with ~81mm diameter and ~305mm height (with hot-top) was commercially cast, homogenized, hot-extruded, and annealed providing 10mm-diameter bar-shape samples with the fine sub-grain structure. This commercial heat proved consistent with materials produced at ORNL at the lab-scale. Tubes and end caps were machined from the bar sample and provided to another work package for the ATF-1 irradiation campaign in the milestone M3FT-14OR0202251.« less

  13. Phase Constituents and Microstructure of Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 Composite Coating on Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianing; Chen, Chuanzhong; Zhang, Cuifang

    Laser cladding of the Fe3Al + B4C/TiN + Al2O3 pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating, which improved the wear resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. In this study, the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating has been researched by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. It was found that during the laser cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2, leading to the formations of Ti3Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + B4C/TiN laser-cladded coating on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Furthermore, during the cladding process, C consumed the oxygen in Fe3Al + B4C /TiN + Al2O3 molten pool, which retarded the productions of the redundant metal oxides.

  14. Ratcheting fatigue behaviour of Al-7075 T6 alloy: Influence of stress parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Lala; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    The use of aluminium and aluminium based alloys are increasing rapidly on account of its high formability, good thermal and electrical conductivity, high strength and lightness. Aluminium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, automobile, marine and space research industries and are also put into structural applications where chances of fatigue damage cannot be ruled out. In the current work, it is intended to study the ratcheting fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminium alloy at room temperature. This Al alloy is potentially used in aviation, marine and automotive components as well as in bicycle parts, rock mounting equipment and parts of ammunition where there is every chance of failure of the parts due to deformation caused by ratcheting. Ratcheting is the process of accruement of plastic stain produced when a component is subjected to asymmetric cyclic loading under the influence of low cycle fatigue. To accomplish the requirements of the projected research, stress-controlled cyclic loading experiments were done using a ±250 kN servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (Instron: 8800R). The effect of stress parameters such as mean stress and stress amplitude were investigated on the ratcheting behavior of the selected aluminium alloy. It was observed that, ratcheting strain increased with increase in the value of stress amplitude at any constant mean stress while a saturation in strain accumulation attained in the investigated material after around 10-20 cycles, under all test conditions. The analyses of hysteresis loop generated during cyclic loading indicate that the material exhibits cyclic hardening in the initial fifty cycles which gets softened in further loading up to about 70-80 cycles and finally attains a steady state. The increase in the ratcheting strain value with stress parameters happens owing to increased deformation domain during cycling. The cyclic hardening accompanied by softening is correlated with characteristic precipitation features of

  15. The Electrochemical Co-reduction of Mg-Al-Y Alloys in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2-AlF3-YCl3 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Yaochen; Han, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Milin; Yan, Yongde; Shi, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical formation of Mg-Al-Y alloys was studied in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2 melts by the addition of AlF3 and YCl3 on a molybdenum electrode at 973 K (700 °C). In order to reduce the volatilization of salt solvent in the electrolysis process, the volatile loss of LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2 and LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 melts was first measured in the temperature range from 873 K to 1023 K (600 °C to 750 °C). Then, the electrochemical behaviors of Mg(II), Al(III), Y(III) ions and alloy formation processes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and open circuit chronopotentiometry. The cyclic voltammograms indicate that the under-potential deposition of magnesium and yttrium on pre-deposited Al leads to formation of Mg-Al and Al-Y intermetallic compounds. The Mg-Al-Y alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2-AlF3-YCl3 melts and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Composition of the alloys was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, and current efficiency was also determined by the alloy composition.

  16. Reduction mechanism of surface oxide films and characterization of formations on pulse electric-current sintered Al Mg alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoqiang; Ohashi, Osamu; Song, Minghui; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Furuya, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    The microstructure of interfaces between powder particles in Al-Mg alloy specimens sintered by pulse electric-current sintering (PECS) process was characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The crystalline precipitates with nano-size in the interface were observed in all of Al-Mg alloy specimens. The composition was determined to be MgAl 2O 4 or MgO, or both of them, which depended on Mg content in alloy powder and sintering temperature. The precipitates were suggested to contribute to reduction reaction of Mg with oxide films originally covered at powder particles surface.

  17. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  18. Metallurgical Parameters Controlling the Eutectic Silicon Charateristics in Be-Treated Al-Si-Mg Alloys.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Elgallad, Emad M; Valtierra, Salvador; Doty, Herbert W; Samuel, Fawzy H

    2016-01-27

    The present work was carried out on Al-7%Si-0.4%Mg-X alloy (where X = Mg, Fe, Sr or Be), where the effect of solidification rate on the eutectic silicon characteristics was investigated. Two solidification rates corresponding to dendrite arm spacings (DAS) of 24 and 65 μm were employed. Samples with 24 μm DAS were solution heat-treated at 540 °C for 5 and 12 h prior to quenching in warm water at 65 °C. Eutectic Si particle charateristics were measured using an image analyzer. The results show that the addition of 0.05% Be leads to partial modification of the Si particles. Full modification was only obtained when Sr was added in an amount of 150-200 ppm, depending on the applied solidification rate. Increasing the amount of Mg to 0.8% in Sr-modified alloys leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of Sr as the main modifier. Similar observations were made when the Fe content was increased in Be-treated alloys due to the Be-Fe interaction. Over-modification results in the precipitation of hard Sr-rich particles, mainly Al₄SrSi₂, whereas overheating causes incipient melting of the Al-Cu eutectic and hence the surrounding matrix. Both factors lead to a deterioration in the alloy mechanical properties. Furthermore, the presence of long, acicular Si particles accelerates the occurrence of fracture and, as a result, yields poor ductility. In low iron (less than 0.1 wt%) Al-Si-Mg alloys, the mechanical properties in the as cast, as well as heat treated conditions, are mainly controlled by the eutectic Si charatersitics. Increasing the iron content and, hence, the volume fraction of Fe-based intermetallics leads to a complex fracture mode.

  19. Experimental Studies on Al (5.7% Zn) Alloy based Hybrid MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaprakash, Y. M.; Ramu, H. C.; Chiranjivee; Kumar, Roushan; Kumar, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, an attempt is made to disperse SiC (20-25 microns) and Gr (15-20 microns) in the aluminium alloy having Zn, Mg and coper as major alloying elements. The composite is further subjected to mechanical testing to determine various properties like hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance. The alloy and composite samples were tested in the un heat treated conditions. All the tests were done at the laboratory conditions as per ASTM standards. The Pin-On-Disc tribometer is used to test the two-body abrasive sliding wear behaviour in dry conditions. The wear pattern is analysed by the optical images of worn surface taken in an inverted metallurgical microscope. The calculated density is found to be reducing as the SiC and Gr quantity is increased in the base alloy. The as cast Al alloy was found to be having highest hardness. The introduction of SiC tend to increase the hardness and UTS, since Gr is also introduced simultaneously which tends to reduce the hardness and UTS of composite. The composite having highest quantity of Gr showed superior wear resistance which is mainly because the Gr particulates provide an inbuilt lubricating properties to composite. The analysis of images of worn surface showed the abrasive and delamination pattern of wear. The composites developed in the present work can be used in the automobile and aerospace parts that are light in weight and require self-lubricating properties to enhance the wear resistance.

  20. Fe-Al-Mn-C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-02-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe-Al-Mn-C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  1. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayed Ali, Samar Reda; Hussein, Abdel Hamid Ahmed; Nofal, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh; Elgazzar, Haytham Abdelrafea; Sabour, Hassan Abdel

    2017-01-01

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm−2. An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times. PMID:29036935

  2. An investigation of the properties of Mg-Zn-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Couture, A.; Luo, A.

    1998-06-05

    During the past ten years, the use of magnesium castings in the automotive and electronics industries has been expanding at an impressive rate. Die casting is one of the most effective fabrication methods and has been extensively used to produce magnesium components, especially in the automotive industry. However, the number of available Mg-based alloys for die casting is very limited. Therefore, it is pressing to develop some new Mg die casting alloys with good creep resistance, acceptable castability and low cost. Mg-Zn-Al (ZA) is a promising alloy system which is able to meet the requirements. But up to now, onlymore » a small amount of research has been carried out on this system. The aim of the present work is to examine and evaluate the microstructural features, tensile properties and creep resistance in order to get a better overall understanding of alloys of this system and to identify the most promising compositions. The influence of small additions of Ca and Sr on the tensile and creep properties of ZA alloys was also investigated.« less

  3. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed Ali, Samar Reda; Hussein, Abdel Hamid Ahmed; Nofal, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh; Hasseb Elnaby, Salah Elden Ibrahim; Elgazzar, Haytham Abdelrafea; Sabour, Hassan Abdel

    2017-10-15

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm -2 . An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times.

  4. Consolidation processing parameters and alternative processing methods for powder metallurgy Al-Cu-Mg-X-X alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of varying the vacuum degassing parameters on the microstructure and properties of Al-4Cu-1Mg-X-X (X-X = 1.5Li-0.2Zr or 1.5Fe-0.75Ce) alloys processed from either prealloyed (PA) or mechanically alloyed (M) powder, and consolidated by either using sealed aluminum containers or containerless vacuum hot pressing were studied. The consolidated billets were hot extruded to evaluate microstructure and properties. The MA Li-containing alloy did not include Zr, and the MA Fe- and Ce-containing alloy was made from both elemental and partially prealloyed powder. The alloys were vacuum degassed both above and below the solution heat treatment temperature. While vacuum degassing lowered the hydrogen content of these alloys, the range over which the vacuum degassing parameters were varied was not large enough to cause significant changes in degassing efficiency, and the observed variations in the mechanical properties of the heat treated alloys were attributed to varying contributions to strengthening by the sub-structure and the dispersoids. Mechanical alloying increased the strength over that of alloys of similar composition made from PA powder. The inferior properties in the transverse orientation, especially in the Li-containing alloys, suggested deficiencies in degassing. Among all of the alloys processed for this study, the Fe- and Ce-containing alloys made from MA powder possessed better combinations of strength and toughness.

