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Sample records for a375 human malignant

  1. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B.; da Motta, Leonardo L.; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L.; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy. PMID:27206672

  2. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B; da Motta, Leonardo L; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L; Durán, Hebe

    2016-07-05

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy.

  3. Phenethyl isothiocyanate triggers apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells through reactive oxygen species and the mitochondria-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, S-H; Hsu, M-H; Hsu, S-C; Yang, J-S; Huang, W-W; Huang, A-C; Hsiao, Y-P; Yu, C-C; Chung, J-G

    2014-03-01

    We have reported previously that phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Cytotoxic activity of PEITC towards other cancer cells such as human malignant melanoma and skin cancer cells has not been reported. In this study, the anticancer activity of PEITC towards human malignant melanoma cancer A375.S2 cells was investigated. To determine the mechanisms of PEITC inhibition of cell growth, the following end points were determined in A375.S2 cells: cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and fragmentation assays and morphological assessment of nuclear change, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) generations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, and nitric oxide and 10-N-nonyl acridine orange productions, expression and activation of caspase-3 and -9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, and cytochrome c release, apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. PEITC induced morphological changes in time- and dose-dependent manner. PEITC induced G2/M phase arrest and induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. Western blot analysis showed that PEITC promoted Bax expression and inhibited Bcl-2 expression associated with the disintegration of the outer mitochondrial membrane causing cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 cascade leading to apoptosis. We conclude that PEITC-triggered apoptotic death in A375.S2 cells occurs through ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathways.

  4. Sodium ascorbate inhibits growth via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Lai, Wan-Wen; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hsiu-Maan; Li, Te-Mao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2006-12-01

    Vitamin C has been reported to be useful in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Inconsistent effects from growth stimulation to induction of apoptosis of malignant tumor cells, however, have been reported. Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially lethal malignancy. It was reported that melanoma cells were more susceptible to ascorbate toxicity than any other tumor cells. The mechanisms accounting for ascorbate-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells, however, have remained unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sodium ascorbate on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells. A375.S2 cells were incubated with a certain range of concentrations of sodium ascorbate for various time periods. In order to examine the effects of sodium ascorbate on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and necrosis, we performed 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride assays and flow cytometry analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the mRNA levels of p53, p21, p27, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, which are associated with cell cycle S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that sodium ascorbate significantly induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the A375.S2 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The increased expressions of p53 and p21, and the decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, indicated the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase after the cells had been treated with sodium ascorbate. Induction of apoptosis involved an increase in the levels of p53, p21 and cellular Ca, and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3 before culminating in apoptosis in sodium ascorbate-treated A375.S2 cells.

  5. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Upregulation of antioxidant genes correlates with regression of melanoma malignancy and with malignant progression when downregulated

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Ariel; Notcovich, Cintia; Cerda, María B.; Klamt, Fabio; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in tumor transformation. The antioxidant system (AOS) protects cells from ROS damage. However, it is also hijacked by cancers cells to proliferate within the tumor. Thus, identifying proteins altered by redox imbalance in cancer cells is an attractive prognostic and therapeutic tool. Gene expression microarrays in A375 melanoma cells with different ROS levels after overexpressing catalase were performed. Dissimilar phenotypes by differential compensation to hydrogen peroxide scavenging were generated. The melanotic A375-A7 (A7) upregulated TYRP1, CNTN1 and UCHL1 promoting melanogenesis. The metastatic A375-G10 (G10) downregulated MTSS1 and TIAM1, proteins absent in metastasis. Moreover, differential coexpression of AOS genes (EPHX2, GSTM3, MGST1, MSRA, TXNRD3, MGST3 and GSR) was found in A7 and G10. Their increase in A7 improved its AOS ability and therefore, oxidative stress response, resembling less aggressive tumor cells. Meanwhile, their decrease in G10 revealed a disruption in the AOS and therefore, enhanced its metastatic capacity. These gene signatures, not only bring new insights into the physiopathology of melanoma, but also could be relevant in clinical prognostic to classify between non aggressive and metastatic melanomas. PMID:27206673

  6. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Upregulation of antioxidant genes correlates with regression of melanoma malignancy and with malignant progression when downregulated.

    PubMed

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L; Berenstein, Ariel; Notcovich, Cintia; Cerda, María B; Klamt, Fabio; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Durán, Hebe

    2016-07-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in tumor transformation. The antioxidant system (AOS) protects cells from ROS damage. However, it is also hijacked by cancers cells to proliferate within the tumor. Thus, identifying proteins altered by redox imbalance in cancer cells is an attractive prognostic and therapeutic tool. Gene expression microarrays in A375 melanoma cells with different ROS levels after overexpressing catalase were performed. Dissimilar phenotypes by differential compensation to hydrogen peroxide scavenging were generated. The melanotic A375-A7 (A7) upregulated TYRP1, CNTN1 and UCHL1 promoting melanogenesis. The metastatic A375-G10 (G10) downregulated MTSS1 and TIAM1, proteins absent in metastasis. Moreover, differential coexpression of AOS genes (EPHX2, GSTM3, MGST1, MSRA, TXNRD3, MGST3 and GSR) was found in A7 and G10. Their increase in A7 improved its AOS ability and therefore, oxidative stress response, resembling less aggressive tumor cells. Meanwhile, their decrease in G10 revealed a disruption in the AOS and therefore, enhanced its metastatic capacity.These gene signatures, not only bring new insights into the physiopathology of melanoma, but also could be relevant in clinical prognostic to classify between non aggressive and metastatic melanomas.

  7. Mechanisms of Tanshinone II a inhibits malignant melanoma development through blocking autophagy signal transduction in A375 cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Xianping; Liu, Baoguo; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-05-22

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the high degree of malignancy and early prone to blood and lymph node metastasis. There is not cured for MM. Tan II A has been reported to reduce cancer cell proliferation. But the mechanism by which Tan II A inhibited melanoma growth are not well characterized. We sought to explore the possible mechanism by which Tan II A regulated cell proliferation through autophagy signaling pathway in A375 cells. We tested the effects of Tan II A on melanoma A375, MV3, M14, and other human cell lines including Hacat and HUVEC cells in cell culture model. Cell proliferation was assessed by using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell migration ability melanoma A375 was monitored by using cell scratch assay. Transwell chamber experimental was performed to assess the effect of Tan II A on A375 melanoma cell invasion ability. The autophagy body was examined by using flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3)-II, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)、protein kinase B (Akt)、mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)、p70S6K1 signaling pathways were detected by using Western blotting. The effects of Tan II A on tumor progression was also examined in melanoma A375 induced tumor in mouse model. We found that Tan IIA inhibited melanoma A375, MV3, and M14 cell proliferation in dose and time dependent manner. Tan II A reduced CXCL12-induced A375 cell invasive ability and migration in a dose dependent manner. Tan IIA promoted autophagic body production and increased autophagy-associated protein beclin-1 and LC3-II expression in A375 cells. However, Tan IIA reduced the phosphorylation of PI3K, P-AKT, P-mTOR, and P-p7036k1. We also confirmed that Tan II A reduced melanoma A375 induced tumor volume and weight in mouse model. We concluded that Tan II A reduced A375 cells proliferation by activation of autophagy production, blocked PI3K- Akt - mTOR - p70S6K1

  8. Interaction of dacarbazine and imexon, in vitro and in vivo, in human A375 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Samulitis, Betty K; Dorr, Robert T; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated mechanisms of interaction between the alkyating agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the pro-oxidant, imexon, in the human A375 melanoma cell line. The effect of DTIC and imexon, alone and in combination, was evaluated for growth inhibition (MTT), radiolabeled drug uptake, cellular thiol content (HPLC), and DNA strand breaks (Comet assay). Pharmacokinetic and antitumor effects were evaluated in mice. Growth inhibition in vitro was additive with the two drugs. There was no effect on drug uptake or on the number of DNA strand breaks. There was a >75% reduction in cellular glutathione and cysteine with imexon but not DTIC. Co-administration of the two drugs in mice caused an increase in the area under the curve of both drugs, but the combination was not effective in reducing human A375 melanoma tumors in vivo. Imexon and dacarbazine show additive effects in vitro but not in vivo in human A375 melanoma cells.

  9. Norcantharidin Induces Human Melanoma A375-S2 Cell Apoptosis through Mitochondrial and Caspase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    An, Wei-wei; Wang, Min-wei; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Norcantharidin (NCTD) is the demethylated form of cantharidin, which is the active substance of mylabris. To examine the pathway of NCTD-induced A375-S2 cell death, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-dipheyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, photomicroscopical observation, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, caspase activity assay and Western blot analysis were carried out. A375-S2 cells treated with NCTD exhibited several typical characteristics of apoptosis. The inhibitory effect of NCTD on human melanoma, A375-S2 cells, was partially reversed by the inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9. The activities of caspase-3 and -9 were significantly increased after treatment with NCTD at different time. The expression of inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase was decreased in a time-dependent manner, simultaneously, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax or Bcl-xL/Bax was decreased and the expression ratio of proteins could be reversed by caspase-3 inhibitor. The expression of cytochrome c in cytosol was increased after NCTD treatment and caspase-3 inhibitor had no significant effect on the up-regulation of cytochrom c. These results suggest that NCTD induced A375-S2 cell apoptosis and the activation of caspase and mitochondrial pathway were involved in the process of NCTD-induced A375-S2 cell apoptosis. PMID:15308848

  10. Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    Si, Lingling; Yan, Xinyan; Hao, Wenjin; Ma, Xiaoyi; Ren, Huanhuan; Ren, Boxue; Li, Defang; Dong, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and JC-1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH-DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were assessed via gelatin zymography. Tumor growth in vivo was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. RT-PCR, qPCR, ELISA and western blot analysis were utilized to measure the mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that LD inhibited the proliferation of A375 and SK-MEL-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with LD, A375 cells displayed obvious apoptotic characteristics, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Pro-apoptotic protein Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were upregulated, while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated in the LD-treated cells. Meanwhile, LD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased the level of ROS. ROS production was inhibited by the co-treatment of LD and free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, LD also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Finally, intragastric administration of LD suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model of murine melanoma B16F0 cells. These results suggest that LD may be a potential drug for human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion. PMID:29565458

  11. Curcumin inhibited growth of human melanoma A375 cells via inciting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wang; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Fei-Fei; Wang, Rui; Ding, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol compound, possesses potent pharmacological properties in preventing cancers, which make it as a potential anti-cancer mediator. However, it is still unknown that whether Curcumin induced melanoma A375 cell was associated with oxidative stress. Here, we firstly found a fascinating result that Curcumin could reduce the proliferation and induced apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells. Meanwhile, IC 50 of Curcumin on A375 cells is 80μM at 48h. In addition, Curcumin caused oxidative stress through inducing further ROS burst, decreasing GSH, and wrecking mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), which were reversed by ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, MMP disruption led to the release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria and subsequently led to intracellular apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that ROS-dependent HIF-1α and its downstream proteins also play an important role on Curcumin induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results shed new lights on the therapy of melanoma that Curcumin may be a promising candidate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Farh, Lynn; Du, Ying-Chi; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2012-03-01

    Melanoma is a lethal form of skin cancer that can metastasize rapidly. While surgery and radiation therapy provide palliative therapy for local tumor growth, systemic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for metastatic melanoma. However, limited chemotherapeutic agents are available for melanoma treatment. In this study, we investigated the anti-melanoma effect of physalin B, the major active compound from a widely used herb medicine, Physalis angulata L. This study demonstrated that physalin B exhibits cytotoxicity towards v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutated melanoma A375 and A2058 cells (the IC50 values are lower than 4.6 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity is likely resulted from apoptosis since the apoptotic marker phosphatidylserine are detected immediately under physalin B treatment and apoptotic cells formation. Further examination revealed that physalin B induces expression of the proapoptotic protein NOXA within 2 h and later triggers the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in A375 cells. These results indicate that physalin B can induce apoptosis of melanoma cancer cells via the NOXA, caspase-3, and mitochondria-mediated pathways, but not of human skin fibroblast cells and myoblastic cells. Thus, physalin B has the potential to be developed as an effective chemotherapeutic lead compound for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metallic copper nanoparticles induce apoptosis in a human skin melanoma A-375 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2017-03-01

    In two earlier communications (Chatterjee et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 085103, Chatterjee et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 135101), we reported the development of a simple and unique method of synthesizing highly stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) with high antibacterial activity. Here we report on the cytotoxic potency of the NPs against cancer cells. The value of the IC50 dose of the Cu NPs against human skin cancer cell A-375 was found to be 1.71 μg ml-1 only, which was much less than values reported so far, and this concentration had no cytotoxic effect on normal white blood cells. The NPs caused (i) lowering of cell membrane rigidity, (ii) DNA degradation, (iii) chromosomal condensation, (iv) cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, (v) depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and (vi) apoptosis of cells. Cellular apoptosis occurred in the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway. This study revealed that our Cu NPs had high anticancer properties by killing tumor cells through the apoptotic pathway. Since this particle has high antibacterial activity, our Cu NPs might be developed in future as a dual action drug—anticancer as well as antibacterial.

  14. Detention of copper by sulfur nanoparticles inhibits the proliferation of A375 malignant melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yikai; Zheng, Shanyuan

    Selective induction of cell death or growth inhibition of cancer cells is the future of chemotherapy. Clinical trials have found that cancer tissues are enriched with copper. Based on this finding, many copper-containing compounds and complexes have been designed to “copper” cancer cells using copper as bait. However, recent studies have demonstrated that copper boosts tumor development, and copper deprivation from serum was shown to effectively inhibit the promotion of cancer. Mechanistically, copper is an essential cofactor for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular activating kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), a central molecule in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Therefore, depleting copper from cancer cellsmore » by directly sequestering copper has a wider field for research and potential for combination therapy. Based on the affinity between sulfur and copper, we therefore designed sulfur nanoparticles (Nano-S) that detain copper, achieving tumor growth restriction. We found that spherical Nano-S could effectively bind copper and form a tighter surficial structure. Moreover, this Nano-S detention of copper effectively inhibited the proliferation of A375 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with minimum toxicity to normal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Nano-S triggered inactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway followed by inhibition of the proliferation of the A375 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, lower Nano-S concentrations and shorter exposure stimulated the expression of a copper transporter as compensation, which further increased the cellular uptake and anticancer activities of cisplatin. Collectively, our results highlight the potential of Nano-S as an anticancer agent or adjuvant through its detention of copper. - Highlights: • Nano-S selectively inhibited the mitosis of A375 and MCF-7 cells by depleting copper. • Nano-S inactivated MEK/ERK pathway through the detention of copper. • Nano-S improved the cellular uptake and anticancer

  15. Selenium nanoparticles fabricated in Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide solutions induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zheng, Wenjie; Bai, Yan; Huang, Liang

    2008-11-15

    Selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) is a novel Se species with novel biological activities and low toxicity. In the present study, we demonstrated a simple method for synthesis of size-controlled Nano-Se by adding Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides to the redox system of selenite and ascorbic acid. A panel of four human cancer cell lines was shown to be susceptible to Nano-Se, with IC(50) values ranging from 3.0 to 14.1 microM. Treatment of A375 human melanoma cells with the Nano-Se resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms found that Nano-Se treatment triggered apoptotic cell death in A375 cells with the involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that Nano-Se may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for human cancers, especially melanoma cancer.

  16. Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of lipophilic vitamins on human melanoma A375 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Mai; Arai, Mariko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The effects of six lipophilic vitamins: tretinoin (ATRA), vitamin D(3) (VD(3)), VE, VK(1), VK(3), and VK(5) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human A375 melanoma cells were investigated. VD(3), VK(3), and VK(5) were found to inhibit cell proliferation significantly at concentration ranges of 10-100 μmol/L (p<0.01), while the other vitamins did not show inhibitory effects at 100 μmol/L. VK(3) and VK(5) showed the strongest effects with IC(50) values of less than 10 μmol/L. Dacarbazine slightly inhibited the proliferation of A375 cells at a concentration range of 25-100 μmol/L, but the effects were not statistically significant. VK(3) and VK(5) increased annexin-V positive apoptotic cells, as well as activating caspase-3, in A375 cells. Our findings showed that VD(3), VK(3,) and VK(5) inhibited the growth of dacarbazine resistant human melanoma cells, while ATRA, VE, and VK(1) had little effect on the cell growth. The effects of VK(3) and VK(5) were observed at concentrations lower than 10 μmol/L, which are suggested to have resulted from apoptosis-induction in the melanoma cells.

  17. Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Si, Lingling; Yan, Xinyan; Hao, Wenjin; Ma, Xiaoyi; Ren, Huanhuan; Ren, Boxue; Li, Defang; Dong, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V‑FITC/PI staining and JC‑1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH‑DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP‑2 and MMP‑9) were assessed via gelatin zymography. Tumor growth in vivo was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. RT‑PCR, qPCR, ELISA and western blot analysis were utilized to measure the mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that LD inhibited the proliferation of A375 and SK‑MEL‑5 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner. After treatment with LD, A375 cells displayed obvious apoptotic characteristics, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Pro‑apoptotic protein Bax, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were upregulated, while anti‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2 was downregulated in the LD‑treated cells. Meanwhile, LD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased the level of ROS. ROS production was inhibited by the co‑treatment of LD and free radical scavenger N‑acetyl‑cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, LD also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation of MMP‑9 and MMP‑2. Finally, intragastric administration of LD suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model of murine melanoma B16F0 cells. These results suggest that LD may be a potential drug for human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion.

  18. Antihyperglycemic drug Gymnema sylvestre also shows anticancer potentials in human melanoma A375 cells via reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sikdar, Sourav; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves is used as a potent antidiabetic drug in various systems of alternative medicine, including homeopathy. The present study was aimed at examining if GS also had anticancer potentials, and if it had, to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. We initially tested possible anticancer potential of GS on A375 cells (human skin melanoma) through MTT assay and determined cytotoxicity levels in A375 and normal liver cells; we then thoroughly studied its apoptotic effects on A375 cells through protocols such as Hoechst 33258, H2DCFDA, and rhodamine 123 staining and conducted ELISA for cytochrome c, caspase 3, and PARP activity levels; we determined the mRNA level expression of cytochrome c, caspase 3, Bcl2, Bax, PARP, ICAD, and EGFR signaling genes through semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and conducted Western blot analysis of caspase 3 and PARP. We also analyzed cell cycle events, determined reactive oxygen species accumulation, measured annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine 123 intensity by flow cytometry. Compared with both normal liver cells and drug-untreated A375, the mortality of GS-treated A375 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GS induced nuclear DNA fragmentation and showed an increased level of mRNA expression of apoptotic signal related genes cytochrome c, caspase 3, PARP, Bax, and reduced expression level of ICAD, EGFR, and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. Overall results indicate GS to have significant anticancer effect on A375 cells apart from its reported antidiabetic effect, indicating possibility of its palliative use in patients with symptoms of both the diseases.

  19. Hemoglobin enhances tissue factor expression on human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, F A; Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Meyer, T; Biggerstaff, J; Desai, H; Francis, J L

    2001-04-01

    Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that complexes with factor VII/activated factor VII to initiate blood coagulation. TF may be expressed on the surface of various cells including monocytes and endothelial cells. Over-expression of TF in human tumor cell lines promotes metastasis. We recently showed that hemoglobin (Hb) forms a specific complex with TF purified from human malignant melanoma cells and enhances its procoagulant activity (PCA). To further study this interaction, we examined the effect of Hb on the expression of TF on human malignant (TF+) cells and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells. Human melanoma A375 and J82 bladder carcinoma cells, which express TF at moderate and relatively high levels, respectively, were incubated with varying concentrations (0-1.5 mg/ml) of Hb. After washing, cells were analyzed for Hb binding and TF expression using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Hb bound to the cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased both TF expression and PCA. The human A375 malignant melanoma cells incubated with Hb (1 mg/ml) expressed up to six times more TF antigen than cells without Hb. This increase in TF expression and PCA of intact cells incubated with Hb was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (P < 0.01). An increase in total cellular TF antigen content was demonstrated by specific immunoassay. In contrast, Hb (5 mg/ml) did not induce TF expression and PCA on KG1 cells as determined by flow cytometry and TF (FXAA) activity. We conclude that Hb specifically binds to TF-bearing malignant cells and increases their PCA. This effect seems to be at least partly due to de novo synthesis of TF and increased surface expression. However, the exact mechanism by which Hb binds and upregulates TF expression remains to be determined.

  20. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S.

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. PMID:26334881

  1. 9-AAA inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human melanoma A375 and rat prostate adenocarcinoma AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines but does not affect the growth and viability of normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Korohoda, Włodzimierz; Hapek, Anna; Pietrzak, Monika; Ryszawy, Damian; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2016-11-01

    The present study found that, similarly to 5-fluorouracil, low concentrations (1-10 µM) of 9-aminoacridine (9-AAA) inhibited the growth of the two rat prostate cancer AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines and the human melanoma A375 cell line. However, at the same concentrations, 9-AAA had no effect on the growth and apoptosis of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). The differences between the cellular responses of the AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines, which differ in malignancy, were found to be relatively small compared with the differences between normal HSFs and the cancer cell lines. Visible effects on the cell growth and survival of tumor cell lines were observed after 24-48 h of treatment with 9-AAA, and increased over time. The inhibition of cancer cell growth was found to be due to the gradually increasing number of cells dying by apoptosis, which was observed using two methods, direct counting and FlowSight analysis. Simultaneously, cell motile activity decreased to the same degree in cancer and normal cells within the first 8 h of incubation in the presence of 9-AAA. The results presented in the current study suggest that short-lasting tests for potential anticancer substances can be insufficient; which may result in cell type-dependent differences in the responses of cells to tested compounds that act with a delay being overlooked. The observed differences in responses between normal human fibroblasts and cancer cells to 9-AAA show the requirement for additional studies to be performed simultaneously on differently reacting cancer and normal cells, to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences.

  2. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. IL-1-induced ERK1/2 activation up-regulates p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} protein by inhibition of degradation via ubiquitin-independent pathway in human melanoma cells A375

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Itoh, Saotomo

    2010-02-12

    IL-1 inhibits the proliferation of human melanoma cells A375 by arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which accompanies the increase of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} (p21) protein. Here, we demonstrate that IL-1 induces the stabilization of p21 protein via ERK1/2 pathway. The degradation of p21 was inhibited by IL-1, however the ubiquitination level of p21 was not affected. In addition, the degradation of non-ubiquitinated form of lysine less mutant p21-K6R was also inhibited by IL-1, suggesting that IL-1 stabilized p21 protein via ubiquitin-independent pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of p21 protein degradation was prevented by a selective inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway, PD98059.more » These results suggest that IL-1-induced ERK1/2 activation leads to the up-regulation of p21 by inhibiting degradation via ubiquitin-independent pathway in human melanoma cells A375.« less

  4. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of human lactoferricin derived antitumor peptide R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on human malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Sabrina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Meditz, Katharina; Preishuber-Pflügl, Julia; Grissenberger, Sarah; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    Di-peptides derived from the human host defense peptide lactoferricin were previously described to specifically interact with the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylserine exposed by cancer cells. In this study one further derivative, namely R-DIM-P-LF11-334 is shown to exhibit even increased cancer toxicity in vitro and in vivo while non-neoplastic cells are not harmed. In liposomal model systems composed of phosphatidylserine mimicking cancerous and phosphatidylcholine mimicking non-cancerous membranes the specific interaction with the cancer marker PS was confirmed by specific induction of membrane perturbation and permeabilization in presence of the peptide. In vitro studies with cell lines of human malignant melanoma, such as A375, or primary cells of human melanoma metastases to the brain, as MUG Mel1, and non-neoplastic human dermal fibroblasts NHDF revealed high cytotoxic effect of R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on melanoma cells of A375 and MUG Mel1, whereas only minor effect on the dermal fibroblasts NHDF was observed, yielding an about 20-fold killing-specificity for A375 and MUG-Mel1. The LC50 values for melanoma A375 and MUG Mel1 were about 10 μM. Analysis of secondary structure of the peptide revealed an increase in the proportion of β-sheets exclusively in presence of the cancer mimic. Stability studies further indicated a potential adequate stability in blood or under stringent conditions. Importantly the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells was also proven in vivo in mouse xenografts of human melanoma, where peptide treatment induced strong tumor regression and in average a tumor area reduction of 85% compared to tumors of control mice without peptide treatment. PMID:29069749

  5. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of human lactoferricin derived antitumor peptide R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Meditz, Katharina; Preishuber-Pflügl, Julia; Grissenberger, Sarah; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2017-09-22

    Di-peptides derived from the human host defense peptide lactoferricin were previously described to specifically interact with the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylserine exposed by cancer cells. In this study one further derivative, namely R-DIM-P-LF11-334 is shown to exhibit even increased cancer toxicity in vitro and in vivo while non-neoplastic cells are not harmed. In liposomal model systems composed of phosphatidylserine mimicking cancerous and phosphatidylcholine mimicking non-cancerous membranes the specific interaction with the cancer marker PS was confirmed by specific induction of membrane perturbation and permeabilization in presence of the peptide. In vitro studies with cell lines of human malignant melanoma, such as A375, or primary cells of human melanoma metastases to the brain, as MUG Mel1, and non-neoplastic human dermal fibroblasts NHDF revealed high cytotoxic effect of R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on melanoma cells of A375 and MUG Mel1, whereas only minor effect on the dermal fibroblasts NHDF was observed, yielding an about 20-fold killing-specificity for A375 and MUG-Mel1. The LC 50 values for melanoma A375 and MUG Mel1 were about 10 μM. Analysis of secondary structure of the peptide revealed an increase in the proportion of β-sheets exclusively in presence of the cancer mimic. Stability studies further indicated a potential adequate stability in blood or under stringent conditions. Importantly the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells was also proven in vivo in mouse xenografts of human melanoma, where peptide treatment induced strong tumor regression and in average a tumor area reduction of 85% compared to tumors of control mice without peptide treatment.

  6. PTEN: Multiple Functions in Human Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Milella, Michele; Falcone, Italia; Conciatori, Fabiana; Cesta Incani, Ursula; Del Curatolo, Anais; Inzerilli, Nicola; Nuzzo, Carmen M A; Vaccaro, Vanja; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Ciuffreda, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors.

  7. PTEN: Multiple Functions in Human Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Michele; Falcone, Italia; Conciatori, Fabiana; Cesta Incani, Ursula; Del Curatolo, Anais; Inzerilli, Nicola; Nuzzo, Carmen M. A.; Vaccaro, Vanja; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Ciuffreda, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors. PMID:25763354

  8. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in human malignant and non-malignant thyroid tumours.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J A; Neelamohan, R; Suthagar, E; Vengatesh, G; Jayakumar, J; Chandrasekaran, M; Banu, S K; Aruldhas, M M

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid epithelial cells produce moderate amounts of reactive oxygen species that are physiologically required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Nevertheless, when they are produced in excessive amounts, they may become toxic. The present study is aimed to compare the lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-protein thiols (reduced glutathione (GSH)) in human thyroid tissues with malignant and non-malignant disorders. The study used human thyroid tissues and blood samples from 157 women (147 diseased and 10 normal). Thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were estimated by standard methods. LPO significantly increased in most of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC: 82.9%) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA: 72.9%) tissues, whilst in a majority of nodular goitre (69.2%) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT: 73.7%) thyroid tissues, it remained unaltered. GSH increased in PTC (55.3%), remained unaltered in FTA (97.3%) and all other goiter samples studied. SOD increased in PTC (51.1%) and all other malignant thyroid tissues studied. CAT remained unaltered in PTC (95.7%), FTA (97.3%) and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. GPx increased in PTC (63.8%), all other malignant thyroid tissues and remained unaltered in many of the FTA (91.9%) tissues and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. In the case of non-malignant thyroid tumours, the oxidant-antioxidant balance was undisturbed, whilst in malignant tumours the balance was altered, and the change in r value observed in the LPO and SOD pairs between normal and PTC tissues and also in many pairs with multi-nodular goitre (MNG)/toxic MNG tissues may be used as a marker to differentiate/detect different malignant/non-malignant thyroid tumours. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Evaluation of Melanogenesis in A-375 Cells in the Presence of DMSO and Analysis of Pyrolytic Profile of Isolated Melanin

    PubMed Central

    Chodurek, Ewa; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Orchel, Joanna; Kurkiewicz, Sławomir; Gawlik, Natalia; Dzierżewicz, Zofia; Stępień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The increase of a skin malignant melanoma (melanoma malignum) incidence in the world has been observed in recent years. The tumour, especially in advanced stadium with metastases, is highly resistant to conventional treatment. One of the strategies is to modulate melanogenesis using chemical compounds. In this study, the processes of differentiation and melanogenesis induced by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in human melanoma cells (A-375) were investigated. Natural melanin isolated from A-375 melanoma cell line treated with 0.3% DMSO was analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) method. The products derived from pheomelanin have not been stated in the pyrolytic profile of analyzed melanin. Within all products derived from eumelanins, 1,2-benzenediol has been predominated. It has been shown that in the melanoma cells stimulated with 0.3% and 1% DMSO, the increase of transcriptional activity of the tyrosinase gene took place. It was accompanied by the rise of tyrosinase activity and an accumulation of melanin in the cells. The better knowledge about the structure of melanins can contribute to establish the uniform criteria of malignant melanoma morbidity risk. PMID:22654640

  10. Intercellular crosstalk in human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Szabo, Pavol; Kodet, Ondřej; Strnad, Hynek; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, Lukáš; Krejčí, Eliška; Naňka, Ondřej; Šedo, Aleksi; Smetana, Karel

    2017-05-01

    Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing globally. While the initial stages of tumors can be easily treated by a simple surgery, the therapy of advanced stages is rather limited. Melanoma cells spread rapidly through the body of a patient to form multiple metastases. Consequently, the survival rate is poor. Therefore, emphasis in melanoma research is given on early diagnosis and development of novel and more potent therapeutic options. The malignant melanoma is arising from melanocytes, cells protecting mitotically active keratinocytes against damage caused by UV light irradiation. The melanocytes originate in the neural crest and consequently migrate to the epidermis. The relationship between the melanoma cells, the melanocytes, and neural crest stem cells manifests when the melanoma cells are implanted to an early embryo: they use similar migratory routes as the normal neural crest cells. Moreover, malignant potential of these melanoma cells is overdriven in this experimental model, probably due to microenvironmental reprogramming. This observation demonstrates the crucial role of the microenvironment in melanoma biology. Indeed, malignant tumors in general represent complex ecosystems, where multiple cell types influence the growth of genetically mutated cancer cells. This concept is directly applicable to the malignant melanoma. Our review article focuses on possible strategies to modify the intercellular crosstalk in melanoma that can be employed for therapeutic purposes.

  11. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  12. Tumor initiation in human malignant melanoma and potential cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H

    2010-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment.

  13. Tumor Initiation in Human Malignant Melanoma and Potential Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment. PMID:20184545

  14. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, Dicitrinone B, Induces A375 Cell Apoptosis through the ROS-Related Caspase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Gong, Mei-Wei; Peng, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Tong; Ying, Min-Gang; Zheng, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Qin-Ying; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Dicitrinone B, a rare carbon-bridged citrinin dimer, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium citrinum. It was reported to have antitumor effects on tumor cells previously; however, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we found that dicitrinone B inhibited the proliferation of multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell, A375, was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate analysis results showed that dicitrinone B significantly induced A375 cell apoptosis. Subsequent observation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction revealed that the apoptosis induced by dicitrinone B may be triggered by over-producing ROS. Further studies indicated that the apoptosis was associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways under the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Our data for the first time showed that dicitrinone B inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, compared with the first-line chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), dicitrinone B showed much more potent anticancer efficacy, suggesting that it might serve as a potential antitumor agent. PMID:24699111

  15. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  16. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CYR61 suppresses growth of human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Qilin; Wang, Beiqing; Li, Ningli; Chen, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/CYR61) is an important marker of proliferation and metastasis in malignant melanoma, making it a potential target for melanoma treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of CRY61 in Chinese patients with malignant melanoma with its expression in patients with other skin tumors or with no skin pathological conditions. We examined the effects of anti-human CYR61 monoclonal antibody on proliferation and evaluated the changes in CYR61 expression and cell proliferation in response to treatment with either epirubicin or interferon (IFN)-α. CYR61 was expressed at lower levels in patients with malignant melanoma than in patients with other skin tumors or with no pathology. Following the treatment of B16 cells with epirubicin and IFN-α, CYR61 levels increased, cell growth was inhibited, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression decreased. Thus, CYR61 could become a therapeutic target for malignant melanoma patients with high CYR61 expression.

  18. CD147-targeting siRNA inhibits cell-matrix adhesion of human malignant melanoma cells by phosphorylating focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishibaba, Rie; Higashi, Yuko; Su, Juan; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    CD147/basigin, highly expressed on the surface of malignant tumor cells including malignant melanoma (MM) cells, plays a critical role in the invasiveness and metastasis of MM. Metastasis is an orchestrated process comprised of multiple steps including adhesion and invasion. Integrin, a major adhesion molecule, co-localizes with CD147/basigin on the cell surface. Using the human MM cell line A375 that highly expresses CD147/basigin, we investigated whether CD147/basigin is involved in adhesion in association with integrin. CD147/basigin was knocked-down using siRNA targeting CD147 to elucidate the role of CD147/basigin. Cell adhesion was evaluated by adhesion assay on matrix-coated plates. The localization of integrin was inspected under a confocal microscope and the expression and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream kinase of integrin, were examined by western blot analysis. Silencing of CD147/basigin in A375 cells by siRNA induced the phosphorylation of FAK at Y397. Integrin identified on the surface of parental cells was distributed in a speckled fashion in the cytoplasm of CD147 knockdown cells, resulting in morphological changes from a round to a polygonal shape with pseudopodial protrusions. Silencing of CD147/basigin in A375 cells clearly weakened their adhesiveness to collagen I and IV. Our results suggest that CD147/basigin regulates the adhesion of MM cells to extracellular matrices and of integrin β1 signaling via the phosphorylation of FAK. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Phenotypes and Karyotypes of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Relan, Vandana; Morrison, Leanne; Parsonson, Kylie; Clarke, Belinda E.; Duhig, Edwina E.; Windsor, Morgan N.; Matar, Kevin S.; Naidoo, Rishendran; Passmore, Linda; McCaul, Elizabeth; Courtney, Deborah; Yang, Ian A.; Fong, Kwun M.; Bowman, Rayleen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. Methods Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. Results Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30–72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5–17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. Conclusion These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of mesothelioma during

  20. AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2018-01-18

    The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

  1. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  2. Cudraflavone C Induces Apoptosis of A375.S2 Melanoma Cells through Mitochondrial ROS Production and MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Feng-Lin; Ko, Horng-Huey; Li, Shu-Yu; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Hsu, Lee-Fen

    2017-07-13

    Melanoma is the most malignant form of skin cancer and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic effects of cudraflavone C on A375.S2 melanoma cells and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in apoptosis. Cell viability was determined using the MTT and real-time cytotoxicity assays. Flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis was performed after staining the cells with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using the JC-1 assay. Cellular ROS production was measured using the CellROX assay, while mitochondrial ROS production was evaluated using the MitoSOX assay. It was observed that cudraflavone C inhibited growth in A375.S2 melanoma cells, and promoted apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway mediated by increased mitochondrial ROS production. In addition, cudraflavone C induced phosphorylation of MAPKs (p38, ERK, and JNK) and up-regulated the expression of apoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bad, Bid, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, caspase-9, and caspase-3/7) in A375.S2 cells. Pretreatment of A375.S2 cells with MitoTEMPOL (a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) attenuated the phosphorylation of MAPKs, expression of apoptotic proteins, and the overall progression of apoptosis. In summary, cudraflavone C induced apoptosis in A375.S2 melanoma cells by increasing mitochondrial ROS production; thus, activating p38, ERK, and JNK; and increasing the expression of apoptotic proteins. Therefore, cudraflavone C may be regarded as a potential form of treatment for malignant melanoma.

  3. Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Larin, Alexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Saji, Motoyasu; Bauer, Andrew; Yim, Kevin; Hemming, Val; Vasko, Vasyl

    2010-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA. Confirmatory studies included direct sequencing, analysis of viral gene expression, and activation of viral-inducible signalling pathways. Expression of viral entry receptor nectin-1 was examined in human samples and in cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. HSV DNA was detected in 43/109 (39.4%) examined samples. HSV capsid protein expression correlated with HSV DNA status. HSV-positive tumours were characterized by activation of virus-inducible signalling such as interferon-beta expression and nuclear NFkappaB expression. Lymphocyte infiltration and oncocytic cellular features were common in HSV-positive tumours. HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer. Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines. Nectin-1 expression in cancer cells correlated with their susceptibility to HSV. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer. During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells.

  4. Mechanical deterioration underlies malignant behavior of aneurysmal human ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Koullias, George; Modak, Raj; Tranquilli, Maryann; Korkolis, Dimitris P; Barash, Paul; Elefteriades, John A

    2005-09-01

    The human ascending aorta becomes markedly prone to rupture and dissection at a diameter of 6 cm. The mechanical substrate for this malignant behavior is unknown. This investigation applied engineering analysis to human ascending aortic aneurysms and compared their structural characteristics with those of normal aortas. We measured the mechanical characteristics of the aorta by direct epiaortic echocardiography at the time of surgery in 33 patients with ascending aortic aneurysm undergoing aortic replacement and in 20 control patients with normal aortas undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Six parameters were measured in all patients: aortic diameter in systole and diastole, aortic wall thickness in systole and diastole, and blood pressure in systole and diastole. These were used to calculate mechanical characteristics of the aorta from standard equations. Aortic distensibility reflects the elastic qualities of the aorta. Aortic wall stress reflects the disrupting force experienced within the aortic wall. Incremental elastic modulus indicates loss of elasticity reserve. Aortic distensibility falls to extremely low levels as aortic dimension rises toward 6 cm (3.02 mm Hg(-1) for small aortas versus 1.45 mm Hg(-1) for aortas larger than 5 cm, P < .05). Aortic wall stress rises to 157.8 kPa for the aneurysmal aorta, compared with 92.5 kPa for normal aortas. For 6-cm aortas at pressures of 200 mm Hg or more, wall stress rises to 857 kPa, nearly exceeding the known maximal tensile strength of human aneurysmal aortic wall. Incremental elastic modulus deteriorates (1.93 +/- 0.88 MPa vs 1.18 +/- 0.21 MPa, P < .05) in aneurysmal aortas relative to that in normal aortas. The mechanical properties of the aneurysmal aorta deteriorate dramatically as the aorta enlarges, reaching critical levels associated with rupture by a diameter of 6 cm. This mechanical deterioration provides an explanation in engineering terms for the malignant clinical behavior (rupture and

  5. Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Mamta; Sundaram, Shanthy; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2009-06-25

    Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck mucosal lesions include oral-genital contact, more than one sexual partner and perinatal transmission of HPV to the neonatal child. The increase in prevalence of HPV infection in these lesions may be due to wider acceptance of oral sex among teenagers and adults as this is perceived to be a form of safe sex. The prevalence of HPV in benign lesions as well as malignancies has been assessed by many techniques. Among these, the polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive method. Review of literature reveals that HPV may be a risk factor for malignancies, but not in all cases. For confirmation of the role of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, large population studies are necessary in an assortment of clinical settings. Prophylactic vaccination against high-risk HPV types eventually may prevent a significant number of cervical carcinomas. Of the two vaccines currently available, Gardasil (Merck & Co., Inc.) protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine, Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) protects against HPV types 16 and 18 only. However, the HPV vaccine has, to the best of our knowledge, not been tried in head and neck carcinoma. The role of HPV in etiopathogenesis, prevalence in benign and malignant lesions of this area and vaccination strategies are briefly reviewed here.

  6. Reduced GNG2 expression levels in mouse malignant melanomas and human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Hiro; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein is composed of a Gα-subunit and a Gβγ-dimer. Previous studies have revealed that Gβγ-dimers including the Gγ2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. At present, however, there is no information on the expression level of Gng2/GNG2 alone in any kind of tumor. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analysis in a benign melanocytic tumor and a malignant melanoma from RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Gng2 transcript expression levels in a malignant melanoma were less than 1/10 of the level in a benign tumor. The difference in Gng2 transcript expression levels between benign tumors and malignant melanomas was greatest among all of the G protein γ subunits examined in this study. Moreover, protein expression levels of Gng2 were decreased in malignant melanomas compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. Analysis of human malignant melanomas also showed reduced GNG2 protein expression levels in five human malignant melanoma cell lines compared with the expression levels in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM). Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Gng2/GNG2 expression levels are reduced in malignant melanoma, suggesting that GNG2 could be a novel biomarker for malignant melanoma. PMID:22679562

  7. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun

    2006-04-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferativemore » capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.« less

  8. Colony formation by normal and malignant human B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, C. A.; Minden, M. D.; Howatson, A. F.; McCulloch, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described that permits colony formation in culture by B lymphocytes from normal blood and from blood, marrow or lymph nodes of patients with myeloma or lymphoma. The method depends on: (1) exhaustively depleting cell suspensions of T lymphocytes, (2) a medium conditioned by T lymphocytes in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-TCM), and (3) irradiated autologous or homologous T lymphocytes. Under these conditions the assay is linear. Cellular development of B lymphocytes can be followed; differentiation to plasma cells is seen in cultures of cells from normal individuals and myeloma patients, but not lymphoma patients. Malignant B lymphocytes in culture produced immunoglobulin of the class identified in the patient's blood, or in freshly obtained cells. We conclude that the assay is suitable for studying the growth, differentiation and regulation of normal and malignant B lymphocytes in culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6968572

  9. [Primary culture of human malignant meningioma cells and its intracranial orthotopic transplantation in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Hu, Mei-Xin; Liu, Jia-le; Chen, Xuan-Bo; Xu, An-Qi; Shu, Song-Ren; Wang, Chao-Hu; Liu, Yi

    2018-03-20

    To obtain stable primary cultures of human malignant meningioma cells and establish an intracranial in-situ tumor model in nude mice. Ten surgical specimens of highly suspected malignant meningioma were obtained with postoperative pathological confirmation. Primary malignant meningioma cells were cultured from the tissues using a modified method and passaged. After identification with cell immunofluorescence, the cultured cells were inoculated into the right parietal lobe of 6 nude mice using stereotaxic apparatus and also transplanted subcutaneously in another 6 nude mice. The nude mice were executed after 6 weeks, and HE staining and immunohistochmistry were used to detect tumor growth and the invasion of the adjacent brain tissues. The primary malignant meningioma cells were cultured successfully, and postoperative pathology reported anaplastic malignant meningioma. Cell immunofluorescence revealed positivity for vimentin and EMA in the cells, which showed a S-shaped growth curve in culture. Flow cytometry revealed a cell percentage in the Q3 area of (95.99∓2.58)%. Six weeks after transplantation, tumor nodules occurred in the subcutaneous tumor group, and the nude mice bearing the in situ tumor showed obvious body weight loss. The xenografts in both groups contained a mean of (36∓5.35)% cells expressing Ki-67, and the intracranial in situ tumor showed obvious invasion of the adjacent peripheral brain tissues. We obtained stable primary cultures of malignant meningioma cells and successfully established a nude mouse model bearing in situ human malignant meningioma.

  10. 'Decoy' and 'non-decoy' functions of DcR3 promote malignant potential in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Toda, Mitsunori; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Kenta; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Onishi, Yasuo; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2013-09-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a 'decoy' for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has 'non-decoy' functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH.

  11. CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qianqian; Yang, Gang; Zheng, Lianfang; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin–proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies. PMID:27007160

  12. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715; Cai, Shaoxi, E-mail: sxcai@cqu.edu.cn

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA)more » selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.« less

  13. Induction of apoptosis in melanoma A375 cells by a chloroform fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) seeds involves NF-kappaB, p53 and Bcl-2-controlled mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Looi, Chung Yeng; Moharram, Bushra; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Wong, Yi Li; Leong, Kok Hoong; Mohamad, Khalit; Arya, Aditya; Wong, Won Fen; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2013-07-10

    activates caspase-9 and downstream caspase-3/7, resulting in DNA fragmentation and up-regulation of p53 in melanoma cells. Moreover, CACF prevented TNF-α-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation, which further committed A375 cells toward apoptosis. Together, our findings suggest CACF as a potential therapeutic agent against human melanoma malignancy.

  14. Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    synthesome has been extensively demonstrated to carry out full length DNA replication in vitro, and to accurately depict the DNA replication process as it...occurs in the intact cell. By examining the fidelity of the DNA replication process carried out by the DNA synthesome from a number of breast cell types...we have demonstrated for the first time, that the cellular DNA replication machinery of malignant human breast cells is significantly more error-prone than that of non- malignant human breast cells.

  15. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan

    2017-11-01

    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p < 0.05). In malignant ascites that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive, the rate of positivity for ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p < 0.05). In conclusion, The detection of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that

  16. Combination of Vaccine-Strain Measles and Mumps Viruses Enhances Oncolytic Activity against Human Solid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Son, Ho Anh; Zhang, LiFeng; Cuong, Bui Khac; Van Tong, Hoang; Cuong, Le Duy; Hang, Ngo Thu; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Yamamoto, Naoki; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2018-02-07

    Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, MM combination significantly improves the treatment of human solid malignancies.

  17. Combined cord blood and bone marrow transplantation from the same human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor for children with malignant and non-malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, Luciana; Volt, Fernanda; Cunha, Renato; Locatelli, Franco; Zecca, Marco; Yesilipek, Akif; Caniglia, Maurizio; Güngör, Tayfun; Aksoylar, Serap; Fagioli, Franca; Bertrand, Yves; Addari, Maria Carmen; de la Fuente, Josu; Winiarski, Jacek; Biondi, Andrea; Sengeloev, Henrik; Badell, Isabel; Mellgren, Karin; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Sedlacek, Petr; Vora, Ajay; Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) from an human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling can be used for transplantation of patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, the low cellular content of most UCB units represents a limitation to this approach. An option to increase cell dose is to harvest bone marrow (BM) cells from the same donor and infuse them along with the UCB. We studied 156 children who received such a combined graft between 1992 and 2011. Median age was 7 years and 78% of patients (n = 122) were transplanted for non-malignant diseases, mainly haemoglobinopathies. Acute leukaemia (n = 26) was the most frequent malignant diagnosis. Most patients (91%) received myeloablative conditioning. Median donor age was 1·7 years, median infused nucleated cell dose was 24·4 × 10(7) /kg and median follow-up was 41 months. Sixty-days neutrophil recovery occurred in 96% of patients at a median of 17 d. The probabilities of grade-II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 19% and 10%, respectively. Four-year overall survival was 90% (68% malignant; 97% non-malignant diseases) with 3% probability of death. In conclusion, combined UCB and BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor is an effective treatment for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders with high overall survival and low incidence of GVHD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nanomelatonin triggers superior anticancer functionality in a human malignant glioblastoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Dev, Atul; Kaundal, Babita; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Karmakar, Surajit

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin (MEL) has promising medicinal value as an anticancer agent in a variety of malignancies, but there are difficulties in achieving a therapeutic dose due to its short half-life, low bioavailability, poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. In this study chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to overcome the therapeutic challenges of melatonin and to improve its anticancer efficacy. Characterization of the melatonin-loaded chitosan (MEL-CS) nanoformulation was performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. In vitro release, cellular uptake and efficacy studies were tested for their enhanced anticancer potential in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. Confocal studies revealed higher cellular uptake of MEL-CS nanoparticles and enhanced anticancer efficacy in human malignant glioblastoma cancer cells than in healthy non-malignant human HEK293T cells in mono- and co-culture models. Our study has shown for the first time that MEL-CS nanocomposites are therapeutically more effective as compared to free MEL at inducing functional anticancer efficacy in the human brain tumour U87MG cell line.

  19. From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2004-04-01

    The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

  20. Acid Ceramidase Expression Modulates the Sensitivity of A375 Melanoma Cells to Dacarbazine*

    PubMed Central

    Bedia, Carmen; Casas, Josefina; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Fabriàs, Gemma; Levade, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the treatment of choice for metastatic melanoma, but its response in patients remains very poor. Ceramide has been shown to be a death effector and to play an important role in regulating cancer cell growth upon chemotherapy. Among ceramidases, the enzymes that catabolize ceramide, acid ceramidase (aCDase) has been implicated in cancer progression. Here we show that DTIC elicits a time- and dose-dependent decrease of aCDase activity and an increase of intracellular ceramide levels in human A375 melanoma cells. The loss of enzyme activity occurred as a consequence of reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of cathepsin B-mediated degradation of aCDase. These events preceded autophagic features and loss of cell viability. Down-regulation of acid but not neutral or alkaline ceramidase 2 resulted in elevated levels of ceramide and sensitization to the toxic effects of DTIC. Conversely, inducible overexpression of acid but not neutral ceramidase reduced ceramide levels and conferred resistance to DTIC. In conclusion, we report that increased levels of ceramide, due to enhanced degradation of aCDase, are in part responsible for the cell death effects of DTIC. These results suggest that down-regulation of aCDase alone or in combination with DTIC may represent a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:21700700

  1. Acid ceramidase expression modulates the sensitivity of A375 melanoma cells to dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Bedia, Carmen; Casas, Josefina; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Fabriàs, Gemma; Levade, Thierry

    2011-08-12

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the treatment of choice for metastatic melanoma, but its response in patients remains very poor. Ceramide has been shown to be a death effector and to play an important role in regulating cancer cell growth upon chemotherapy. Among ceramidases, the enzymes that catabolize ceramide, acid ceramidase (aCDase) has been implicated in cancer progression. Here we show that DTIC elicits a time- and dose-dependent decrease of aCDase activity and an increase of intracellular ceramide levels in human A375 melanoma cells. The loss of enzyme activity occurred as a consequence of reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of cathepsin B-mediated degradation of aCDase. These events preceded autophagic features and loss of cell viability. Down-regulation of acid but not neutral or alkaline ceramidase 2 resulted in elevated levels of ceramide and sensitization to the toxic effects of DTIC. Conversely, inducible overexpression of acid but not neutral ceramidase reduced ceramide levels and conferred resistance to DTIC. In conclusion, we report that increased levels of ceramide, due to enhanced degradation of aCDase, are in part responsible for the cell death effects of DTIC. These results suggest that down-regulation of aCDase alone or in combination with DTIC may represent a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  2. Dihydroxyacetone induces G2/M arrest and apoptotic cell death in A375P melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly R; Granberry, Molley; Tan, Marcus C B; Daniel, Casey L; Gassman, Natalie R

    2018-03-01

    The active ingredient in sunless tanning products (STPs) is a simple sugar, dihydroxyacetone (DHA). Several studies have demonstrated that DHA is absorbed within the viable layers of skin and not fully contained within the stratum corneum. Additionally, spray tanning and other aerosolized application methods have increased the risk of internal exposure through mucous membranes and inhalation. Beyond its presence in STPs, DHA also occurs as an endogenous by-product of fructose metabolism, and an excess of DHA in cells can induce advanced glycation end (AGE) products and oxidative stress. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous exposures to DHA may be harmful to cells, and it has already been demonstrated that exogenous exposure to DHA is cytotoxic in immortalized keratinocytes. Still, little is known about the exogenous DHA exposure effects on other skin components. In this study, we explore the effects of exogenous DHA exposure in a human melanoma cell line, A375P. Melanoma cells were sensitive to DHA and displayed a transient burst of reactive oxygen species within an hour of exposure. Cell cycle arrest at G2/M was observed within 24 h of exposure, and apoptosis, monitored by the cleavage of PARP-1 and Caspase-3, was detected within 72 h of exposure to DHA. Together, these demonstrate that exogenous exposure to DHA has cytotoxic effects in our selected cell model and indicates the need to further investigate the exogenous exposure effects of DHA in other relevant exposure models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The role of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) in human malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Gojis, O; Rudraraju, B; Alifrangis, C; Krell, J; Libalova, P; Palmieri, C

    2010-03-01

    The p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family is critical to the transcriptional activation function of nuclear hormone receptors. A key member of this family is SRC-3, initially found to be amplified and expressed in breast cancer it has subsequent been shown to be expressed in malignant disease arising from a wide range of other organs. An understanding of the potential role of SRC-3 in the pathogenesis and its possible prognostic role in a broad range of tumours will improve our general understanding of carcinogenesis as well as potentially leading to a new prognostic marker as well as new therapeutic targets. Relevant papers were identified by searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for article published until 28th February 2009. Only articles published in English were considered. The search terms included "SRC-3", "AIB1" in association with the following terms: "human", "cancer" and "malignant disease". The search focused on malignant disease arising outside of the mammary gland. Full articles were obtained and references were checked for additional material when appropriate. SRC-3 is amplified and expressed in a wide spectrum of human malignant diseases and appears to be a potential prognostic marker in a number of different tumours. SRC-3 appears to be implicated in the possible risk of developing prostate and ovarian cancer. Its presence appears to be a marker of aggressive disease. Further research is required to determine its predictive and prognostic utility given the relative paucity of studies for each specific malignant disease. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Diagnosis of human malignancies using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying; Liu, Aichun

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosis of malignancies is a challenging clinical issue. In this work, we present quick and robust diagnosis and discrimination of lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) conducted on human serum samples, in combination with chemometric methods. The serum samples collected from lymphoma and MM cancer patients and healthy controls were deposited on filter papers and ablated with a pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. 24 atomic lines of Ca, Na, K, H, O, and N were selected for malignancy diagnosis. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and k nearest neighbors (kNN) classification were applied to build the malignancy diagnosis and discrimination models. The performances of the models were evaluated using 10-fold cross validation. The discrimination accuracy, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. The values of area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity at the cut-points were determined. The kNN model exhibits the best performances with overall discrimination accuracy of 96.0%. Distinct discrimination between malignancies and healthy controls has been achieved with AUC, sensitivity and specificity for healthy controls all approaching 1. For lymphoma, the best discrimination performance values are AUC = 0.990, sensitivity = 0.970 and specificity = 0.956. For MM, the corresponding values are AUC = 0.986, sensitivity = 0.892 and specificity = 0.994. The results show that the serum-LIBS technique can serve as a quick, less invasive and robust method for diagnosis and discrimination of human malignancies.

  5. [Support vector machine?assisted diagnosis of human malignant gastric tissues based on dielectric properties].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sa; Li, Zhou; Xin, Xue-Gang

    2017-12-20

    To achieve differential diagnosis of normal and malignant gastric tissues based on discrepancies in their dielectric properties using support vector machine. The dielectric properties of normal and malignant gastric tissues at the frequency ranging from 42.58 to 500 MHz were measured by coaxial probe method, and the Cole?Cole model was used to fit the measured data. Receiver?operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the discrimination capability with respect to permittivity, conductivity, and Cole?Cole fitting parameters. Support vector machine was used for discriminating normal and malignant gastric tissues, and the discrimination accuracy was calculated using k?fold cross? The area under the ROC curve was above 0.8 for permittivity at the 5 frequencies at the lower end of the measured frequency range. The combination of the support vector machine with the permittivity at all these 5 frequencies combined achieved the highest discrimination accuracy of 84.38% with a MATLAB runtime of 3.40 s. The support vector machine?assisted diagnosis is feasible for human malignant gastric tissues based on the dielectric properties.

  6. Expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Hastrup, Nina; Sehested, Maxwell

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine in human malignant lymphomas the expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), the primary, rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of NAD+. NAMPT is a potential biomarker for sensitivity to NAMPT inhibitors and NAPRT is a biomarker for the use of nicotinic acid as a chemoprotectant in treatment with NAMPT inhibitors. The NAMPT inhibitor, APO866, is currently in clinical phase II trials in lymphomas. The expression of NAMPT and NAPRT was investigated in 53 samples of malignant lymphomas (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma). The expression of NAMPT was generally high in the more aggressive malignant lymphomas, with >80% strong expression, whereas the expression in the more indolent follicular lymphoma (FL) was significantly lower (>75% moderate or low expression, p = 0.0002). NAMPT was very highly expressed in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's lymphoma. NAPRT expression was more varied (p > 0.0001) with 30-50% low expression except for Hodgkin's lymphoma where 85% displayed low expression (p = 0.0024). In conclusion, FL are a promising target for NAMPT inhibitors whereas substantial subsets of malignant lymphomas especially in Hodgkin lymphoma may be suitable for a combination treatment with nicotinic acid and NAMPT inhibitors. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  7. Serum sialyltransferase and liver catalase activity in cachectic nude mice bearing a human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Sato, K; Ueyama, Y; Ohsawa, N

    1981-07-01

    Cachexia is rare in nude mice bearing human malignant tumors even when the transplanted tumors become as large as the body size of the host. In our series on heterotransplantation of a variety of human malignant tumors into nude mice, a malignant melanoma (SEKI) was found to induce severe body weight loss in the host at the early stage of transplantation. There was no electrolyte disturbance, hyper- or hypoadrenocorticism, hyperthyroidism, or destruction of cells of vital organs to account for the weight loss. Moreover, no evidence was obtained for concomitant infection with bacteria, Mycoplasma or fungi. These cachectic mice revealed remarkably increased levels of serum sialyltransferase and decreased liver catalase activity. The removal of tumor tissues from these mice resulted in prompt recovery of body weight, serum sialyltransferase, and liver catalase activity within 1 to 2 weeks. On the basis of the results obtained, the SEKI melanoma was thought to have produced a pathophysiological state in host nude mice which was very similar to that of cachexia in cancer patients. Nude mice bearing transplants of SEKI melanoma may provide a useful system for the study of cancer cachexia in humans.

  8. The ESR1 and GPX1 gene expression level in human malignant and non-malignant breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Król, Magdalena B; Galicki, Michał; Grešner, Peter; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jabłońska, Ewa; Reszka, Edyta; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor. We used the quantitative real-time PCR technique to analyze differences in the expression levels of the ESR1 and GPX1 genes in paired malignant and non-malignant tissues from breast cancer patients. ESR1 and GPX1 expression levels were found to be significantly down-regulated by 14.7% and 7.4% (respectively) in the tumorous breast tissue when compared to the non-malignant one. Down-regulation of these genes was independent of the tumor histopathology classification and clinicopathological factors, while the ESR1 mRNA level was reduced with increasing tumor grade (G1: 103% vs. G2: 85.8% vs. G3: 84.5%; p<0.05). In the non-malignant and malignant breast tissues, the expression levels of ESR1 and GPX1 were significantly correlated with each other (Rs=0.450 and Rs=0.360; respectively). Our data suggest that down-regulation of ESR1 and GPX1 was independent of clinicopathological factors. Down-regulation of ESR1 gene expression was enhanced by the development of the disease. Moreover, GPX1 and ESR1 gene expression was interdependent in the malignant breast tissue and further work is needed to determine the mechanism underlying this relationship.

  9. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  10. Wavelet-domain de-noising of OCT images of human brain malignant glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganova, I. N.; Aleksandrova, P. V.; Beshplav, S.-I. T.; Chernomyrdin, N. V.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Goryaynov, S. A.; Kurlov, V. N.; Reshetov, I. V.; Potapov, A. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Zaytsev, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    We have proposed a wavelet-domain de-noising technique for imaging of human brain malignant glioma by optical coherence tomography (OCT). It implies OCT image decomposition using the direct fast wavelet transform, thresholding of the obtained wavelet spectrum and further inverse fast wavelet transform for image reconstruction. By selecting both wavelet basis and thresholding procedure, we have found an optimal wavelet filter, which application improves differentiation of the considered brain tissue classes - i.e. malignant glioma and normal/intact tissue. Namely, it allows reducing the scattering noise in the OCT images and retaining signal decrement for each tissue class. Therefore, the observed results reveals the wavelet-domain de-noising as a prospective tool for improved characterization of biological tissue using the OCT.

  11. The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, James; Curran, Catherine E.; Hennessy, Emer; Newell, John; Morris, John C.; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro. Methods Human breast tissue specimens (malignant n = 75, normal n = 15, fibroadenoma n = 10) were analysed by RQ-PCR targeting NIS, receptors for retinoic acid (RARα, RARβ), oestrogen (ERα), thyroid hormones (THRα, THRβ), and also phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K). Breast cancer cells were treated with Retinoic acid (ATRA), Estradiol and Thyroxine individually and in combination followed by analysis of changes in NIS expression. Results The lowest levels of NIS were detected in normal tissue (Mean(SEM) 0.70(0.12) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) with significantly higher levels observed in fibroadenoma (1.69(0.21) Log10RQ, p<0.005) and malignant breast tissue (1.18(0.07) Log10RQ, p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between human NIS and ERα (r = 0.22, p<0.05) and RARα (r = 0.29, p<0.005), with the strongest relationship observed between NIS and RARβ (r = 0.38, p<0.0001). An inverse relationship between NIS and PI3K expression was also observed (r = −0.21, p<0.05). In vitro, ATRA, Estradiol and Thyroxine individually stimulated significant increases in NIS expression (range 6–16 fold), while ATRA and Thyroxine combined caused the greatest increase (range 16–26 fold). Conclusion Although NIS expression is significantly higher in malignant compared to normal breast tissue, the highest level was detected in fibroadenoma. The data presented supports a role for retinoic acid and estradiol in mammary NIS regulation in vivo, and also highlights potential thyroidal regulation of mammary NIS mediated by thyroid hormones. PMID:21283523

  12. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits apoptosis by regulating the activating transcription factor 5 signaling pathway in human malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TONGMEI; QIAN, DONGMENG; HU, MING; LI, LING; ZHANG, LI; CHEN, HAO; YANG, RUI; WANG, BIN

    2014-01-01

    The activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), also termed ATFx, is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family of basic zipper proteins. ATF5 is an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in malignant glioma and is essential for glioma cell survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that human malignant gliomas are universally infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Recent studies have shown that HCMV may be resistant to the induction of apoptosis by disrupting cellular pathways in glioblastoma. To investigate the potential anti-apoptotic function of HCMV in glioma, malignant U87 glioma cells were infected with HCMV. The present study showed that HCMV infection suppressed apoptosis in glioblastoma U87 cells by regulating the expression of ATF5. Furthermore, in glioblastoma U87 cells, HCMV infection induced cellular proliferation in parallel with an increase in the expression level of ATF5 and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 to Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio. Loss of ATF5 function was achieved using a dominant-negative form of ATF5 in U87 cells, whereby cells appeared to grow marginally following HCMV infection when compared with the control. However, the anti-apoptotic ability was appeared to decline in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. These results indicate that ATF5 signaling pathways may be important in the anti-apoptotic activity of HCMV-infected glioblastoma cells; therefore, the anti-apoptotic molecular mechanisms of HCMV in human glioblastoma cells were investigated in the current study. Prevention of HCMV infection may present a potential and promising approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:25120656

  13. Malignancies and infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus. Are these emerging diseases?

    PubMed

    Valencia Ortega, M E

    2018-04-01

    Since the start of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, tumour disease among patients has been significant. The collection of malignancies can be divided primarily into 2 groups: those associated with HIV (all of which are related to viral diseases) and those not associated with HIV (only some of which are associated with viral diseases). The origin of these malignancies is multifactorial, and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing the general characteristics of the undiagnosed AIDS tumours is difficult, mainly because they are a highly heterogeneous group formed by malignancies of a diverse nature. The treatments do not differ from those used in the general population, although the management can be more difficult due to the late diagnosis, drug interactions and associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Association of human papilloma virus with atypical and malignant oral papillary lesions.

    PubMed

    McCord, Christina; Xu, Jing; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Xin; Muhanna, Nidal; Irish, Jonathan; Leong, Iona; McComb, Richard John; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Bradley, Grace

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine atypical and malignant papillary oral lesions for low- and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and to correlate HPV infection with clinical and pathologic features. Sections of 28 atypical papillary lesions (APLs) and 14 malignant papillary lesions (MPLs) were examined for HPV by in situ hybridization and for p16 and MIB-1 by immunohistochemistry; 24 conventional papillomas were studied for comparison. Low-risk HPV was found in 10 of 66 cases, including 9 APLs and 1 papilloma. All low-risk HPV-positive cases showed suprabasilar MIB-1 staining, and the agreement was statistically significant (P < .0001). Diffuse p16 staining combined with high-risk HPV was not seen in any of the cases. A subset of HPV(-) APLs progressed to carcinoma. Oral papillary lesions are a heterogeneous group. Low-risk HPV infection is associated with a subset of APLs with a benign clinical course. Potentially malignant APLs and MPLs are not associated with low- or high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HMGB1 targeting by ethyl pyruvate suppresses malignant phenotype of human mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Laura; Xue, Jiaming; Larson, David; Pastorino, Sandra; Jube, Sandro; Forest, Kelly H; Saad-Jube, Zeyana Salim; Napolitano, Andrea; Pagano, Ian; Negi, Vishal S; Bianchi, Marco E; Morris, Paul; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Carbone, Michele; Yang, Haining

    2017-04-04

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer linked to asbestos and erionite exposure. We previously reported that High-Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern, drives MM development and sustains MM progression. Moreover, we demonstrated that targeting HMGB1 inhibited MM cell growth and motility in vitro, reduced tumor growth in vivo, and prolonged survival of MM-bearing mice. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), the ethyl ester of pyruvic acid, has been shown to be an effective HMGB1 inhibitor in inflammation-related diseases and several cancers. Here, we studied the effect of EP on the malignant phenotype of MM cells in tissue culture and on tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic MM xenograft model. We found that EP impairs HMGB1 secretion by MM cells leading to reduced RAGE expression and NF-κB activation. As a consequence, EP impaired cell motility, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of MM cells. Moreover, EP reduced HMGB1 serum levels in mice and inhibited the growth of MM xenografts.Our results indicate that EP effectively hampers the malignant phenotype of MM, offering a novel potential therapeutic approach to patients afflicted with this dismal disease.

  16. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  17. Arsenic-induced malignant transformation of human keratinocytes: Involvement of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Jingbo; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Sun, Yang; Liu, Jie; Qu, Wei; He, Yuying; Styblo, Miroslav; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Transcription factor Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism, and emerging data suggest that constitutive activation of Nrf2 contributes to malignant phenotype. In the present study when an immortalized, non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was continuously exposed to environmentally relevant level of inorganic arsenite (100 nM) for 28 weeks, malignant transformation occurred as evidenced by the formation of highly aggressive squamous cell carcinoma after inoculation into nude mice. To investigate the mechanisms involved, a broad array of biomarkers for transformation were assessed in these arsenic-transformed cells (termed As-TM). In addition to increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a set of markers for squamous differentiation and skin keratinization, including keratin-1, keratin-10, involucrin, and loricrin, were significantly elevated in As-TM cells. Furthermore, As-TM cells showed increased intracellular glutathione, elevated expression of Nrf2 and its target genes, as well as generalized apoptotic resistance. In contrast to increased basal Nrf2 activity in As-TM cells, a diminished Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response induced by acute exposure to high dose of arsenite or tert-butyl hydroxyquinone occurred. The findings that multiple biomarkers for malignant transformation observed in As-TM cells, including MMP-9 and cytokeratins, are potentially regulated by Nrf2 suggest constitutive Nrf2 activation may be involved in arsenic carcinogenesis of skin. The weakened Nrf2 activation in response to oxidative stressors observed in As-TM cells, coupled with acquired apoptotic resistance, would potentially have increased the likelihood of transmittable oxidative DNA damage and fixation of mutational/DNA damage events. PMID:18572023

  18. Iterative local Gaussian clustering for expressed genes identification linked to malignancy of human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wasito, Ito; Hashim, Siti Zaiton M; Sukmaningrum, Sri

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiling plays an important role in the identification of biological and clinical properties of human solid tumors such as colorectal carcinoma. Profiling is required to reveal underlying molecular features for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A non-parametric density-estimation-based approach called iterative local Gaussian clustering (ILGC), was used to identify clusters of expressed genes. We used experimental data from a previous study by Muro and others consisting of 1,536 genes in 100 colorectal cancer and 11 normal tissues. In this dataset, the ILGC finds three clusters, two large and one small gene clusters, similar to their results which used Gaussian mixture clustering. The correlation of each cluster of genes and clinical properties of malignancy of human colorectal cancer was analysed for the existence of tumor or normal, the existence of distant metastasis and the existence of lymph node metastasis. PMID:18305825

  19. Iterative local Gaussian clustering for expressed genes identification linked to malignancy of human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wasito, Ito; Hashim, Siti Zaiton M; Sukmaningrum, Sri

    2007-12-30

    Gene expression profiling plays an important role in the identification of biological and clinical properties of human solid tumors such as colorectal carcinoma. Profiling is required to reveal underlying molecular features for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A non-parametric density-estimation-based approach called iterative local Gaussian clustering (ILGC), was used to identify clusters of expressed genes. We used experimental data from a previous study by Muro and others consisting of 1,536 genes in 100 colorectal cancer and 11 normal tissues. In this dataset, the ILGC finds three clusters, two large and one small gene clusters, similar to their results which used Gaussian mixture clustering. The correlation of each cluster of genes and clinical properties of malignancy of human colorectal cancer was analysed for the existence of tumor or normal, the existence of distant metastasis and the existence of lymph node metastasis.

  20. Global Variation of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Selected Genes Involved in Cervical Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Husain, R S Akram; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of the cervix is ranked second among the top 5 cancers affecting women globally. Parallel to other cancers, it is also a complex disease involving numerous factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection followed by the activity of oncogenes and environmental factors. The incidence rate of the disease remains high in developing countries due to lack of awareness, followed by mass screening programs, various socioeconomic issues, and low usage of preventive vaccines. Over the past 3 decades, extensive research has taken place in cervical malignancy to elucidate the role of host genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet it remains one of the most prevalent diseases. It is imperative that recent genome-wide techniques be used to determine whether carcinogenesis of oncogenes is associated with cervical cancer at the molecular level and to translate that knowledge into developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The aim of this study was to discuss HPV predominance with their genotype distribution worldwide, and in India, as well as to discuss the newly identified oncogenes related to cervical cancer in current scenario. Using data from various databases and robust technologies, oncogenes associated with cervical malignancies were identified and are explained in concise manner. Due to the advent of recent technologies, new candidate genes are explored and can be used as precise biomarkers for screening and developing drug targets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. P16INK4a MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF TELOMERASE IN NORMAL AND MALIGNANT HUMAN BREAST CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bazarov, Alexey V.; van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, Curtis; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W.; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (CDKN2A) is an important tumor-suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal. PMID:20569236

  2. p16(INK4a) -mediated suppression of telomerase in normal and malignant human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Bazarov, Alexey V; Van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, William C; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) (CDKN2A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal. © 2010 The Authors Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Expression of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme insulysin in normal and malignant human tissues.