  5. An evaluation of the benefits of utilizing rapid solidification for development of 2XXX (Al-Cu-Mg) alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, H. G.; Chellman, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages of rapid solidification processing over ingot metallurgy processing in the development of 2XXX aluminum alloy compositions were evaluated using a similarly processed ingot metallurgy (IM) control alloy. The powder metallurgy (PM) alloy extrusions showed a reduced age-hardening response in comparison with similar IM compositions, with higher tensile properties for naturally aged extrusions but lower properties for artificially aged ones. However, the tensile properties of naturally and artificially aged PM alloy extrusions based on a version of IM 2034 alloy, but containing 0.6 weight percent zirconium, were comparable to those of the IM control extrusions and had significantly superior combinations of strength and toughness. The tensile properties of this PM alloy showed even greater advantage in 6.4-mm (0.25-in.) and 1.8-mm (0.070-in.) plate and sheet, the yield strength being about 68 MPa (10 ksi) greater than reported values for the IM 2034 alloy sheet. An artificially aged PM alloy based on 2219 alloy also showed a strength and strength-toughness combination comparable to those of the PM Al-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy, substantially outperforming the IM 2219 alloy. These results show that rapid solidification offers the flexibility needed to modify conventional IM compositions to produce new alloy compositions with superior mechanical properties.

  6. Evaluation of precipitation hardening in TiC-reinforced Ti2AlNb-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-ran; Cai, Qi; Liu, Yong-chang; Ma, Zong-qing; Li, Chong; Li, Hui-jun

    2018-04-01

    Ti2AlNb-based alloys with 0.0wt%, 0.6wt%, and 2.0wt% carbon nanotube (CNT) addition were fabricated from spherical Ti-22Al-25Nb powder by sintering in the B2 single-phase region. Phase identification and microstructural examination were performed to evaluate the effect of carbon addition on the hardness of the alloys. Carbon was either in a soluble state or in carbide form depending on its concentration. The acicular carbides formed around 1050°C were identified as TiC and facilitated the transformation of α2 + B2 → O. The TiC was located within the acicular O phase. The surrounding O phase was distributed in certain orientations with angles of 65° or 90° O phase particles. The obtained alloy was composed of acicular O, Widmanstatten B2 + O, and acicular TiC. As a result of the precipitation of carbides as well as the O phase, the hardness of the alloy with 2.0wt% CNT addition increased to HV 429 ± 9.

  7. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The stress-corrosion behavior of Al-Li-Cu alloys: A comparison of test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two powder metallurgy processed (Al-Li-Cu) alloys with and without Mg addition were studied in aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution during the alternate immersion testing of tuning fork specimens, slow crack growth tests using fracture mechanics specimens, and the slow strain rate testing of straining electrode specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography were used to demonstrate the character of the interaction between the Al-Li-Cu alloys and the selected environment. Both alloys are susceptible to SC in an aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution under the right electrochemical and microstructural conditions. Each test method yields important information on the character of the SC behavior. Under all conditions investigated, second phase particles strung out in rows along the extrusion direction in the alloys were rapidly attacked, and played principal role in the SC process. With time, larger pits developed from these rows of smaller pits and under certain electrochemical conditions surface cracks initiated from the larger pits and contributed directly to the fracture process. Evidence to support slow crack growth was observed in both the slow strain rate tests and the sustained immersion tests of precracked fracture mechanics specimens. The possible role of H2 in the stress corrosion cracking process is suggested.

  9. Microstructure, accumulated strain, and mechanical behavior of AA6061 Al alloy severely deformed at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, D. C.; Kliauga, A. M.; Ferrante, M.; Sordi, V. L.

    2017-05-01

    The combination of Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) and cryogenic temperatures can be an efficient way to obtain metals and alloys with very refined microstructure and thus optimize the strength-ductility pair. However, there is still a lack of studies on cryogenic SPD process and their effects on microstructure and mechanical properties, especially in precipitation-hardenable aluminum alloys. This study describes the effect of low temperature processing on microstructure, aging kinetic and tensile properties of AA6061 Al alloy after cryo-SPD. Samples of AA6061 Al alloy in the solutionized state was processed by Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 77 K and 298 K, up to accumulate true strains up to 4.2. Results indicated that the aging kinetic is accelerated when deformation is performed at cryogenic temperature, dislocation density measurement by x-ray and diffraction analysis at TEM achieved a saturation level of 2×1015 m-2 by ECAP at 298K and 5×1015 m-2 after cryogenic ECAP plus precipitation hardening. The same level of yield strength was observed in both deformation procedures but an improvement in uniform elongation was achieved by cryogenic ECAP followed by a T6 treatment

  10. Environmental-Induced Damage in Tin (Sn) and Aluminum (Al) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallabhaneni, Venkata Sathya Sai Renuka

    Sn and Al alloys are widely used in various industries. Environmental-induced damage resulting in whiskering in Sn and corrosion in Al account for numerous failures globally every year. Therefore, for designing materials that can better withstand these failures, a comprehensive study on the characterization of the damage is necessary. This research implements advanced characterization techniques to study the above-mentioned environmental-induced damage in Sn and Al alloys. Tin based films are known to be susceptible to whisker growth resulting in numerous failures. While the mechanisms and factors affecting whisker growth have been studied extensively, not much has been reported on the mechanical properties of tin whiskers themselves. This study focuses on the tensile behavior of tin whiskers. Tensile tests of whiskers were conducted in situ a dual beam focused ion beam (FIB) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) tensile testing stage. The deformation mechanisms of whiskers were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Due to the heterogenous nature of the microstructure of Al 7075, it is susceptible to corrosion forming corrosion products and pits. These can be sites for cracks nucleation and propagation resulting in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Therefore, complete understanding of the corrosion damaged region and its effect on the strength of the alloy is necessary. Several studies have been performed to visualize pits and understand their effect on the mechanical performance of Al alloys using two-dimensional (2D) approaches which are often inadequate. To get a thorough understanding of the pits, it is necessary for three-dimensional (3D) studies. In this study, Al 7075 alloys were corroded in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and X-ray tomography was used to obtain the 3D microstructure of pits enabling the quantification of their dimensions accurately. Furthermore, microstructure and mechanical property

  11. Defect Structure of Beta NiAl Using the BFS Method for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Amador, Carlos; Ferrante, John; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1996-01-01

    The semiempirical BFS method for alloys is generalized by replacing experimental input with first-principles results thus allowing for the study of complex systems. In order to examine trends and behavior of a system in the vicinity of a given point of the phase diagram a search procedure based on a sampling of selected configurations is employed. This new approach is applied to the study of the beta phase of the Ni-Al system, which exists over a range of composition from 45-60 at.% Ni. This methodology results in a straightforward and economical way of reproducing and understanding the basic features of this system. At the stoichiometric composition, NiAl should exist in a perfectly ordered B2 structure. Ni-rich alloys are characterized by antisite point defects (with Ni atoms in the Al sites) with a decrease in lattice parameters. On the Al-rich side of stoichiometry there is a steep decrease in lattice parameter and density with increasing Al content. The presence of vacancies in Ni sites would explain such behavior. Recent X-ray diffraction experiments suggest a richer structure: the evidence, while strongly favoring the presence of vacancies in Ni sites, also suggests the possibility of some vacancies in Al sites in a 3:1 ratio. Moreover, local ordering of vacant sites may be preferred over a random distribution of individual point defects.

  12. High strength nanostructured Al-based alloys through optimized processing of rapidly quenched amorphous precursors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Gwang-Yeob; Park, Gyu-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Ah; Lee, A-Young; Scudino, Sergio; Prashanth, Konda Gokuldoss; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2018-01-18

    We report the methods increasing both strength and ductility of aluminum alloys transformed from amorphous precursor. The mechanical properties of bulk samples produced by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) of amorphous Al-Ni-Co-Dy powders at temperatures above 673 K are significantly enhanced by in-situ crystallization of nano-scale intermetallic compounds during the SPS process. The spark plasma sintered Al 84 Ni 7 Co 3 Dy 6 bulk specimens exhibit 1433 MPa compressive yield strength and 1773 MPa maximum strength together with 5.6% plastic strain, respectively. The addition of Dy enhances the thermal stability of primary fcc Al in the amorphous Al-TM -RE alloy. The precipitation of intermetallic phases by crystallization of the remaining amorphous matrix plays important role to restrict the growth of the fcc Al phase and contributes to the improvement of the mechanical properties. Such fully crystalline nano- or ultrafine-scale Al-Ni-Co-Dy systems are considered promising for industrial application because their superior mechanical properties in terms of a combination of very high room temperature strength combined with good ductility.

  13. Influence of Lanthanum on Solidification, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Al-Si Piston Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Asmael, M. B. A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Lanthanum (La) concentration on the solidification parameters of the α-Al, Al-Si, and Al-Cu phases and on the microstructure, tensile, and hardness properties of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy were systematically investigated. The solidification parameters were examined using computer-aided cooling curve thermal analysis (CA-CCTA). The cooling curve and microstructure analysis showed that La altered the Si structure. The nucleation and growth temperatures of eutectic Si decreased when 0.3 wt.% La was added, and a high depression temperature was obtained with 1.0 wt.% La. High amounts of La considerably modified the Si structure and decreased the area and aspect ratio by 69.9 and 51%, respectively. The thermal analysis result recorded a faster freezing time with the La addition and a 36% alteration in the secondary dendrite arm spacing. Two secondary or ternary La-rich intermetallic phases were formed with needle- and plate-like structures. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were investigated by hardness and tensile tests with different La concentrations. The addition of small amounts of La (0.1 wt.%) significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength and quality index of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. In addition, the hardness value of Al-11Si-Cu increased by 7-8% with the increasing amount of La added.