    PubMed

    Yfanti, Christina; Mengele, Karin; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Weirich, Gregor; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Tang, Wei-Jen; Rosner, Marsha; Schmitt, Manfred

    2008-10-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin, insulinase; EC 3.4.22.11), a thiol metalloendopeptidase, is involved in intracellular degradation of insulin, thereby inhibiting its translocation and accumulation to the nucleus. Recently, protein expression of IDE has been demonstrated in the epithelial ducts of normal breast and breast cancer tissue. Utilizing four different antibodies generated against different epitopes of the IDE molecule, we performed Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining on several normal human tissues, on a plethora of tumor cell lines of different tissue origin, and on malignant breast and ovarian tissue. Applying the four IDE-directed antibodies, we demonstrated IDE expression at the protein level, by means of immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry, in each of the tumor cell lines analyzed. Insulin-degrading enzyme protein expression was found in normal tissues of the kidney, liver, lung, brain, breast and skeletal muscle, as well as in breast and ovarian cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical visualization of IDE indicated cytoplasmic localization of IDE in each of the cell lines and tissues assessed. In conclusion, we performed for the first time a wide-ranging survey on IDE protein expression in normal and malignant tissues and cells thus extending our knowledge on the cellular and tissue distribution of IDE, an enzyme which to date has mainly been studied in connection with Alzheimer's disease and diabetes but not in cancer.

  4. Expression of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (insulysin) in normal and malignant human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yfanti, Christina; Mengele, Karin; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Weirich, Gregor; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Tang, Wei-Jen; Rosner, Marsha; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin, insulinase; EC 3.4.22.11), a thiol metalloendopeptidase, is involved in intracellular degradation of insulin, thereby inhibiting its translocation and accumulation to the nucleus. Recently, protein expression of IDE has been demonstrated in the epithelial ducts of normal breast and in breast cancer tissue (Radulescu et al., Int J Oncol 30:73; 2007). Materials and Methods Utilizing four different antibodies generated against different epitopes of the IDE molecule, we performed western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining on several normal human tissues, on a plethora of tumor cell lines of different tissue origin, and on malignant breast and ovarian tissue. Results Applying the four IDE-directed antibodies, we demonstrate IDE expression at the protein level, both by means of immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry, in all of the tumor cell lines analyzed. Besides, IDE protein expression was found in normal tissues of the kidney, liver, lung, brain, breast and skeletal muscle, as well as in breast and ovarian cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical visualization of IDE indicated cytoplasmic localization of IDE in all of the cell lines and tissues assessed. Conclusions We performed for the first time a wide-ranging survey on IDE protein expression in normal and malignant tissues and cells and thus extend knowledge about cellular and tissue distribution of IDE, an enzyme which so far has mainly been studied in connection with Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes but not in cancer. PMID:18813847

  5. Effect of human cell malignancy on activity of DNA polymerase iota.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, A A; Grishina, E E; Tarantul, V Z; Gening, L V

    2010-07-01

    An increased level of mutagenesis, partially caused by imbalanced activities of error prone DNA polymerases, is a key symptom of cell malignancy. To clarify the possible role of incorrect DNA polymerase iota (Pol iota) function in increased frequency of mutations in mammalian cells, the activity of this enzyme in extracts of cells of different mouse organs and human eye (melanoma) and eyelid (basal-cell skin carcinoma) tumor cells was studied. Both Mg2+, considered as the main activator of the enzyme reaction of in vivo DNA replication, and Mn2+, that activates homogeneous Pol iota preparations in experiments in vitro more efficiently compared to all other bivalent cations, were used as cofactors of the DNA polymerase reaction in these experiments. In the presence of Mg2+, the enzyme was active only in cell extracts of mouse testicles and brain, whereas in the presence of Mn2+ the activity of Pol iota was found in all studied normal mouse organs. It was found that in cell extracts of both types of malignant tumors (basal-cell carcinoma and melanoma) Pol iota activity was observed in the presence of either Mn2+ or Mg2+. Manganese ions activated Pol iota in both cases, though to a different extent. In the presence of Mn2+ the Pol iota activity in the basal-cell carcinoma exceeded 2.5-fold that in control cells (benign tumors from the same eyelid region). In extracts of melanoma cells in the presence of either cation, the level of the enzyme activity was approximately equal to that in extracts of cells of surrounding tumor-free tissues as well as in eyes removed after traumas. The distinctive feature of tissue malignancy (in basal-cell carcinoma and in melanoma) was the change in DNA synthesis revealed as Mn2+-activated continuation of DNA synthesis after incorrect incorporation of dG opposite dT in the template by Pol iota. Among cell extracts of different normal mouse organs, only those of testicles exhibited a similar feature. This similarity can be explained by

  6. Clonal selection in xenografted human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia recapitulates gain of malignancy at relapse.

    PubMed

    Clappier, Emmanuelle; Gerby, Bastien; Sigaux, François; Delord, Marc; Touzri, Farah; Hernandez, Lucie; Ballerini, Paola; Baruchel, André; Pflumio, Françoise; Soulier, Jean

    2011-04-11

    Genomic studies in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have revealed clonal heterogeneity at diagnosis and clonal evolution at relapse. In this study, we used genome-wide profiling to compare human T cell ALL samples at the time of diagnosis and after engraftment (xenograft) into immunodeficient recipient mice. Compared with paired diagnosis samples, the xenograft leukemia often contained additional genomic lesions in established human oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. Mimicking such genomic lesions by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown in diagnosis samples conferred a selective advantage in competitive engraftment experiments, demonstrating that additional lesions can be drivers of increased leukemia-initiating activity. In addition, the xenograft leukemias appeared to arise from minor subclones existing in the patient at diagnosis. Comparison of paired diagnosis and relapse samples showed that, with regard to genetic lesions, xenograft leukemias more frequently more closely resembled relapse samples than bulk diagnosis samples. Moreover, a cell cycle- and mitosis-associated gene expression signature was present in xenograft and relapse samples, and xenograft leukemia exhibited diminished sensitivity to drugs. Thus, the establishment of human leukemia in immunodeficient mice selects and expands a more aggressive malignancy, recapitulating the process of relapse in patients. These findings may contribute to the design of novel strategies to prevent or treat relapse.

  7. Micro-RNAs as diagnostic or prognostic markers in human epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRs) are important regulators of mRNA and protein expression; the ability of miR expression profilings to distinguish different cancer types and classify their sub-types has been well-described. They also represent a novel biological entity with potential value as tumour biomarkers, which can improve diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of treatment response for human cancers. This endeavour has been greatly facilitated by the stability of miRs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and their detection in circulation. This review will summarize some of the key dysregulated miRs described to date in human epithelial malignancies, and their potential value as molecular bio-markers in FFPE tissues and blood samples. There remain many challenges in this domain, however, with the evolution of different platforms, the complexities of normalizing miR profiling data, and the importance of evaluating sufficiently-powered training and validation cohorts. Nonetheless, well-conducted miR profiling studies should contribute important insights into the molecular aberrations driving human cancer development and progression. PMID:22128797

  8. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. PMID:20422010

  9. c-RET molecule in malignant melanoma from oncogenic RET-carrying transgenic mice and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yuichiro; Yajima, Ichiro; Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-04-21

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma.

  10. Oxyfadichalcone C inhibits melanoma A375 cell proliferation and metastasis via suppressing PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhengming; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xin; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Shan; Zhang, Zhe; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Qingying; Kong, Dexin

    2018-08-01

    Melanoma remains to be one of the most incurable cancers. Discovery of novel antitumor agent for melanoma therapy is expected. We recently isolated Oxyfadichalcone C from Oxytropis falcate and investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activity on human melanoma A375 cells in vitro. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay and soft agar cloning formation assay. The effect of Oxyfadichalcone C on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell metastasis was determined by wound healing assay, Transwell assay and Gelatin zymography assay. The effect of Oxyfadichalcone C on signal proteins of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways was examined by western blot analysis. Synergism assay was employed to determine whether combination of Oxyfadichalcone C with Vemurafenib would enhance the anti-proliferative effect. Oxyfadichalcone C potently inhibited proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest and weak apoptosis in A375 cells. Anti-migration and anti-invasion activities were also indicated. Such effects were associated with upregulation of p27, reduction of cyclin D1, p-pRb, p-Integrin β1, as well as the proteolytic activity of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9. Meanwhile, key molecules of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways were downregulated, which might be involved in the inhibition against proliferation and metastasis of A375 cells by Oxyfadichalcone C. In addition, combination of Oxyfadichalcone C with Vemurafenib at a ratio of IC50 Oxyfadichalcone C : 5 × IC 50 Vemurafenib exhibited synergistic anti-proliferative effect on A375 cells. Our findings suggest that Oxyfadichalcone C has the potential to be developed as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of melanoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

  12. Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-05-01

    The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The

  13. Human papillomavirus infection and the malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted papilloma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren-Wu; Guo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ru-Xin

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the malignancy of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP). However, the results remain inconclusive. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess this association. Case-control studies investigating SNIP tissues for presence of HPV DNA were identified. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. An assessment of publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. We calculated a pooled OR of 2.16 (95% CI=1.46-3.21, P<0.001) without statistically significant heterogeneity or publication bias. Stratification by HPV type showed a stronger association for patients with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types, HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-16/18 infection (OR=8.8 [95% CI: 4.73-16.38], 8.04 [95% CI: 3.34-19.39], 18.57 [95% CI: 4.56-75.70], and 26.24 [4.35-158.47], respectively). When only using PCR studies, pooled ORs for patients with hrHPV, HPV-16, and HPV18 infection still reached statistical significance. However, Egger's test reflected significant publication bias in the HPV-16 sub-analysis (P=0.06), and the adjusted OR was no longer statistically significant (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 0.58-4.63). These results suggest that HPV infection, especially hrHPV (HPV-18), is significantly associated with malignant SNIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of Canonical Smad4 Signaling Promotes KRAS Driven Malignant Transformation of Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lisa; Radulovich, Nikolina; Zhu, Chang-Qi; Wang, Dennis; To, Christine; Ibrahimov, Emin; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRAS G12V expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-β resistant (TβR) cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-β. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-β sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells. PMID:24386371

  15. Physiological serum copper concentrations found in malignancies cause unfolding induced aggregation of human serum albumin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Asim; Furkan, Mohd; Naseem, Imrana

    2017-12-15

    Malignancies are characterized by several drastic metabolic changes, one of which is a progressive rise in the levels of serum copper. This rise in serum copper is documented across all malignancies and across malignancies in several species. This study aims to explore in vitro the effect of increased copper levels on the structure of the blood protein human serum albumin. Exposure of human serum albumin to physiologically relevant copper concentrations for 21 days resulted in structural modifications in the protein which were evident by changes in the intrinsic florescence. A loss of the predominantly alpha helical structure of human serum albumin was recorded along with a tendency to form protein aggregates. This aggregation was characterized by Thioflavin T and Congo Red assays. Rayleigh light scattering and turbidity assays confirmed aggregation. The aggregates were visually confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report implicating increased copper levels as a cause of aggregation of blood proteins in malignancies. The physiological and biochemical implications of this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Single-chain antibody-delivered Livin siRNA inhibits human malignant melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Guan, Bing; Xun, Meng; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Ziling; Zhao, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Although gene therapy has brought new insights into the treatment of malignant melanoma, targeting delivery of nucleic acid which targets critical oncogene/anti-oncogene in vivo is still a bottleneck in the therapeutic application. Our previous in vitro studies have found that the oncogene Livin could serve as a potential molecular target by small interfering RNA for gene therapy of malignant melanoma. However, how to transport Livin small interfering RNA into malignant melanoma cells specifically and efficiently in vivo needs further investigation. Cumulative evidence has suggested that single-chain antibody-mediated small interfering RNA targeted delivery is an effective way to silence specific genes in human cancer cells. Indeed, this study designed a protamine-single-chain antibody fusion protein, anti-MM scFv-tP, to deliver Livin small interfering RNA into LiBr cells. Further experiments confirmed the induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by anti-MM scFv-tP in LiBr cells, along with efficient silence of Livin gene both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our findings provide a feasible approach to transport Livin small interfering RNA to malignant melanoma cells which would be a new therapeutic strategy for combating malignant melanoma.

  17. MicroRNA-203 Modulates the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Malignant Glioma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Yeo Hyun; Lee, David J.

    Purpose: We investigated whether miR-203 could modulate the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and which target gene(s) could be involved. Methods and Materials: Three human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines and normal human astrocytes were transfected with control microRNA, pre-miR-203, or antisense miR-203. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), clonogenic assays, immunofluorescence, and invasion/migration assays were performed. To predict the target(s), bioinformatics analyses using microRNA target databases were performed. Results: Overexpression of miR-203 increased the radiation sensitivity of all 3 human MG cell lines and prolonged radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that miR-203 could be involved in post-transcriptional control of DNAmore » repair, PI3K/AKT, SRC, and JAK/STAT3 and the vascular signaling pathway. Western blot analysis validated the fact that miR-203 downregulated ATM, RAD51, SRC, PLD2, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT3, VEGF, HIF-1α, and MMP2. Overexpression of miR-203 inhibited invasion and migration potentials, downregulated SLUG and Vimentin, and upregulated Claudin-1 and ZO1. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that miR-203 potentially controls DNA damage repair via the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathways and may collectively contribute to the modulation of radiation sensitivity in MG cells by inhibiting DNA damage repair, prosurvival signaling, and epithelium-mesenchyme transition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-203 could be a target for overcoming the radiation resistance of GBM.« less

  18. Adenovirus-mediated suppression of HMGI(Y) protein synthesis as potential therapy of human malignant neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Stefania; Portella, Giuseppe; Fedele, Monica; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    High mobility group I (HMGI) proteins are overexpressed in several human malignant tumors. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of HMGI synthesis prevents thyroid cell transformation. Here, we report that an adenovirus carrying the HMGI(Y) gene in an antisense orientation (Ad-Yas) induced programmed cell death of two human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell lines (ARO and FB-1), but not normal thyroid cells. The Ad-Yas virus led to death of lung, colon, and breast carcinoma cells. A control adenovirus carrying the lacZ gene did not inhibit the growth of either normal or neoplastic cells. Ad-Yas treatment of tumors induced in athymic mice by ARO cells caused a drastic reduction in tumor size. Therefore, suppression of HMGI(Y) protein synthesis by an HMGI(Y) antisense adenoviral vector may be a useful treatment strategy in a variety of human malignant neoplasias, in which HMGI(Y) gene overexpression is a general event. PMID:10759549

  19. Colon cancer associated transcript-1: a novel RNA expressed in malignant and pre-malignant human tissues.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Aviram; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, Stella; Halle, David; Grinbaum, Ronit; Roistacher, Marina; Bochem, Andrea; Dayanc, Baris Emre; Ritter, Gerd; Gomceli, Ismail; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Akoglu, Musa; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Old, Lloyd John; Gure, Ali Osmay

    2012-04-01

    Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently based on fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy, both which can significantly reduce CRC-related mortality. However, FOBT has low-sensitivity and specificity, whereas colonoscopy is labor- and cost-intensive. Therefore, the discovery of novel biomarkers that can be used for improved CRC screening, diagnosis, staging and as targets for novel therapies is of utmost importance. To identify novel CRC biomarkers we utilized representational difference analysis (RDA) and characterized a colon cancer associated transcript (CCAT1), demonstrating consistently strong expression in adenocarcinoma of the colon, while being largely undetectable in normal human tissues (p < 000.1). CCAT1 levels in CRC are on average 235-fold higher than those found in normal mucosa. Importantly, CCAT1 is strongly expressed in tissues representing the early phase of tumorigenesis: in adenomatous polyps and in tumor-proximal colonic epithelium, as well as in later stages of the disease (liver metastasis, for example). In CRC-associated lymph nodes, CCAT1 overexpression is detectable in all H&E positive, and 40.0% of H&E and immunohistochemistry negative lymph nodes, suggesting very high sensitivity. CCAT1 is also overexpressed in 40.0% of peripheral blood samples of patients with CRC but not in healthy controls. CCAT1 is therefore a highly specific and readily detectable marker for CRC and tumor-associated tissues. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  20. Combined chemotherapy with cytotoxic and targeted compounds for the management of human malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Favoni, Roberto E; Florio, Tullio

    2011-08-01

    Human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is an aggressive asbestos-associated cancer, the incidence of which is increasing and which, despite progress in diagnosis and therapy, continues to have a poor prognosis. Asbestos fibers induce aberrant cell signaling, leading to proto-oncogene activation and chemoresistance. In this review, we discuss the evolution of pharmacological management of hMPM up to the most recent advances. Monotherapy with single cytotoxic drugs achieves modest objective response rates, seldom reaching 30%. However, combination regimens using novel drugs and standard molecules are showing gradually improving responses and clinical benefits. Phase II/III studies have identified pemetrexed, a multitarget folate pathway inhibitor in combination with platinum derivatives, and the cisplatin/gemcitabine association as front-line chemotherapy for hMPM. Detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and neoangiogenesis in hMPM should aid in the design and screening of other promising compounds such as more efficacious receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hiding in Plain Sight: Rediscovering the Importance of Noncoding RNA in Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kyle P; Edmonds, Mick D

    2018-05-01

    At the time of its construction in the 1950s, the central dogma of molecular biology was a useful model that represented the current state of knowledge for the flow of genetic information after a period of prolific scientific discovery. Unknowingly, it also biased many of our assumptions going forward. Whether intentional or not, genomic elements not fitting into this paradigm were deemed unimportant and emphasis on the study of protein-coding genes prevailed for decades. The phrase "Junk DNA," first popularized in the 1960s, is still used with alarming frequency to describe the entirety of noncoding DNA. It has since become apparent that RNA molecules not coding for protein are vitally important in both normal development and human malignancy. Cancer researchers have been pioneers in determining noncoding RNA function and developing new technologies to study these molecules. In this review, we will discuss well known and newly emerging species of noncoding RNAs, their functions in cancer, and new technologies being utilized to understand their mechanisms of action in cancer. Cancer Res; 78(9); 2149-58. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Efficient isolation of human metapneumovirus using MNT-1, a human malignant melanoma cell line with early and distinct cytopathic effects.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ko; Watanabe, Oshi; Ohmiya, Suguru; Chiba, Fumiko; Suzuki, Akira; Okamoto, Michiko; Younghuang, Jiang; Hata, Akihiro; Nonaka, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Nagai, Yukio; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kumaki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2017-11-01

    Isolation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) from clinical specimens is currently inefficient because of the lack of a cell culture system in which a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) occurs. The cell lines LLC-MK2, Vero and Vero E6 are used for isolation of HMPV; however, the CPE in these cell lines is subtle and usually requires a long observation period and sometimes blind passages. Thus, a cell line in which an early and distinct CPE occurs following HMPV inoculation is highly desired by clinical virology laboratories. In this study, it was demonstrated that, in the human malignant melanoma cell line MNT-1, obvious syncytium formation occurs shortly after inoculation with HMPV-positive clinical specimens. In addition, the growth and efficiency of isolation of HMPV were greater using MNT-1 than using any other conventional cell line. Addition of this cell line to our routine viral isolation system for clinical specimens markedly enhanced isolation frequency, allowing isolation-based surveillance. MNT-1 has the potential to facilitate clinical and epidemiological studies of HMPV. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Malignant Transformation Potentials of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Both Spontaneously and via 3-Methycholanthrene Induction

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

    2013-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

  4. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) expression correlates with malignant choline phospholipid metabolite profiles in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Maria D.; Döpkens, Mailin; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Vesuna, Farhad; Gadiya, Mayur M.; Loenning, Per E.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Glunde, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Altered choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, leading to malignant choline metabolite profiles consisting of low glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and high phosphocholine (PC) in human breast cancers. Glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase (GPC-PDE) catalyzes the degradation of GPC to free choline and glycerol-3-phosphate. The gene(s) encoding for the GPC-PDE(s) responsible for GPC degradation in breast cancers have not yet been identified. Here we have demonstrated for the first time that the GPC-PDE encoded by glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) is associated with breast cancer malignancy. Two human breast cancer cell lines (n=8 and 10) and primary human breast tumor samples (n=19) were studied with combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and qRT-PCR to investigate several isoforms of GDPD expression with respect to choline phospholipid metabolite levels. Out of five GDPDs tested, GDPD5 was found to be significantly overexpressed in highly malignant estrogen receptor negative (ER−) compared to weakly malignant estrogen receptor positive (ER+) human breast cancer cells (P=0.027) and breast tumors from patients (P=0.015). GDPD5 showed significantly positive correlations with PC (P<0.001), total choline (tCho) (P=0.007) and PC/GPC (P<0.001) levels in human breast tumors. GDPD5 showed a trend towards negative correlation with GPC levels (P=0.130). Human breast cancers with malignant choline metabolite profiles consisting of low GPC and high PC levels highly co-expressed GDPD5, choline kinase alpha (CHKA), and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D1 (PLD1), while cancers containing high GPC and relatively low PC levels displayed low co-expression of GDPD5, CHKA, and PLD1. GDPD5, CHKA and PLD1 were significantly overexpressed in highly malignant ER− tumors in our patient cohort. Our study identified GDPD5 as a GPC-PDE that likely participates in regulating choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer

  5. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Yixin; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987; Chen, Tingting

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carriedmore » out to define the LC{sub 50} values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. - Highlights: • This is the first report of potential cytotoxicity and transforming activity of Marcellus shale gas mining flow back to mammalian cells. • Barium and Strontium were elevated in flow back water exposed cells. • Flow back water malignantly transformed cells and formed tumor in athymic nude mice. • Flow back transformed cells exhibited altered transcriptome with dysregulated cell migration pathway and adherent junction pathway.« less

  6. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  7. Sensitization of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant malignant melanomas by quercetin.

    PubMed

    Turner, Katherine A; Manouchehri, Jasmine M; Kalafatis, Michael

    2018-03-28

    Malignant melanoma is the most commonly diagnosed skin cancer associated with a high rate of metastasis. Low-stage melanoma is easily treated, but metastatic malignant melanoma is an extremely treatment-resistant malignancy with low survival rates. The application of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma holds considerable promise because of its selective proapoptotic activity towards cancer cells and not nontransformed cells. Unfortunately, the clinical utilization of rhTRAIL has been terminated due to the resistance of many cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to rhTRAIL. However, rhTRAIL-resistance can be abrogated through the cotreatment with compounds derived from 'Mother Nature' such as quercetin that can modulate cellular components responsible for rhTRAIL-resistance. Here, we show that rhTRAIL-resistant malignant melanomas are sensitized by quercetin. Quercetin action is manifested by the upregulation of rhTRAIL-binding receptors DR4 and DR5 on the surface of cancer cells and by increased rate of the proteasome-mediated degradation of the antiapoptotic protein FLIP. Our data provide for a new efficient and nontoxic treatment of malignant melanoma.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  8. Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-10-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development.

  9. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Normal, Premalignant, and Malignant Human Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ravi J.; Cheney, Richard T.; Husain, Aliya; Tretiakova, Maria; Loewen, Gregory; Johnson, Candace S.; Jayaprakash, Vijay; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Salgia, Ravi; Reid, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a strong interest in identifying chemopreventive agents that might help decrease the burden of lung cancer. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol), has been shown to have antiproliferative effects in several tumor types, mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This is the first comprehensive survey of VDR expression in a series of human lung tissues, including normal and premalignant central airway biopsies and lung tumors. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR was examined in 180 premalignant or malignant bronchial biopsies from bronchoscopy of 78 high-risk individuals at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and also in 63 tumor samples from 35 lung cancer patients from the University of Chicago Hospitals. Associations between clinicopathologic data and VDR expression were examined. Results VDR expression was present in many samples. In biopsies, VDR was commonly detected throughout the full epithelial layer. Most histologically normal (60%, 53 of 88) and metaplastic (61%, 39 of 64) samples had moderate to high nuclear intensity; dysplastic samples mostly had low nuclear intensity (10 of 18, 55%). In tumor samples, 62% (38 of 61) were lacking cytoplasmic VDR, with nuclear expression present in 79%(49 of 62). Analysis of all samples revealed a positive linear trend between proportion of samples with greater nuclear than cytoplasmic intensity and increasing histologic grade (P < 0.01). Conclusions VDR expression spanned the lung carcinogenesis spectrum. Nuclear expression was similar across various histologies, whereas cytoplasmic expression decreased with increasing histologic grade. These results indicate that there is potential for the use of calcitriol as a chemopreventive agent against the development of lung cancer. (Cancer Epidemiol Bio-markers Prev 2008;17(5):1104–10) PMID:18483332

  10. The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, A.; Balestrieri, E.; Pierimarchi, P.

    2009-03-10

    Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derivedmore » non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.« less

  11. Induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in a malignant human skin melanoma cell line after exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad; Verma, Ankit; Ahamed, Maqusood; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Alhadlaq, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles worldwide exposes humans to their adverse effects, so it is important to understand their biological effects and any associated risks. This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis caused by ZnO nanoparticles in human skin melanoma (A375) cells. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] and lactate dehydrogenase-based cell viability assays showed a significant decrease in cell viability after exposure to ZnO nanoparticles, and phase contrast images revealed that cells treated with these nanoparticles had a lower density and a rounded morphology. ZnO nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress, evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of the antioxidant, glutathione. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by chromosomal condensation assay and caspase-3 activation. Further, more DNA damage was observed in cells exposed to the highest concentration of ZnO nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticles have genotoxic potential in A375 cells, which may be mediated via oxidative stress. Our short-term exposure study showing induction of a genotoxic and apoptotic response to ZnO nanoparticles needs further investigation to determine whether there may be consequences of long-term exposure to ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:23493450

  12. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-01-01

    Background Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. Methods A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. Results A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. Conclusions The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents. PMID:17604337

  13. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-12-01

    Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents.

  14. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  15. Examination by EPR spectroscopy of free radicals in melanins isolated from A-375 cells exposed on valproic acid and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Chodurek, Ewa; Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Drug binding by melanin biopolymers influence the effectiveness of the chemotherapy, radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Free radicals of melanins take part in formation of their complex with drugs. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the two compounds: valproic acid (VPA) and cisplatin (CPT) on free radicals properties of melanin isolated from A-375 melanoma cells. Free radicals were examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR spectra were measured for the model synthetic eumelanin - DOPA-melanin, the melanin isolated from the control A-375 cells and these cells treated by VPA, CPT and both VPA and CPT. For all the examined samples broad EPR lines (deltaBpp: 0.48-0.68 mT) with g-factors of 2.0045-2.0060 characteristic for o-semiquinone free radicals were observed. Free radicals concentrations (N) in the tested samples, g-factors, amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I) and linewidths (deltaBpp) of the EPR spectra, were analyzed. The EPR lines were homogeneously broadened. Continuous microwave saturation of the EPR spectra indicated that slow spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in all the tested melanin samples. The relatively slowest spin-lattice relaxation processes characterized melanin isolated from A-375 cells treated with both VPA and CPT. The changes of the EPR spectra with increasing microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW were evaluated. Free radicals concentrations in the melanin from A-375 cells were higher than in the synthetic DOPA-melanin. The strong increase of free radicals concentration in the melanin from A-375 cells was observed after their treating by VPA. CPT also caused the increase of free radicals concentrations in the examined natural melanin. The free radicals concentration in melanin isolated from A-375 cells treated with both VPA and CPT was slightly higher than those in melanin from the control cells.

  16. Malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... about MH: Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States -- www.mhaus.org National Organization for Rare Disorders -- rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/malignant-hyperthermia NIH Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/malignant-hyperthermia

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-independent potentiation of nitrosourea cytotoxicity by 3-aminobenzamide in human malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Winter, S; Weller, M

    2000-06-16

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein that detects specifically DNA strand breaks generated by genotoxic agents and is thought to be involved in DNA repair. Here, we examined the effects of 3-aminobenzamide, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, on the chemosensitivity of human malignant glioma cells. 3-Aminobenzamide selectively potentiated the cytotoxicity of the nitrosoureas, nimustine, carmustine and lomustine in 10 of 12 human malignant glioma cell lines. In contrast, 3-aminobenzamide did not modulate the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicine, teniposide, vincristine, camptothecin or cytarabine. The nitrosoureas did not induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in the glioma cells. Ectopic expression of truncated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase containing the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase DNA-binding domain, which acts as a dominant-negative mutant, in LN-18 or LN-229 cells did not alter the 3-aminobenzamide effect on nitrosourea-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, 3-aminobenzamide may target another nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-requiring enzyme, but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, when enhancing nitrosourea cytotoxicity in human malignant glioma cells. Carmustine cytotoxicity was associated with a G2/M arrest. Coexposure to carmustine and 3-aminobenzamide overcame this G2/M arrest in T98G cells, which are sensitized to carmustine by 3-aminobenzamide, but not in U251MG cells, which are refractory to 3-aminobenzamide-mediated sensitization to carmustine. Thus, 3-aminobenzamide-mediated sensitization to carmustine cytotoxicity may result from interference with the stable G2/M arrest response to carmustine in human glioma cells.

  18. Malignant hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrosclerosis - arteriolar; Hypertension - malignant; High blood pressure - malignant Images Hypertensive kidney References Archbold A, Naish J. The cardiovascular system. In: Naish J, Court DS, ...

  19. Microspectroscopic Analysis Of HpD Fluorescence In Bioptic Samples From Human Pre-Malignant And Malignant Lesions Of The Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiroli, G.; Dell'Acqua, R.; Jucci, A.; Ricevuti, G.; Sacchi, A. S.

    1987-07-01

    Microfluorometric analysis was performed on bioptic samples of pre-malignant and malignant cutanous lesions present in the same patients, 48 h after i.v. injection of HpD. Data obtained indicate that actinic keratosis and squamous celle carcinoma show a preferential accumulation if compared to normal skin. The two lesions differ for both intensity and spectral shape of HpD fluorescence. This difference is correlated with a different clinical response to HpD laser phototherapy.

  20. Targeting the Interleukin-6/Jak/Stat Pathway in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Pasquale; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway was discovered 20 years ago as a mediator of cytokine signaling. Since this time, more than 2,500 articles have been published demonstrating the importance of this pathway in virtually all malignancies. Although there are dozens of cytokines and cytokine receptors, four Jaks, and seven Stats, it seems that interleukin-6–mediated activation of Stat3 is a principal pathway implicated in promoting tumorigenesis. This transcription factor regulates the expression of numerous critical mediators of tumor formation and metastatic progression. This review will examine the relative importance and function of this pathway in nonmalignant conditions as well as malignancies (including tumor intrinsic and extrinsic), the influence of other Stats, the development of inhibitors to this pathway, and the potential role of inhibitors in controlling or eradicating cancers. PMID:22355058

  1. An Alu-like RNA promotes cell differentiation and reduces malignancy of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Manuele; Massone, Sara; Tasso, Roberta; Fiorino, Gloria; Gatti, Monica; Robello, Mauro; Gatta, Elena; Berger, Audrey; Strub, Katharina; Florio, Tullio; Dieci, Giorgio; Cancedda, Ranieri; Pagano, Aldo

    2010-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric cancer characterized by remarkable cell heterogeneity within the tumor nodules. Here, we demonstrate that the synthesis of a pol III-transcribed noncoding (nc) RNA (NDM29) strongly restricts NB development by promoting cell differentiation, a drop of malignancy processes, and a dramatic reduction of the tumor initiating cell (TIC) fraction in the NB cell population. Notably, the overexpression of NDM29 also confers to malignant NB cells an unpredicted susceptibility to the effects of antiblastic drugs used in NB therapy. Altogether, these results suggest the induction of NDM29 expression as possible treatment to increase cancer cells vulnerability to therapeutics and the measure of its synthesis in NB explants as prognostic factor of this cancer type.

  2. Systemic distribution, subcellular localization and differential expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors in benign and malignant human tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyi; Mao, Jinghe; Redfield, Samantha; Mo, Yinyuan; Lage, Janice M; Zhou, Xinchun

    2014-10-01

    Five sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PR): S1PR1, S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 (S1PR1-5) have been shown to be involved in the proliferation and progression of various cancers. However, none of the S1PRs have been systemically investigated. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for S1PR1-S1PR5 on different tissues, in order to simultaneously determine the systemic distribution, subcellular localization and expression level of all five S1PRs. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) from 384 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks containing 183 benign and 201 malignant tissues from 34 human organs/systems. Then we performed IHC for all five S1PRs simultaneously on these TMA slides. The distribution, subcellular localization and expression of each S1PR were determined for each tissue. The data in benign and malignant tissues from the same organ/tissue were then compared using the Student's t-test. In order to reconfirm the subcellular localization of each S1PR as determined by IHC, immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed on several malignant cell lines. We found that all five S1PRs are widely distributed in multiple human organs/systems. All S1PRs are expressed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, except S1PR3, whose IHC signals are only seen in the nucleus. Interestingly, the S1PRs are rarely expressed on cellular membranes. Each S1PR is unique in its organ distribution, subcellular localization and expression level in benign and malignant tissues. Among the five S1PRs, S1PR5 has the highest expression level (in either the nucleus or cytoplasm), with S1PR1, 3, 2 and 4 following in descending order. Strong nuclear expression was seen for S1PR1, S1PR3 and S1PR5, whereas S1PR2 and S1PR4 show only weak staining. Four organs/tissues (adrenal gland, liver, brain and colon) show significant differences in IHC scores for the multiple S1PRs (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic), nine (stomach, lymphoid tissues, lung, ovary, cervix, pancreas, skin, soft

  3. Systemic distribution, subcellular localization and differential expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors in benign and malignant human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyi; Mao, Jinghe; Redfield, Samantha; Mo, Yinyuan; Lage, Janice M.; Zhou, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    Aims Five sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PR): S1PR1, S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 (S1PR1-5) have been shown to be involved in the proliferation and progression of various cancers. However, none of the S1PRs have been systemically investigated. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for S1PR1-S1PR5 on different tissues, in order to simultaneously determine the systemic distribution, subcellular localization and expression level of all five S1PRs. Methods We constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) from 384 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks containing 183 benign and 201 malignant tissues from 34 human organs/systems. Then we performed IHC for all five S1PRs simultaneously on these TMA slides. The distribution, subcellular localization and expression of each S1PR were determined for each tissue. The data were then compared in benign and malignant tissues from the same organ/tissue using the student t-test. In order to reconfirm the subcellular localization of each S1PR as determined by IHC, immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed on several malignant cell lines. Results We found that all five S1PRs are widely distributed in multiple human organs/systems. All S1PRs are expressed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, except S1PR3, whose IHC signals are only seen in the nucleus. Interestingly, the S1PRs are rarely expressed on cellular membranes. Each S1PR is unique in its organ distribution, subcellular localization and expression level in benign and malignant tissues. Among the five S1PRs, S1PR5 has the highest expression level (either in nucleus or cytoplasm), with S1PR1, 3, 2 and 4 following in descending order. Strong nuclear expression was seen for S1PR1, S1PR3 and S1PR5, whereas S1PR2 and S1PR4 show only weak staining. Four organs/tissues (adrenal gland, liver, brain and colon) show significant differences in IHC scores for the multiple S1PRs (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic), nine (stomach, lymphoid tissues, lung, ovary, cervix, pancreas

  4. Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which the intact DNA replication machinery contributes to the overall mutation frequencies observed in...normal and malignant breast cells, I have designed experiments to examine the degree of fidelity exhibited during the DNA replication process in both...normal and cancerous breast cells. To accomplish this goal I have isolated a multiprotein DNA replication complex (which we have designated the DNA

  5. Tunneling Nanotubes Provide a Unique Conduit for Intercellular Transfer of Cellular Contents in Human Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Emil; Fujisawa, Sho; Morozov, Alexei; Barlas, Afsar; Romin, Yevgeniy; Dogan, Yildirim; Gholami, Sepideh; Moreira, André L.; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Tunneling nanotubes are long, non-adherent F-actin-based cytoplasmic extensions which connect proximal or distant cells and facilitate intercellular transfer. The identification of nanotubes has been limited to cell lines, and their role in cancer remains unclear. We detected tunneling nanotubes in mesothelioma cell lines and primary human mesothelioma cells. Using a low serum, hyperglycemic, acidic growth medium, we stimulated nanotube formation and bidirectional transfer of vesicles, proteins, and mitochondria between cells. Notably, nanotubes developed between malignant cells or between normal mesothelial cells, but not between malignant and normal cells. Immunofluorescent staining revealed their actin-based assembly and structure. Metformin and an mTor inhibitor, Everolimus, effectively suppressed nanotube formation. Confocal microscopy with 3-dimensional reconstructions of sectioned surgical specimens demonstrated for the first time the presence of nanotubes in human mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma tumor specimens. We provide the first evidence of tunneling nanotubes in human primary tumors and cancer cells and propose that these structures play an important role in cancer cell pathogenesis and invasion. PMID:22427958

  6. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Normal and Malignant Human Oral Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Madhavan, R. Nirmal; Sumesh, P.; Palaniappan, Pl. Rm.; Venkatachalam, P.; Ramachandran, C. R.

    2008-11-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to explore the changes in the vibrational bands of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues in the region 4000-400 cm-1. Significant changes in the spectral features were observed. The spectral changes were the results of characteristics structural alterations at the molecular level in the malignant tissues. These alterations include structural changes of proteins and possible increase of its content, an increase in the nucleic-to-cytoplasm ratio, an increase in the relative amount of DNA, an increase in the rate of phosphorylation process induced by carcinogenesis, a loss of hydrogen bonding of the C-OH groups in the amino acid residues of proteins, a decrease in the relative amount of lipids compared to normal epithelial oral tissues. The results of the present study demonstrate that the FT-IR technique has the feasibility of discriminating malignant from normal tissues and other pathological states in a short period of time and may detect malignant transformation earlier than the standard histological examination stage.

  7. Osteopontin and splice variant expression level in human malignant glioma: radiobiologic effects and prognosis after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Güttler, Antje; Giebler, Maria; Cuno, Peter; Wichmann, Henri; Keßler, Jacqueline; Ostheimer, Christian; Söling, Ariane; Strauss, Christian; Illert, Jörg; Kappler, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk; Bache, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of the hypoxia-associated secreted glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) in the response of malignant glioma to radiotherapy by characterizing OPN and its splice variants in vitro and in patient material. The effect of siRNA knockdown of OPN splice variants on cellular and radiobiologic behavior was analyzed in U251MG cells using OpnS siRNA (inhibition of all OPN splice variants) and OpnAC siRNA (knockdown only of OPNa and OPNc). OPN and splice variant mRNA levels were quantified in archival material of 41 glioblastoma tumor samples. Plasma OPN was prospectively measured in 33 malignant glioma patients. Inhibition of OPNa and OPNc (OpnAC) reduced clonogenic survival in U251MG cells but did not affect proliferation, migration or apoptosis. Knockdown of all OPN splice variants (OpnS) resulted in an even stronger inhibition of clonogenic survival, while cell proliferation and migration were reduced and rate of apoptosis was increased. Additional irradiation had additive effects with both siRNAs. Plasma OPN increased continuously in malignant glioma patients and was associated with poor survival. OPNb is partially able to compensate the effects of OPNa and OPNc knockdown in U251MG cells. High OPN plasma levels at the end of radiotherapy are associated with poor survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete regression of human malignant mesothelioma xenografts following local injection of midkine promoter-driven oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Shuji; Kawasaki, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Norie; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Terada, Nobuyuki; Okamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. Conventional therapies for mesothelioma are generally non-curative, and new treatment paradigms are urgently needed. We hypothesized that the tumor-specific midkine (Mdk) promoter could confer transcriptional targeting to oncolytic adenoviruses for effective treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Methods We analyzed Mdk expression by quantitative RT-PCR in six human mesothelioma cell lines, and tested Mdk promoter activity by luciferase reporter assay. Based on these data, we constructed a replication-selective oncolytic adenovirus, designated AdMdk-E1-iresTK, which contains an Mdk promoter-driven adenoviral E1 gene and HSV-thymidine kinase (TK) suicide gene, and CMV promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene. Selectivity of viral replication and cytolysis were characterized in normal vs. mesothelioma cells in vitro, and intratumoral spread and antitumor efficacy were investigated in vivo. Results Mdk promoter activity was restricted in normal cells, but highly activated in mesothelioma cell lines. AdMdk-E1-iresTK was seen to efficiently replicate, produce viral progeny, and spread in multiple mesothelioma cell lines. Lytic spread of AdMdk-E1-iresTK mediated efficient killing of these mesothelioma cells, and its in vitro cytocidal effect was significantly enhanced by treatment with the prodrug, ganciclovir. Intratumoral injection of AdMdk-E1-iresTK caused complete regression of MESO4 and MSTO human mesothelioma xenografts in athymic mice. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrated intratumoral spread of AdMdk-E1-iresTK-derived signals, which vanished after tumor eradication. Conclusions These data indicate that transcriptional targeting of viral replication by the Mdk promoter represents a promising general strategy for oncolytic virotherapy of cancers with upregulated Mdk expression, including malignant mesothelioma. PMID:20635326

  9. Deregulation of cancer-related miRNAs is a common event in both benign and malignant human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Andliena; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Lüders, Torben; Steinfeld, Israel; Ragle Aure, Miriam; Geisler, Jürgen; Mäkelä, Rami; Nord, Silje; Riis, Margit L H; Yakhini, Zohar; Kleivi Sahlberg, Kristine; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Perälä, Merja; Bukholm, Ida R K; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs, which play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression during carcinogenesis. The role of miRNAs in breast cancer has been thoroughly investigated, and although many miRNAs are identified as cancer related, little is known about their involvement in benign tumors. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression profiles in the two most common types of human benign tumors (fibroadenoma/fibroadenomatosis) and in malignant breast tumors and explored their role as oncomirs and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Here, we identified 33 miRNAs with similar deregulated expression in both benign and malignant tumors compared with the expression levels of those in normal tissue, including breast cancer-related miRNAs such as let-7, miR-21 and miR-155. Additionally, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles were obtained for some of the same samples. Using integrated mRNA/miRNA expression analysis, we observed that overexpression of certain miRNAs co-occurred with a significant downregulation of their candidate target mRNAs in both benign and malignant tumors. In support of these findings, in vitro functional screening of the downregulated miRNAs in non-malignant and breast cancer cell lines identified several possible tumor suppressor miRNAs, including miR-193b, miR-193a-3p, miR-126, miR-134, miR-132, miR-486-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-195 and miR-497, showing reduced growth when re-expressed in cancer cells. The finding of deregulated expression of oncomirs and tumor suppressor miRNAs in benign breast tumors is intriguing, indicating that they may play a role in proliferation. A role of cancer-related miRNAs in the early phases of carcinogenesis and malignant transformation can, therefore, not be ruled out.

  10. MicroRNA-105 inhibits human glioma cell malignancy by directly targeting SUZ12.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Weining; Xu, Shuo; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiale; Yu, Qun; Jiao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yingyi; Lu, Ailin; You, Yongping; Zhang, Junxia; Lu, Xiaoming

    2017-06-01

    Glioma accounts for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors in adults and is highly aggressive. Although various therapeutic approaches have been applied, outcomes of glioma treatment remain poor. MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression. Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs are associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we found that miR-105 is significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. We identified suppressor of Zeste 12 homolog as a novel direct target of miR-105 and showed that suppressor of Zeste 12 homolog protein levels were inversely correlated with the levels of miR-105 expression in clinical specimens. Overexpression of miR-105 inhibited cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, migration, invasion, and drug sensitivity, whereas overexpression of suppressor of Zeste 12 homolog antagonized the tumor-suppressive functions of miR-105. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-105 plays a significant role in tumor behavior and malignant progression, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glioma and other cancers.

  11. Viral Carcinogenesis Beyond Malignant Transformation: EBV in the Progression of Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Coan, Bárbara G.; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer progression begins when malignant cells colonize adjacent sites, and it is characterized by increasing tumor heterogeneity, invasion and dissemination of cancer cells. Clinically, progression is the most relevant stage in the natural history of cancers. A given virus is usually regarded as oncogenic because of its ability to induce malignant transformation of cells. Nonetheless, oncogenic viruses may also be important for the progression of infection-associated cancers. Recently this hypothesis has been addressed because of studies on the contribution of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the aggressiveness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV products modulate cancer progression phenomena, such as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this regard, there are compelling data about the effects of EBV latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs), as well as nontranslated viral RNAs, such as the EBV-encoded small nonpolyadenylated RNAs (EBERs) and viral microRNAs, notably EBV miR-BARTs. The available data on the mechanisms and players involved in the contribution of EBV infection to the aggressiveness of NPC are discussed in this review. Overall, this conceptual framework may be valuable for the understanding of the contribution of some infectious agents in the progression of cancers. PMID:27068530

  12. Estrogen Enhances Malignant Phenotypes in Human Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Tomoki; Ishikawa, Akiko; Kamata, Y U; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshihide

    2016-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SGC) is a common type of salivary gland cancer (SGC). Surgery is the first treatment choice because chemoradiotherapy is usually not effective. Therefore, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. In this study, it was investigated whether the estrogen axis could be a treatment target or not. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) ACCM cells, were used. The specific cell line lacks estrogen receptor (ER). ER was introduced in ACCM cells, and the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) was investigated on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, and cell motility. E2 induced cell proliferation, and the S-phase fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Cell motility was also up-regulated compared to control cells. The estrogen/ER system up-regulated malignant phenotypes in ER-positive ACC, and hormone therapy may have a potential as effective treatment for this malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. GPER mediates estrogen-induced signaling and proliferations in human breast epithelial cells, and normal and malignant breast

    PubMed Central

    Scaling, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (estrogen), through receptor binding and activation, is required for mammary gland development. Estrogen stimulates epithelial proliferation in the mammary gland, promoting ductal elongation and morphogenesis. In addition to a developmental role, estrogen promotes proliferation in tumorigenic settings, particularly breast cancer. The proliferative effects of estrogen in the normal breast and breast tumors are attributed to estrogen receptor α. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously called GPR30) can modulate proliferation in breast cancer cells both positively and negatively depending on cellular context, its role in proliferation in the intact normal or malignant breast remains unclear. Estrogen-induced GPER-dependent proliferation was assessed in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, and an ex vivo organ culture model employing human breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty or tumor resections. Stimulation by estrogen and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 increased the mitotic index in MCF10A cells and proportion of cells in the cell cycle in human breast and breast cancer explants, suggesting increased proliferation. Inhibition of candidate signaling pathways that may link GPER activation to proliferation revealed a dependence on Src, epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by heparin-bound EGF and subsequent ERK phosphorylation. Proliferation was not dependent on matrix metalloproteinase cleavage of membrane bound pro-HB-EGF. The contribution of GPER to estrogen-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells and breast tissue was confirmed by the ability of GPER-selective antagonist G36 to abrogate estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation, and the ability of siRNA knockdown of GPER to reduce estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells. This is the first study to demonstrate GPER-dependent proliferation in primary normal and malignant

  14. The role of CD133 in normal human prostate stem cells and malignant cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Vander Griend, Donald J; Karthaus, Wouter L; Dalrymple, Susan; Meeker, Alan; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the specific cell of origin for prostate cancer is critical to define rational targets for therapeutic intervention and requires the isolation and characterization of both normal human prostate stem cells and prostate cancer-initiating cells (CIC). Single epithelial cells from fresh normal human prostate tissue and prostate epithelial cell (PrEC) cultures derived from them were evaluated for the presence of subpopulations expressing stem cell markers and exhibiting stem-like growth characteristics. When epithelial cell suspensions containing cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133+ are inoculated in vivo, regeneration of stratified human prostate glands requires inductive prostate stromal cells. PrEC cultures contain a small subpopulation of CD133+ cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified CD133+ PrECs self-renew and regenerate cell populations expressing markers of transit-amplifying cells (DeltaNp63), intermediate cells (prostate stem cell antigen), and neuroendocrine cells (CD56). Using a series of CD133 monoclonal antibodies, attachment and growth of CD133+ PrECs requires surface expression of full-length glycosylated CD133 protein. Within a series of androgen receptor-positive (AR+) human prostate cancer cell lines, CD133+ cells are present at a low frequency, self-renew, express AR, generate phenotypically heterogeneous progeny negative for CD133, and possess an unlimited proliferative capacity, consistent with CD133+ cells being CICs. Unlike normal adult prostate stem cells, prostate CICs are AR+ and do not require functional CD133. This suggests that (a) AR-expressing prostate CICs are derived from a malignantly transformed intermediate cell that acquires "stem-like activity" and not from a malignantly transformed normal stem cell and (b) AR signaling pathways are a therapeutic target for prostate CICs.

  15. Elevated osteopontin and thrombospondin expression identifies malignant human breast carcinoma but is not indicative of metastatic status

    PubMed Central

    Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Urquidi, Virginia; Rivard, Amber; Goodison, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Background Our previous characterization of a human breast tumor metastasis model identified several candidate metastasis genes. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) correlated with the metastatic phenotype, whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP-1) correlated with the nonmetastatic phenotype of independent MDA-MB-435 cell lines implanted orthotopically into athymic mice. The aim of the present study was to examine the cellular distribution of these molecules in human breast tissue and to determine whether the relative expression level of these three genes is associated with human breast tumor metastasis. Methods Sixty-eight fresh, frozen specimens including 31 primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 22 nodal metastases, 10 fibroadenomas, and five normal breast tissues were evaluated for OPN expression, TSP-1 expression and TYRP-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to monitor the cellular distribution and to qualitatively assess expression. Quantitative analysis was achieved by enrichment of breast epithelial cells using laser-capture microdissection and subsequent real-time, quantitative PCR. Results The epithelial components of the breast tissue were the source of OPN and TSP-1 expression, whereas TYRP-1 was present in both the epithelial and stromal components. Both OPN and TSP-1 expression were significantly higher in malignant epithelial sources over normal and benign epithelial sources, but no difference in expression levels was evident between primary tumors with or without metastases, nor between primary and metastatic carcinomas. Conclusion Elevated expression of OPN and TSP-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The multiplex analysis of these molecules may enhance our ability to diagnose and/or prognosticate human breast malignancy. PMID:12927044

  16. A Dimeric Mutant of Human Pancreatic Ribonuclease with Selective Cytotoxicity toward Malignant Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Renata; di Gaetano, Sonia; de Lorenzo, Claudia; Grauso, Michela; Monaco, Carmen; Spalletti-Cernia, Daniela; Laccetti, Paolo; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Matousek, Josef; D'Alessio, Giuseppe

    1999-07-01

    Monomeric human pancreatic RNase, devoid of any biological activity other than its RNA degrading ability, was engineered into a dimeric protein with a cytotoxic action on mouse and human tumor cells, but lacking any appreciable toxicity on mouse and human normal cells. This dimeric variant of human pancreas RNase selectively sensitizes to apoptotic death cells derived from a human thyroid tumor. Because of its selectivity for tumor cells, and because of its human origin, this protein represents a potentially very attractive, novel tool for anticancer therapy.

  17. Expression of CD133 confers malignant potential by regulating metalloproteinases in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kohga, Keisuke; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo; Tsunematsu, Hinako; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Sasakawa, Akira; Miyagi, Takuya; Hayashi, Norio

    2010-06-01

    Although CD133 expression is identified as a cancer stem cell marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the detailed characteristics of HCC cells expressing CD133 remain unclear. We examined the malignant characteristics of CD133-expressing HCC cells. CD133-expressing cells could be detected with low frequency in 5 HCC tissues. We derived two different HCC cell lines by (1) transfection of CD133 siRNA in PLC/PRF/5 cells in (CD133si-PLC/PRF/5), and (2) by a magnetic cell sorting method that allowed to divide Huh7 cells into two CD133 positive (+) and negative (-) groups. CD133 knockdown in PLC/PRF/5 cells resulted in a decrease of the mRNA and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)9. We next examined the malignant characteristics related to decreasing MMP-2 and ADAM9 in HCC cells. In CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells, invasiveness and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, which are both related to the activity of MMP-2, were inhibited compared CD133-expressing HCC cells. We previously demonstrated that ADAM9 protease plays critical roles in the shedding of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) which regulates the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural killer cells (NK). Decreasing ADAM9 expression in CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells resulted in an increase in membrane-bound MICA and a decrease in soluble MICA production. Both CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells were susceptible to NK activity, depending on the expression levels of membrane-bound MICA, but CD133-expressing HCC cells were not. These results demonstrate that CD133 expression in HCC cells confers malignant potential which may contribute to the survival of HCC cells. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Iwata, Satoshi

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. {yields} SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. {yields} SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. {yields} The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors containmore » cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.« less

  19. Development of a new high-affinity human antibody with antitumor activity against solid and blood malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sioud, Mouldy; Westby, Phuong; Vasovic, Vlada; Fløisand, Yngvar; Peng, Qian

    2018-04-16

    mAbs have emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, in several malignancies, no effective antitumor mAbs are yet available. Identifying therapeutic mAbs that recognize common tumor antigens could render the treatment widely applicable. Here, a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was sequentially affinity selected against a panel of human cancer cell lines and an antibody fragment (named MS5) that bound to solid and blood cancer cells was identified. The MS5 scFv was fused to the human IgG1 Fc domain to generate an antibody (MS5-Fc fusion) that induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages. In addition, the MS5-Fc antibody bound to primary leukemia cells and induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the majority of analyzed cancer cells, the MS5-Fc antibody induced cell surface redistribution of the receptor complexes, but not internalization, thus maximizing the accessibility of the IgG1 Fc domain to immune effector cells. In vitro stability studies showed that the MS5-Fc antibody was stable after 6 d of incubation in human serum, retaining ∼60% of its initial intact form. After intravenous injections, the antibody localized into tumor tissues and inhibited the growth of 3 different human tumor xenografts (breast, lymphoma, and leukemia). These antitumor effects were associated with tumor infiltration by macrophages and NK cells. In the Ramos B-cell lymphoma xenograft model, the MS5-Fc antibody exhibited a comparable antitumor effect as rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 IgG1 mAb. These results indicate that human antibodies with pan-cancer abilities can be generated from phage display libraries, and that the engineered MS5-Fc antibody could be an attractive agent for further clinical investigation.-Sioud, M., Westby, P., Vasovic, V., Fløisand, Y., Peng, Q. Development of a new high-affinity human antibody with antitumor activity against solid and

  20. In vitro culture of various typed meningiomas and characterization of a human malignant meningioma cell line (HKBMM).

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Isamu; Ishiwata, Chieko; Ishiwata, Emiko; Sato, Yoshiro; Kiguchi, Kazushige; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    We placed on culture the 13 cases of meningiomas, succeeded in making a primary culture of 10 cases and maintained 5 cases in vitro over considerable period of time (over three month), and one cell line derived from a malignant meningioma were established. In the early period of the primary culture, meningioma cells were spindle- or round-shaped cells. In the case of psammomatous type, the cultured cells were characterized as forming psammoma bodies. A cell line designated "HKBMM" was established from a human malignant meningioma occurred from frontal lobe. This line grew well without interruption for 5 years and was subcultivated over 120 times. The cells were spindle and fibrous in shape, and neoplastic and pleomorphic features, and multilayering without contact inhibition. The cells proliferated rapidly, and the population doubling time was about 29 hours. The chromosome number showed a wide distribution of aneuploidy. The mode was in the diploid range. The culture cells were easily transplanted into the subcutis of nude mice and produced the tumor resembling the original tumor.

  1. Human papilloma virus 18 detection in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Goot-Heah, Khor; Kwai-Lin, Thong; Froemming, Gabriele Ruth Anisah; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Nik Mohd Rosdy, Nik Mohd Mazuan; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples. Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA. From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study. The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

  2. Vascular-Associated Muc4/Vwf Co-Localization in Human Conjunctival Malignant Melanoma Specimens-Tumor Metastasis by Migration?

    PubMed

    Kakkassery, Vinodh; Winterhalter, Sibylle; Nick, Ann-Christin; Joachim, Stephanie C; Joussen, Antonia M; Kociok, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether vascular differentiation marker von Willebrand factor (vWf) and proliferation marker KI67 expression correlate with MUC4 localization around stromal tumor vascularization in human conjunctival malignant melanoma (CMM). For the purposes of this study, we analyzed samples from human CMMs (n = 4), conjunctival compound nevi (n = 7), and samples from healthy conjunctiva (n = 7) for MUC1, 4, and 16 by immunohistochemistry. To test CMM vessel association of MUC4, we investigated the co-localization of MUC4 with vWf or KI67 in human CMM specimens (n = 10) by immunohistochemistry. Also, we investigated the MUC4 localization around vessels of healthy conjunctiva (n = 10). The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated membrane-associated mucin expression in epithelia of CMM, nevi and healthy conjunctiva, whereas only MUC4 was localized perivascular in CMM tissue in this preliminary analysis. Co-staining analysis with vWf and KI67 demonstrated MUC4 localization around stromal vessels in human CMM specimens. In contrast, no MUC4 localization has been seen around healthy conjunctiva stroma vessels. MUC4 was detected around vWf/KI67-positive CMM stromal vascular tissue, but not around healthy conjunctival stroma vessels. Therefore, we assume that MUC4 might play a role in tumor cell migration toward vessels inducing metastasis.

  3. Landscape of DNA Virus Associations across Human Malignant Cancers: Analysis of 3,775 Cases Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Tannir, Nizar M.; Williams, Michelle D.; Chen, Yunxin; Yao, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Thompson, Erika J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Weinstein, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of tumor-DNA virus associations in many cancer types has enhanced our knowledge of fundamental oncogenesis mechanisms and provided a basis for cancer prevention initiatives. RNA-Seq is a novel tool to comprehensively assess such associations. We interrogated RNA-Seq data from 3,775 malignant neoplasms in The Cancer Genome Atlas database for the presence of viral sequences. Viral integration sites were also detected in expressed transcripts using a novel approach. The detection capacity of RNA-Seq was compared to available clinical laboratory data. Human papillomavirus (HPV) transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq analysis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, uterine endometrioid carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Detection of HPV by RNA-Seq correlated with detection by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in squamous cell carcinoma tumors of the head and neck. Hepatitis B virus and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected using RNA-Seq in hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric carcinoma tumors, respectively. Integration sites of viral genes and oncogenes were detected in cancers harboring HPV or hepatitis B virus but not in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma. Integration sites of expressed viral transcripts frequently involved known coding areas of the host genome. No DNA virus transcripts were detected in acute myeloid leukemia, cutaneous melanoma, low- and high-grade gliomas of the brain, and adenocarcinomas of the breast, colon and rectum, lung, prostate, ovary, kidney, and thyroid. In conclusion, this study provides a large-scale overview of the landscape of DNA viruses in human malignant cancers. While further validation is necessary for specific cancer types, our findings highlight the utility of RNA-Seq in detecting tumor-associated DNA viruses and identifying viral integration sites that may unravel novel mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23740984

  4. Agonist antibody that induces human malignant cells to kill one another

    PubMed Central

    Yea, Kyungmoo; Zhang, Hongkai; Xie, Jia; Jones, Teresa M.; Lin, Chih-Wei; Francesconi, Walter; Berton, Fulvia; Fallahi, Mohammad; Sauer, Karsten; Lerner, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    An attractive, but as yet generally unrealized, approach to cancer therapy concerns discovering agents that change the state of differentiation of the cancer cells. Recently, we discovered a phenomenon that we call “receptor pleiotropism” in which agonist antibodies against known receptors induce cell fates that are very different from those induced by the natural agonist to the same receptor. Here, we show that one can take advantage of this phenomenon to convert acute myeloblastic leukemic cells into natural killer cells. Upon induction with the antibody, these leukemic cells enter into a differentiation cascade in which as many as 80% of the starting leukemic cells can be differentiated. The antibody-induced killer cells make large amounts of perforin, IFN-γ, and granzyme B and attack and kill other members of the leukemic cell population. Importantly, induction of killer cells is confined to transformed cells, in that normal bone marrow cells are not induced to form killer cells. Thus, it seems possible to use agonist antibodies to change the differentiation state of cancer cells into those that attack and kill other members of the malignant clone from which they originate. PMID:26487683

  5. The relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and characteristics of malignant transformation in human colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Katherine M; O'Connell, Fionnuala; O'Grady, Anthony; Conroy, Ronan M; Leader, Mary B; Byrne, Michael F; Murray, Frank E; Kay, Elaine W

    2004-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a target of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and is implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of COX-2 in pre-malignant colorectal polyps and to assess the relationship between COX-2 and the level of dysplasia in these lesions. Whole polypectomy specimens were retrieved from 123 patients by endoscopic or surgical resection. Following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, the polyps were evaluated histologically for size, type and grade of dysplasia. The extent of COX-2 expression was measured by the avidin-biotin immunohistochemical technique using a monoclonal COX-2 antibody. The extent of COX-2 expression was graded according to percentage epithelial COX-2 expression. The polyps were of the following histological types: 10 hyperplastic, 35 tubular adenomas, 61 tubulovillous adenomas and 17 villous adenomas. Twenty showed mild dysplasia, 65 moderate dysplasia, and 28 focal or severe dysplasia (including eight with focal invasion). The average polyp size was 1.7 cm. Nine hyperplastic polyps were COX-2-negative and one was COX-2-positive. COX-2 expression was more extensive in larger polyps and in polyps with a higher villous component. There was a significant increase in the extent of COX-2 protein with increasing severity of dysplasia. Within a polyp, there was a focal corresponding increase in COX-2 expression within epithelium showing a higher grade of dysplasia. COX-2 expression is related directly to colorectal adenomatous polyp size, type and grade of dysplasia. This suggests that the role of COX-2 in colorectal cancer may be at an early stage in the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence and supports the suggestion that inhibition of COX-2 may be useful chemoprevention for this disease.

  6. Photoacoustic Tomography of Human Hepatic Malignancies Using Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  7. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  8. Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S.; Smith, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182–1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous “antiangiogenic” agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

  9. The inhibition of FGF receptor 1 activity mediates sorafenib antiproliferative effects in human malignant pleural mesothelioma tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Carra, Elisa; Favoni, Roberto E; Würth, Roberto; Marubbi, Daniela; Filiberti, Rosa Angela; Mutti, Luciano; Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica; Daga, Antonio

    2017-05-25

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, characterized by rapid progression and high mortality. Persistence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs, or cancer stem cells) after cytotoxic drug treatment is responsible for tumor relapse, and represents one of the main reasons for the poor prognosis of mesothelioma. In fact, identification of the molecules affecting TIC viability is still a significant challenge. TIC-enriched cultures were obtained from 10 human malignant pleural mesotheliomas and cultured in vitro. Three fully characterized tumorigenic cultures, named MM1, MM3, and MM4, were selected and used to assess antiproliferative effects of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Cell viability was investigated by MTT assay, and cell cycle analysis as well as induction of apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to reveal the modulation of protein expression and the phosphorylation status of pathways associated with sorafenib treatment. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms of the antiproliferative effects of sorafenib in mesothelioma TIC cultures. Sorafenib inhibited cell cycle progression in all cultures, but only in MM3 and MM4 cells was this effect associated with Mcl-1-dependent apoptosis. To investigate the mechanisms of sorafenib-mediated antiproliferative activity, TICs were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) causing, in MM3 and MM4 cells, MEK, ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 phosphorylation. These effects were abolished by sorafenib only in bFGF-treated cells, while a modest inhibition occurred after EGF stimulation, suggesting that sorafenib effects are mainly due to FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibition. Indeed, FGFR1 phosphorylation was inhibited by sorafenib. Moreover, in MM1 cells, which release high levels of bFGF and showed autocrine activation of FGFR1 and constitutive phosphorylation/activation of MEK-ERK1/2, sorafenib induced a more effective antiproliferative response

  10. Coincidence of synteny breakpoints with malignancy-related deletions on human chromosome 3

    PubMed Central

    Kost-Alimova, Maria; Kiss, Hajnalka; Fedorova, Ludmila; Yang, Ying; Dumanski, Jan P.; Klein, George; Imreh, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We have found previously that during tumor growth intact human chromosome 3 transferred into tumor cells regularly looses certain 3p regions, among them the ≈1.4-Mb common eliminated region 1 (CER1) at 3p21.3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 12 mouse orthologous loci revealed that CER1 splits into two segments in mouse and therefore contains a murine/human conservation breakpoint region (CBR). Several breaks occurred in tumors within the region surrounding the CBR, and this sequence has features that characterize unstable chromosomal regions: deletions in yeast artificial chromosome clones, late replication, gene and segment duplications, and pseudogene insertions. Sequence analysis of the entire 3p12-22 revealed that other cancer-associated deletions (regions eliminated from monochromosomal hybrids carrying an intact chromosome 3 during tumor growth and homozygous deletions found in human tumors) colocalized nonrandomly with murine/human CBRs and were characterized by an increased number of local gene duplications and murine/human conservation mismatches (single genes that do not match into the conserved chromosomal segment). The CBR within CER1 contains a simple tandem TATAGA repeat capable of forming a 40-bp-long secondary hairpin-like structure. This repeat is nonrandomly localized within the other tumor-associated deletions and in the vicinity of 3p12-22 CBRs. PMID:12738884

  11. DOK, a cell line established from human dysplastic oral mucosa, shows a partially transformed non-malignant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chang, S E; Foster, S; Betts, D; Marnock, W E

    1992-12-02

    There are many reports of cell lines being established from human oral squamous-cell carcinomas but apparently none of cell lines from dysplastic or "pre-malignant" oral mucosa. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a cell line, DOK (dysplastic oral keratinocyte), from a piece of dorsal tongue showing epithelial dysplasia. The tissue was obtained from a 57-year-old man who was a heavy smoker prior to the appearance of a white patch on his tongue. Eleven years later a squamous-cell carcinoma developed at the site and was excised. Subsequently the remaining dysplasia was removed, and it was from a piece of this that the primary cell cultures which eventually gave rise to DOK were initiated. The DOK line has been single-cell cloned and is apparently immortal. It grows in the absence of 3T3 feeder cells, is anchorage-dependent for growth and is non-tumorigenic in nude mice. The keratin profile of the cells shows a striking similarity to that of the original tongue dysplasia. The karyotype of DOK is aneuploid and complex. By PCR and oligonucleotide hybridization on dot blots, codons 12, 13 and 61 of Ha-ras, Ki-ras and N-ras in DNA extracted from DOK cells were shown to be normal. Immunohistochemistry showed no abnormal, i.e., elevated expression of the onco-suppressor protein p53. Because of its origin and partially transformed phenotype, DOK presents an opportunity to study whether specific carcinogens associated with tobacco and areca nut can cause malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes in vitro.

  12. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872more » cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.« less

  13. DNA Copy Number Changes in Human Malignant Fibrous Histiocytomas by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    Kresse, Stine H.; Ohnstad, Hege O.; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Myklebost, Ola; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, are in general high-grade tumours with extensive chromosomal aberrations. In order to identify recurrent chromosomal regions of gain and loss, as well as novel gene targets of potential importance for MFH development and/or progression, we have analysed DNA copy number changes in 33 MFHs using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Principal findings In general, the tumours showed numerous gains and losses of large chromosomal regions. The most frequent minimal recurrent regions of gain were 1p33-p32.3, 1p31.3-p31.2 and 1p21.3 (all gained in 58% of the samples), as well as 1q21.2-q21.3 and 20q13.2 (both 55%). The most frequent minimal recurrent regions of loss were 10q25.3-q26.11, 13q13.3-q14.2 and 13q14.3-q21.1 (all lost in 64% of the samples), as well as 2q36.3-q37.2 (61%), 1q41 (55%) and 16q12.1-q12.2 (52%). Statistical analyses revealed that gain of 1p33-p32.3 and 1p21.3 was significantly associated with better patient survival (P = 0.021 and 0.046, respectively). Comparison with similar array CGH data from 44 leiomyosarcomas identified seven chromosomal regions; 1p36.32-p35.2, 1p21.3-p21.1, 1q32.1-q42.13, 2q14.1-q22.2, 4q33-q34.3, 6p25.1-p21.32 and 7p22.3-p13, which were significantly different in copy number between the MFHs and leiomyosarcomas. Conclusions A number of recurrent regions of gain and loss have been identified, some of which were associated with better patient survival. Several specific chromosomal regions with significant differences in copy number between MFHs and leiomyosarcomas were identified, and these aberrations may be used as additional tools for the differential diagnosis of MFHs and leiomyosarcomas. PMID:21085701

  14. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of human malignancies: finding order in chaos.

    PubMed

    Shackney, S E; Shankey, T V

    1995-09-01

    The presence of cellular heterogeneity within human tumors has been recognized for many years. Current concepts regarding the clonal origin of human neoplasms, and recent advances in the study of successive genetic changes that occur during tumor evolution may now make it possible to understand in greater depth the biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor heterogeneity at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. In order to explore these concepts further, and to better identify the potential contributions that flow and image cytometry can make to our understanding of tumor heterogeneity, a session of the 1994 ISAC Congress was dedicated to plenary presentations on human cancer cell heterogeneity. Here, we provide a brief overview of the genetic evolutionary progression of human cancers, some considerations of clinically important phenotypic and genotypic markers, and an outline that might serve as a basis for framing relevant issues that are ammenable to further study. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony not understood: All partial Evil, universal Good. (Alexander Pope, Essay on Man, end of Epistle 1).