  14. Key improvements in machining of Ti6al4v alloy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katta, Sivakoteswararao; Chaitanya, G.

    2017-07-01

    Now a days the use of ti-6al-4v alloy is high in demand in many industries like aero space, bio medical automobile, space, military etc. the production rates in the industries are not sufficient because the machiniability of ti-6al-4v is the main problem, there are several cutting tools available for metal cutting operations still there is a gap in finding the proper cutting tool material for machining of ti-6al-4v. because the properties of titanium like high heat resistant, low thermal conductivity, low weight ratio, less corrosiveness, and more many properties attracting the industrialists to use titanium as their material for their products, many researchers done the research on machininbility of ti-6al-4v by using different tool materials. but as for my literature survey there is still lot of scope is available, to find better cutting tool with techniques for machining ti-6al-4v. in this paper iam discussing the work done by various researchers on ti-6al-4v alloy with different techniques.

  15. Discharge properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca and Mg-Al-Mn alloys as anode materials for primary magnesium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Huang, Xinsheng; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    The discharge behaviors of rolled Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn-2 mass%Ca (AMX602) and Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn (AM60) alloys used as anodes for Magnesium-air batteries were investigated. The AMX602 alloy exhibited superior discharge properties compared to the AM60 alloy, especially at low current density. The discharge products of the AMX602 alloy were dense and thin, and many cracks were observed at all current densities. In addition, the discharge products were detached at some sites. These sites often corresponded to the positions of Al2Ca particles. The comparison of the discharge and corrosion tests indicated that the dense and thin discharge products of AMX602 were easily cracked by dissolution of the Mg matrix around Al2Ca particles, and the cracks promoted the penetration of the electrolyte into the discharge products, retaining the discharge activity. In contrast, concerning the AM60 alloy, thick discharge products were formed on the surface during discharge, and cracking of the discharge products hardly occurred, degrading the discharge properties. Localized and deeply corroded pits that could result from the detachment of metal pieces from the anode during discharge were partly observed in the AM60 alloy. It is suggested that these detached metal pieces are another reason for the low discharge properties of the AM60 alloy.

  16. Experimental Parametric Model for Indirect Adhesion Wear Measurement in the Dry Turning of UNS A97075 (Al-Zn) Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Marcos, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the study of the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut) on the tool wear used in in the dry turning of cylindrical bars of the UNS A97075 (Al-Zn) alloy, has been analyzed. In addition, a study of the physicochemical mechanisms of the secondary adhesion wear has been carried out. The behavior of this alloy, from the point of view of tool wear, has been compared to similar aeronautical aluminum alloys, such as the UNS A92024 (Al-Cu) alloy and UNS A97050 (Al-Zn) alloy. Furthermore, a first approach to the measurement of the 2D surface of the adhered material on the rake face of the tool has been conducted. Finally, a parametric model has been developed from the experimental results. This model allows predicting the intensity of the secondary adhesion wear as a function of the cutting parameters applied. PMID:28772510

  17. Advanced Mechanical Properties of a Powder Metallurgy Ti-Al-N Alloy Doped with Ultrahigh Nitrogen Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J.; Chen, B.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are recognized for their attractive properties. However, high-performance Ti alloys are often alloyed with rare or noble-metal elements. In the present study, Ti alloys doped with only ubiquitous elements were produced via powder metallurgy. The experimental results showed that pure Ti with 1.5 wt.% AlN incorporated exhibited excellent tensile properties, superior to similarly extruded Ti-6Al-4V. Further analysis revealed that its remarkably advanced strength could primarily be attributed to nitrogen solid-solution strengthening, accounting for nearly 80% of the strength increase of the material. In addition, despite the ultrahigh nitrogen concentration up to 0.809 wt.%, the Ti-1.5AlN sample showed elongation to failure of 10%. This result exceeds the well-known limitation for nitrogen (over 0.45 wt.%) that causes embrittlement of Ti alloys.

  18. Tuning the piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the AlN system via alloying with YN and BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in microelectromechanical systems often require multifunctional materials, which are designed so as to optimize more than one property. Using density functional theory calculations for alloyed nitride systems, we illustrate how co-alloying a piezoelectric material (AlN) with different nitrides helps tune both its piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. Wurtzite AlN-YN alloys display increased piezoelectric response with YN concentration, accompanied by mechanical softening along the crystallographic c direction. Both effects increase the electromechanical coupling coefficients relevant for transducers and actuators. Resonator applications, however, require superior stiffness, thus leading to the need to decouple the increased piezoelectric response from the softened lattice. We show that co-alloying of AlN with YN and BN results in improved elastic properties while retaining some of the piezoelectric enhancements from YN alloying. This finding may lead to new avenues for tuning the design properties of piezoelectrics through composition-property maps.

  19. Influence of UFG structure formation on mechanical and fatigue properties in Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, V. V.; Anumalasetty, V. N.; Semenova, I. P.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2014-08-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti alloys have potential applications in osteosynthesis and orthopedics due to high bio-compatibility and increased weight-to- strength ratio. In current study, Ti6Al7Nb ELI alloy is processed through equal channel angular pressing-conform (ECAP-Conform) and subsequent thermomechanical processing to generate a UFG microstructure. The fatigue properties of UFG alloys are compared to coarse grained (CG) alloys. Our study demonstrates that the UFG alloys with an average grain size of ~180 nm showed 35% enhancement of fatigue endurance limit as compared to coarse-grained alloys. On the fracture surfaces of the UFG and CG samples fatigue striations and dimpled relief were observed. However, the fracture surface of the UFG sample looks smoother; fewer amounts of secondary micro-cracks and more ductile rupture were also observed, which testifies to the good crack resistance in the UFG alloy after high-cyclic fatigue tests.

  20. Formation Of Nano Layered Lamellar Structure In a Processed γ-TiAl Based Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmati-Manesh, S.; Shakoorian, H.; Armaki, H. Ghassemi; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2009-06-01

    In this research, microstructures of an intermetallic alloy based on γ-TiAl has been investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Samples of Ti-47Al-2Cr alloy were subjected to either a cyclic heat treatment or thermomechanical treatment with the aim of microstructural refinement. In both cases it was found that very fine lamellar structure with an interlamellar spacing in the nano scale is formed. Upon cyclic heat treatment, nano layers of α2 and γ ordered intermetallic phases were either formed during rapid cooling cycle in competition with massive structure formation, or formed as secondary lamellar structure during final stages of cyclic heat treatment. Also, TEM observations in hot forged specimens with initial lamellar structure revealed that micro twins form during the deformation within lamellar structure with twinning plates parallel to lamellar interfaces. Concurrent dynamic recrystallisation results in a nano layered structure with an interlamellar spacing of less than 100 nm.

  1. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vishal, E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com; Jain, Vivek, E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com; Sudheesh, V. D., E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com

    The effects of disorder on the magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl alloy are reported. X-ray diffraction exhibit A2-type disordered structure. Room temperature Mössbauer studies show the presence of two sextets with hyperfine field values of 31T and 30T along with a nonmagnetic singlet. The electronic structure of ordered and disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl alloys, investigated by means of the KKR Green's-function method shows that the magnetic moment of the ordered structure is 5.08μ{sub B} and is 5.10μ{sub B} when disordered. However, a much higher magnetic moment of 5.74μ{sub B} is observed experimentally.

  2. Microstructural observations in rapidly-solidified and heat-treated Ni3Al-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carro, G.; Flanagan, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    The microstructural development following heat treatments of several rapidly-solidified Ni3Al-Cr and Ni3Al-Cr-B alloys is presented. Depending on composition, the as-solidified samples were either 100 percent gamma-prime phase - in the form of fine antiphase domains (APD) - or a mixture of gamma-prime (APDs) and beta phases. Upon annealing, the as-solidified microstructures transform to either APD-free gamma-prime or mixtures of gamma and gamma-prime phases. For those compositions where the quenched microstructures were 100 percent gamma-prime it was observed that APD coarsening followed conventional grain-growth kinetics, but when gamma phase precipitated on the APD boundaries the rate constant changed abruptly while the time exponent remained unaffected. It was also found that alloys containing critical amounts of chromium and boron are susceptible to precipitation of the boride Cr5B3.

  3. Effect of γ-IRRADIATION on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Elsoud, M.; Ismail, H.; Sobhy, Maged S.

    SEM observations and Vickers hardness tests were performed to identify the irradiation effects. γ-irradiation effect during the aging hardening process can be explained depending on the composition of the alloy and is used to derive quantitative information on the kinetics of the transformation precipitates. Increasing the Cu content of an Al-Cu alloy can improve the aging hardness. The present results of the hardness behavior, with SEM observations of surveillance specimens at different doses, suggest that the radiation-induced defects are probably complex valence-solute clusters. These clusters act as nuclei for the precipitation of θ-Al2Cu type. This can be effectively utilized to study the systematics of nucleation of precipitates at vacancy-type defects. γ-irradiation probably plays the key role in defects responsible for material strengthening and embrittlement.