  15. DHA induces apoptosis of human malignant breast cancer tissues by the TLR-4/PPAR-α pathways

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lijing; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xinyun; Chen, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid for the human body. Evidence has demonstrated that DHA is beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms of DHA mediating apoptosis induction have not been fully elucidated. Thus, in the present study, the activity levels of total-superoxide dismutase (t-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in DHA oil-treated human malignant breast tissues. The results revealed that compared with control, DHA significantly increased the main antioxidant enzymes levels, including t-SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, but decreased the MDA concentration in the DHA oil treated breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, DHA significantly increased the ratio of cyclic (c)AMP/cGMP levels and promoted the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, thus DHA induced breast cancer cell apoptosis. We hypothesized that the levels of TLR-4 and PPAR-α are involved in the antitumorigenesis properties of DHA in breast cancer. The results of the present study hold significance for the further clinical development of DHA oil in breast cancer treatment. PMID:29435026

  16. SPARC Gene Expression is Repressed in Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa) Exposed to or Malignantly Transformed by Cadmium or Arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Jennifer; Yasmin, Tahmina; Sens, Donald A.; Zhou, Xu Dong; Sens, Mary Ann; Garrett, Scott H.; Dunlevy, Jane R.; Cao, Ling; Somji, Seema

    2010-01-01

    SPARC belongs to a class of extracellular matrix-associated proteins that have counteradhesive properties. The ability of SPARC to modulate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions provides a strong rationale for studies designed to determine its expression in cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if SPARC expression was altered in cadmium (Cd+2) and arsenite (As+3) induced bladder cancer and if these alterations were present in archival specimens of human bladder cancer. The expression of SPARC was determined in human parental UROtsa cells, their Cd+2 and As+3 transformed counterparts and derived tumors, and in archival specimens of human bladder cancer using a combination of real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, immunofluoresence localization and immunohistochemical staining. It was demonstrated that SPARC expression was down-regulated in Cd+2 and As+3 transformed UROtsa cells. In addition, the malignant epithelial component of tumors derived from these cell lines were also down-regulated for SPARC expression, but the stromal cells recruited to these tumors was highly reactive for SPARC. This finding was shown to translate to specimens of human bladder cancer where tumor cells were SPARC negative, but stromal cells were positive. Acute exposure of UROtsa cells to both cadmium and arsenite reduced the expression of SPARC through a mechanism that did not involve changes in DNA methylation or histone acetylation. These studies suggest that environmental exposure to As+3 or Cd+2 can alter cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in normal urothelial cells through a reduction in the expression of SPARC. The SPARC associated loss of cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts may participate in the multi-step process of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20837119

  17. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetalmore » bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.« less

  18. Virotherapy of the Malignant U87 Human Glioblastoma in the Orthotopic Xenotransplantation Mouse SCID Model.

    PubMed

    Shchelkunov, S N; Razumov, I A; Kolosova, I V; Romashchenko, A V; Zavjalov, E L

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of glioblastoma virotherapy at intravenous injection of the LIVP-GFP recombinant virus was studied in experimental model of orthotopic xenotransplantation of human glioblastoma cell line U87 to SCID laboratory mice. The LIVP-GFP recombinant virus deficient for thymidine kinase exhibited a significantly greater oncolytic capacity than the original LIVP virus, and an intravenous injection of LIVP-GFP at the early stages of tumorigenesis in mouse brain in most cases resulted in the lysis of the tumor.

  19. The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    1997): The urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in cancer metastasis: a review. Int. J. Cancer 72:1-22. 59. Yebra M, Parry GCN, Str6mblad S...involved in the motility response) (Andreasen et al., 1997; Yebra et al., 1996). The finding that human breast epithelial cells upregulated for OPN...247-255. Xuan JW, Hota C, Shigeyama Y, D’Errico JA, Somerman MJ, and Chambers AF. (1995). J. Cell Biochem., 57, 680-690. Yebra M, Parry GCN

  20. Lipid raft regulates the initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells by modulating β1 integrin clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruifei; Bi, Jiajia; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Ziyi; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xiaoru; Ba, Xueqing; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-08-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading require integrins-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Integrins function through binding to extracellular matrix and subsequent clustering to initiate focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Lipid raft, a liquid ordered plasma membrane microdomain, has been reported to play major roles in membrane motility by regulating cell surface receptor function. Here, we identified that lipid raft integrity was required for β1 integrin-mediated initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells on fibronectin. We found that lipid raft disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to the inability of focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by preventing β1 integrin clustering. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism by which lipid raft regulates β1 integrin clustering and demonstrated that intact lipid raft could recruit and modify some adaptor proteins, such as talin, α-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and FAK. Lipid raft could regulate the location of these proteins in lipid raft fractions and facilitate their binding to β1 integrin, which may be crucial for β1 integrin clustering. We also showed that lipid raft disruption impaired A375 cell migration in both transwell and wound healing models. Together, these findings provide a new insight for the relationship between lipid raft and the regulation of integrins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeted delivery of CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus to malignant melanoma by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jishi; Ma, Dan; Li, Yan; Yang, Yuan; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as intermediate carriers on targeting of P450 gene recombinant adenovirus to malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo. BMSCs were transduced with pAd5-CMV-CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus. BMSC migration was detected by Transwell plates in vitro and by superparamagnetic iron oxide particles in vivo. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis were determined by MTT and immunity fluorescence staining. Anticancer effects were examined by a human melanoma nude mouse model in vivo. BMSCs moved toward A375 cells in Transwell plates. Numerous superparamagnetic MSCs labeled with iron oxide were identified in the peripheral areas of the tumor, but were detected in primary organs by Prussian blue staining. BMSC-CYP2E1 cells mediated a bystander killing effect on CYP2E1-negative A375 cells during coculture (IC50 values for A375 cells cocultured with BMSC-EGFP and BMSC-CYP2E1 were 4.08 and 2.68 mmol/l, respectively). Intravenously injecting CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus-loaded BMSCs in mice with established human melanoma managed to target the tumor site, and BMSCs with forced expression of CYP2E1 inhibited the growth of malignant cells in vivo by activating 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide. BMSCs may serve as a platform of P450 gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for the delivery of chemotherapeutic prodrugs to tumors.

  2. Role of the human papilloma virus in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, A M; Cymet, T

    2002-04-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a public health problem as a sexually transmitted disease and as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of various cancers. The clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and virology that are critical to understanding the process of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia are reviewed. A discussion of the cervical transformation zone and the classification of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia leads into the importance of the Papanicolaou smear in prevention of potentially devastating sequelae of this virus. The role of the immune system in the progression of the disease and how it relates to vaccines, as well as treatment and prevention of HPV, are reviewed.

  3. Role of the human papilloma virus in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, A; Cymet, T

    2002-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a public health problem as a sexually transmitted disease and as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of various cancers. The clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and virology that are critical to understanding the process of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia are reviewed. A discussion of the cervical transformation zone and the classification of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia leads into the importance of the Papanicolaou smear in prevention of potentially devastating sequelae of this virus. The role of the immune system in the progression of the disease and how it relates to vaccines, as well as treatment and prevention of HPV, are reviewed. PMID:11930025

  4. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of dental patients in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-On Pibooniyom

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with cervical and head and neck cancers. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, only a few subtypes are associated with malignancies. HPV 16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types in head and neck cancers. Although it has been proven that some subsets of benign and malignant head and neck lesions are associated with HPV, the general population have very little awareness and knowledge of their association with HPV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of HPV and its links with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of Pakistani dental patients who attended the Dental Department of the Sandeman provincial hospital in Quetta, Pakistan. One hundred and ninety-two patients were recruited and requested to answer a questionnaire. It was revealed that there was a low level of knowledge about HPV and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions among the participants. This result suggested that more education regarding the relationship of HPV in inducing head and neck benign and malignant lesions is required in this group of patients.

  5. Immunohistochemical study on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and high-risk human papilloma virus in the malignant progression of papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Papilloma frequently develops as a benign tumor of the head and neck area, but its potential for malignant transformation has yet to be studied. This study aims to provide basic information for papillomas using the immunohistochemical staining of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and 18. Materials and Methods To evaluate the malignant transformation of papillomas, the selected tissue samples were serially diagnosed with pre-cancerous papilloma (with epithelial dysplasia, pseudo-epitheliomatous hyperplasia) or malignant lesion (squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) after the first diagnosis (squamous papilloma, inverted papilloma). The selected tissues were stained with an antibody to MMP-2 and HPV 16-E7, HPV 18-L1. A statistical analysis was performed according to each transformation step. Results The epithelial layer of papilloma and pre-cancerous papilloma lesions had a similar MMP-2 expression, but that of the malignant lesion had a significantly increased MMP-2 expression. HPV 16 and 18 infection rates were 28.6%, 33.3% and 63.6% in papillomas, pre-cancerous papilloma lesions, and SCC. Conclusions A relatively high MMP-2 expression and HPV 16 or 18 infection of papillomas may be associated with early events in the multistep processes of malignant transformation of papillomas. PMID:24471049

  6. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of a faithful tissue culture model of the benign and malignant human prostate.

    PubMed

    Maund, Sophia Lisette; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna Mae

    2014-02-01

    Few preclinical models accurately depict normal human prostate tissue or primary prostate cancer (PCa). In vitro systems typically lack complex cellular interactions among structured prostatic epithelia and a stromal microenvironment, and genetic and molecular fidelity are concerns in both in vitro and in vivo models. 'Tissue slice cultures' (TSCs) provide realistic preclinical models of diverse tissues and organs, but have not been fully developed or widely utilized for prostate studies. Problems encountered include degeneration of differentiated secretory cells, basal cell hyperplasia, and poor survival of PCa. Here, we optimized, characterized, and applied a TSC model of primary human PCa and benign prostate tissue that overcomes many deficiencies of current in vitro models. Tissue cores from fresh prostatectomy specimens were precision-cut at 300 μm and incubated in a rotary culture apparatus. The ability of varied culture conditions to faithfully maintain benign and cancer cell and tissue structure and function over time was evaluated by immunohistological and biochemical assays. After optimization of the culture system, molecular and cellular responses to androgen ablation and to piperlongumine (PL), purported to specifically reduce androgen signaling in PCa, were investigated. Optimized culture conditions successfully maintained the structural and functional fidelity of both benign and PCa TSCs for 5 days. TSCs exhibited androgen dependence, appropriately undergoing ductal degeneration, reduced proliferation, and decreased prostate-specific antigen expression upon androgen ablation. Further, TSCs revealed cancer-specific reduction of androgen receptor and increased apoptosis upon treatment with PL, validating data from cell lines. We demonstrate a TSC model that authentically recapitulates the structural, cellular, and genetic characteristics of the benign and malignant human prostate, androgen dependence of the native tissue, and cancer-specific response

  7. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus shale gas drilling flow back water

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S.; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation is known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these waste waters, flow back water from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependant. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show a better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. PMID:26210350

  8. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max; Zelikoff, Judith

    2015-10-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining the Origin of Human Germinal Center B Cell-Derived Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Marc; Küppers, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Most human B cell lymphomas originate from germinal center (GC) B cells. This is partly caused by the high proliferative activity of GC B cells and the remodeling processes acting at the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of these cells, i.e., somatic hypermutation and class-switching. Mistargeting of these processes can cause chromosomal translocations, and the hypermutation machinery may also target non-Ig genes. As somatic hypermutation is exclusively active in GC B cells, the presence of somatic mutations in rearranged IgV genes is a standard criterium for a GC or post-GC B cell origin of lymphomas. Beyond this, ongoing somatic hypermutation during lymphoma clone expansion indicates that the lymphoma has an active GC B cell differentiation program. The proto-oncogene BCL6 is specifically expressed in GC B cells and also acquires somatic mutations as a physiological by-product of the somatic hypermutation process, albeit at a lower level than IgV genes. Thus, detection of BCL6 mutations is a further genetic trait of a GC experience of a B cell lymphoma. Typically, B cell lymphomas retain key features of their specific cells of origin, including a differentiation stage-specific gene expression pattern. This is at least partly due to genetic lesions, which "freeze" the lymphoma cells at the differentiation stage at which the transformation occurred. Therefore, identification of the normal B cell subset with the most similar gene expression pattern to a particular type of B cell lymphoma has been instrumental to deduce the precise cell of origin of lymphomas.We present here protocols to analyze human B cell lymphomas for a potential origin from GC B cells by determining the presence of mutations in rearranged IgV genes and the BCL6 gene, and by comparing the gene expression pattern of lymphoma cells with those of normal B cell subsets by genechip or RNA-sequencing analysis.

  10. Detection of increased choline compounds with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy subsequent to malignant transformation of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ackerstaff, E; Pflug, B R; Nelson, J B; Bhujwalla, Z M

    2001-05-01

    In this study, a panel of normal human prostate cells (HPCs) and tumor cells derived from metastases were studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy to determine whether the malignant transformation of HPCs results in the elevation of choline compounds. Although an elevated choline signal has been observed previously in clinical studies, the contribution of the different Cho compounds to this elevation, as well as their quantification, has not been established until now. Here we have shown that HPCs derived from metastases exhibit significantly higher phosphocholine as well as glycerophosphocholine levels compared with normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells. Thus the elevation of the choline peak observed clinically in prostate cancer is attributable to an alteration of phospholipid metabolism and not simply to increased cell density, doubling time, or other nonspecific effects. Androgen deprivation of the androgen receptor-positive cell lines resulted in a significant increase of choline compounds after chronic androgen deprivation of the LNCaP cell line and in a decrease of choline compounds after a more acute androgen deprivation of the LAPC-4 cell line. These data strongly support the use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging to detect the presence of prostate cancer for diagnosis, to detect response subsequent to androgen ablation therapy, and to detect recurrence.

  11. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers and non-malignant diseases in men in Europe: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and non-malignant genital diseases in women is well known and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described. However, less is known about the role of HPV in anal, penile and head and neck cancer, and the burden of malignant and non-malignant HPV-related diseases in men. The objective of this review is to estimate the epidemiological burden of HPV-related cancers and non-malignant diseases in men in Europe. Methods The annual number of new HPV-related cancers in men in Europe was estimated using Eurostat population data and applying cancer incidence rates published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The number of cancer cases attributable to HPV, and specifically to HPV16/18, was calculated based on the most relevant prevalence estimates. The annual number of new cases of genital warts was calculated from the most robust European studies; and latest HPV6/11 prevalence estimates were then applied. A literature review was also performed to retrieve exhaustive data on HPV infection at all anatomical sites under study, as well as incidence and prevalence of external genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and HPV-related cancer trends in men in Europe. Results A total of 72, 694 new cancer cases at HPV-related anatomical sites were estimated to occur each year in men in Europe. 17,403 of these cancer cases could be attributable to HPV, with 15,497 of them specifically attributable to HPV16/18. In addition, between 286,682 and 325,722 new cases of genital warts attributable to HPV6/11were estimated to occur annually in men in Europe. Conclusions The overall estimated epidemiological burden of HPV-related cancers and non-malignant diseases is high in men in Europe. Approximately 30% of all new cancer cases attributable to HPV16/18 that occur yearly in Europe were estimated to occur in men. As in women, the vast majority of HPV-positive cancer in men is related

  12. Health Disparities in the Immunoprevention of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, Amira H.; Skarzynski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes roughly 1.6% of the plus 1.6 million cases of cancer that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to vaccinate all 11- to 12-year-old males and females. In fact, only about 38 and 14% of eligible females and males, respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization. The many factors associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities – including race, age, family income, and patient education – contribute to widespread disparities in vaccine completion and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. However, the impact of current HPV vaccination campaigns is hindered by stagnant immunization rates, which remain far below target levels despite a slow overall increase. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equally distributed across gender, age, demographic, and socioeconomic divisions within the recommended group of vaccine recipients. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving immunization coverage where it is weakest. They should also explore more subtle but potentially

  13. Expression of hemidesmosomal and extracellular matrix proteins by normal and malignant human prostate tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, R. B.; Hao, J.; Knox, J. D.; Dalkin, B. L.; Clark, V.; Cress, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    The progression of prostate carcinoma may be influenced by the biochemical nature of the basal lamina surrounding the primary carcinoma cells. As a first step toward understanding this process, the composition and structure of the basal lamina in normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and human carcinoma were determined. In addition, a comparison was made between the attachments of the normal basal cell to its underlying basal lamina and those made by primary prostate carcinoma. The normal basal cells form both focal adhesions and hemidesmosomal-like structures as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The normal basal cells exhibited a polarized distribution of hemidesmosomal associated proteins including BP180, BP230, HD1, plectin, laminin-gamma 2(B2t), collagen VII, and the corresponding integrin laminin receptors alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4. The expression and distribution pattern of these proteins were retained in the prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. In contrast, the carcinoma cells uniformly lacked hemidesmosomal structures, the integrin alpha 6 beta 4, BP180, laminin-gamma 2 (B2t), and collagen VII but did express BP230 (30%), plectin, HD1 (15%), and the integrin laminin receptors alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1. These results suggest that, although a detectable basal lamina structure is present in carcinoma, its composition and cellular attachments are abnormal. The loss of critical cellular attachments may play a role in influencing the progression potential of prostate carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7778688

  14. Identification of miRNA-103 in the Cellular Fraction of Human Peripheral Blood as a Potential Biomarker for Malignant Mesothelioma – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniel G.; Johnen, Georg; Bryk, Oleksandr; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity and specificity for the early detection of malignant mesothelioma have been described. The use of microRNAs (miRNAs) as minimally-invasive biomarkers has opened new opportunities for the diagnosis of cancer, primarily because they exhibit tumor-specific expression profiles and have been commonly observed in blood of both cancer patients and healthy controls. The aim of this pilot study was to identify miRNAs in the cellular fraction of human peripheral blood as potential novel biomarkers for the detection of malignant mesothelioma. Methodology/Principal Findings Using oligonucleotide microarrays for biomarker identification the miRNA levels in the cellular fraction of human peripheral blood of mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed controls were analyzed. Using a threefold expression change in combination with a significance level of p<0.05, miR-103 was identified as a potential biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used for validation of miR-103 in 23 malignant mesothelioma patients, 17 asbestos-exposed controls, and 25 controls from the general population. For discrimination of mesothelioma patients from asbestos-exposed controls a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 71% were calculated, and for discrimination of mesothelioma patients from the general population a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 76%. Conclusions/Significance The results of this pilot study show that miR-103 is characterized by a promising sensitivity and specificity and might be a potential minimally-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. In addition, our results support the concept of using the cellular fraction of human blood for biomarker discovery. However, for early detection of malignant mesothelioma the feasibility of miR-103 alone or in combination with other biomarkers needs to be analyzed in a prospective study. PMID:22253921

  15. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  16. Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Po-Cheng; Liu, Cyong-Yue; Liu, Po-Yen; Chang, Li-Fu; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Liu, Fu-Chen; Tai, Dar-Fu; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis, has antitumor effects. Because of the limitation of the blood-brain barrier, the Bdph dosage required for treatment of glioma is relatively high. To solve this problem, we developed a local-release system with Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA; Bdph-Wafer), and investigated its antitumor effects. On the basis of in vitro release kinetics, we demonstrated that the Bdph-Wafer released 50% of the available Bdph by the sixth day, and the release reached a plateau phase (90% of Bdph) by the 30th day. To investigate the in situ antitumor effects of the Bdph-Wafer on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we used 2 xenograft animal models—F344 rats (for rat GBM) and nude mice (for human GBM)—which were injected with RG2 and DBTRG-05MG cells, respectively, for tumor formation and subsequently treated subcutaneously with Bdph-Wafers. We observed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, with no significant adverse effects on the rodents. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Bdph on RG2 cells was via the PKC pathway, which upregulated Nurr77 and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, to study the effect of the interstitial administration of Bdph in cranial brain tumor, Bdph-Wafers were surgically placed in FGF-SV40 transgenic mice. Our Bdph-Wafer significantly reduced tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our study showed that p(CPP-SA) containing Bdph delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma. PMID:21565841

  17. Connexin 30 expression inhibits growth of human malignant gliomas but protects them against radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Artesi, Maria; Kroonen, Jerome; Bredel, Markus; Nguyen-Khac, Minh; Deprez, Manuel; Schoysman, Laurent; Poulet, Christophe; Chakravarti, Arnab; Kim, Hyunsoo; Scholtens, Denise; Seute, Tatjana; Rogister, Bernard; Bours, Vincent; Robe, Pierre A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas remain ominous tumors that almost invariably escape treatment. Connexins are a family of transmembrane, gap junction-forming proteins, some members of which were reported to act as tumor suppressors and to modulate cellular metabolism in response to cytotoxic stress. Methods We analyzed the copy number and expression of the connexin (Cx)30 gene gap junction beta-6 (GJB6), as well as of its protein immunoreactivity in several public and proprietary repositories of glioblastomas, and their influence on patient survival. We evaluated the effect of the expression of this gap junction protein on the growth, DNA repair and energy metabolism, and treatment resistance of these tumors. Results The GJB6 gene was deleted in 25.8% of 751 analyzed tumors and mutated in 15.8% of 158 tumors. Cx30 immunoreactivity was absent in 28.9% of 145 tumors. Restoration of Cx30 expression in human glioblastoma cells reduced their growth in vitro and as xenografts in the striatum of immunodeficient mice. Cx30 immunoreactivity was, however, found to adversely affect survival in 2 independent retrospective cohorts of glioblastoma patients. Cx30 was found in clonogenic assays to protect glioblastoma cells against radiation-induced mortality and to decrease radiation-induced DNA damage. This radioprotection correlated with a heat shock protein 90–dependent mitochondrial translocation of Cx30 following radiation and an improved ATP production following this genotoxic stress. Conclusion These results underline the complex relationship between potential tumor suppressors and treatment resistance in glioblastomas and single out GJB6/Cx30 as a potential biomarker and target for therapeutic intervention in these tumors. PMID:25155356

  18. Single-cell sequencing reveals karyotype heterogeneity in murine and human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Bjorn; Taudt, Aaron; Belderbos, Mirjam E; Porubsky, David; Spierings, Diana C J; de Jong, Tristan V; Halsema, Nancy; Kazemier, Hinke G; Hoekstra-Wakker, Karina; Bradley, Allan; de Bont, Eveline S J M; van den Berg, Anke; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter M; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Foijer, Floris

    2016-05-31

    Chromosome instability leads to aneuploidy, a state in which cells have abnormal numbers of chromosomes, and is found in two out of three cancers. In a chromosomal instable p53 deficient mouse model with accelerated lymphomagenesis, we previously observed whole chromosome copy number changes affecting all lymphoma cells. This suggests that chromosome instability is somehow suppressed in the aneuploid lymphomas or that selection for frequently lost/gained chromosomes out-competes the CIN-imposed mis-segregation. To distinguish between these explanations and to examine karyotype dynamics in chromosome instable lymphoma, we use a newly developed single-cell whole genome sequencing (scWGS) platform that provides a complete and unbiased overview of copy number variations (CNV) in individual cells. To analyse these scWGS data, we develop AneuFinder, which allows annotation of copy number changes in a fully automated fashion and quantification of CNV heterogeneity between cells. Single-cell sequencing and AneuFinder analysis reveals high levels of copy number heterogeneity in chromosome instability-driven murine T-cell lymphoma samples, indicating ongoing chromosome instability. Application of this technology to human B cell leukaemias reveals different levels of karyotype heterogeneity in these cancers. Our data show that even though aneuploid tumours select for particular and recurring chromosome combinations, single-cell analysis using AneuFinder reveals copy number heterogeneity. This suggests ongoing chromosome instability that other platforms fail to detect. As chromosome instability might drive tumour evolution, karyotype analysis using single-cell sequencing technology could become an essential tool for cancer treatment stratification.

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in penile malignant tumors: viral genotyping and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isaura Danielli Borges; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Branco Vidal, João Paulo Castello; de Mello, George Castro Figueira; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira

    2015-02-24

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in males has been reported to be between 3.6% and 84%, depending specially on the socioeconomic status. HPV infection has been related as a risk factor for penile cancer. This is a rare tumor, and other risk factors include lack of personal hygiene and men who have not undergone circumcision. Penile cancer is less than 1% of cancers in men in the United States, however, is much more common in some parts of Asia, Africa, and South America, where it accounts for up to 10% of cancers in men. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HPV-DNA in penile cancers in São Luís, Brazil and to correlate the virus presence to histopathological factors. Tumor paraffin samples of 76 patients with penile carcinoma were tested in order to establish the prevalence and distribution of genotypic HPV using PCR/Nested and automated sequencing. To evaluate the association between HPV types and other clinical and morphological variables, a nonparametric ANOVA was performed using a Kruskal Wallis test, and statistical significance was determined to a value of p < 0.05. The average age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 66 years ± 17.10. Regarding location, 65.79% of the tumors were located in the glans, and the most common types were vegetative (34.21%) and squamous (98.68%). Most of the lesions ranged in size from 2.1 to 5.0 cm, presenting Jackson I stage and Broders II degree. It was observed that 32 patients had at least one invaded and/or infiltrated structure. Lymph node involvement was observed in 19.76% of the patients, and 21.05% showed an inflammatory process. In the molecular evaluation, HPV infection was observed in 63.15% of the lesions, and the most common type was HPV 16. From the statistical analysis, it can be verified that the variables were not associated with infection by the HPV virus. Although penile cancer can result from various risk factors that act in synergy, an HPV virus infection is important for the

  20. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rappa, Germana; College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104; Mercapide, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that threemore » distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1

  1. Enhanced Anti-Tumor Effect of Zoledronic Acid Combined with Temozolomide against Human Malignant Glioma Cell Expressing O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Fukai, Junya; Koizumi, Fumiaki; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance. PMID:25111384

  2. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer: relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E; Bartek, J

    1999-04-01

    D-type cyclins are proto-oncogenic components of the 'RB pathway', a G1/S regulatory mechanism centred around the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB) implicated in key cellular decisions that control cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, quiescence, and differentiation. This study focused on immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis of human adult testis and 32 testicular tumours to examine the differential expression and abundance of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 in relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy. In normal testis, the cell type-restricted expression patterns were dominated by high levels of cyclin D3 in quiescent Leydig cells and the lack of any D-type cyclin in the germ cells, the latter possibly representing the only example of normal mammalian cells proliferating in the absence of these cyclins. Most carcinoma-in-situ lesions appeared to gain expression of cyclin D2 but not D1 or D3, while the invasive testicular tumours showed variable positivity for cyclins D2 and D3, but rarely D1. An unexpected correlation with differentiation rather than proliferation was found particularly for cyclin D3 in teratomas, a conceptually significant observation confirmed by massive up-regulation of cyclin D3 in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2/D1 induced to differentiate along the neuronal lineage. These results suggest a possible involvement of cyclin D2 in the early stages of testicular oncogenesis and the striking examples of proliferation-independent expression point to potential dual or multiple roles of the D-type cyclins, particularly of cyclin D3. These findings extend current concepts of the biology of the cyclin D subfamily, as well as of the biology and oncopathology of the human adult testis. Apart from practical implications for the assessment of proliferation and oncogenic aberrations in human tissues and tumours, this study may inspire further research into the emerging role of the cyclin D proteins in the

  3. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrialmore » membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts

  4. Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Egidy, Giorgia; Julé, Sophia; Bossé, Philippe; Bernex, Florence; Geffrotin, Claudine; Vincent-Naulleau, Silvia; Horak, Vratislav; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Panthier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-04-28

    Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations. We compared the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) between normal pig skin melanocytes and melanoma cells from an early pulmonary metastasis of MeLiM minipigs. Tag identification revealed 55 regulated genes, including GNB2L1 which was found upregulated in the melanoma library. In situ hybridisation confirmed GNB2L1 overexpression in MeLiM melanocytic lesions. GNB2L1 encodes the adaptor protein RACK1, recently shown to influence melanoma cell lines tumorigenicity. We studied the expression of RACK1 by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in tissues specimens of normal skin, in cutaneous and metastatic melanoma developped in MeLiM minipigs and in human patients. In pig and human samples, the results were similar. RACK1 protein was not detected in normal epidermal melanocytes. By contrast, RACK1 signal was highly increased in the cytoplasm of all melanocytic cells of superficial spreading melanoma, recurrent dermal lesions and metastatic melanoma. RACK1 partially colocalised with activated PKCalphabeta. In pig metastases, additional nuclear RACK1 did not associate to BDNF expression. In human nevi, the RACK1 signal was low. RACK1 overexpression detected in situ in human melanoma specimens characterized cutaneous and metastatic melanoma raising the possibility that RACK1 can be a potential marker of malignancy in human melanoma. The MeLiM strain provides a relevant model for exploring mechanisms of melanocytic malignant transformation in humans. This study may contribute to a better understanding of melanoma pathophysiology and to progress in diagnosis.

  5. Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Egidy, Giorgia; Julé, Sophia; Bossé, Philippe; Bernex, Florence; Geffrotin, Claudine; Vincent-Naulleau, Silvia; Horak, Vratislav; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Panthier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations. Results We compared the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) between normal pig skin melanocytes and melanoma cells from an early pulmonary metastasis of MeLiM minipigs. Tag identification revealed 55 regulated genes, including GNB2L1 which was found upregulated in the melanoma library. In situ hybridisation confirmed GNB2L1 overexpression in MeLiM melanocytic lesions. GNB2L1 encodes the adaptor protein RACK1, recently shown to influence melanoma cell lines tumorigenicity. We studied the expression of RACK1 by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in tissues specimens of normal skin, in cutaneous and metastatic melanoma developped in MeLiM minipigs and in human patients. In pig and human samples, the results were similar. RACK1 protein was not detected in normal epidermal melanocytes. By contrast, RACK1 signal was highly increased in the cytoplasm of all melanocytic cells of superficial spreading melanoma, recurrent dermal lesions and metastatic melanoma. RACK1 partially colocalised with activated PKCαβ. In pig metastases, additional nuclear RACK1 did not associate to BDNF expression. In human nevi, the RACK1 signal was low. Conclusion RACK1 overexpression detected in situ in human melanoma specimens characterized cutaneous and metastatic melanoma raising the possibility that RACK1 can be a potential marker of malignancy in human melanoma. The MeLiM strain provides a relevant model for exploring mechanisms of melanocytic malignant transformation in humans. This study may contribute to a better understanding of melanoma pathophysiology and to

  6. Ascorbic acid, but not dehydroascorbic acid increases intracellular vitamin C content to decrease Hypoxia Inducible Factor -1 alpha activity and reduce malignant potential in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adam P; Miles, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in malignant tissue is known to contribute to oncogenic progression and is inversely associated with patient survival. Ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in malignant tissue may contribute to aberrant normoxic activity of HIF-1α. While AA supplementation has been shown to attenuate HIF-1α function in malignant melanoma, the use of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as a therapeutic means to increase intracellular AA and modulate HIF-1α function is yet to be evaluated. Here we compared the ability of AA and DHA to increase intracellular vitamin C content and decrease the malignant potential of human melanoma by reducing the activity of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein accumulation was evaluated by western blot and transcriptional activity was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a HIF-1 HRE-luciferase plasmid. Protein expressions and subcellular localizations of vitamin C transporters were evaluated by western blot and confocal imaging. Intracellular vitamin C content following AA, ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P), or DHA supplementation was determined using a vitamin C assay. Malignant potential was accessed using a 3D spheroid Matrigel invasion assay. Data was analyzed by One or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test as appropriate with p<0.05 considered significant. Melanoma cells expressed both sodium dependent vitamin C (SVCT) and glucose (GLUT) transporters for AA and DHA transport respectively, however advanced melanomas responded favorably to AA, but not DHA. Physiological glucose conditions significantly impaired intracellular vitamin C accumulation following DHA treatment. Consequently, A2P and AA, but not DHA treated cells demonstrated lower HIF-1α protein expression and activity, and reduced malignant potential. The ability of AA to regulate HIF-1α was dependent on SVCT2 function and SVCT2 was not significantly inhibited at pH representative of the tumor microenvironment. The use of ascorbic acid as an

  7. Induction of ovarian function by using short-term human menopausal gonadotrophin in patients with ovarian failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Mills, W; Katz, M; McGarrigle, H H; Goldstone, A H

    1993-07-01

    Currently no treatment has proved successful in inducing ovarian steroidogenic and/or gametogenic recovery in patients with haematological malignancies treated by cytotoxic chemotherapy once biochemical failure becomes manifest i.e., when FSH levels exceed 40 IU/L. This paper reports two such cases with classical biochemical ovarian failure in which ovarian function was induced by brief stimulation with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG).

  8. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md. Motarab; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu

    vitro network formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG controlled growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin knockdown induced neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination therapy inhibited invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis as well. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So, combination therapy showed multiple anti-cancer mechanisms in neuroblastoma.« less

  9. Deep sequencing of the small RNA transcriptome of normal and malignant human B cells identifies hundreds of novel microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jima, Dereje D.; Zhang, Jenny; Jacobs, Cassandra; Richards, Kristy L.; Dunphy, Cherie H.; Choi, William W. L.; Yan Au, Wing; Srivastava, Gopesh; Czader, Magdalena B.; Rizzieri, David A.; Lagoo, Anand S.; Lugar, Patricia L.; Mann, Karen P.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Naresh, Kikkeri N.; Evens, Andrew M.; Gordon, Leo I.; Luftig, Micah; Friedman, Daphne R.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Thompson, Michael A.; Gill, Javed I.; Liu, Qingquan; How, Tam; Grubor, Vladimir; Gao, Yuan; Patel, Amee; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jun; Blobe, Gerard C.; Lipsky, Peter E.; Chadburn, Amy

    2010-01-01

    A role for microRNA (miRNA) has been recognized in nearly every biologic system examined thus far. A complete delineation of their role must be preceded by the identification of all miRNAs present in any system. We elucidated the complete small RNA transcriptome of normal and malignant B cells through deep sequencing of 31 normal and malignant human B-cell samples that comprise the spectrum of B-cell differentiation and common malignant phenotypes. We identified the expression of 333 known miRNAs, which is more than twice the number previously recognized in any tissue type. We further identified the expression of 286 candidate novel miRNAs in normal and malignant B cells. These miRNAs were validated at a high rate (92%) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and we demonstrated their application in the distinction of clinically relevant subgroups of lymphoma. We further demonstrated that a novel miRNA cluster, previously annotated as a hypothetical gene LOC100130622, contains 6 novel miRNAs that regulate the transforming growth factor-β pathway. Thus, our work suggests that more than a third of the miRNAs present in most cellular types are currently unknown and that these miRNAs may regulate important cellular functions. PMID:20733160

  10. Pharmacological Activation of Protein Phosphatase 2 A (PP2A): A Novel Strategy to Fight Against Human Malignancies?

    PubMed

    Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Signorile, Anna; De Rasmo, Domenico; Reale, Antonia; Vacca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates multiple cell signaling cascades and its inactivation by viral oncoproteins, mutation of specific structural subunits or upregulation of the cellular endogenous inhibitors may contribute to malignant transformation by regulating specific phosphorylation events. Pharmacological modulation of PP2A activity is becoming an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Some compounds targeting PP2A are able to induce PP2A reactivation and subsequent cell death in several types of cancer. We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed articles focusing on the main item of the review. We selected articles published in indexed journals. The quality of retrieved papers was appraised using the standard bibliometric indicators. One hundred and fourteen papers were included in the review. Twenty-seven papers gave an overview of structure and physiological role of PP2A. Twenty-five papers outlined the role of PP2A in tumor suppression. Forty papers analyzed the mechanism involved in PP2A reactivation by synthetic compounds, and twenty-two papers outlined the capability of natural compounds of restoring PP2A activity and how this could be beneficial. Findings analyzed in this review underline the central role of PP2A as a regulator of cell growth and survival, hence its function as tumor suppressor. The discovery that some compounds, either synthetic or natural, are capable of reactivating PP2A opens up new perspectives for future strategies to fully exploit therapeutic potential in human cancer. Thus, this review could also be of particular interest to pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies for drug design and targeted delivery.