  4. Solidification kinetics of a near eutectic Al-Si alloy, unmodified and modified with Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, R.; Barrera, G.; Trapaga, G.; Ramirez-Argaez, M.; Gonzalez-Rivera, C.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the differences in solidification kinetics between unmodified and Sr modified eutectic Al-Si alloy as revealed by Fourier Thermal Analysis (FTA) and grain-growth kinetics characterization. Thermal analysis were performed in cylindrical stainless steel cups coated with a thin layer of boron nitride, using two type-K thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system. Grain growth kinetics characterization was carried out using solid fraction evolution and grain density data. FTA results for the non modified and modified alloys suggest that there are changes in the solidification rate during eutectic nucleation followed, during growth, by similar solidification rate evolutions, suggesting that this parameter is governed principally by the heat extraction conditions. On the other hand the change of the grain growth parameters estimated for the experimental probes suggest that the presence of Sr may modify the relationship between grain growth rate and undercooling in eutectic Al-Si.

  5. Calculation of the solvus temperature of metastable phases in the Al-Mg-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, A. A.; Gruzdev, A. S.; Kuz'min, N. L.

    2011-09-01

    A procedure has been proposed for the self-consistent calculation of the solvus temperatures of metastable phase precipitates in Al-Mg-Si alloys and the specific energy of their interface with the aluminum matrix. The procedure is based on the results of experimental studies on the kinetics of formation of these precipitates during decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions of quenched Al-Mg-Si alloys, which were carried out by measuring the Young's modulus and electrical resistivity. On the basis of the obtained set of solvus temperatures of the β″-phase, an empirical formula has been proposed for calculating this temperature as a function of the chemical composition of the initial solid solution.

  6. Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth of Repaired Al-alloy Structures with Double Sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benachour, M.; Benachour, N.; Benguediab, M.; Seriari, F. Z.

    During navigation, aircrafts are subject to fatigue damage. In order to rehabilitate damaged structures some techniques are often used to resolve this problem. Efficient repair technique, called composite patch repair, was used to reinforce the damaged structures and stop cracks. In this paper, effect of composite patch repair (Boron/Epoxy) on fatigue crack growth (FCG) was investigated on 2219 T62 Al-alloy. Effects of double patch repair in single notch tensile specimen (SENT) on FCG were studied and compared to single patch repair. Results show beneficial effect of patch repair on fatigue life and FCGR in comparison with the un-patched specimen. In addition, effect of mean stress characterized by stress ratio was highlighted. Fatigue behavior of investigated Al-alloy was compared.

  7. Overview of the multifaceted activities towards development and deployment of nuclear-grade FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    A large effort is underway under the leadership of US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program to develop advanced FeCrAl alloys as accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding to replace Zr-based alloys in light water reactors. The primary motivation is the excellent oxidation resistance of these alloys in high-temperature steam environments right up to their melting point (roughly three orders of magnitude slower oxidation kinetics than zirconium). A multifaceted effort is ongoing to rapidly advance FeCrAl alloys as a mature ATF concept. The activities span the broad spectrum of alloy development, environmental testing (high-temperature high-pressure water and elevated temperature steam), detailed mechanicalmore » characterization, material property database development, neutron irradiation, thin tube production, and multiple integral fuel test campaigns. Instead of off-the-shelf commercial alloys that might not prove optimal for the LWR fuel cladding application, a large amount of effort has been placed on the alloy development to identify the most optimum composition and microstructure for this application. The development program is targeting a cladding that offers performance comparable to or better than modern Zr-based alloys under normal operating and off-normal conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the systematic effort to advance nuclear-grade FeCrAl alloys as an ATF cladding in commercial LWRs.« less

  8. Mechanical alloying, characterization and consolidation of Ti-Al-Ni alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, P.; Higgins, G. T.; Dillinger, N.; Hwang, S. J.; Kim, H.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is being investigated as a processing route for the production of aluminide intermetallics. This program involves powder production and characterization, consolidation and thermal treatments and determination of microstructure-property relationships. An attritor mill is being used to produce powder in lots up to 1000 grams and the processing parameters are being systematically varied to establish the optimum milling conditions. The mill is being instrumented to generate data related to the processing to provide a basis for theoretical modeling. Powder is being characterized using thermal analysis, optical and electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Particle size distributions and powder density are being determined. Consolidation of the powder is being approached in several different ways including, cold isostatic pressing, sintering, extrusion and hot pressing. The results of the program so far will be presented and future directions discussed.

  9. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.

    High temperature oxidation resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are candidate alloys for nuclear applications due to their exceptional performance during off-normal conditions such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) compared to currently deployed zirconium-based claddings [1]. A series of studies have been completed to determine the weldability of the FeCrAl alloy class and investigate the weldment performance in the as-received (non-irradiated) state [2,3]. These initial studies have shown the general effects of composition and microstructure on the weldability of FeCrAl alloys. Given this, limited details on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys and their weldments exist. Here, the highest priority candidate FeCrAlmore » alloys and their weldments have been investigated after irradiation to enable a better understanding of FeCrAl alloy weldment performance within a high-intensity neutron field. The alloys examined include C35M (Fe-13%Cr-5% Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions. Two different sub-sized tensile geometries, SS-J type and SS-2E (or SS-mini), were neutron irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to 1.8-1.9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 195°C to 559°C. Post irradiation examination of the candidate alloys was completed and included uniaxial tensile tests coupled with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scattered diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD), and SEM-based fractography. In addition to weldment testing, non-welded parent material was examined as a direct comparison between welded and non-welded specimen performance. Both welded and non-welded specimens showed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening near irradiation temperatures of 200°C, moderate radiation-induced hardening near temperatures of 360°C, and almost no radiation-induced hardening at elevated temperatures near 550°C. Additionally, low-temperature irradiations

  10. Effects of Combining Na and Sr additions on Eutectic Modification in Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G. L.; Gu, N. J.; Zhou, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of strontium and sodium modified on the eutectic silicon for Al-Si alloy. It was found that combining addition of Na and Sr did not appear to cause deleterious interactions of modification, at at the same time, Sr-Na was fairly constant with holding time and without obvious modification fading. Addition of Na-Sr modifier could take effect quickly and decrease incubation period.

  11. Precipitate Evolution and Strengthening in Supersaturated Rapidly Solidified Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deane, Kyle; Kampe, S. L.; Swenson, Douglas; Sanders, P. G.

    2017-04-01

    Because of the low diffusivities of scandium and zirconium in aluminum, trialuminide precipitates containing these elements have been reported to possess excellent thermal stability at temperatures of 573 K (300 °C) and higher. However, the relatively low equilibrium solubilities of these elements in aluminum limit the achievable phase fraction and, in turn, strengthening contributions from these precipitates. One method of circumventing this limitation involves the use of rapid solidification techniques to suppress the initial formation of precipitates in alloys containing higher solute compositions. This work specifically discusses the fabrication of supersaturated Al-Sc, Al-Zr, and Al-Sc-Zr alloys via melt spinning, in which supersaturations of at least 0.55 at. pct Zr and 0.8 at. pct Sc are shown to be attainable through XRD analysis. The resulting ribbons were subjected to a multistep aging heat treatment in order to encourage a core-shell precipitate morphology, the precipitate evolution behavior was monitored with XRD and TEM, and the aging behavior was observed. While aging in these alloys is shown to follow similar trends to conventionally processed materials reported in literature, with phase fraction increasing until higher aging temperatures causing a competing dissolution effect, the onset of precipitation begins at lower temperatures than previously observed and the peak hardnesses occurred at higher temperature steps due to an increased aging time associated with increased solute concentration. Peaking in strength at a higher temperature doesn't necessarily mean an increase in thermal stability, but rather emphasizes the need for intelligently designed heat treatments to take full advantage of the potential strengthening of supersaturated Al-Sc-Zr alloys.

  12. Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlation for the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Zeng, Weidong; Sun, Yu; Han, Yuanfei; Zhao, Yongqing; Guo, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Finding the quantitative microstructure-tensile properties correlations is the key to achieve performance optimization for various materials. However, it is extremely difficult due to their non-linear and highly interactive interrelations. In the present investigation, the lamellar microstructure features-tensile properties correlations of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are studied using an error back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN-BP) model. Forty-eight thermomechanical treatments were conducted to prepare the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different lamellar microstructure features. In the proposed model, the input variables are microstructure features including the α platelet thickness, colony size, and β grain size, which were extracted using Image Pro Plus software. The output variables are the tensile properties, including ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area. Fourteen hidden-layer neurons which can make ANN-BP model present the most excellent performance were applied. The training results show that all the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values are within 6%, which means that the trained ANN-BP model is capable of providing precise prediction of the tensile properties for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Based on the corresponding relations between the tensile properties predicted by ANN-BP model and the lamellar microstructure features, it can be found that the yield strength decreases with increasing α platelet thickness continuously. However, the α platelet thickness exerts influence on the elongation in a more complicated way. In addition, for a given α platelet thickness, the yield strength and the elongation both increase with decreasing β grain size and colony size. In general, the β grain size and colony size play a more important role in affecting the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the α platelet thickness.

  13. The Behaviour of Bifilm Defects in Cast Al-7Si-Mg Alloy.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Double oxide films (bifilms) are significant defects in the casting of light alloys, and have been shown to decrease tensile and fatigue properties, and also to increase their scatter, making casting properties unreproducible and unreliable. A bifilm consists of doubled-over oxide films containing a gas-filled crevice and is formed due to surface turbulence of the liquid metal during handling and/or pouring. Previous studies has shown that the nature of oxide film defects may change with time, as the atmosphere inside the bifilm could be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt, which may enhance the mechanical properties of Al alloy castings. As a proxy for a bifilm, an air bubble was trapped within an Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg (2L99) alloy melt, subjected to stirring. The effect of different parameters such as the holding time, stirring velocity and melt temperature on the change in gas composition of the bubble was investigated, using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. Also, the solid species inside the bubbles solidified in the melt were examined using SEM. The results suggested that both oxygen and nitrogen inside the bifilm would be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt producing MgAl2O4 and AlN, respectively. Also, hydrogen was suggested to consistently diffuse into the defect. The reaction rates and the rate of H diffusion were shown to increase upon increasing the holding time and temperature, and stirring velocity. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the gaseous content of the bubble suggesting that a careful control of such parameters might lead to the deactivation of bifilm defects, or at least elimination of their deteriorous effect in light alloy castings.

  14. The Behaviour of Bifilm Defects in Cast Al-7Si-Mg Alloy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Double oxide films (bifilms) are significant defects in the casting of light alloys, and have been shown to decrease tensile and fatigue properties, and also to increase their scatter, making casting properties unreproducible and unreliable. A bifilm consists of doubled-over oxide films containing a gas-filled crevice and is formed due to surface turbulence of the liquid metal during handling and/or pouring. Previous studies has shown that the nature of oxide film defects may change with time, as the atmosphere inside the bifilm could be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt, which may enhance the mechanical properties of Al alloy castings. As a proxy for a bifilm, an air bubble was trapped within an Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg (2L99) alloy melt, subjected to stirring. The effect of different parameters such as the holding time, stirring velocity and melt temperature on the change in gas composition of the bubble was investigated, using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. Also, the solid species inside the bubbles solidified in the melt were examined using SEM. The results suggested that both oxygen and nitrogen inside the bifilm would be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt producing MgAl2O4 and AlN, respectively. Also, hydrogen was suggested to consistently diffuse into the defect. The reaction rates and the rate of H diffusion were shown to increase upon increasing the holding time and temperature, and stirring velocity. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the gaseous content of the bubble suggesting that a careful control of such parameters might lead to the deactivation of bifilm defects, or at least elimination of their deteriorous effect in light alloy castings. PMID:27529350

  15. Modelling Precipitation Kinetics During Aging of Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiang; Friis, Jepser

    A classical Kaufmann-Wagner numerical model is employed to predict the evolution of precipitate size distribution during the aging treatment of Al-Mg-Si alloys. One feature of the model is its fully coupling with CALPHAD database, and with the input of interfacial energy from ab-initial calculation, it is able to capture the morphological change of the precipitates. The simulation results will be compared with the experimental measurements.

  16. Stabilization mechanism of γ-Mg17Al12 and β-Mg2Al3 complex metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtnik, S.; Jazbec, S.; Jagodič, M.; Korelec, A.; Hosnar, L.; Jagličić, Z.; Jeglič, P.; Feuerbacher, M.; Mizutani, U.; Dolinšek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Large-unit-cell complex metallic alloys (CMAs) frequently achieve stability by lowering the kinetic energy of the electron system through formation of a pseudogap in the electronic density of states (DOS) across the Fermi energy ɛF. By employing experimental techniques that are sensitive to the electronic DOS in the vicinity of ɛF, we have studied the stabilization mechanism of two binary CMA phases from the Al-Mg system: the γ-Mg17Al12 phase with 58 atoms in the unit cell and the β-Mg2Al3 phase with 1178 atoms in the unit cell. Since the investigated alloys are free from transition metal elements, orbital hybridization effects must be small and we were able to test whether the alloys obey the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism, where a pseudogap in the DOS is produced by the Fermi surface-Brillouin zone interactions. The results have shown that the DOS of the γ-Mg17Al12 phase exhibits a pronounced pseudogap centered almost exactly at ɛF, which is compatible with the theoretical prediction that this phase is stabilized by the Hume-Rothery mechanism. The disordered cubic β-Mg2Al3 phase is most likely entropically stabilized at high temperatures, whereas at lower temperatures stability is achieved by undergoing a structural phase transition to more ordered rhombohedral β‧ phase at 214 ° C, where all atomic sites become fully occupied. No pseudogap in the vicinity of ɛF was detected for the β‧ phase on the energy scale of a few 100 meV as determined by the ‘thermal observation window’ of the Fermi-Dirac function, so that the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism is not confirmed for this compound. However, the existence of a much broader shallow pseudogap due to several critical reciprocal lattice vectors \\buildrel{\\rightharpoonup}\\over{G} that simultaneously satisfy the Hume-Rothery interference condition remains the most plausible stabilization mechanism of this phase. At Tc = 0.85 K, the β‧ phase undergoes a superconducting transition

  17. Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded AlSi9Mg Cast with 5083 and 2017A Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.; Kopyściański, M.; Dymek, S.; Węglowska, A.; Pietras, A.

    2018-03-01

    Wrought aluminum alloys 5083 and 2017A were each joined with cast aluminum alloy AlSi9Mg through friction stir welding in butt weld configurations. For each material system, the wrought and cast alloy positions, i.e., the advancing side or the retreating side, were exchanged between welding trials. The produced weldments were free from cracks and discontinuities. For each alloy configuration, a well-defined nugget comprised of alternating bands of the welded alloys characterized the microstructure. The degree of mixing, however, strongly depended on which wrought alloy was present and on its position during processing. In all cases, the cast AlSi9Mg alloy dominated the weld center regardless of its position during welding. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis showed that the grain size in both alloys (bands) constituting the nugget was similar and that the majority of grain boundaries exhibited a high angle character (20°-60°). Regardless of the alloy, however, all grains were elongated along the direction of the material plastic flow during welding. A numerical simulation of the joining process visualized the material flow patterns and temperature distribution and helped to rationalize the microstructural observations. The hardness profiles across the weld reflected the microstructure formed during welding and correlated well with the temperature changes predicted by the numerical model. Tensile specimens consistently fractured in the cast alloy near the weld nugget.

  18. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  19. Contributions of phase and structural transformations in multicomponent Al-Mg alloys to the linear and nonlinear mechanisms of anelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, I. S.; Bychkov, A. S.; Mikhailovskaya, A. V.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD), recrystallization, and precipitation of the β phase in multicomponent alloys of the Al-5Mg-Mn-Cr and Al-(4-5%)Mg-Mn-Zn-Sc systems on the mechanisms of grain-boundary relaxation and dislocation-induced microplasticity have been studied in some detail. To stabilize the ultrafine-grained structure and prevent grain growth, dispersed Al-transition-metal particles, such as Al3Zr, Al6Mn, Al7Cr, Al6(Mn,Cr), Al18Cr2Mg3 have been used. We have special interest in alloys with additions of scandium, which forms compounds of the Al3Sc type and favors the precipitation of finer particles compared to the aluminides of other transition metals. After SPD, Al-(4-5%)Mg-Mn-Zr-Sc alloys exhibit an enhanced recrystallization temperature. The general features of the dislocation and grain-boundary anelasticity that have been established for the binary Al-Mg alloys are retained; i.e., (1) the decrease in the dislocation density in the process of recrystallization of cold-worked alloys leads to the formation of a pseudo-peak in the curves of the temperature dependences of internal friction (TDIF) and to a decrease in the critical amplitude of deformation corresponding to the onset of dislocation motion in a stress field; (2) the precipitation of the β phase suppresses the grain-boundary relaxation; (3) the dissolution of the β phase, the passage of the magnesium atoms into the solid solution, and the precipitation of the β' phase upon heating hinder the motion of dislocations; (4) the coarsening of the highly dispersed particles containing Zr and Sc increases the dislocation mobility. The grain-boundary relaxation and dislocation-impurity interaction and their temperature dependences, as well as processes of the additional alloying of the binary alloys by Mn, Cr, Zr, and Sc, have been estimated quantitatively.

  20. Phase Transformation Induced Self-Healing Behavior of Al-Ag Alloy.

    PubMed

    Michalcová, Alena; Marek, Ivo; Knaislová, Anna; Sofer, Zdeněk; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2018-01-27

    Self-healing alloys are promising materials that can decrease the consequences of accidents. To detect crack formation in a material is simple task that can be performed by e.g., sonic or ultrasound detection, but it is not always possible to immediately replace the damaged parts. In this situation, it is very advantageous to have the chance to heal the crack during operation, which can be done e.g., by annealing. In this paper, self-healing behavior was proven by TEM (Transmission electron microscope) observation of crack healing after annealing. The crack was observed in the rapidly solidified Al-30Ag alloy with non-equilibrium phase composition formed by a minor amount of Ag₂Al and a supersaturated solid solution of Ag in an fcc-Al matrix (fcc = face centered cubic). After annealing at 450 °C, equilibrium phase composition was obtained by forming a higher amount of Ag₂Al. This phase transformation did not allow the crack to be healed. Subsequent annealing at 550 °C caused recrystallization to a supersaturated solid solution of Ag in fcc-Al, followed by a return to the mixture of fcc-Al and Ag₂Al by cooling, and this process was accompanied by the closing of the crack. This observation proved the self-healing possibilities of the Ag₂Al phase. Practical application of this self-healing behavior could be achieved through the dispersion of fine Ag₂Al particles in a structural material, which will enrich the material with self-healing properties.

  1. Surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing for high Nb-TiAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Wanyuan; Hao, Guojian; Liang, Yongfeng; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiao; Lin, Junpin

    2016-12-01

    Metal surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) is an innovative treatment widely commonly applied to material processing and pretreatment process of coating and galvanization. EPP involves complex processes and a great deal of parameters, such as preset voltage, current, solution temperature and processing time. Several characterization methods are presented in this paper for evaluating the micro-structure surfaces of Ti45Al8Nb alloys: SEM, EDS, XRD and 3D topography. The results showed that the oxide scale and other contaminants on the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys can be effectively removed via EPP. The typical micro-crater structure of the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys were observed by 3D topography after EPP to find that the mean diameter of the surface structure and roughness value can be effectively controlled by altering the processing parameters. The mechanical properties of the surface according to nanomechanical probe testing exhibited slight decrease in microhardness and elastic modulus after EPP, but a dramatic increase in surface roughness, which is beneficial for further processing or coating.