  11. Human fibulin-3 protein variant expresses anti-cancer effects in the malignant glioma extracellular compartment in intracranial xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Chuanjin; Wang, Qingyue; Han, Xiaoxiao; Han, Yong; Xie, Xue-Shun; Chen, Xiong-Hui; Li, Xiang; Siegel, Eric R.; Afrasiabi, Kambiz; Linskey, Mark E.; Zhou, You-Xin; Zhou, Yi-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Decades of cytotoxic and more recently immunotherapy treatments for malignant glioma have had limited success due to dynamic intra-tumoral heterogeneity. The dynamic interplay of cancer cell subpopulations has been found to be under the control of proteins in the cancer microenvironment. EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein (EFEMP1) (also fibulin-3) has the multiple functions of suppressing cancer growth and angiogenesis, while promoting cancer cell invasion. EFEMP1-derived tumor suppressor protein (ETSP) retains EFEMP1’s anti-growth and anti-angiogenic functions while actually inhibiting cancer cell invasion. Methods In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) of an in vitro synthesized protein, ZR30, which is based on the sequence of ETSP, excluding the signaling peptide. Results ZR30 showed the same effects as ETSP in blocking EGFR/NOTCH/AKT signaling pathways, when applied to cultures of multiple GBM cell lines and primary cultures. ZR30’s inhibition of MMP2 activation was shown not only for GBM cells, but also for other types of cancer cells having overexpression of MMP2. A significant improvement in survival of mice with orthotopic human GBM xenografts was observed after a single, intra-tumoral injection of ZR30. Using a model mimicking the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of GBM with cell subpopulations carrying different invasive and proliferative phenotypes, we demonstrated an equal and simultaneous tumor suppressive effect of ZR30 on both tumor cell subpopulations, with suppression of FOXM1 and activation of SEMA3B expressions in the xenografts. Conclusion Overall, the data support a complementary pleiotrophic therapeutic effect of ZR30 acting in the extracellular compartment of GBM. PMID:29290950

  12. Human epididymis protein 4 immunostaining of malignant ascites differentiates cancer of Müllerian origin from gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stiekema, Anna; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Boot, Henk; Broeks, Annegien; Korse, Catharina M; van Driel, Willemien J; Kenter, Gemma G; Lok, Christianne A R

    2017-03-01

    An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Assessment of the presence of mucosal human papillomaviruses in malignant melanomas using combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and chemiluminescent immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ambretti, S; Venturoli, S; Mirasoli, M; La Placa, M; Bonvicini, F; Cricca, M; Zerbini, M; Roda, A; Musiani, M

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of studies aimed at detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in skin cancer have used sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods but the PCR technique, despite its high sensitivity, is not suitable to ascertain whether (i) the presence of HPV can be related only to few cells harbouring the virus, (ii) the presence of HPV is due to a tumour surface contamination and (iii) the presence of HPV is localized in cancer cells, rather than in normal keratinocytes present in the tumour biopsy. In a recent work we have found mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV genotypes in primary melanoma by PCR. To localize mucosal HR-HPV nucleic acids and tumoural melanocytic marker in the same sections of primary melanoma samples in order to understand the relationship between HPVs and melanoma cells. We have developed a very sensitive method that combines an enzyme-amplified fluorescent in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of HPV nucleic acids (types 16 and 18) with a chemiluminescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) method for the detection of the tumoural melanocytic marker HMB-45 sequentially in the same section. Digital images of fluorescent ISH and chemiluminescent IHC were separately recorded, assigned different colours and merged using specific software for image analysis. The combined fluorescent ISH and chemiluminescent IHC demonstrated a sharp colocalization (in the range 60-80%) of HPV nucleic acids and melanoma marker inside the same sections of melanoma biopsies, with a strong specificity and sensitivity. The strong colocalization of mucosal HR-HPV nucleic acids and HMB-45 melanocytic marker emphasized that viral nucleic acids were specifically present in melanoma cells and supported a possible active role of HPV in malignant melanoma.

  14. Effects of simultaneous knockdown of HER2 and PTK6 on malignancy and tumor progression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Natalie; Anastasov, Natasa; Rosemann, Michael; Seiler, Jana; Lohmann, Nadine; Braselmann, Herbert; Mengele, Karin; Schmitt, Manfred; Höfler, Heinz; Aubele, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. One prominent feature of breast cancer is the co- and overexpression of HER2 and protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6). According to the current clinical cancer therapy guidelines, HER2-overexpressing tumors are routinely treated with trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting HER2. Approximately, 30% of HER2-overexpressing breast tumors at least initially respond to the anti-HER2 therapy, but a subgroup of these tumors develops resistance shortly after the administration of trastuzumab. A PTK6-targeted therapy does not yet exist. Here, we show for the first time that the simultaneous knockdown in vitro, compared with the single knockdown of HER2 and PTK6, in particular in the trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells, leads to a significantly decreased phosphorylation of crucial signaling proteins: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 (MAPK 1/3, ERK 1/2) and p38 MAPK, and (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) PTEN that are involved in tumorigenesis. In addition, dual knockdown strongly reduced the migration and invasion of the JIMT-1 cells. Moreover, the downregulation of HER2 and PTK6 led to an induction of p27, and the dual knockdown significantly diminished cell proliferation in JIMT-1 and T47D cells. In vivo experiments showed significantly reduced levels of tumor growth following HER2 or PTK6 knockdown. Our results indicate a novel strategy also for the treatment of trastuzumab resistance in tumors. Thus, the inhibition of these two signaling proteins may lead to a more effective control of breast cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  15. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignantmore » melanoma by fast neutrons.« less

  16. Cigarette smoke induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in normal and malignant human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Ellen; Stinson, Andy; Shan, Lin; Yang, Jin; Gietl, Diana; Albino, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Background Although lung cancer is among the few malignancies for which we know the primary etiological agent (i.e., cigarette smoke), a precise understanding of the temporal sequence of events that drive tumor progression remains elusive. In addition to finding that cigarette smoke (CS) impacts the functioning of key pathways with significant roles in redox homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, cell cycle control, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functioning, our data highlighted a defensive role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) program. The UPR promotes cell survival by reducing the accumulation of aberrantly folded proteins through translation arrest, production of chaperone proteins, and increased degradation. Importance of the UPR in maintaining tissue health is evidenced by the fact that a chronic increase in defective protein structures plays a pathogenic role in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's syndromes, and cancer. Methods Gene and protein expression changes in CS exposed human cell cultures were monitored by high-density microarrays and Western blot analysis. Tissue arrays containing samples from 110 lung cancers were probed with antibodies to proteins of interest using immunohistochemistry. Results We show that: 1) CS induces ER stress and activates components of the UPR; 2) reactive species in CS that promote oxidative stress are primarily responsible for UPR activation; 3) CS exposure results in increased expression of several genes with significant roles in attenuating oxidative stress; and 4) several major UPR regulators are increased either in expression (i.e., BiP and eIF2α) or phosphorylation (i.e., phospho-eIF2α) in a majority of human lung cancers. Conclusion These data indicate that chronic ER stress and recruitment of one or more UPR effector arms upon exposure to CS may play a pivotal role in the etiology or progression of lung cancers, and that phospho-eIF2α and BiP may have diagnostic and

  17. IDH1(R132H) mutation causes a less aggressive phenotype and radiosensitizes human malignant glioma cells independent of the oxygenation status.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jacqueline; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Rot, Swetlana; Kappler, Matthias; Bache, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    In malignant glioma the presence of the IDH1 mutation (IDH1(R132H)) is associated with better clinical outcome. However, it is unclear whether IDH1 mutation is associated with a less aggressive phenotype or directly linked to increased sensitivity to radiotherapy. We determined the influence of IDH1(R132H) mutant protein on proliferation and growth in 3D culture, migration, cell survival and radiosensitivity in vitro under normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (<1% O2) in a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines (U-251MG, U-343MG, LN-229) with stable overexpression of wild-type (IDH1(wt)) and mutated IDH1 (IDH1(R132H)). Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) in glioma cells resulted in slightly decreased cell proliferation, considerably reduced cell migration and caused differences in growth properties in 3D spheroid cultures. Furthermore, IDH1(R132H)-positive cells consistently demonstrated an increased radiosensitivity in human malignant glioma cells U-251MG (DMF10: 1.52, p<0.01 and 1.42, p<0.01), U-343MG (DMF10: 1.78, p<0.01 and 1.75, p<0.01) and LN-229 (DMF10: 1.41, p<0.05 and 1.68, p<0.01) under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. Our data indicate that IDH1(R132H) mutation causes both a less aggressive biological behavior and direct radiosensitization of human malignant glioma cells. Targeting IDH1 appears to be an attractive approach in combination with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F S; Teixeira, L R

    1996-07-01

    Carcinoma of the lung, metastatic breast carcinoma, and lymphoma are responsible for approximately 75% of all malignant pleural effusions. The presence of malignant cells in the pleural fluid or in the parietal pleura confirms the diagnosis. Recently, several authors have proposed the combination of morphometric procedures and quantitative analysis of nucleolar organizer regions stained by silver nitrate. Videothoracoscopy is recommended for patients suspected of having a malignant pleural effusion in whom the diagnosis is not established after two cytologic studies of the fluid and one needle biopsy. The standard treatment is the intrapleural instillation of a chemical agent to produce a pleurodesis. The recommended sclerosant is talc, a tetracycline derivative, or Corynebacterium parvum where it is available. When a patient is not an ideal candidate for chemical pleurodesis, the options include symptomatic treatment, serial thoracentesis, implantation of a pleuroperitoneal shunt, and pleurectomy.

  19. Activation of translation complex eIF4F is essential for the genesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, Svetlana; Li, Shunan; Michalek, Van; Burrichter, David; Peterson, Mark; Perlman, David M; Manivel, J Carlos; Sonenberg, Nahum; Yee, Douglas; Bitterman, Peter B; Polunovsky, Vitaly A

    2004-06-01

    Common human malignancies acquire derangements of the translation initiation complex, eIF4F, but their functional significance is unknown. Hypophosphorylated 4E-BP proteins negatively regulate eIF4F assembly by sequestering its mRNA cap binding component eIF4E, whereas hyperphosphorylation abrogates this function. We found that breast carcinoma cells harbor increases in the eIF4F constituent eIF4GI and hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1 which are two alterations that activate eIF4F assembly. Ectopic expression of eIF4E in human mammary epithelial cells enabled clonal expansion and anchorage-independent growth. Transfer of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation site mutants into breast carcinoma cells suppressed their tumorigenicity, whereas loss of these 4E-BP1 phosphorylation site mutants accompanied spontaneous reversion to a malignant phenotype. Thus, eIF4F activation is an essential component of the malignant phenotype in breast carcinoma.

  20. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cellsmore » Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.« less

  1. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  2. MiR-135 post-transcriptionally regulates FOXO1 expression and promotes cell proliferation in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Wen; Li, Zhang-Jun; Tu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of all skin cancers. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeted repression of transcription and translation and play essential roles during cancer development. Our study showed that miR-135a is upregulated in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines by using Real-time PCR assay. Enforced expression of miR-135a in malignant melanoma cells promotes cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and cell cycle progression, whereas inhibition of miR-135a reverses the function. Additionally, we demonstrated FOXO1 is a direct target of miR-135a and transcriptionally down-regulated by miR-135a. Ectopic expression of miR-135a led to downregulation of the FOXO1 protein, resulting in upregulation of Cyclin D1, and downregulation of P21(Cip1) and P27(Kip1) through AKT pathway. Our findings suggested that miR-135a represents a potential onco-miRNA and plays an important role in malignant melanoma progression by suppressing FOXO1 expression.

  3. Hemostasis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Francis, J L; Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the hemostatic system is involved in the growth and spread of malignant disease. There is an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease in patients with cancers and hemostatic abnormalities are extremely common in such patients. Antihemostatic agents have been successfully used to treat a variety of experimental tumors, and several clinical trials in humans have been initiated. Although metastasis is undoubtedly multifactorial, intravascular coagulation activation and peritumor fibrin deposition seem to be important. The mechanisms by which hemostatic activation facilitates the malignant process remain to be completely elucidated. Of central importance may be the presence on malignant cells of tissue factor and urokinase receptor. Recent studies have suggested that these proteins, and others, may be involved at several stages of metastasis, including the key event of neovascularization. Tissue factor, the principal initiator of coagulation, may have additional roles, outside of fibrin formation, that are central to the biology of some solid tumors.

  4. Inhibition of WNT signaling reduces differentiation and induces sensitivity to doxorubicin in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Suebsoonthron, Junjira; Jaroonwitchawan, Thiranut; Yamabhai, Montarop; Noisa, Parinya

    2017-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common cancers in infancy, arising from the neuroblasts during embryonic development. This cancer is difficult to treat and resistance to chemotherapy is often found; therefore, clinical trials of novel therapeutic approaches, such as targeted-cancer signaling, could be an alternative for a better treatment. WNT signaling plays significant roles in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human neuroblastoma. In this report, WNT signaling of a malignant human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells, was inhibited by XAV939, a specific inhibitor of the Tankyrase enzyme. XAV939 treatment led to the reduction of β-catenin within the cells, confirming its inhibitory effect of WNT. The inhibition of WNT signaling by XAV939 did not affect cell morphology, survival, and proliferation; however, the differentiation and sensitivity to anticancer drugs of human neuroblastoma cells were altered. The treatment of XAV939 resulted in the downregulation of mature neuronal markers, including β-tubulin III, PHOX2A, and PHOX2B, whereas neural progenitor markers (PAX6, TFAP2α, and SLUG) were upregulated. In addition, the combination of XAV939 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells to doxorubicin in both 2D and 3D culture systems. Microarray gene expression profiling suggested numbers of candidate target genes of WNT inhibition by XAV939, in particular, p21, p53, ubiquitin C, ZBED8, MDM2, CASP3, and FZD1, and this explained the enhanced sensitivity of SH-SY5Y cells to doxorubicin. Altogether, these results proposed that the altered differentiation of human malignant neuroblastoma cells by inhibiting WNT signaling sensitized the cells to anticancer drugs. This approach could thus serve as an effective treatment option for aggressive brain malignancy.

  5. Novel BAFF-Receptor Antibody to Natively Folded Recombinant Protein Eliminates Drug-Resistant Human B-cell Malignancies In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Wei, Guowei; Sakamaki, Ippei; Dong, Zhenyuan; Cheng, Wesley A; Smith, D Lynne; Wen, Feng; Sun, Han; Kim, Kunhwa; Cha, Soungchul; Bover, Laura; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: mAbs such as anti-CD20 rituximab are proven therapies in B-cell malignancies, yet many patients develop resistance. Novel therapies against alternative targets are needed to circumvent resistance mechanisms. We sought to generate mAbs against human B-cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R/TNFRSF13C), which has not yet been targeted successfully for cancer therapy. Experimental Design: Novel mAbs were generated against BAFF-R, expressed as a natively folded cell surface immunogen on mouse fibroblast cells. Chimeric BAFF-R mAbs were developed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo monotherapy cytotoxicity. The chimeric mAbs were tested against human B-cell tumor lines, primary patient samples, and drug-resistant tumors. Results: Chimeric antibodies bound with high affinity to multiple human malignant B-cell lines and induced potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against multiple subtypes of human lymphoma and leukemia, including primary tumors from patients who had relapsed after anti-CD20 therapy. Chimeric antibodies also induced ADCC against ibrutinib-resistant and rituximab-insensitive CD20-deficient variant lymphomas, respectively. Importantly, they demonstrated remarkable in vivo growth inhibition of drug-resistant tumor models in immunodeficient mice. Conclusions: Our method generated novel anti-BAFF-R antibody therapeutics with remarkable single-agent antitumor effects. We propose that these antibodies represent an effective new strategy for targeting and treating drug-resistant B-cell malignancies and warrant further development. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1114-23. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Motarab; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2012-08-01

    network formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Bose, Amrita; Riaz, Adeel M; Chaplin, Tracy; Young, Bryan D; Ali, Muhammad; Sugden, David; Thurlow, Johanna K; Cheong, Sok-Ching; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Wan, Hong; Waseem, Ahmad; Parkinson, Eric K; Fortune, Farida; Teh, Muy-Teck

    2009-01-01

    Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients) consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR), expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to 'trace' the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23), were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression. This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation of FOXM1 may be inducing genomic instability through a program of

  8. FOXM1 Upregulation Is an Early Event in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and it Is Enhanced by Nicotine during Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Bose, Amrita; Riaz, Adeel M.; Chaplin, Tracy; Young, Bryan D.; Ali, Muhammad; Sugden, David; Thurlow, Johanna K.; Cheong, Sok-Ching; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Wan, Hong; Waseem, Ahmad; Parkinson, Eric K.; Fortune, Farida; Teh, Muy-Teck

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients) consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR), expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to ‘trace’ the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23), were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression. Conclusions/Significance This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation

  9. Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) tend to develop genomic alterations and progress to a malignant state during long-term in vitro culture. This raises concerns of the clinical safety in using cultured hESCs. However, transformed hESCs might serve as an excellent model to determine the process of embryonic stem cell transition. In this study, ITRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify normal and aberrant karyotypic hESCs proteins from simple to more complex karyotypic abnormalities. We identified and quantified 2583 proteins, and found that the expression levels of 316 proteins that represented at least 23 functional molecular groups were significantly different in both normal and abnormal hESCs. Dysregulated protein expression in epigenetic regulation was further verified in six pairs of hESC lines in early and late passage. In summary, this study is the first large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of the malignant transformation of aberrant karyotypic hESCs. The data generated should serve as a useful reference of stem cell-derived tumor progression. Increased expression of both HDAC2 and CTNNB1 are detected as early as the pre-neoplastic stage, and might serve as prognostic markers in the malignant transformation of hESCs. PMID:24465727

  10. Expression patterns of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and other placentally expressed human endogenous retroviruses along the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Patrier, Sophie; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Massardier, Jérôme; Hajri, Touria; Guillotte, Michèle; Bossus, Marc; Sanlaville, Damien; Golfier, François; Mallet, François

    2016-03-01

    Up to 20% of hydatidiform moles are followed by malignant transformation in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and require chemotherapy. Syncytin-1 is involved in human placental morphogenesis and is also expressed in various cancers. We assessed the predictive value of the expression of Syncytin-1 and its interactants in the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was localized by immunohistochemistry in hydatidiform moles, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and control placentas. The transcription levels of its locus ERVWE1, its interaction partners (hASCT1, hASCT2, TLR4 and DC-SIGN) and two loci (ERVFRDE1 and ERV3) involved the expression of other placental envelopes were assessed by real-time PCR. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was expressed in syncytiotrophoblast of hydatidiform moles with an apical enhancement when compared with normal placentas. Moles with further malignant transformation had a higher staining intensity of Syncytin-1 surface unit C-terminus but the transcription level of its locus ERVWE1 was not different from that of moles with further remission and normal placentas. hASCT1 and TLR4, showed lower transcription levels in complete moles when compared to normal placentas. ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 transcription was down-regulated in hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Variations of Syncytin-1 protein localization and down-regulation of hASCT1 and TLR4 transcription are likely to reflect altered functions of Syncytin-1 in the premalignant context of complete moles. The reduced transcription in gestational trophoblastic diseases of ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, which expression during normal pregnancy is differentially regulated by promoter region methylation, suggest a joint dysregulation mechanism in malignant context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Melanocytoma-like melanoma may be the missing link between benign and malignant uveal melanocytic lesions in humans and dogs: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zoroquiain, Pablo; Mayo-Goldberg, Erin; Alghamdi, Sarah; Alhumaid, Sulaiman; Perlmann, Eduardo; Barros, Paulo; Mayo, Nancy; Burnier, Miguel N

    2016-12-01

    The cutoff presented in the current classification of canine melanocytic lesions by Wilcock and Pfeiffer is based on the clinical outcome rather than morphological concepts. Classification of tumors based on morphology or molecular signatures is the key to identifying new therapies or prognostic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze morphological findings in canine melanocytic lesions based on classic malignant morphologic principles of neoplasia and to compare these features with human uveal melanoma (HUM) samples. In total, 64 canine and 111 human morphologically malignant melanocytic lesions were classified into two groups (melanocytoma-like or classic melanoma) based on the presence or absence of M cells, respectively. Histopathological characteristics were compared between the two groups using the χ-test, t-test, and multivariate discriminant analysis. Among the 64 canine tumors, 28 (43.7%) were classic and 36 (56.3%) were melanocytoma-like melanomas. Smaller tumor size, a higher degree of pigmentation, and lower mitotic activity distinguished melanocytoma-like from classic tumors with an accuracy of 100% for melanocytoma-like lesions. From the human series, only one case showed melanocytoma-like features and had a low risk for metastasis characteristics. Canine uveal melanoma showed a morphological spectrum with features similar to the HUM counterpart (classic melanoma) and overlapped features between uveal melanoma and melanocytoma (melanocytoma-like melanoma). Recognition that the subgroup of melanocytoma-like melanoma may represent the missing link between benign and malignant lesions could help explain the progression of uveal melanoma in dogs; these findings can potentially be translated to HUM.

  12. Immunohistochemical evidence of ubiquitous distribution of the metalloendoprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Gregor; Mengele, Karin; Yfanti, Christina; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Hellmann, Daniela; Welk, Anita; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Rosner, Marsha Rich; Tang, Wei-Jen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2008-11-01

    Immunohistochemical evidence of ubiquitous distribution of the metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cells is presented. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a multi-organ tissue microarray (pancreas, lung, kidney, central/peripheral nervous system, liver, breast, placenta, myocardium, striated muscle, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen) and on a cell microarray of 31 tumor cell lines of different origin, as well as trophoblast cells and normal blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. IDE protein was expressed in all the tissues assessed and all the tumor cell lines except for Raji and HL-60. Trophoblast cells and granulocytes, but not normal lymphocytes, were also IDE-positive.

  13. Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloendoprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Gregor; Mengele, Karin; Yfanti, Christina; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Hellmann, Daniela; Welk, Anita; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Rosner, Marsha Rich; Tang, Wei-Jen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cells is presented. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a multi-organ tissue microarray (pancreas, lung, kidney, central/peripheral nervous system, liver, breast, placenta, myocardium, striated muscle, bone marrow, thymus, spleen) and on a cell microarray encompassing 31 tumor cell lines of different origin plus trophoblast cells, and normal blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. IDE protein is expressed by all of the tissues assessed and in all of the tumor cell lines except Raji and HL-60; trophoblast cells and granulocytes but not normal lymphocytes are also IDE-positive. PMID:18783335

  14. Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Characteristics of Freshly Excised Normal and Malignant Human Skin Tissues.

    PubMed

    Mirbeik-Sabzevari, Amir; Ashinoff, Robin; Tavassolian, Negar

    2018-06-01

    Millimeter waves have recently gained attention for the evaluation of skin lesions and the detection of skin tumors. Such evaluations heavily rely on the dielectric contrasts existing between normal and malignant skin tissues at millimeter-wave frequencies. However, current studies on the dielectric properties of normal and diseased skin tissues at these frequencies are limited and inconsistent. In this study, a comprehensive dielectric spectroscopy study is conducted for the first time to characterize the ultra-wideband dielectric properties of freshly excised normal and malignant skin tissues obtained from skin cancer patients having undergone Mohs micrographic surgeries at Hackensack University Medical Center. Measurements are conducted using a precision slim-form open-ended coaxial probe in conjunction with a millimeter-wave vector network analyzer over the frequency range of 0.5-50 GHz. A one-pole Cole-Cole model is fitted to the complex permittivity dataset of each sample. Statistically considerable contrasts are observed between the dielectric properties of malignant and normal skin tissues over the ultra-wideband millimeter-wave frequency range considered.

  15. Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum induces inhibition of free radicals and enhanced phototoxicity in human melanoma cells under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Menichini, G; Alfano, C; Marrelli, M; Toniolo, C; Provenzano, E; Statti, G A; Nicoletti, M; Menichini, F; Conforti, F

    2013-04-01

    Our interest continues in discovering phytocomplexes from medicinal plants with phototoxic activity against human melanoma cells; thus the aim of the present study was to assess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and phototoxic activity of Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum, and relate these properties to the plant's chemical composition. Components of H. perforatum subsp. perforatum were extracted by hydroalcoholic solution and chemical profiles of preparations (HyTE-3) performed by HPTLC. Linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH tests were used to assess antioxidant activity, while MTT assay allowed evaluation of anti-proliferative activity with respect to A375 human melanoma cells after irradiation with UVA dose, 1.8 J/cm(2) . Inhibition of nitric oxide production of macrophages was also investigated. HyTE-3 indicated better antioxidant activity with β-carotene bleaching test in comparison to DPPH assay (IC50 = 0.89 μg/ml); significant phototoxicity in A375 cells at 78 μg/ml concentration resulted in cell destruction of 50%. HyTE-3 caused significant dose-related inhibition of nitric oxide production in murine monocytic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with IC50 value of 342 μg/ml. The H. perforatum subsp. perforatum-derived product was able to suppress proliferation of human malignant melanoma A375 cells; extract together with UVA irradiation enhanced phototoxicity. This biological activity of antioxidant effects was combined with inhibition of nitric oxide production. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Retinoids induce differentiation and downregulate telomerase activity and N-Myc to increase sensitivity to flavonoids for apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Arabinda; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2009-03-01

    Human malignant neuroblastoma is characterized by poor differentiation and uncontrolled proliferation of immature neuroblasts. Retinoids such as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-CRA), and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) at low doses are capable of inducing differentiation, while flavonoids such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GST) at relatively high dose can induce apoptosis. We used combination of retinoid and flavonoid for controlling growth of malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cells were treated with a retinoid (1 microM ATRA, 1 microM 13-CRA, or 0.5 microM 4-HPR) for 7 days and then with a flavonoid (25 microM EGCG or 25 microM GST) for 24 h. Treatment of cells with a low dose of a retinoid for 7 days induced neuronal differentiation with downregulation of telomerase activity and N-Myc but overexpression of neurofilament protein (NFP) and subsequent treatment with a relatively high dose of a flavonoid for 24 h increased apoptosis in the differentiated cells. Besides, retinoids reduced the levels of inflammatory and angiogenic factors. Apoptosis was associated with increases in intracellular free [Ca2+], Bax expression, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activities of calpain and caspases. Decreases in expression of calpastatin (endogenous calpain inhibitor) and baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis repeat containing (BIRC) proteins (endogenous caspase inhibitors) favored apoptosis. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with EGCG activated caspase-8, indicating induction of the receptor-mediated pathway of apoptosis. Based on our observation, we conclude that combination of a retinoid and a flavonoid worked synergistically for controlling the malignant growth of human neuroblastoma cells.

  17. Microbiome and Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Plottel, Claudia S.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge is insufficient to explain why only a proportion of individuals exposed to environmental carcinogens or carrying a genetic predisposition to cancer develop disease. Clearly, other factors must be important and one such element that has recently received attention is the human microbiome, the residential microbes including Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, and viruses that colonize humans. Here, we review principles and paradigms of microbiome-related malignancy, as illustrated by three specific microbial-host interactions. We review the effects of the microbiota on local and adjacent-neoplasia, present the estrobolome model of distant effects, and discuss the complex interactions with a latent virus leading to malignancy. These are separate facets of a complex biology interfacing all the microbial species we harbor from birth onward toward early reproductive success and eventual senescence. PMID:22018233

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of ¹²³/¹³¹I-Iochlonicotinamide as a novel SPECT probe for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2015-05-01

    Malignant melanoma expresses a highly aggressive metastasis. Early diagnosis of malignant melanoma is important for patient survival. Radiolabeled benzamides and nicotinamides have been reported to be attractive candidates for malignant melanoma diagnosis as they bind to melanin, a characteristic substance that displays in malignant melanoma, and show high tumor accumulation and retention. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel (123/131)I-labeled nicotinamide derivative that specifically binds to melanin. (123/131)I-Iochlonicotinamide was prepared with good radiochemical yield (50-70%, decay corrected) and high specific radioactivity (50-80 GBq/μmol). (131)I-Iochlonicotinamide exhibited good in vitro stability (radiochemical purity >95% after a 24-h incubation) in human serum. High uptake of (123/131)I-Iochlonicotinamide in B16F0 melanoma cells compared to that in A375 amelanotic cells demonstrated its selective binding to melanin. Intravenous administration of (123/131)I-Iochlonicotinamide in a melanoma-bearing mouse model revealed high uptake in melanotic melanoma and high tumor-to-muscle ratio. MicroSPECT scan of (123/131)I-Iochlonicotinamide injected mice also displayed high contrast tumor imaging as compared with normal organs. The radiation-absorbed dose projection for the administration of (131)I-Iochlonicotinamide to human was based on the results of biodistribution study. The effective dose appears to be approximately 0.44 mSv/MBq(-1). The specific binding of (123/131)I-Iochlonicotinamide to melanin along with a prolonged tumor retention and acceptable projected human dosimetry suggest that it may be a promising theranostic agent for treating malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and bleomycin: an in vitro study using human malignant testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Kucuksayan, Ertan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols used for testicular cancer; however, side-effects are common. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in a number of malignancies. However, to date no study has been carried out to elucidate its anticancer activity and interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of curcumin, bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on apoptotic signaling pathways. Curcumin (20 µM), bleomycin (400 µg/ml) and H2O2 (400 µM) incubation for 24 h decreased the viability of NTera-2 cells, and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, Bax and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels and decreased Bcl-2 levels. The concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin induced caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities to a greater extent in NTera-2 cells than the use of each drug alone. Our observations suggest that the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptotic signaling pathways are synergistic. Therefore, we propose to use curcumin together with bleomycin to decrease its therapeutic dose and, therefore, its side-effects.

  20. The status of the art of human malignant glioma management: the promising role of targeting tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica

    2012-10-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and malignant form of brain cancer, but the current available multimodality treatments yield poor survival improvement. Thus, innovative therapeutic strategies represent the challenging topic for glioblastoma management. Multidisciplinary advances, supporting current standard of care therapies and investigational trials that reveal potential drug targets for glioblastoma are reviewed. A radical change in glioblastoma therapeutic approaches could arise from the identification of cancer stem cells, putative tumor-initiating cells involved in tumor initiation, progression and resistance, as innovative drug target. Still controversial identification of markers and molecular regulators in glioma tumor-initiating cells and novel approaches targeting these cells are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of cancer stem cell properties of CD24 and CD26-positive human malignant mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Hiroto; Naito, Motohiko; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on CD24 and CD26 for further analysis of CSC properties in MM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were correlated with chemoresistance, cell growth, and invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were also correlated with several cancer related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of each marker was correlated with different CSC property in Meso1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of ERK by EGF was regulated by expression of CD26, but not CD24. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos-related malignancy characterized by rapid growth and poor prognosis. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that several cancer stem cell (CSC) markers correlated with CSCmore » properties in MM cells. Among these markers, we focused on two: CD24, the common CSC marker, and CD26, the additional CSC marker. We further analyzed the CSC properties of CD24 and CD26-positve MM cells. We established RNAi-knockdown cells and found that these markers were significantly correlated with chemoresistance, proliferation, and invasion potentials in vitro. Interestingly, while Meso-1 cells expressed both CD24 and CD26, the presence of each of these two markers was correlated with different CSC property. In addition, downstream signaling of these markers was explored by microarray analysis, which revealed that their expressions were correlated with several cancer-related genes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK by EGF stimulation was significantly affected by the expression of CD26, but not CD24. These results suggest that CD24 and CD26 differentially regulate the CSC potentials of MM and could be promising targets for CSC-oriented therapy.« less

  2. Prognostic role of miR-9 expression in various human malignant neoplasms: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Luo, Ziyan; Peng, Hongxia; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant microRNA expression has the potential to be used for predicting survival and treatment response of malignant neoplasms. In recent years, the role of miR-9 had been investigated in various types of cancers, and it was found that the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. Hence, in this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of miR-9 in various types of tumors. Eligible studies were identified through a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE and then were assessed by further quality evaluation. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for overall survival (OS) were calculated to investigate the association between miR-9 expression and cancer prognosis. The pooled results of eight published studies showed that elevated miR-9 was a predictor of poor survival of various carcinomas, with pooled HR of 3.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.96-4.73) for OS. Subgroup analysis on the basis of tumor type, sample size, and HR estimate also showed that high levels of miR-9 were also significantly correlated with OS. In addition, when the subgroup analyses were grouped by follow-up time, it was found that the elevated expression of miR-9 was associated with a lower long-term survival when the follow-up time was >60 months, but there was no correlation between the outcomes and those patients whose follow-up time was <60 months. Funnel plots and Egger's tests revealed that there was no obvious publication bias risk in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that higher expression level of miR-9 significantly predicted worse OS in various carcinomas and that miR-9 may act as a novel biomarker in the prognosis of malignant neoplasms.

  3. Prognostic role of miR-9 expression in various human malignant neoplasms: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Luo, Ziyan; Peng, Hongxia; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant microRNA expression has the potential to be used for predicting survival and treatment response of malignant neoplasms. In recent years, the role of miR-9 had been investigated in various types of cancers, and it was found that the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. Hence, in this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of miR-9 in various types of tumors. Eligible studies were identified through a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE and then were assessed by further quality evaluation. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for overall survival (OS) were calculated to investigate the association between miR-9 expression and cancer prognosis. The pooled results of eight published studies showed that elevated miR-9 was a predictor of poor survival of various carcinomas, with pooled HR of 3.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.96–4.73) for OS. Subgroup analysis on the basis of tumor type, sample size, and HR estimate also showed that high levels of miR-9 were also significantly correlated with OS. In addition, when the subgroup analyses were grouped by follow-up time, it was found that the elevated expression of miR-9 was associated with a lower long-term survival when the follow-up time was >60 months, but there was no correlation between the outcomes and those patients whose follow-up time was <60 months. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests revealed that there was no obvious publication bias risk in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that higher expression level of miR-9 significantly predicted worse OS in various carcinomas and that miR-9 may act as a novel biomarker in the prognosis of malignant neoplasms. PMID:27284255

  4. Major improvement of the reference method of the French drug resistance network for P-glycoprotein detection in human haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Huet, Sylvie; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Laurand, Armelle; Robert, Jacques

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve significantly the sensitivity and specificity of the flow cytometric assay of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) implemented and validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network [Huet S, Marie JP, Gualde N, Robert J. Reference method for detection of Pgp mediated multidrug resistance in human hematological malignancies: a method validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network. Cytometry 1998;34:248-56] in cells displaying low level of resistance. Fluoresceine-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and propidium iodide were respectively replaced by phycoerythrin-conjugated Mabs and Sytox green. The removal of erythrocytes and granulocytes by density gradient was replaced by the lysis of erythrocytes after Mab incubation. Using these conditions, Pgp could be detected in the K-H30 line, which was negative in former studies, with Mab/Control ratios increasing by 3.7- to 5.9-fold, and Mab/Control ratios in the parental sensitive K562 line still ranging between 0.8 and 1.2. When tested on 16 blood samples from patients presenting haematological malignancies, six samples presented low positivity, which was not detected with the former method, while 10 samples remained negative with the two methods. Pgp was specifically detected in pathological blood cells in the six positive samples.

  5. Separation of malignant human breast cancer epithelial cells from healthy epithelial cells using an advanced dielectrophoresis-activated cell sorter (DACS).