  2. Tem Observation of Precipitates in Ag-Added Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Kenji; Nakamura, Junya; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Marioara, Calin; Andersen, Sigmund J.; Holmestad, Randi; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Horita, Zenji; Terada, Daisuke; Ikeno, Susumu

    The influence of addition of the small amount of transition metals to Al-Mg-Si alloy had reported by many researchers. In the previous our work, β' phase in alloys Al — 1.0 mass% Mg2Si -0.5 mass% Ag (Ag-addition) and Al -1.0 mass% Mg2Si (base) were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), in order to understand the effect of Ag. In addition, the distribution of Ag was investigated by energy filtered mapping and high annular angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). One Ag-containing atomic column was observed per β' unit cell, and the unit cell symmetry is slightly changed as compared with the Ag-free β'. In this work, the microstructure of G.P. zone and β'' phase was investigated by TEM observation, which were formed before β' phase. The deformed sample by high pressure torsion (HPT) technique before aging was also investigated to understand its effect for aging in this alloy.

  3. Fatigue Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained 5052 Al Alloy Processed Through Different Rolling Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogesha, K. K.; Joshi, Amit; Jayaganthan, R.

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, 5052 Al alloy was processed through different rolling methods to obtain ultrafine grains and its high-cycle fatigue behavior were investigated. The solution-treated Al-Mg alloys (AA 5052) were deformed through different methods such as cryorolling (CR), cryo groove rolling (CGR) and cryo groove rolling followed by warm rolling (CGW), up to 75% thickness reduction. The deformed samples were subjected to mechanical testing such as hardness, tensile and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) test at stress control mode. The CGW samples exhibit better HCF strength when compared to other conditions. The microstructure of the tested samples was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM fractography and TEM to understand the deformation behavior of deformed Al alloy. The improvement in fatigue life of CR and CGR samples is due to effective grain refinement, subgrain formations, and high dislocation density observed in the heavily deformed samples at cryogenic condition as observed from SEM and TEM analysis. However, in case of CGW samples, formation of nanoshear bands accommodates the applied strain during cyclic loading, thereby facilitating dislocation accumulation along with subgrain formations, leading to the high fatigue life. The deformed or broken impurity phase particles found in the deformed samples along with the precipitates that were formed during warm rolling also play a prominent role in enhancing the fatigue strength. These tiny particles hindered the dislocation movement by effectively pinning it at grain boundaries, thereby improving the resistance of crack propagation under cyclic load.

  4. Laser irradiation effects on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf, Daniel; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; kalsoom, Umm-i.-; Ali, Nisar

    2014-02-01

    Laser irradiation effects on surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy (Al-Cu alloy 2024) have been investigated. The specimens were irradiated for various fluences ranging from 3.8 to 5.5 J/cm2 using an Excimer (KrF) laser (248 nm, 18 ns, 30 Hz) under vacuum environment. The surface and structural modifications of the irradiated targets have been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively. SEM analysis reveals the formation of micro-sized craters along the growth of periodic surface structures (ripples) at their peripheries. The size of the craters initially increases and then decreases by increasing the laser fluence. XRD analysis shows an anomalous trend in the peak intensity and crystallite size of the specimen irradiated for various fluences. A universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were employed in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the irradiated targets. The changes in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness were found to be anomalous with increasing laser fluences. The changes in the surface and structural properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024 after laser irradiation have been associated with the changes in mechanical properties.

  5. Thermal oxidation behavior of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Maqsood

    1987-04-01

    The chemical composition of oxide films formed during thermal treatments of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide layers formed after oxidation of 2.5 minutes to 30 minutes at 530 °C in lab air have been characterized. In the early stages of oxidation the surface is composed of both the lithium rich oxides and magnesium rich oxides. However, after longer oxidation times the oxidation of lithium becomes predominant and the air/oxide interface is completely covered by lithium compounds. Oxidation products formed on the alloy surface have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. The following three phases, namely, Li2CO3, α-Li5AlO4, and γ-LiAlO2, were identified. During heat treatment in lab air at 530 °C and at atmospheric pressure the dominating reaction product is Li2CO3. Due to the selective oxidation of lithium a soft surface layer is developed. The width of the soft layer formed during solution heat treatments carried out in lab air and in salt bath environments has been determined by microhardness measurements. The lithium concentration profiles were calculated from a diffusion equation. The depletion of alloying elements from the near surface region during heat treatments has been investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The oxide morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy.

  6. Thermal oxidation behavior of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Maqsood

    1987-05-01

    The chemical composition of oxide films formed during thermal treatments of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide layers formed after oxidation of 2.5 minutes to 30 minutes at 530 °C in lab air have been characterized. In the early stages of oxidation the surface is composed of both the lithium rich oxides and magnesium rich oxides. However, after longer oxidation times the oxidation of lithium becomes predominant and the air/oxide interface is completely covered by lithium compounds. Oxidation products formed on the alloy surface have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. The following three phases, namely, Li2CO3, α-Li5AlO4, and γ-LiAlO2, were identified. During heat treatment in lab air at 530 °C and at atmospheric pressure the dominating reaction product is Li2CO3. Due to the selective oxidation of lithium a soft surface layer is developed. The width of the soft layer formed during solution heat treatments carried out in lab air and in salt bath environments has been determined by microhardness measurements. The lithium concentration profiles were calculated from a diffusion equation. The depletion of alloying elements from the near surface region during heat treatments has been investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The oxide morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy.

  7. Laser micro-processing of amorphous and partially crystalline Cu45Zr48Al7 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.; Kovacs, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a microstructural study of laser micro-processed high-purity Cu45Zr48Al7 alloys prepared by arc melting and Cu-mould casting. Microprocessing of the Cu45Zr48Al7 alloy was performed using a Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser system with 10.6-μm wavelength. The laser was defocused to a spot size of 0.2 mm on the sample surface. The laser parameters were set to give 300- and 350-W peak power, 30% duty cycle and a 3000-Hz laser pulse repetition frequency (PRF). About 100-micrometer-wide channels were scribed on the surfaces of disk-shaped amorphous and partially crystalline samples at traverse speeds of 500 and 5000 mm/min. These channels were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 2D stylus profilometry. The metallographic study and profile of these processed regions are discussed in terms of the applied laser processing parameters. The SEM micrographs showed that striation marks developed at the edge and inside these regions as a result of the laser processing. The results from this work showed that microscale features can be produced on the surface of amorphous Cu-Zr-Al alloys by CO2 laser processing.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy prepared by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L. Y.; Du, B. N.; Guo, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    NiAl based materials has been considered as most potential candidate of turbine blade, due to its excellent high-temperature properties. However the bad room-temperature properties handicap its application. In the present paper, the zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy is fabricated by conventional casting and injection casting technology to improve its room-temperature properties. The microstructure and compressive properties at different temperatures of the conventionally-cast and injection-cast were investigated. The results exhibit that the conventionally-cast alloy comprises coarse primary NiAl phase and eutectic cell, which is dotted with irregular Ni2AlZr Heusler phase. Compared with the conventionally-cast alloy, the injection-cast alloy possesses refined the primary NiAl, eutectic cell and eutectic lamella. In addition, the Ni2AlZr Heusler phase become smaller and distribute uniformly. Moreover, the injection casting decrease the area fraction of primary NiAl phase at the cell interior or cell boundaries. The compressive ductility and yield strength of the injection-cast alloy at room temperature increase by about 100% and 35% over those of conventionally-cast alloy, which should be ascribed to the microstructure optimization.

  9. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints. PMID:26383641

  10. Short and Medium-Range Order in Liquid Ternary Al80Co10Ni10, Al72.5Co14.5Ni13, and Al65Co17.5Ni17.5 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, Oleksandr S.; Samsonnikov, Oleksiy; Kazimirov, Volodymyr; Sokolskii, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    A local short-to-intermediate range order of liquid Al80Co10Ni10, Al72.5Co14.5Ni13, and Al65Co17.5Ni17.5 alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction and the reverse Monte Carlo modelling. The comprehensive analysis of three-dimensional models of the liquid ternary alloys was performed by means of the Voronoi-Delaunay method. The existence of a prepeak on the S(Q) function of the liquid alloys is caused by medium range ordering of 3d-transition metal atoms in dense-packed polytetrahedral clusters at temperatures close to the liquidus. The non-crystalline clusters, represented by aggregates of pentagons that consist of good tetrahedra, and chemical short-range order lead to the formation of the medium range order in the liquid binary Al-Ni, Al-Co and ternary Al-Ni-Co alloys.

  11. Depth of array micro-holes with large aspect ratio in Al based cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Meiling; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-03-01

    In order to study on the depth of array micro-holes on Al base cast alloy, micro-hole with depth of 50 mm and diameter of 0.55 mm are successfully prepared by using poor wetting between carbon and Al. Accordingly, the mold of depth is established, the results show that calculated depth of micro-hole is 53.22 mm, relative error is 6% compare with the actual measured depth, and the depth of hole exponentially increases with the increasing of distance between two micro-holes. Surface tension and metallostatic pressure of metal molten are mainly affecting factors for depth of micro-holes.

  12. Shot peening for Ti-6Al-4V alloy compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, Gerald A.

    1987-01-01

    A text program was conducted to determine the effects of certain shot-peening parameters on the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V alloys as well as the effect of a demarcation line on a test specimen. This demarcation line, caused by an abrupt change from untreated surface to shot-peened surface, was thought to have caused the failure of several blades in a multistage compressor at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The demarcation line had no detrimental effect upon bending fatigue specimens tested at room temperature. Procedures for shot peening Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades are recommended for future applications.