    PubMed

    An, Jaemin; Lee, Jangwon; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Byungkyu

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we successfully separated malignant human breast cancer epithelial cells (MCF 7) from healthy breast cells (MCF 10A) and analyzed the main parameters that influence the separation efficiency with an advanced dielectrophoresis (DEP)-activated cell sorter (DACS). Using the efficient DACS, the malignant cancer cells (MCF 7) were isolated successfully by noninvasive methods from normal cells with similar cell size distributions (MCF 10A), depending on differences between their material properties such as conductivity and permittivity, because our system was able to discern the subtle differences in the properties by generating continuously changed electrical field gradients. In order to evaluate the separation performance without considering size variations, the cells collected from each outlet were divided into size-dependent groups and counted statistically. Following that, the quantitative relative ratio of numbers between MCF 7 and MCF 10A cells in each size-dependent group separated by the DEP were compared according to applied frequencies in the range 48, 51, and 53 MHz with an applied amplitude of 8 V(pp). Finally, under the applied voltage of 48 MHz-8 V(pp) and a flow rate of 290 microm/s, MCF 7 and MCF 10A cells were separated with a maximum efficiency of 86.67% and 98.73% respectively. Therefore, our suggested system shows it can be used for detection and separation of cancerous epithelial cells from noncancerous cells in clinical applications.

  6. A natural product-like JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor induces apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Vellaisamy, Kasipandi; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Chiu, Pauline; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Han, Quan-Bin; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, and has been suggested as a potential molecular target for anti-melanoma therapeutics. However, few JAK2 inhibitors were being tested for melanoma therapy. In this study, eight amentoflavone analogues were evaluated for their activity against human malignant melanoma cells. The most potent analogue, compound 1, inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in human melanoma cells, but had no discernible effect on total JAK2 and STAT3 levels. A cellular thermal shift assay was performed to identify that JAK2 is engaged by 1 in cell lysates. Moreover, compound 1 showed higher antiproliferative activity against human melanoma A375 cells compared to a panel of cancer and normal cell lines. Compound 1 also activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, which are markers of apoptosis, and suppressed the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Finally, compound 1 induced apoptosis in 80% of treated melanoma cells. To our knowledge, compound 1 is the first amentoflavone-based JAK2 inhibitor to be investigated for use as an anti-melanoma agent. PMID:28570563

  7. Dielectric properties of human normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue: in vivo and ex vivo measurements from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Ann P; Lazebnik, Mariya; Bertram, John M; Converse, Mark C; Hagness, Susan C; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2007-08-07

    Hepatic malignancies have historically been treated with surgical resection. Due to the shortcomings of this technique, there is interest in other, less invasive, treatment modalities, such as microwave hepatic ablation. Crucial to the development of this technique is the accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of human liver tissue at microwave frequencies. To this end, we characterized the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic human liver tissues from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Analysis of our data at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz indicates that the dielectric properties of ex vivo malignant liver tissue are 19 to 30% higher than normal tissue. The differences in the dielectric properties of in vivo malignant and normal liver tissue are not statistically significant (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 16% higher than normal). Also, the dielectric properties of in vivo normal liver tissue at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are 16 to 43% higher than ex vivo. No statistically significant differences were found between the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo malignant tissue (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 28% higher than normal). We report the one-pole Cole-Cole parameters for ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue in this frequency range. We observe that wideband dielectric properties of in vivo liver tissue are different from the wideband dielectric properties of ex vivo liver tissue, and that the in vivo data cannot be represented in terms of a Cole-Cole model. Further work is needed to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the observed wideband trends in the in vivo liver data.

  8. siRNA - Mediated LRP/LR knock-down reduces cellular viability of malignant melanoma cells through the activation of apoptotic caspases.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Thalia M; Vania, Leila; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2018-07-01

    The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  10. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuousmore » low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term

  12. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promotermore » activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant

  13. Malignant hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Hyam; Barlow, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The history, clinical presentation, and management of malignant hyperpyrexia are presented. The aetiology seems to be associated with some inherited abnormality which affects the movement and binding of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm, and mitochondria. Whether this is a primary muscular defect or secondary to some trophic neural influence is yet to be established. The subjects carrying the abnormal trait show evidence of a myopathy which is subclinical in most instances and revealed only by estimation of serum CPK or biopsy. In some families where the myopathy is clinically obvious there may be, in addition, a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities. A plea is made for routine monitoring of temperature during anaesthesia and for procainamide or procaine to be readily available in all operating theatres. A history of anaesthetic deaths in a family calls for special care, and, if the serum CPK is elevated, suxamethonium and halothane are to be avoided. Families with orthopaedic and muscular abnormalities are at increased risk and should have estimation of serum CPK before surgery. As a bonus of this study it is suggested that serum CPK estimations be used to screen pigs for selective breeding and so eliminate the disease, which causes soft exudative pork. Images PMID:4708457

  14. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal associationmore » is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.« less

  15. Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Paul G.; Vohra, Nasreen A.; Ghansah, Tomar; Sarnaik, Amod A.; Pilon-Thomas, Shari A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most common human tumors encountered worldwide. The majority of GI cancers are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and in the subset of patients undergoing resection, few are cured. There is only a modest improvement in survival with the addition of modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Due to an increasing global cancer burden, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies to improve outcomes. It is well known that cancers possess diverse strategies to evade immune detection and destruction. This has led to the incorporation of various immunotherapeutic strategies, which enable reprogramming of the immune system to allow effective recognition and killing of GI tumors. Methods A review was conducted of the results of published clinical trials employing immunotherapy for esophageal, gastroesophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Results Monoclonal antibody therapy has come to the forefront in the past decade for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Immunotherapeutic successes in solid cancers such as melanoma and prostate cancer have led to the active investigation of immunotherapy for GI malignancies, with some promising results. Conclusions To date, monoclonal antibody therapy is the only immunotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for GI cancers. Initial trials validating new immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccination-based and adoptive cell therapy strategies, for GI malignancies have demonstrated safety and the induction of antitumor immune responses. Therefore, immunotherapy is at the forefront of neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies for the treatment and eradication of GI malignancies. PMID:23302905

  16. A French observational study describing the use of human polyvalent immunoglobulins in hematological malignancy-associated secondary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, Omar; Viallard, Jean-François; Choquet, Sylvain; Royer, Bruno; Bauduer, Frédéric; Decaux, Olivier; Crave, Jean-Charles; Fardini, Yann; Clerson, Pierre; Levy, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    To describe the characteristics of patients suffering from secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) associated with hematological malignancies (HM), who started immunoglobulins replacement therapy (IgRT), physicians' expectations regarding IgRT and IgRT modalities. Non-interventional, prospective French cross-sectional study. The analysis included 231 patients (66±12 years old) suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) (N=64), chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) (N=84), aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (aNHL) (N=32), indolent NHL (N=39), acute leukemia (N=6), Hodgkin disease (N=6). Of the HM, 47% were currently treated, 42% were relapsing or refractory, 23% of patients had received an autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant and 5% an allograft. Serum immunoglobulins trough levels in 195 individuals were less than 5g/L in 68.7% of cases. Most patients had a history of recurrent infections. Immunoglobulin dose was about 400 mg/kg/month. Half of patients started with subcutaneous infusion. When starting IgRT, physicians mainly expected to prevent severe and moderate infections. They also anticipated improvement in quality of life and survival which is beyond evidence-based medicine. NHL is a frequent condition motivating IgRT besides well recognized indications. Physicians mainly based the decision of starting IgRT on hypogammaglobulinemia and recurrence of infections but, irrespective of current recommendations, were also prepared to start IgRT prophylactically even in the absence of a history of infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The quinone methide aurin is a heat shock response inducer that causes proteotoxic stress and Noxa-dependent apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Angela L; Qiao, Shuxi; Lesson, Jessica L; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Park, Sophia L; Seanez, Carol M; Gokhale, Vijay; Cabello, Christopher M; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-01-16

    Pharmacological induction of proteotoxic stress is rapidly emerging as a promising strategy for cancer cell-directed chemotherapeutic intervention. Here, we describe the identification of a novel drug-like heat shock response inducer for the therapeutic induction of proteotoxic stress targeting malignant human melanoma cells. Screening a focused library of compounds containing redox-directed electrophilic pharmacophores employing the Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder(TM) PCR Array technology as a discovery tool, a drug-like triphenylmethane-derivative (aurin; 4-[bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one) was identified as an experimental cell stress modulator that causes (i) heat shock factor transcriptional activation, (ii) up-regulation of heat shock response gene expression (HSPA6, HSPA1A, DNAJB4, HMOX1), (iii) early unfolded protein response signaling (phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein)), (iv) proteasome impairment with increased protein-ubiquitination, and (v) oxidative stress with glutathione depletion. Fluorescence polarization-based experiments revealed that aurin displays activity as a geldanamycin-competitive Hsp90α-antagonist, a finding further substantiated by molecular docking and ATPase inhibition analysis. Aurin exposure caused caspase-dependent cell death in a panel of human malignant melanoma cells (A375, G361, LOX-IMVI) but not in non-malignant human skin cells (Hs27 fibroblasts, HaCaT keratinocytes, primary melanocytes) undergoing the aurin-induced heat shock response without impairment of viability. Aurin-induced melanoma cell apoptosis depends on Noxa up-regulation as confirmed by siRNA rescue experiments demonstrating that siPMAIP1-based target down-regulation suppresses aurin-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of apoptotic elimination of malignant melanoma cells using the quinone methide-derived heat shock response inducer aurin. © 2015 by The

  18. The Quinone Methide Aurin Is a Heat Shock Response Inducer That Causes Proteotoxic Stress and Noxa-dependent Apoptosis in Malignant Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Angela L.; Qiao, Shuxi; Lesson, Jessica L.; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Park, Sophia L.; Seanez, Carol M.; Gokhale, Vijay; Cabello, Christopher M.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological induction of proteotoxic stress is rapidly emerging as a promising strategy for cancer cell-directed chemotherapeutic intervention. Here, we describe the identification of a novel drug-like heat shock response inducer for the therapeutic induction of proteotoxic stress targeting malignant human melanoma cells. Screening a focused library of compounds containing redox-directed electrophilic pharmacophores employing the Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinderTM PCR Array technology as a discovery tool, a drug-like triphenylmethane-derivative (aurin; 4-[bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one) was identified as an experimental cell stress modulator that causes (i) heat shock factor transcriptional activation, (ii) up-regulation of heat shock response gene expression (HSPA6, HSPA1A, DNAJB4, HMOX1), (iii) early unfolded protein response signaling (phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein)), (iv) proteasome impairment with increased protein-ubiquitination, and (v) oxidative stress with glutathione depletion. Fluorescence polarization-based experiments revealed that aurin displays activity as a geldanamycin-competitive Hsp90α-antagonist, a finding further substantiated by molecular docking and ATPase inhibition analysis. Aurin exposure caused caspase-dependent cell death in a panel of human malignant melanoma cells (A375, G361, LOX-IMVI) but not in non-malignant human skin cells (Hs27 fibroblasts, HaCaT keratinocytes, primary melanocytes) undergoing the aurin-induced heat shock response without impairment of viability. Aurin-induced melanoma cell apoptosis depends on Noxa up-regulation as confirmed by siRNA rescue experiments demonstrating that siPMAIP1-based target down-regulation suppresses aurin-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of apoptotic elimination of malignant melanoma cells using the quinone methide-derived heat shock response inducer aurin. PMID:25477506

  19. Upregulation of SQSTM1/p62 contributes to nickel-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haishan; Zhu, Junlan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liping; Gu, Jiayan; Xie, Qipeng; Jin, Honglei; Che, Xun; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chao; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lyu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-10-02

    Chronic lung inflammation is accepted as being associated with the development of lung cancer caused by nickel exposure. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that lead to a nickel-induced sustained inflammatory microenvironment that causes transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells is of high significance. In the current studies, we identified SQSTM1/p62 as a novel nickel-upregulated protein that is important for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF expression, subsequently resulting in transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that nickel exposure induced SQSTM1 protein upregulation in human lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. The SQSTM1 upregulation was also observed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies revealed that the knockdown of SQSTM1 expression dramatically inhibited transformation of human lung epithelial cells upon chronic nickel exposure, whereas ectopic expression of SQSTM1 promoted such transformation. Mechanistic studies showed that the SQSTM1 upregulation by nickel was the compromised result of upregulating SQSTM1 mRNA transcription and promoting SQSTM1 protein degradation. We demonstrated that nickel-initiated SQSTM1 protein degradation is mediated by macroautophagy/autophagy via an MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 axis, whereas RELA is important for SQSTM1 transcriptional upregulation following nickel exposure. Furthermore, SQSTM1 upregulation exhibited its promotion of nickel-induced cell transformation through exerting an impetus for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF mRNA stability. Consistently, the MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 autophagic cascade acted as an inhibitory effect on nickel-induced TNF expression and cell transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel SQSTM1 regulatory network that promotes a nickel-induced tumorigenic effect in human bronchial epithelial cells, which is negatively controlled by an autophagic cascade following nickel exposure.

  20. Upregulation of SQSTM1/p62 contributes to nickel-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishan; Zhu, Junlan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liping; Gu, Jiayan; Xie, Qipeng; Jin, Honglei; Che, Xun; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chao; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lyu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic lung inflammation is accepted as being associated with the development of lung cancer caused by nickel exposure. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that lead to a nickel-induced sustained inflammatory microenvironment that causes transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells is of high significance. In the current studies, we identified SQSTM1/p62 as a novel nickel-upregulated protein that is important for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF expression, subsequently resulting in transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that nickel exposure induced SQSTM1 protein upregulation in human lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. The SQSTM1 upregulation was also observed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies revealed that the knockdown of SQSTM1 expression dramatically inhibited transformation of human lung epithelial cells upon chronic nickel exposure, whereas ectopic expression of SQSTM1 promoted such transformation. Mechanistic studies showed that the SQSTM1 upregulation by nickel was the compromised result of upregulating SQSTM1 mRNA transcription and promoting SQSTM1 protein degradation. We demonstrated that nickel-initiated SQSTM1 protein degradation is mediated by macroautophagy/autophagy via an MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 axis, whereas RELA is important for SQSTM1 transcriptional upregulation following nickel exposure. Furthermore, SQSTM1 upregulation exhibited its promotion of nickel-induced cell transformation through exerting an impetus for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF mRNA stability. Consistently, the MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 autophagic cascade acted as an inhibitory effect on nickel-induced TNF expression and cell transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel SQSTM1 regulatory network that promotes a nickel-induced tumorigenic effect in human bronchial epithelial cells, which is negatively controlled by an autophagic cascade following nickel exposure. PMID:27467530

  1. Bio-inactivation of human malignant cells through highly responsive diluted colloidal suspension of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Roberta V.; Silva-Caldeira, Priscila P.; Pereira-Maia, Elene C.; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Ardisson, José D.; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    2016-04-01

    containing these MNPs at concentrations varying within a narrower range from 2.5 to 10 mg L-1, typically under an AMF of 15 kA m-1 at 356 kHz, indicate efficient cytotoxic activity against malignant cells and inhibition of cell growth, even at very low hyperthermally induced temperature increases. The IC50 value varied with time, reaching 3.5 mg L-1 after 10 min under the AMF. Our results effectively demonstrate new prospective uses for such nanoparticles in advanced medical practices in oncology.

  2. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transportermore » recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or

  3. Functional activity and tumor-specific expression of dual oxidase 2 in pancreatic cancer cells and human malignancies characterized with a novel monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghzong; Antony, Smitha; Hewitt, Stephen M; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Sherry X; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Juhasz, Agnes; Lu, Jiamo; Liu, Han; Doroshow, James H; Roy, Krishnendu

    2013-04-01

    Dual oxidase 2 (Duox2), one of the seven members of the NADPH oxidase gene family, plays a critical role in generating H2O2 for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and as an integral part of the host defense system of the respiratory epithelium and the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that the regulation of Duox2 expression is under the control of pro-inflammatory cytokines and that Duox2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the inflammation-related tissue injury that occurs in two pre-malignant, inflammatory conditions: chronic pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Because no reliable Duox antibodies are commercially available, we report the development of a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) to Duox2 (clone Duox S-12) and its use for the characterization of Duox2 expression in human tumors, tumor cell lines and normal tissues. Duox S-12 specifically detected both endogenously- and ectopically-expressed Duox2 protein by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry (where both membranous and cytoplasmic staining were present). Duox2 expression detected by Duox S-12 was functionally coupled to the generation of H(2)O(2) in pancreatic cancer cells that expressed Duox2 and its cognate maturation factor DuoxA2. Although Duox S-12 recognizes ectopically expressed Duox1 protein because of the extensive amino acid homology between Duox1 and Duox2, the lack of substantial Duox1 mRNA expression in human tumors (except thyroid cancer) allowed us to evaluate Duox2 expression across a wide range of normal and malignant tissues by immuno-histochemistry. Duox2 was expressed at elevated levels in many human cancers, most notably tumors of the prostate, lung, colon and breast while brain tumors and lymphomas demonstrated the lowest frequency of expression. The Duox-specific monoclonal antibody described here provides a promising tool for the further examination of the role of Duox-dependent reactive oxygen production in

  4. Development of a Preclinical Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Ewing Sarcoma and Other Human Malignant Bone Disease Using Advanced In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batey, Michael A.; Almeida, Gilberto S.; Wilson, Ian; Dildey, Petra; Sharma, Abhishek; Blair, Helen; Hide, I. Geoff; Heidenreich, Olaf; Vormoor, Josef; Maxwell, Ross J.; Bacon, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2−/−/γc−/− mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000–5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised “malignant” bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which

  5. Visible to near-infrared refractive properties of freshly-excised human-liver tissues: marking hepatic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Giannios, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G.; Matiatou, Maria; Stasinos, Konstantinos; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, George C.; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index is an optical constant that plays a significant role in the description of light-matter interactions. When it comes to biological media, refraction is understudied despite recent advances in the field of bio-optics. In the present article, we report on the measurement of the refractive properties of freshly excised healthy and cancerous human liver samples, by use of a prism-coupling technique covering the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Novel data on the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index of human liver tissues are presented. The magnitude of the real and imaginary part of the refractive index is correlated with hepatic pathology. Notably, the real index contrast is pointed out as a marker of discrimination between normal liver tissue and hepatic metastases. In view of the current progress in optical biosensor technologies, our findings may be exploited for the development of novel surgical and endoscopic tools. PMID:27297034

  6. Natural diterpenes from coffee, cafestol and kahweol induce apoptosis through regulation of specificity protein 1 expression in human malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Several clinical studies such as immunotherapy, gene therapy and molecular targeting agents have been tried for treatment of malignant mesothelioma, however, there is no application for effective clinical treatment. Coffee has various biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activities. The therapeutic activities of the bioactive compounds in coffee was sugested to influence intracellular signaling of MPM. Regarding to the cancer-related functions, In this study, suppression of Sp1 protein level followed by induction of MSTO-211H cell apoptosis by cafestol and kahweol were investigated in oreder to determine Sp1's potential as a significant target for human MPM therapy as well. Methods Cells were treated separately with final concentration of cafestol and kahweol and the results were analyzed by MTS assay, DAPI staining, PI staining, luciferase assay, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Results Viability of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were decreased, and apoptotic cell death was increased in MSTO-211H as a result of cafestol and kahweol treatment. Cafestol and kahweol increased Sub-G1 population and nuclear condensation in MSTO-211H cells. Roles of Sp1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis of the MSTO-211H cells by the Sp1 inhibitor of Mithramycin A were previously confirmed. Cafestol and kahweol significantly suppressed Sp1 protein levels. Kahweol slightly attenuated Sp1 mRNA, while Cafestol did not affect in MSTO-211H cells. Cafestol and kahweol modulated the promoter activity and protein expression level of the Sp1 regulatory genes including Cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and Survivin in mesothelioma cells. Apoptosis signaling cascade was activated by cleavages of Bid, Caspase-3, and PARP with cafestol and by upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-xl by kahweol. Conclusions Sp1 can be a novel molecular target of

  7. Estrogen contributes to the onset, persistence, and malignant progression of cervical cancer in a human papillomavirus-transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Brake, Tiffany; Lambert, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major etiological agents for cervical cancer, but other factors likely contribute to cervical cancer, because these cancers commonly arise decades after initial exposure to HPV. Estrogen is thought to be one such cofactor; however, its temporal requirements in human cervical cancer are not known. Here we evaluate the temporal requirements of estrogen in cervical carcinogenesis in a mouse model for HPV-associated cervical cancer. Tumors arising in HPV16 transgenic mice treated with estrogen for 9 months were greatly increased in their size compared with tumors developing after 6 months of estrogen treatment. HPV16 transgenic mice treated 6 months with estrogen followed by 3 months without exogenous estrogen had significantly fewer tumors and the tumors were smaller and less aggressive than those arising in mice treated the full 9 months. Importantly, cervical cancers that arose in the mice treated the first 6 of 9 months with estrogen must have regressed, based upon the reduced incidence of cancers in these mice compared with those treated for 6 months with estrogen, then immediately analyzed. We conclude that estrogen plays a critical role not only in the genesis of cervical cancer but also in its persistence and continued development in this mouse model. These findings raise the clinically relevant possibility that, if human cervical cancer has a similar dependence on estrogen for continued tumor growth, then antiestrogen therapy may be effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:15699322

  8. Fisetin suppresses malignant proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma through inhibition of Met/Src signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Shu; Qin, Xing-Jun; Dai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavonoid and has been indicated as a novel anti-cancer agent in several types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of fisetin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. Here, we report that fisetin significantly inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in OSCC (UM-SCC-23 and Tca-8113) cancer cell lines. Further analysis demonstrates that fisetin also inhibits Met/Src signaling pathways using the PathScan ® receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) Signaling Antibody Array Kit. Fisetin resulted in decreased basal expression of Met and Src protein in UM-SCC-23 cancer cell lines, which validated by western blot. A student's t -test (two-tailed) was used to compare differences between groups. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) protein in OSCC cells. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the mechanism of fisetin and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for human OSCC by blocking the Met/Src signaling pathways.

  9. Complex refractive index of normal and malignant human colorectal tissue in the visible and near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Giannios, Panagiotis; Koutsoumpos, Spyridon; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Matiatou, Maria; Zografos, George C; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    A multi-wavelength prism coupling refractometer is utilized to measure the angular reflectance of freshly excised human intestinal tissue specimens. Based on reflectance data, the real and imaginary part of the refractive index is calculated via Fresnel analysis for three visible (blue, green, red) and two near-infrared (963 nm and 1551 nm) wavelengths. Averaged values of the complex refractive index and corresponding Cauchy dispersion fits are given for the mucosa, submucosa and serosa layers of the colorectal wall at the normal state. The refractive constants of tumorous and normal mucosa are then cross-compared for the indicative cases of one patient diagnosed with a benign polyp and three patients diagnosed with adenocarcinomas of different phenotype. Significant index contrast exists between the normal and diseased states, indicating the potential use of refractive index as a marker of colorectal dysplasia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador. PMID:28717342

  11. Vitamin K1 enhances sorafenib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of human malignant glioma cells by blocking the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The combined effects of anticancer drugs with nutritional factors against tumor cells have been reported previously. This study characterized the efficacy and possible mechanisms of the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K1 (VK1) on glioma cell lines. Methods We examined the effects of sorafenib, VK1 or their combination on the proliferation and apoptosis of human malignant glioma cell lines (BT325 and U251) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) assay. The signaling pathway changes were detected by western blotting. Results Sorafenib, as a single agent, showed antitumor activity in a dose-dependent manner in glioma cells, but the effects were more pronounced when used in combination with VK1 treatment. Sorafenib in combination with VK1 treatment produced marked potentiation of growth inhibition and apoptosis, and reduced expression of phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the expression levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were significantly reduced. Conclusions Our findings indicated that VK1 enhanced the cytotoxicity effect of sorafenib through inhibiting the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in glioma cells, and suggested that sorafenib in combination with VK1 maybe a new therapeutic option for patients with gliomas. PMID:22520038

  12. Gene signatures distinguish stage-specific prostate cancer stem cells isolated from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate lesions and predict the malignancy of human tumors.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Stefania; Jachetti, Elena; Morosini, Sara; Grioni, Matteo; Piras, Ignazio Stefano; Pala, Mauro; Bulfone, Alessandro; Freschi, Massimo; Bellone, Matteo; Galli, Rossella

    2013-09-01

    The relevant social and economic impact of prostate adenocarcinoma, one of the leading causes of death in men, urges critical improvements in knowledge of the pathogenesis and cure of this disease. These can also be achieved by implementing in vitro and in vivo preclinical models by taking advantage of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs). The best-characterized mouse model of prostate cancer is the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. TRAMP mice develop a progressive lesion called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that evolves into adenocarcinoma (AD) between 24 and 30 weeks of age. ADs often metastasize to lymph nodes, lung, bones, and kidneys. Eventually, approximately 5% of the mice develop an androgen-independent neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma. Here we report the establishment of long-term self-renewing PCSC lines from the different stages of TRAMP progression by application of the neurosphere assay. Stage-specific prostate cell lines were endowed with the critical features expected from malignant bona fide cancer stem cells, namely, self-renewal, multipotency, and tumorigenicity. Notably, transcriptome analysis of stage-specific PCSCs resulted in the generation of well-defined, meaningful gene signatures, which identify distinct stages of human tumor progression. As such, TRAMP-derived PCSCs represent a novel and valuable preclinical model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to prostate adenocarcinoma and for the identification of molecular mediators to be pursued as therapeutic targets.

  13. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dalgo Aguilar, Paola; Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador.

  14. Human epidemiology: A review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos, other naturally occurring silicates, and man-made mineral fibers. The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers. Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics, other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of themore » adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects. Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air.« less

  15. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  16. Gene expression network regulated by DNA methylation and microRNA during microcystin-leucine arginine induced malignant transformation in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Qiang; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yan; He, Li-Xiong; Huang, Yu-Jing; Shu, Wei-Qun; Cao, Jia; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2018-06-01

    Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group. DNA methylation sequencing analysis showed that 2592 CpG sites differentially methylated in promoter or the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of genes, while DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3a) and DNA methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3b) were dramatically up-regulated. Functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that significantly changed mRNAs and microRNAs were mainly involved in the formation of cancer, proliferation, invasion, migration and metabolism. MiRNA-mRNA network and mRNA-mRNA network analysis showed that hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-331-3p, hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, coiled-coil domain containing 180 (CCDC180), melanoma antigen gene family member D1 (MAGED1), membrane spanning 4-domains A7 (MS4A7), hephaestin like 1 (HEPHL1), BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-like motif containing, cell death inducer (BLID), matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5), adipogenesis regulatory factor (ADIRF), formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHDC1), protein kinase CAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit beta (PRKAR2B), nodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN), myosin light chain kinase 3 (MYLK3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and zinc finger protein 704 (ZNF704) were key miRNAs and genes in the malignant transformation induced by MC-LR in L02 cells. Moreover, we found that expression of MYLK3, EGFR and ZNF704 were

  17. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 3,5-Di-t-butyl catechol is a potent human ryanodine receptor 1 activator, not suitable for the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lacava, Caterina; Michalek-Sauberer, Andrea; Kraft, Birgit; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Sipos, Elisabeth; Höller, Carmen; Kress, Hans Georg; Fusi, Fabio; Weigl, Lukas G

    2012-07-01

    3,5-Di-t-butyl catechol (DTCAT) releases Ca(2+) from rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles. Hence, it is a candidate for use as a substitute for halothane or caffeine in the in vitro contracture test for the diagnosis of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). To characterize the effect of DTCAT at cell level, Ca(2+) release experiments were performed on cultured, human skeletal muscle myotubes using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fura2-AM. DTCAT was also assayed in the in vitro contracture test on human skeletal muscle bundles obtained from individuals diagnosed susceptible (MHS), normal (MHN) or equivocal for halothane (MHEH) and compared to the standard test substances caffeine and halothane. DTCAT increased, in a concentration-dependent manner and with a higher efficacy as compared to caffeine, the free, intracellular Ca(2+) levels of cultured MHN and MHS skeletal muscle myotubes. This effect was similar in both types of myotubes and involved the release of Ca(2+) from SR stores as well as Ca(2+)-influx from the extracellular space. Inhibition of ryanodine receptors either with ryanodine or with ruthenium red markedly reduced DTCAT-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration while abolishing that induced by caffeine. In MHN skeletal muscle bundles, DTCAT induced contractures with an EC(50) value of 160 ± 91 μM. However, the sensitivity of MHS or MHEH muscles to DTCAT was similar to that of MHN muscles. In conclusion, DTCAT is not suitable for the diagnosis of MH susceptibility due to its failure to discriminate between MHN and MHS muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hexavalent chromium induces malignant transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells via ROS-dependent activation of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Turcios, Lilia; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. Studies have shown that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic activity by targeting the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The present study examined the role of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Results showed that Cr(VI) induces ROS generation in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Cr(VI) caused a significant increase of miR-21 expression associated with an inhibition of PDCD4 expression. Notably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the Cr(VI)-induced miR-21 elevation. Stable knockdown of miR-21 or overexpression of PDCD4 in BEAS-2B cells significantly reduced the Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) induced inhibition of PDCD4 suppressed downstream E-cadherin protein expression, but promoted β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. We also found an increased miR-21 level and decreased PDCD4 expression in xenograft tumors generated with chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells. In addition, stable knockdown of miR-21 and overexpression of PDCD4 reduced the tumorogenicity of chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27323401

  20. Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell-derived exosomes stimulate dendrite-like outgrowths and modify the differentiation of A375 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon; Ahn, Eun Sook; Kim, Yunjoo

    2015-04-01

    The identification of small vesicles released by many cell types as tools of intercellular communication is proposed. Here, we identify SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived exosomes comprised of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II), Hsp90 and flotillin-1. Our data also suggest that, when applied extracellularly, exosomes released from neuronal cells stimulate dendrite-like outgrowth and melanogenesis of A375 melanoma cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) activation. These results suggest a modification of differentiation of melanocyte by the treatment of neuronal cell exosomes. Since exosomes from neuronal cells have the capacity to affect melanoma cells, they could be generally implicated in intercellular communication between different types of cells. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Expression of complement membrane regulators membrane cofactor protein (CD46), decay accelerating factor (CD55), and protectin (CD59) in human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, A.; Junnikkala, S.; Hakulinen, J.; Timonen, T.; Meri, S.

    1996-01-01

    Gliomas are malignant brain tumors, which, despite recent progress in surgical and radiological treatment, still have a poor prognosis. Since gliomas apparently resist immunological clearance mechanisms, we became interested in examining bow gliomas resist killing by the human complement system. The resistance of human cells to complement-mediated damage is, in large part, mediated by specific inhibitors of complement:membrane cofactor protein (CD46), decay-accelerating factor (CD55), and protectin (CD59). In the present study we examined the expression of complement regulators in 14 human glioma tumors and in 7 glioma cell lines (U251, U87, HS683, U373, U138, U118, and H2). Protectin was found to be strongly expressed by all glioma tumors and cell lines. Northern blotting analysis demonstrated the typical pattern of four to five protectin mRNAs in the glioma cells. Except for blood vessels, the expression of decay-accelerating factor was weak or absent in the tumors in situ, whereas in the cell lines its expression varied, ranging from negative to intermediate. Membrane cofactor protein was moderately expressed by all the cell lines but only weakly in the tumors. Cell-killing experiments demonstrated that the glioma cell lines were exceptionally resistant to C-mediated lysis. Five of the seven cell lines (U373, HS683, U118, U138, and H2) resisted complement lysis under conditions where most other cell lines were sensitive to killing. Neutralization experiments using specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that protectin was functionally the most important complement regulator in the glioma cells. The killing of the U87 and U251 cells could be significantly increased by a blocking anti-protectin monoclonal antibody, whereas for the other cell lines only moderate or no response was observed. The H2 cell line resisted killing by all antibodies and by complement. These results show that protectin is the most important complement regulator on human glioma cells. The

  2. δ-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX concentration correlates with histopathologic markers of malignancy in human gliomas: the need for quantitative fluorescence-guided resection to identify regions of increasing malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pablo A.; Kim, Anthony; Brantsch, Marco; Niu, Carolyn; Moses, Ziev B.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.; Harris, Brent T.

    2011-01-01

    Extent of resection is a major goal and prognostic factor in the treatment of gliomas. In this study we evaluate whether quantitative ex vivo tissue measurements of δ-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) identify regions of increasing malignancy in low- and high-grade gliomas beyond the capabilities of current fluorescence imaging in patients undergoing fluorescence-guided resection (FGR). Surgical specimens were collected from 133 biopsies in 23 patients and processed for ex vivo neuropathological analysis: PpIX fluorimetry to measure PpIX concentrations (CPpIX) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry to assess tissue proliferation. Samples displaying visible levels of fluorescence showed significantly higher levels of CPpIX and tissue proliferation. CPpIX was strongly correlated with histopathological score (nonparametric) and tissue proliferation (parametric), such that increasing levels of CPpIX were identified with regions of increasing malignancy. Furthermore, a large percentage of tumor-positive biopsy sites (∼40%) that were not visibly fluorescent under the operating microscope had levels of CPpIX greater than 0.1 µg/mL, which indicates that significant PpIX accumulation exists below the detection threshold of current fluorescence imaging. Although PpIX fluorescence is recognized as a visual biomarker for neurosurgical resection guidance, these data show that it is quantitatively related at the microscopic level to increasing malignancy in both low- and high-grade gliomas. This work suggests a need for improved PpIX fluorescence detection technologies to achieve better sensitivity and quantification of PpIX in tissue during surgery. PMID:21798847

  3. Oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-18 improves antitumor activity of dacarbazine for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhua; Cao, Hang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Kai; Ding, Meng; Mao, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses have emerged as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. This study aimed to evaluate synergistic antitumor activity of replication-competent adenovirus armed with interleukin (IL)-18 (ZD55-IL-18) and dacarbazine (DTIC) against melanoma. Melanoma A375 cells or nude mouse tumor xenografts were treated with ZD55-IL-18 alone or together with DTIC. The results showed that ZD55-IL-18 competently replicated in A375 cells and expressed IL-18, and these were not affected by DTIC. ZD55-IL-18 enhanced the cytotoxicity of DTIC accompanied by increased apoptosis. Moreover, ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC synergistically inhibited the growth but promoted the apoptosis of A375 xenografts and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression and lung metastasis in xenografts of nude mice. In conclusion, this is the first study to show synergistic anticancer activity of ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC for malignant melanoma. Our results provide evidence that chemo-gene-viro therapeutic approach has greater potential for malignant cancers than conventional chemotherapy or gene therapy.