  13. Development of High Strength Thermally Stable Al-based Alloys with Nanocomposite Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-05

    Lin Z.G., Mezouar M ., Crichton W., Inoue A. Evidence of eutectic crystallization and transient nucleation in Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy // Appl...and (1.1–4.3)×1023 m -3, respectively, results in essential increasing of the microhardness (by 740–1740 MPa) in comparison with that of amorphous...crystallization event are in the ranges (0.22-0.59), (14.8–21.0) nm and (1.1–4.3)×1023 m -3, respectively. The lattice parameters of fcc Al nanocrystals have been

  14. Interfacial Characterization of Dissimilar Joints Between Al/Mg/Al-Trilayered Clad Sheet to High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macwan, A.; Jiang, X. Q.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace sectors to reduce vehicle weight. Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets are deemed as a promising alternative to improve the corrosion resistance and formability of Mg alloys. The structural application of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets inevitably involves welding and joining in the multi-material vehicle body manufacturing. This study aimed to characterize the bonding interface microstructure of the Al/Mg/Al-clad sheet to high-strength low-alloy steel with and without Zn coating using ultrasonic spot welding at different levels of welding energy. It was observed that the presence of Zn coating improved the bonding at the interface due to the formation of Al-Zn eutectic structure via enhanced diffusion. At a higher level of welding energy, characteristic flow patterns of Zn into Al-clad layer were observed with an extensive penetration mainly along some high angle grain boundaries. The dissimilar joints without Zn coating made at a high welding energy of 800 J failed partially from the Al/Fe weld interface and partially from the Al/Mg clad interface, while the joints with Zn coating failed from the Al/Mg clad interface due to the presence of brittle Al12Mg17 phase.

  15. High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS): A Promising and Reliable Method for Preparing Ti-Al-Si Alloys.

    PubMed

    Knaislová, Anna; Novák, Pavel; Cygan, Sławomir; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2017-04-27

    Ti-Al-Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti-Al-Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark plasma sintering. One of the novel SPS techniques is high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HP SPS), which was tested in this work and applied to a Ti-10Al-20Si intermetallic alloy using a pressure of 6 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1318 K (1045 °C) to 1597 K (1324 °C). The low-porosity consolidated samples consist of Ti₅Si₃ silicides in an aluminide (TiAl) matrix. The hardness varied between 720 and 892 HV 5.

  16. Effect of W Contents on Martensitic Transformation and Shape Memory Effect in Co-Al-W Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Qian, B. N.; Peng, H. B.; Wu, B. J.; Wen, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the effect of W contents on the shape memory effect (SME) in the Co-Al alloys and its influencing mechanism, the SME, martensitic transformation, and deformation behavior were studied in the Co-7Al-xW ( x = 0, 4, 6, 9 wt pct) alloys. The results showed that the additions of W all deteriorated the SME in Co-7Al alloy when deformed at room temperature. However, when deformed in liquid nitrogen, the SME in Co-7Al alloy could be remarkably improved from 43 to 78 pct after the addition of 4 pct W, above which the SME decreased rapidly with the increase of W content although the yield strength of the parent phase rose due to the solution strengthening of W. The deterioration in SME induced by the excessive addition of W could be ascribed to its resulting significant drop of the start temperature of martensitic transformation.

  17. Microstructure and Hardness of Mg - 9Li - 6Al Alloy After Different Variants of Solid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haipeng; Fei, Pengfei; Wu, Ruizhi; Hou, Legan; Zhang, Milin

    2018-03-01

    The microstructure and the hardness of cast magnesium alloy Mg - 9% Li - 6% Al are studied after a treatment for solid solution at 300, 350, and 450°C for 0.5 - 5 h. The phase composition of the alloy is represented by α-Mg, β-Li, thin-plate and faceted particles of an AlLi phase, and particles of a MgLi2Al θ-phase. The θ-phase dissolves in the matrix in the initial stage of the solution treatment, which causes growth in the hardness of the alloy. At a temperature above 350°C the AlLi phase dissolves giving way to short rod-like precipitates of a θ-phase, which remain steady in the process of solution treatment. The hardness of the alloy deceases in this stage for this reason.

  18. Effect of a prior stretch on the aging response of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a family of Al-Cu-Li alloys containing minor amounts of Ag, Mg, and Zr and having desirable combinations of strength and toughness were developed. The Weldalite (trademark) alloys exhibit a unique characteristic in that with or without a prior stretch, they obtain significant strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. The ultra-high strength (approximately 690 MPa yield strength) in the peak-aged tempers (T6 and T8) were primarily attributed to the extremely fine T(sub 1) (Al2CuLi) or T(sub 1)-type precipitates that occur in these alloys during artificial aging, whereas the significant natural aging response observed is attributed to strengthening from delta prime (Al3Li) and GP zones. In recent work, the aging behavior of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy without a prior stretch was followed microstructurally from the T4 to the T6 condition. Commercial extrusions, rolled plates, and sheets of Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a stretching operation before artificial aging to straighten the extrusions and, more importantly, introduce dislocations to simulate precipitation of strengthening phases such as T(sub 1) by providing relatively low-energy nucleation sites. The goals of this study are to examine the microstructure that evolves during aging of an alloy that was stretch after solution treatment and to compare the observations with those for the unstretched alloy.

  19. Influence of composition and heat treatment on damping and magnetostrictive properties of Fe–18%(Ga + Al) alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Golovin, I. S.; Palacheva, V. V.; Zadorozhnyy, V. Yu.; ...

    2014-07-16

    The structure, magnetostriction and damping properties of Fe 82Ga (18–x)Al x (x = 0, 5, 8, 12) alloys were analyzed. The anelastic response of Fe–18(Ga + Al) alloys was studied as a function of temperature (from 0 to 600 °C), frequency (from 0.01 to 200 Hz) and amplitude (from 0.0004% to 0.2%) of forced vibrations. The origin of the relatively high damping capacity of Fe–Ga–Al alloy at room temperature was determined by applying a magnetic field and different heat treatment regimes. The substitution of Ga by Al in Fe–18% Ga alloys was found to decrease magnetostriction and damping. The heatmore » treatment of alloys influences the damping capacity of alloys more than variations of their chemical compositions. Thermally activated frequency and temperature-dependent anelastic effects in Fe–Ga–Al alloys were analyzed and the corresponding activation parameters for relaxation processes were evaluated. Internal friction effects caused by structural transformations were recorded and were found to be consistent with the A2 → D0 3 → L1 2 reaction. Thus, the physical mechanisms for all anelastic effects are discussed.« less

  20. Phase Transformation and Creep of Mg-Al-Ca Based Die-Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akane; Saddock, Nicholas D.; Jones, J. Wayne; Pollock, Tresa M.

    The microstructure and microstructural stability of die-cast AC53 (Mg-5Al-3Ca) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr) have been investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both alloys have an as-cast microstructure of α-Mg with (Mg, Al)2Ca (dihexagonal C36) eutectic at grain boundaries. During aging at 573 K, the C36 phase transforms to Al2Ca (cubic Cl5) phase. These two phases have a crystallographic orientation relationship of (0001)C36//{111}C15 and [2110]C36//[011]C15, and the transformation from C36 to C15 occurs by a shear-assisted process. Despite this change in the phase constitution, the network structure of the intermetallic compound(s) surrounding α-Mg grains is fairly stable, morphologically, even after prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. In the α-Mg matrix phase, precipitation of Al2Ca was observed after aging for 360 ks at 573 K. The precipitates are disc-shaped with a habit plane of {111}C15//(0001)α. AXJ530 shows higher creep resistance than AC53. The dislocation substructure that evolved during creep deformation was investigated in both alloys, and the basal and non-basal slip of a-dislocation and other slip modes of a+c- dislocations were observed. The relationship between creep properties and microstructure is discussed.

  1. Interfacial development of electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Sumin; Dickerson, James H.; Pham, Viet Hung; ...

    2015-07-28

    Adhesion between film and substrate is critical for electronic device and coating applications. Interfacial development between electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al 1100 and Al 5052 alloys were investigated using FT-IR and XPS depth profiling techniques. Obtained results suggest metal ion permeation from the substrates into deposited graphene oxide films. The interface between the films and the substrates were primarily composed of Al-O-C bonds from oxygenated defects on graphene oxide plane rather than expected Al-C formation. Films heat treated at 150 °C had change in microstructure and peak shifts in XPS spectra suggesting change in chemical structure of bondsmore » between the films and the substrates.« less

  2. Interfacial Chemical Interactions in the (Alumina/Graphite/Al Alloys) System: Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelbstein, M.; Edry, I.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2009-04-01

    The stability of alumina-coated graphite couples in liquid Al is investigated in the 1373 to 1573 K temperature range. A thermodynamic model was carried out to determine the mechanisms controlling the couple stability and the effect of alloying Al with high melting point element for instance U (up to 3 at. pct). It was established that the dissolved uranium dose not play any role in the interfacial interactions and that the couple stability is governed by the interactions with Al resulting in the release of gaseous products. The experiments focused on wetting kinetics under conditions allowing for an in-situ reduction of the alumina coating by the liquid Al. The experimental results confirm the predictions of the thermodynamic analysis.

  3. Effect of plasma welding parameters on the flexural strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Lyra e Silva, João Paulo; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Novais, Veridiana Resende; de Araujo, Cleudmar Amaral; Cavalcante, Luisa de Andrade Lima; Simamoto Júnior, Paulo Cezar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different plasma arc welding parameters on the flexural strength of titanium alloy beams (Ti-6Al-4V). Forty Ti-6Al-4V and 10 NiCr alloy beam specimens (40 mm long and 3.18 mm diameter) were prepared and divided into 5 groups (n=10). The titanium alloy beams for the control group were not sectioned or subjected to welding. Groups PL10, PL12, and PL14 contained titanium beams sectioned and welded at current 3 A for 10, 12 or 14 ms, respectively. Group NCB consisted of NiCr alloy beams welded using conventional torch brazing. After, the beams were subjected to a three-point bending test and the values obtained were analyzed to assess the flexural strength (MPa). Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at 0.05 confidence level. Significant difference was verified among the evaluated groups (p<0.001), with higher flexural strength for the control group (p<0.05). No significant differences was observed among the plasma welded groups (p>0.05). The NCB group showed the lowest flexural strength, although it was statistically similar to the PL 14 group (p>0.05). The weld depth penetration was not significantly different among the plasma welded groups (p=0.05). Three representative specimens were randomly selected to be evaluated under scanning electron microcopy. The composition of the welded regions was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This study provides an initial set of parameters supporting the use of plasma welding during fabrication of titanium alloy dental frameworks.

  4. Rapid Repairs: Surface Preparation of Ti-3 Al-2.5V Alloy Tubes by Fiber Laser and Welding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    processing of titanium 6Al - 4V alloy for potential aerospace component cleaning application, Appl Surf Sci 2005;247:623-630. [11] Turner MW, Crouse...Debroy T, Heat transfer and fluid flow during keyhole mode laser welding of tantalum, Ti- 6Al - 4V , 304 Stainless Steel and Vanadium, J Phy D : Appl Phy...14Titanium alloys are used extensively in aerospace applications mainly due to their superior strength to weight ratio. Different grades of titanium

  5. Influence of gravity level and interfacial energies on dispersion-forming tendencies in hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Results on the nondirectional solidification of several hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys were obtained aboard NASA's KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft in order to determine the influence of interfacial energies and gravity levels on dispersion-forming tendencies. The Al content was systematially varied in the alloys. The dispersion-forming ability is correlated with gravity level during solidification, the interfacial energy between the immiscible phases, and the tendency for the minority immiscible phase to wet the walls of the crucible.

  6. Surface and cut-edge corrosion behavior of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets as a function of the alloy coating microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Lee, Jae-Won; Shon, Je-Ha; Jin, Young-Sool

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Mg and Al content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of hot-dip Zn-Mg-Al alloycoated steel sheets were investigated. Pure Zn and Zn-based alloy coatings containing Mg (0-5 wt%) and Al (0.2-55 wt%) were produced by a hot-dip galvanizing method. Mg and Al addition induced formation of intermetallic microstructures, like primary Zn, Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic, dendric Zn/Al eutectoid, and Zn/Al/MgZn2/ternary eutectic structures in the coating layer. MgZn2-related structures (Zn/MgZn2, Zn/Al/MgZn2, MgZn2) played an important role in increasing the corrosion resistance of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets. Zn-3%Mg-2.5%Al coating layer containing a large volume of lamellar-shaped Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic structures showed the best cut-edge corrosion resistance. The analysis indicated that Mg dissolved from MgZn2 in the early stage of corrosion and migrated to the cathodic region of steel-exposed cut-edge area to form dense and ordered protective corrosion products, leading to prolonged cathodic protection of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets.

  7. Growth of Ni-Al alloys on Ni(1 1 1), from Al deposits of various thicknesses: (II) Formation of NiAl over a Ni 3Al interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pévédic, S.; Schmaus, D.; Cohen, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the second part of a study devoted to the growth of thin Ni-Al alloys after deposition of Al on Ni(1 1 1). In the previous paper [S. Le Pévédic, D. Schmaus, C. Cohen, Surf. Sci. 600 (2006) 565] we have described the results obtained for ultra-thin Al deposits, leading, after annealing at 750 K, to an epitaxial layer of Ni 3Al(1 1 1). In the present paper we show that this regime is only observed for Al deposits smaller than 8 × 10 15 Al/cm 2 and we describe the results obtained for Al deposits exceeding this critical thickness, up to 200 × 10 15 Al/cm 2. Al deposition was performed at low temperature (around 130 K) and the alloying process was followed in situ during subsequent annealing, by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and ion beam analysis-channeling measurements, in an ultra-high vacuum chamber connected to a Van de Graaff accelerator. We evidence the formation, after annealing at 750 K, of a crystallographically and chemically well-ordered NiAl(1 1 0) layer (whose thickness depends on the deposited Al amount), over a Ni 3Al "interfacial" layer (whose thickness—about 18 (1 1 1) planes—is independent of the deposited Al amount). The NiAl overlayer is composed of three variants, at 120° from each other in the surface plane, in relation with the respective symmetries of NiAl(1 1 0) and Ni 3Al(1 1 1). The NiAl layer is relaxed (the lattice parameters of cc-B2 NiAl and fcc-L1 2 Ni 3Al differ markedly), and we have determined its epitaxial relationship. In the case of the thickest alloyed layer formed the results concerning the structure of the NiAl layer have been confirmed and refined by ex situ X-ray diffraction and information on its grain size has been obtained by ex situ Atomic Force Microscopy. The kinetics of the alloying process is complex. It corresponds to an heterogeneous growth leading, above the thin Ni 3Al interfacial layer, to a mixture of Al and NiAl over the whole Al film, up to the

  8. Tensile properties of cast titanium alloys: Titanium-6Al-4V ELI and Titanium-5Al-2.5Sn ELI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billinghurst, E. E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This work was performed to determine the tensile properties of cast, hot isostatic pressed (HIP'ed), and annealed titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V ELI and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI, that are candidate materials for the space transportation main engine (STME) liquid hydrogen turbopump impeller. Samples of the cast alloys were HIP'ed, annealed, and machined into tensile specimens. The specimens were tested in air at ambient temperature (70 F) and also at -423 F in liquid hydrogen. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy had an average ultimate strength of 129.1 ksi at 70 F and 212.2 ksi at -423 F. The Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy had an average ultimate strength of 108.4 ksi at 70 degrees F and 185.0 ksi at -423 F. The ductility, as measured by reduction of area, for the Ti-6Al-4V averaged 15.2 percent at 70 F and 8.7 percent at -423 F, whereas for the Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy average reduction of area was 24.6 percent at 70 F and 11.7 percent at -423 F.

  9. Calorimetric investigation of precipitation kinetics in Al-Mg-Si-X(Cr,Be) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, K. D.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This study has been carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the kinetics of precipitation and the dissolution of metastable and stable phases in Al-Mg-Si-(Cr,Be) alloys which were heat treated by T6, two-step aging and RRA (retrogression and reaging) treatment. The heat flow variations by phase transformation in the as-quenched specimen were calculated from DSC thermograms obtained from heating rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20°C/min. Four exothermic peaks may be attributed to the precipitation of G.P.I zone, G.P.II zone(β″), β' and β (Mg2Si) phases, and three endothermic peaks may be attributed to the dissolution of G.P.I zone, β″ and the β' phases, respectively. The kinetic equation (dY/dt)=f(Y)koexp(-Q*/RT) can be used to study the precipitation kinetics of Ai-Mg-Si-(Cr, Be) alloys, where Q*, ko, and f(Y)are the activation energy, frequency factors and the function of Y, respectively. The kinetic parameters measured from DSC curves can be used to interpret the transformation kinetics.The formation rate of β″ phase in the Al-Mg-Si alloy increased by the small addition of Be. This is because Be increases the nucleating rate of the β″ phase due to the decrease of the matrix/β″ interface energy. By the addition of Be or Cr and Be in Al-Mg-Si alloy, G.P. zone was easily decomposed during retrogression treatment at 225°C for 3 min. Therefore, maximum hardness can be obtained by RRA (150°C/20 min→225°C/3 min→ 180°C/3O min) in Al-0.8%Mg-1.0%Si-0.05% Be and Al-0.8% Mg-l.0% Si-0.l% Cr-0.05% Be alloys owing to the high density of β″ and β' precipitates.

  10. Effect of CeO2 addition on the properties of FeAl based alloy produced by mechanical alloying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaerudini, Deni S.; Muljadi, Sardjono, P.; Tetuko, Anggito P.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.

    2013-09-01

    Iron aluminides based on FeAl is notable for their low materials cost, ease of fabrication and good corrosion, suffixation and oxidation resistance. However, the application based on these unique properties still require the development of Fe-Al based alloy since it shows some drawbacks such as a lack of high temperature strength and low ductility. To improve the mechanical properties of FeAl based alloy, ceria (CeO2) will be added to this compound. FeAl based alloy produced by the mechanical alloying (MA) technique. The developed specimens then assessed with respect to oxidation behaviour in high temperature, scale microstructure and hardness. The surface morphologies of the alloy evaluated and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The phase structures of oxide scale formed on them were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results found that the FeAl intermetallic compound containing CeO2 0.5 wt.% is less pores and CeO2 1.0 wt.% is more homogen in powder and solid form, higher hardness and increase in their resistance to oxidation behaviour in high temperature compared with another percentage of CeO2.

  11. Review of Cryogenic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Al-Li Alloys and Alloy 2219

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    8217S-N (1D -8 0 0 a a ~ * * LJ * Sea 2.24.4148. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, ksi-in1/ 2 . .t11lllll(l111ll11l11lll llllllJ lllll1ll0 Go 40 0 00 : A% ; c c c...using the Hill formula and static measurements of Noble 38 was noted by Muller et al., 4 2 but the explanation advanced, microplasticity , may not be