  4. Oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-18 improves antitumor activity of dacarbazine for malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunhua; Cao, Hang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Kai; Ding, Meng; Mao, Li-jun

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses have emerged as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. This study aimed to evaluate synergistic antitumor activity of replication-competent adenovirus armed with interleukin (IL)-18 (ZD55-IL-18) and dacarbazine (DTIC) against melanoma. Melanoma A375 cells or nude mouse tumor xenografts were treated with ZD55-IL-18 alone or together with DTIC. The results showed that ZD55-IL-18 competently replicated in A375 cells and expressed IL-18, and these were not affected by DTIC. ZD55-IL-18 enhanced the cytotoxicity of DTIC accompanied by increased apoptosis. Moreover, ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC synergistically inhibited the growth but promoted the apoptosis of A375 xenografts and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression and lung metastasis in xenografts of nude mice. In conclusion, this is the first study to show synergistic anticancer activity of ZD55-IL-18 and DTIC for malignant melanoma. Our results provide evidence that chemo-gene-viro therapeutic approach has greater potential for malignant cancers than conventional chemotherapy or gene therapy. PMID:27895465

  5. Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylated at both linker and COOH-terminal regions transmit malignant TGF-beta signal in later stages of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Koichi; Kitano, Chiaki; Murata, Miki; Sekimoto, Go; Yoshida, Katsunori; Uemura, Yoshiko; Seki, Toshihito; Taketani, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2009-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta initially inhibits growth of mature epithelial cells. Later, however, autocrine TGF-beta signaling acts in concert with the Ras pathway to induce a proliferative and invasive phenotype. TGF-beta activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) but also Ras-associated kinases, which differentially phosphorylate the mediators Smad2 and Smad3 to create distinct phosphorylated forms: COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2C and pSmad3C) and both linker and COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C). In this study, we investigated actions of pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C in cancer progression. TGF-beta inhibited cell growth by down-regulating c-Myc oncoprotein through the pSmad2C and pSmad3C pathway; TGF-beta signaling, in turn, enhanced cell growth by up-regulating c-Myc through the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4-dependent pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C pathways in cell nuclei. Alternatively, TbetaRI and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) together created cytoplasmic pSmad2L/C, which entered the nucleus and stimulated cell invasion, partly by up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9. In 20 clinical samples, pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C showed nuclear localization at invasion fronts of all TGF-beta-producing human metastatic colorectal cancers. In vitro kinase assay confirmed that nuclear CDK4 and cytoplasmic JNK obtained from the tumor tissue could phosphorylate Smad2 or Smad3 at their linker regions. We suggest that CDK4, together with JNK, alters tumor-suppressive TGF-beta signaling to malignant characteristics in later stages of human colorectal cancer. The linker phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 may represent a target for intervention in human metastatic cancer.

  6. Saponin 6 derived from Anemone taipaiensis induces U87 human malignant glioblastoma cell apoptosis via regulation of Fas and Bcl‑2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Chen; Tang, Hai-Feng; Hu, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Min-Hua; Qin, Hong-Yan; Li, San-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Fei, Zhou; Cheng, Guang

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Saponin 6, derived from Anemone taipaiensis, exerts potent cytotoxic effects against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line and the human promyelocytic leukemia HL‑60 cell line; however, the effects of saponin 6 on glioblastoma remain unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of saponin 6 on human U87 malignant glioblastoma (U87 MG) cells. The current study revealed that saponin 6 induced U87 MG cell death in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.83 µM after treatment for 48 h. However, saponin 6 was needed to be used at a lesser potency in HT‑22 cells, with an IC50 value of 6.24 µM. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. DNA fragmentation and alterations in nuclear morphology were examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The present study demonstrated that treatment with saponin 6 induced cell apoptosis in U87 MG cells, and resulted in DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological alterations typical of apoptosis. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that saponin 6 was able to induce cell cycle arrest. The present study also demonstrated that saponin 6‑induced apoptosis of U87 MG cells was attributed to increases in the protein expression levels of Fas, Fas ligand, and cleaved caspase‑3, ‑8 and ‑9, and decreases in the levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2. The current study indicated that saponin 6 may exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward U87 MG cells by activating apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Therefore, saponin 6 derived from A. taipaiensis may possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of GBM.

  7. Malignant disease and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Walton, Graham; Seymour, Robin A

    2009-11-01

    Reports of an ageing population, increasing incidence of malignancy and improved treatments mean that dentists may have an increasing number of patients with, or who have recovered from, a malignancy. Dental professionals are expected to have an understanding of this important disease group so that appropriate dental care can be provided safely. In this first of three articles, we shall describe the important epidemiological and clinical features of the commonest malignancies in the United Kingdom. Dentists should understand the clinical implications of a patient with, or recovering from, a malignancy. This article gives a summary of the relevant features of the commonest malignancies.

  8. Radiosensitization by fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene on human malignant melanoma through lipid peroxidation and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinya; Kimura, Masatsugu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    We examined fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene (C60/Sqe) for the ability to potentiate the radiosensitization under X-ray irradiation on human malignant melanoma HMV-II cells, which were treated with C60/Sqe and thereafter irradiated with X-ray. The cell proliferation for C60/Sqe was inhibited more markedly than for Sqe alone. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was almost unaltered for C60/squalane (Sqa) or Sqa, a hydrogenated form of Sqe, as compared to no-additive control. Thus radiosensitization of C60/Sqe is attributed to peroxidation of unsaturated bonds of squalene by X-ray-excited C60 in contrast to squalane. The fluorescence images of HMV-II cells stained with Rhodamine123, an indicator for mitochondrial membrane potential, were monitored for 6 h after X-ray irradiation. C60/Sqe obviously exhibited more augmented fluorescence intensity on perinuclear region of HMV-II cells than Sqe alone. TBARS assay showed that the lipid peroxidation level as malondialdehyde-equivalent increased by combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray dose-dependently on X-ray doses. C60/Sqe exhibited lipid peroxidation more markedly by 1.2-fold than Sqe alone. Thus the level of lipid peroxidation of squalene was sufficiently higher in C60/Sqe than in Sqe in the absence of C60 under X-ray irradiation, suggesting the combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray irradiation induced radiosensitization on HMV-II cells by peroxidation of absorbed Sqe in mitochondrial membrane via oxidative stress mediated by fullerene-C60.

  9. Increased expression of deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) gene in precancerous gastric lesions: Findings from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Garay, Jone; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Leal, Yelda A; Majumdar, Sumana; Li, Li; Cruz-Rodriguez, Nataly; Serrano-Gomez, Silvia J; Busso, Carlos S; Schneider, Barbara G; Delgado, Alberto G; Bravo, Luis E; Crist, Angela M; Meadows, Stryder M; Camargo, M Constanza; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2017-07-18

    Helicobacter pylori infection triggers a cascade of inflammatory stages that may lead to the appearance of non-atrophic gastritis, multifocal atrophic, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by binding to pathogens. Initial studies showed its deletion and loss of expression in a variety of tumors but the role of this gene in tumor development is not completely understood. Here, we examined the role of DMBT1 in gastric precancerous lesions in Caucasian, African American and Hispanic individuals as well as in the development of gastric pathology in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. We found that in 3 different populations, mucosal DMBT1 expression was significantly increased (2.5 fold) in individuals with dysplasia compared to multifocal atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia; the increase was also observed in individuals with advanced gastritis and positive H. pylori infection. In our animal model, H. pylori infection of Dmbt1-/- mice resulted in significantly higher levels of gastritis, more extensive mucous metaplasia and reduced Il33 expression levels in the gastric mucosa compared to H. pylori-infected wild type mice. Our data in the animal model suggest that in response to H. pylori infection DMBT1 may mediate mucosal protection reducing the risk of developing gastric precancerous lesions. However, the increased expression in human gastric precancerous lesions points to a more complex role of DMBT1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Increased expression of deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) gene in precancerous gastric lesions: Findings from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Jone; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Leal, Yelda A; Majumdar, Sumana; Li, Li; Cruz-Rodriguez, Nataly; Serrano-Gomez, Silvia J; Busso, Carlos S; Schneider, Barbara G; Delgado, Alberto G; Bravo, Luis E; Crist, Angela M; Meadows, Stryder M; Camargo, M. Constanza; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection triggers a cascade of inflammatory stages that may lead to the appearance of non-atrophic gastritis, multifocal atrophic, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by binding to pathogens. Initial studies showed its deletion and loss of expression in a variety of tumors but the role of this gene in tumor development is not completely understood. Here, we examined the role of DMBT1 in gastric precancerous lesions in Caucasian, African American and Hispanic individuals as well as in the development of gastric pathology in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. We found that in 3 different populations, mucosal DMBT1 expression was significantly increased (2.5 fold) in individuals with dysplasia compared to multifocal atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia; the increase was also observed in individuals with advanced gastritis and positive H. pylori infection. In our animal model, H. pylori infection of Dmbt1−/− mice resulted in significantly higher levels of gastritis, more extensive mucous metaplasia and reduced Il33 expression levels in the gastric mucosa compared to H. pylori-infected wild type mice. Our data in the animal model suggest that in response to H. pylori infection DMBT1 may mediate mucosal protection reducing the risk of developing gastric precancerous lesions. However, the increased expression in human gastric precancerous lesions points to a more complex role of DMBT1 in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:28423364

  11. Dose-Reduced Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide, and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Lymphoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study 020

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Thomas R.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kaplan, Lawrence D.; Wachsman, William; Straus, David J.; Aboulafia, David M.; Scadden, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has resulted in durable remissions in a substantial proportion of patients. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (AuSCT), moreover, has resulted in sustained complete remissions in selected patients with recurrent chemosensitive disease. Based on a favorable experience with dose-reduced high-dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and AuSCT for older patients with non-HIV–associated aggressive lymphomas, an AIDS Malignancy Consortium multicenter trial was undertaken using the same dose-reduced busulfan and cyclophosphamide preparative regimen with AuSCT for recurrent HIV-associated NHL and HL. Of the 27 patients in the study, 20 received an AuSCT. The median time to achievement of an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ≥ 0.5 × 109/L was 11 days (range, 9-16 days). The median time to achievement of an unsupported platelet count of ≥ 20 × 109/L was 13 days (range, 6-57 days). One patient died on day +33 posttransplantation from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and multiorgan failure. No other fatal regimen-related toxicity occurred. Ten of 19 patients (53%) were in complete remission at the time of their day +100 post-AuSCT evaluation. Of the 20 patients, 10 were alive and event-free at a median of 23 weeks post-AuSCT. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached by 13 of the 20 patients alive at the time of last follow-up. This multi-institutional trial demonstrates that a regimen of dose-reduced high-dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and AuSCT is well tolerated and is associated with favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and OS probabilities for selected patients with HIV-associated NHL and HL. PMID:18158962

  12. Association of serum interleukin-10, interleukin-17A and transforming growth factor-α levels with human benign and malignant breast diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhuangwei; Liu, Min; Shen, Jinghui; Xiang, Dong; Ma, Yunfeng; Ji, Yanhong

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) have been implicated in the progression of breast cancer. However, the diagnostic and prognostic roles of these cytokines in ductal carcinoma remain unclear. The present study therefore aimed to determine the serum levels of IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-α in subjects with benign and malignant breast diseases and to evaluate the clinical significance of these cytokines in ductal carcinoma. Pre-operative serum samples were collected from 378 patients with breast disease and 70 healthy subjects. IL-10, IL-17A and TGF-α levels were measured using ELISA. Serum levels of these cytokine in patients with different breast diseases were evaluated. Furthermore, correlations between levels of these cytokines and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in ductal carcinoma were determined. The results demonstrated that serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17A were significantly increased in subjects with atypical hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-17A levels were increased in patients with a more serious clinical tumor stage and tumors that were ER− and PR−. Furthermore, high serum levels of TGF-α were associated with HER2+ tumors. A strong positive correlation was identified between TGF-α and IL-17A levels. Therefore, the results of the current study revealed that elevated serum IL-10, IL-17A and TGF-α levels are strongly associated with ductal carcinoma, specifically with tumor stage. High serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17A were also associated with the negative expression of ER and PR in ductal carcinoma, and high serum levels of TGF-α were associated with the positive expression of HER2 in ductal carcinoma. Thus, serum cytokine levels may be measured to identify patients with a poor prognosis who may benefit from more aggressive management and treatment. PMID:29904427

  13. Association of serum interleukin-10, interleukin-17A and transforming growth factor-α levels with human benign and malignant breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhuangwei; Liu, Min; Shen, Jinghui; Xiang, Dong; Ma, Yunfeng; Ji, Yanhong

    2018-06-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) have been implicated in the progression of breast cancer. However, the diagnostic and prognostic roles of these cytokines in ductal carcinoma remain unclear. The present study therefore aimed to determine the serum levels of IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-α in subjects with benign and malignant breast diseases and to evaluate the clinical significance of these cytokines in ductal carcinoma. Pre-operative serum samples were collected from 378 patients with breast disease and 70 healthy subjects. IL-10, IL-17A and TGF-α levels were measured using ELISA. Serum levels of these cytokine in patients with different breast diseases were evaluated. Furthermore, correlations between levels of these cytokines and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in ductal carcinoma were determined. The results demonstrated that serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17A were significantly increased in subjects with atypical hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma. Furthermore, IL-10 and IL-17A levels were increased in patients with a more serious clinical tumor stage and tumors that were ER - and PR - . Furthermore, high serum levels of TGF-α were associated with HER2 + tumors. A strong positive correlation was identified between TGF-α and IL-17A levels. Therefore, the results of the current study revealed that elevated serum IL-10, IL-17A and TGF-α levels are strongly associated with ductal carcinoma, specifically with tumor stage. High serum levels of IL-10 and IL-17A were also associated with the negative expression of ER and PR in ductal carcinoma, and high serum levels of TGF-α were associated with the positive expression of HER2 in ductal carcinoma. Thus, serum cytokine levels may be measured to identify patients with a poor prognosis who may benefit from more aggressive management and treatment.

  14. The neuro-steroid, 3β androstene 17α diol exhibits potent cytotoxic effects on human malignant glioma and lymphoma cells through different programmed cell death pathways

    PubMed Central

    Graf, M R; Jia, W; Loria, R M

    2007-01-01

    The neuro-steroids 3β-androstene-17α-diol (17α-AED), 3β-androstene-17β-diol (17β-AED), 3β-androstene-7α,-17β-triol (7α-AET) and 3β-androstene-7β,-17β-triol (7β-AET) are metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone and are produced in neuro-ectodermal tissue. Both epimers of androstenediols (17α-AED and 17β-AED) and androstenetriols (7α-AET and 7β-AET) have markedly different biological functions of their chemical analogue. We investigated the cytotoxic activity of these neuro-steroids on human T98G and U251MG glioblastoma and U937 lymphoma cells. Proliferation studies showed that 17α-AED is the most potent inhibitor, with an IC50 ∼15 μM. For T98G glioma, 90% inhibition was achieved with 25 μM of 17α-AED. Other neuro-steroids tested only marginally suppressed cell proliferation. Reduced cell adherence and viability could be detected after 18 h of 17α-AED exposure. Treatment with 17α-AED induced a significant level of apoptosis in U937 lymphoma cells, but not in the glioma cells. Cytopathology of 17α-AED-treated T98G cells revealed the presence of multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles. Acridine orange staining demonstrated the formation of acidic vesicular organelles in 17α-AED-treated T98G and U251MG, which was inhibited by bafilomycin A1. These findings indicate that 17α-AED bears the most potent cytotoxic activity of the neuro-steroids tested, and the effectiveness may depend on the number of hydroxyls and their position on the androstene molecule. These cytotoxic effects may utilize a non-apoptotic pathway in malignant glioma cells. PMID:17637679

  15. Salivary detection of human Papilloma virus 16 & 18 in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Is it feasible in Pakistani context of Socio-Cultural Taboos?

    PubMed

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate salivary detection of HPV-16 & 18 would be feasible and informative biomarker for oral pre-malignant and malignant lesion in our population. This non-interventional, case control study was carried out at department of E.N.T, Head and Neck Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan between July 2011 to December 2012. Total of 105 cases were recruited. These were divided in three groups 'A', 'B' & 'C' having 35 subjects each. Group'A' constitutes patients having strong clinical evidence of oral pre-malignant lesions (PML). Group 'B' includes histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group 'C' comprised disease free subjects as controls. After taking informed consent, relevant clinical history was recorded on institutional approved performa. Saliva from all subjects was procured by standard 'drooling method'. Samples were stored at +4°C and later transferred to Laboratory to store at-20°C before further process. Samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. Cell pellets sediments were used for identification of HPV-16 & 18 by real-time PCR method. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 16. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard. In group 'A', HPV-16 was detected in 3 (8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subject. In group 'B', HPV-16 was detected in 07 (20%) while HPV-18 was found in 06 (17.1%) cases. Mixed HPV-16 and HPV-18 were found in 02 (5.7%) cases. In group 'C', HPV-16 was detected in 03(8.6%) while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subjects. Significant relationship was observed between the groups for HPV-18 detection (P= 0.002) while for HPV-16, no significant association was found (P= 0.245). HPV infection for the causation of oral cancer cannot be fully established possibly due to small sample size. More over differences in genetic makeup, environment, indulgence in peculiar risk factor habits, sexual practices and

  16. Efficient isolation of human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 using MNT-1, a human malignant melanoma cell line system that exhibits an apparent cytopathic effect.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ko; Watanabe, Oshi; Ohmiya, Suguru; Chiba, Fumiko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-11-01

    Isolation of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) serotypes 1 and 3 from clinical specimens is not very efficient because of the lack of a cell culture system capable of inducing CPE. In this study, the utility of a melanoma cell line, MNT-1, that allows HPIV growth and displays CPE was demonstrated. In particularly, the efficiency of isolating HPIV1 and HPIV3 using MNT-1 was greater than for cell lines conventionally used for HPIV isolation. Our demonstrated efficacy of HPIV1 and HPIV3 isolation with apparent CPE using the MNT-1 cell culture system has the potential to improve virus isolation from clinical specimens. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3more » signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.« less

  18. Antitumoral effect of vanadium compounds in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rozzo, Carla; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Serra, Maria; Cantara, Alessio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pisano, Marina

    2017-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the anticancer activity against malignant melanoma (MM) of four different vanadium species: the inorganic anion vanadate(V) (indicated with VN), and three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes, [V IV O(dhp) 2 ] where dhp - is the anion 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS2), [V IV O(mpp) 2 ] where mpp - is 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS3), and [V IV O(ppp) 2 ] where ppp - is 1-phenyl-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (indicated with VS4). The antitumor effects of these compounds were studied against two different MM cell lines (A375 and CN-mel) and a fibroblast cell line (BJ) as normal control. All tested V compounds exert antiproliferative activity on MM cells in a dose dependent manner (IC 50 ranges from 2.4μM up to 14μM) being A375 the most sensitive cell line. VN and VS2 were the two most active compounds against A375 (IC 50 of 4.7 and 2.6μM, respectively), causing apoptosis and cell cycle block. The experimental data indicate that the cell cycle arrest occurs at different phases for the two V species analyzed (G2 checkpoint for VN and G0/G1 for VS2), showing the importance of the chemical form in determining their mechanism of action. These results add more insights into the landscape of vanadium versatility in biological systems and into its role as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroquinone-induced FOXP3-ADAM17-Lyn-Akt-p21 signaling axis promotes malignant progression of human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol; HQ), a major marrow metabolite of the leukemogen benzene, has been proven to evoke benzene-related hematological disorders and myelotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The goal of the present study was to explore the role of FOXP3 in HQ-induced malignant progression of U937 human leukemia cells. U937 cells were treated with 5 μM HQ for 24 h, and the cells were re-suspended in serum-containing medium without HQ for 2 days. The same procedure was repeated three times, and the resulting U937/HQ cells were maintained in cultured medium containing 5 μM HQ. Proliferation and colony formation of U937/HQ cells were notably higher than those of U937 cells. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-mediated demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region in FOXP3 gene resulted in higher FOXP3 expression in U937/HQ cells than in U937 cells. FOXP3-induced miR-183 expression reduced β-TrCP mRNA stability and suppressed β-TrCP-mediated Sp1 degradation, leading to up-regulation of Sp1 expression in U937/HQ cells. Sp1 up-regulation further increased ADAM17 and Lyn expression, and ADAM17 up-regulation stimulated Lyn activation in U937/HQ cells. Moreover, U937/HQ cells showed higher Lyn-mediated Akt activation and cytoplasmic p21 expression than U937 cells did. Abolishment of Akt activation decreased cytoplasmic p21 expression in U937/HQ cells. Suppression of FOXP3, ADAM17, and Lyn expression, as well as Akt inactivation, repressed proliferation and clonogenicity of U937/HQ cells. Together with the finding that cytoplasmic p21 shows anti-apoptotic and oncogenic activities in cancer cells, the present data suggest a role of FOXP3/ADAM17/Lyn/Akt/p21 signaling axis in HQ-induced hematological disorders.

  1. First-in-human study of the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CG200745, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-pyo; Park, Seong Joon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Cha, Hyunju; Kwon, Sool-Ki; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, JoongMyung; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of single and multiple doses of intravenous CG200745, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Two to six patients received intravenous CG200745 according to the 2 + 4 dose-escalating method. This first-in-human trial was comprised of two parts: Part 1 was a single ascending dose, and Part 2 was multiple ascending doses weekly for 3 weeks, and then 1 week off. For the first cycle, pharmacokinetic sampling for CG200745 and pharmacodynamic sampling for acetylated histone H4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were performed on day 1 for Part 1 and on days 1 and 15 for Part 2. Examination of acetylated histone H4 in pre- and post-biopsy samples was performed in accessible patients. In all, 28 patients were treated at 13 dose levels (1.8-250 mg/m(2)) and received a total of 71 cycles of CG200745. Hematologic toxicities included grade 3/4 neutropenia (22.2 %) that did not last a week and non-hematologic toxicities included fatigue (22.2 %) and anorexia (16.7 %) that did not exceed grade 2. No dose-limiting toxic effects were noted. Dose proportionality was observed for both the maximum concentration and area under the curve. The elimination half-life was 5.67 ± 2.69 h (mean ± standard deviation). An increase in PBMC acetylated histone H4 was observed at dose levels up to 51 mg/m(2), which plateaued at higher dose levels. At 24 h, 75 % of patients (6/8) showed higher relative acetylation in tumor tissue compared to PBMCs. Although there was no partial or complete response, 57.1 % of patients (16/28) had stable disease that lasted at least 6 weeks. CG200745 can be safely administered at effective dose levels that inhibit HDAC in PBMCs and tumor tissue. Although MTD was not reached, further escalation was not performed because acetylated histone H4 plateaued at dose

  2. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M.; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  3. The endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF)/prokineticin 1 and 2 and receptor expression in human prostate: Up-regulation of EG-VEGF/prokineticin 1 with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Daniela; Rossi, Valentina; Staibano, Stefania; De Rosa, Gaetano; Chieffi, Paolo; Prezioso, Domenico; Mirone, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Massimo; Tramontano, Donatella; Bellastella, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino

    2006-09-01

    A new family of angiogenic factors named endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factors (EG-VEGF)/prokineticins (PK) have been recently described as predominantly expressed in steroidogenic tissues. Whether the normal and malignant epithelial prostate cells and tissues express EG-VEGF/PK1 and PK2 and their receptors is still unknown. We studied the expression of EG-VEGF/PK1 and PK2 and their receptors (PK-R1 and PK-R2) in human prostate and their involvement in cancer. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR, we determined the expression of EG-VEGF/PK1 in normal prostate (NP) and malignant prostate tissues (PCa), in epithelial cell primary cultures from normal prostate (NPEC) and malignant prostate (CPEC) and in a panel of prostate cell lines. In NPEC, CPEC, and in EPN, a nontransformed human prostate epithelial cell line, EG-VEGF/PK1, PK2, PK-R1, and PK-R2 mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. EG-VEGF/PK1 transcript was found in PCa, in CPEC, in EPN, and in LNCaP, whereas it was detected at low level in NP and in NPEC. EG-VEGF/PK1 was absent in androgen-independent PC3 and DU-145 cell lines. Immunochemistry confirmed that EG-VEGF/PK1 protein expression was restricted to hyperplastic and malignant prostate tissues, localized in the glandular epithelial cells, and progressively increased with the prostate cancer Gleason score advancement. EG-VEGF/PK1 and PK2 were weakly expressed in NPEC and EPN. On the other hand, their transcripts were highly detected in CPEC. PK-R1 and PK-R2 were found in NPEC, EPN, and CPEC. Interestingly, CPEC showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher expression of EG-VEGF/PK1, PK2, PK-R1, and PK-R2 compared with NPEC and EPN. We demonstrated that PKs and their receptors are expressed in human prostate and that their levels increased with prostate malignancy. It may imply that EG-VEGF/PK1 could be involved in prostate carcinogenesis, probably regulating angiogenesis. Thus, the level of EG-VEGF/PK1 could be

  4. Expression of DNA repair proteins MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Michailidi, Christina; Stolakis, Vasileios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background DNA repair is a major defense mechanism, which contributes to the maintenance of genetic sequence, and minimizes cell death, mutation rates, replication errors, DNA damage persistence and genomic instability. Alterations in the expression levels of proteins participating in DNA repair mechanisms have been associated with several aspects of cancer biology. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of DNA repair proteins MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Material/Methods MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 90 patients with benign and malignant lesions. Results The expression levels of MLH1 was significantly upregulated in cases with malignant compared to those with benign thyroid lesions (p=0.038). The expression levels of MGMT was significantly downregulated in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p=0.001). Similar associations for both MLH1 and MGMT between cases with papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules were also noted (p=0.014 and p=0.026, respectively). In the subgroup of malignant thyroid lesions, MSH2 downregulation was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p=0.031), while MLH1 upregulation was significantly associated with the presence of lymphatic and vascular invasion (p=0.006 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions Alterations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MLH1 and the direct repair protein MGMT may result from tumor development and/or progression. Further studies are recommended to draw definite conclusions on the clinical significance of DNA repair proteins in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:21358597

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a novel radioiodinated phenylacetamide and its homolog as theranostic agents for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2016-01-01

    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. This study reports the preparation and biological characterizations of N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-2-(3-(123/131)I-iodo-4- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide and N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-3-(3-(123/131)I-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propanamide (123/131)I-IHPA and 123/131I-IHPP) as novel melanin-specific theranostic agents. These two tracers were hydrophilic, exhibited good serum stability and high binding affinity to melanin. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed rapid, high and tenacious uptakes of both 131I-IHPA and 131I-IHPP in melanotic B16F0 cell line and in C57BL/6 mice bearing B16F0 melanoma, but not in amelanonic A375 cell line and tumors. Small-animal SPECT imaging also clearly delineate B16F0 melanoma since 1 h postinjection of 123I-IHPA and 123I-IHPP in tumor-bearing mice. Owing to the favorable biodistribution of 131I-IHPA and 131I-IHPP after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in most normal organs and relatively high in melanotic tumor. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and acceptable projected human dosimetry supported that these two tracers are promising theranostic agents for melanin-positive melanoma.

  6. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N- BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Motarab; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2012-01-01

    formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression. PMID:22507272

  7. Bax345/BLyS: a novel, completely human fusion protein targeting malignant B cells and delivering a unique mitochondrial toxin.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mi-Ae; Cheung, Lawrence H; Hittelman, Walter N; Liu, Yuying; Marks, John W; Cho, Min-Jeong; Rosenblum, Michael G

    2012-09-28

    We generated a fusion protein Bax(345)/BLyS containing the truncated form of Bax (Bax(345)) at the N-terminus followed by a 218 linker to the B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). Bax(345)/BLyS was cytotoxic to a panel of diffuse large B cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma lines expressing the BLyS receptors. Specific delivery of Bax(345)/BLyS to malignant B cells drove cells into apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction and treatment of cells with Bax(345)/BLyS induced down-regulation of Mcl-1, X-IAP, and survivin. Bax(345)/BLyS represents a new class of targeted therapeutic agents with a unique mechanism of action and may have therapeutic potential for malignant B cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  9. Early Non Invasive Ventilation and Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-03

    Hematological Malignancies; Chronic Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure; Blood And Marrow Transplantation; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract; Malignant Neoplasms Stated as Primary Lymphoid Haematopoietic

  10. IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munien, Carmelle; Rebelo, Thalia M; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2017-02-15

    The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the 'ECM-simulating' Matrigel™ of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesive potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant HDAC inhibitor chrysin arrest cell growth and induce p21WAF1 by altering chromatin of STAT response element in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells. Methods Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays. Results Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (−692 to −684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression

  12. Production of Experimental Malignant Pleural Effusions Is Dependent on Invasion of the Pleura and Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor by Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Seiji; Shinohara, Hisashi; Herbst, Roy S.; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Bucana, Corazon D.; Ellis, Lee M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2000-01-01

    We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. Lung lesions produced by H226 cells were confined to the lung parenchyma with no PE. The level of expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the cell lines directly correlated with extent of PE formation. Transfection of PC14PE6 cells with antisense VEGF165 gene did not inhibit invasion into the pleural space but reduced PE formation. H226 cells transfected with either sense VEGF 165 or sense VEGF 121 genes induced localized vascular hyperpermeability and produced PE only after direct implantation into the thoracic cavity. The production of PE was thus associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the pleura, a property associated with expression of high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and low levels of TIMP-2. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the production of malignant PE requires tumor cells to invade the pleura and express high levels of VEGF/VPF. PMID:11106562

  13. Ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour diagnosis in a mixed-breed dog as a model to study human: histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Canine Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are uncommonly reported in the ulnar, since they are underestimated relative to the more common spindle cell tumours of soft tissue. In dogs, MPNST accounts for 27% of nervous system tumours. In man, MPNST represents 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1).An 8-year-old, 9 kg, female mixed-breed dog with a subcutaneous mass on the upper right side of the ulnar region was presented to the small animal research and teaching hospital of Tehran University. The dog was anorexic with general weakness. The mass (7 × 4 cm) was removed surgically and processed routinely. Microscopically, the mass was composed of highly cellular areas with a homogeneous population of round or spindle cells, high cellular pleomorphism, high mitotic index and various morphologic patterns. Furthermore, spindle cells arranged in densely or loosely sweeping fascicles, interlacing whorls, or storiform patterns together with wavy cytoplasm, nuclear palisades, and round cells were arranged in sheets or cords with a meshwork of intratumoral nerve fibers. In addition, in this case the presence of neoplastic cells within the blood vessels was observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor was positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. The histopathologic features coupled with the S-100 and vimentin immunoreactivity led to a diagnosis of malignant neurofibroma. To the best of our knowledge, primary ulnar MPNST has not been reported in animals. This is the first documentation of an ulnar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a dog. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1310907815984587 PMID:23688209

  14. Chondrosarcoma: A Rare Misfortune in Aging Human Cartilage? The Role of Stem and Progenitor Cells in Proliferation, Malignant Degeneration and Therapeutic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Karen A.; Schleicher, Sabine B.; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Unlike other malignant bone tumors including osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcomas with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults, conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas mainly affect people in the 4th to 7th decade of life. To date, the cell type of chondrosarcoma origin is not clearly defined. However, it seems that mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPC) in the bone marrow facing a pro-proliferative as well as predominantly chondrogenic differentiation milieu, as is implicated in early stage osteoarthritis (OA) at that age, are the source of chondrosarcoma genesis. But how can MSPC become malignant? Indeed, only one person in 1,000,000 will develop a chondrosarcoma, whereas the incidence of OA is a thousandfold higher. This means a rare coincidence of factors allowing escape from senescence and apoptosis together with induction of angiogenesis and migration is needed to generate a chondrosarcoma. At early stages, chondrosarcomas are still assumed to be an intermediate type of tumor which rarely metastasizes. Unfortunately, advanced stages show a pronounced resistance both against chemo- and radiation-therapy and frequently metastasize. In this review, we elucidate signaling pathways involved in the genesis and therapeutic resistance of chondrosarcomas with a focus on MSPC compared to signaling in articular cartilage (AC). PMID:29361725

  15. Reference method for detection of Pgp mediated multidrug resistance in human hematological malignancies: a method validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network.

    PubMed

    Huet, S; Marie, J P; Gualde, N; Robert, J

    1998-12-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene and of its product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), plays an important role in limiting cancer treatment efficacy. Many studies have investigated Pgp expression in clinical samples of hematological malignancies but failed to give definitive conclusion on its usefulness. One convenient method for fluorescent detection of Pgp in malignant cells is flow cytometry which however gives variable results from a laboratory to another one, partly due to the lack of a reference method rigorously tested. The purpose of this technical note is to describe each step of a reference flow cytometric method. The guidelines for sample handling, staining and analysis have been established both for Pgp detection with monoclonal antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes (MRK16, UIC2 and 4E3), and for Pgp functional activity measurement with Rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. Both methods have been validated on cultured cell lines and clinical samples by 12 laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network. This cross-validated multicentric study points out crucial steps for the accuracy and reproducibility of the results, like cell viability, data analysis and expression.

  16. Malignant central airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mudambi, Lakshmi; Miller, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This review comprehensively describes recent advances in the management of malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). Malignant CAO can be a dramatic and devastating manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastatic disease. A variety of diagnostic modalities are available to provide valuable information to plan a therapeutic intervention. Clinical heterogeneity in the presentation of malignant CAO provides opportunities to adapt and utilize endoscopic technology and tools in many ways. Mechanical debulking, thermal tools, cryotherapy and airway stents are methods and instruments used to rapidly restore airway patency. Delayed bronchoscopic methods, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and brachytherapy can also be utilized in specific non-emergent situations to establish airway patency. Although data regarding the success and complications of therapeutic interventions are retrospective and characterized by clinical and outcome measure variability, the symptoms of malignant CAO can often be successfully palliated. Assessment of risks and benefits of interventions in each individual patient during the decision-making process forms the critical foundation of the management of malignant CAO. PMID:29214067

  17. In vivo growth-restricted and reversible malignancy induced by Human Herpesvirus-8/ KSHV: a cell and animal model of virally induced Kaposi's sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Agata D'Agostino; Cavallin, Lucas E.; Vincent, Loïc; Chiozzini, Chiara; Eroles, Pilar; Duran, Elda M.; Asgari, Zahra; Hooper, Andrea T.; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Hilsher, Chelsey; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Rafii, Shahin; Mesri, Enrique A.

    2007-01-01

    Transfection of a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (KSHVBac36) into mouse bone marrow endothelial lineage cells generates a cell (mECK36) that forms KS-like tumors in mice. mECK36 expressed most KSHV genes and were angiogenic, but didn't form colonies in soft agar. In nude mice, mECK36 formed KSHV-harboring vascularized spindle-cell sarcomas that were LANA+/podoplanin+, overexpressed VEGF and Angiopoietin ligands and receptors, and displayed KSHV and host transcriptomes reminiscent of KS. mECK36 that lost the KSHV episome reverted to non-tumorigenicity. siRNA suppression of KSHV vGPCR, an angiogenic gene up-regulated in mECK36 tumors, inhibited angiogenicity and tumorigenicity. These results show that KSHV malignancy is in vivo growth-restricted and reversible, defining mECK36 as a biologically sensitive animal model of KSHV-dependent KS. PMID:17349582

  18. [Hematologic malignancies in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doubek, R; Petrovová, D; Kalvodová, J; Doubek, M

    2009-04-01

    To summarize available data concerning hematologic malignancies in pregnancy. Review article. Department of Obstetrics and Gynekology, Fakulty of Medicine, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. Compilation of published data from scientific literature. Cancer complicating pregnancy is a rare coexistence. The incidence is approximately 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. The most frequent hematologic malignant tumor is Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia is less frequent and myeloproliferative diseases complicating pregnancy are sporadic coexistence. Symptoms of these deseases are often nonspecific and disguised in pregnancy, then the diagnosis can be late. It is imperative that a multidisciplinary team involving hematooncologist and obstetrician (pediatric specialist) care for patient with hematologic malignancies. Cleary, every patient have to know whole prognosis and all risk factors of treatment. Optimum timing of delivery is after 36th week of pregnancy (when chemotherapy is ended more than two weeks ago). We prefer vaginal delivery to caesarean section.

  19. Paraspinal tuberculosis mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Alherabi, Ameen Z; Marglani, Osama A; Gazzaz, Malak J; Abbas, Mohammed M

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the paraspinal muscles is a rare clinical entity. We present a case of an 18-year-old, Saudi male patient presenting with the clinical picture of a paraspinal mass that turned out to be paraspinal TB. It originated from the paraspinal tissues and muscles, and invaded the C6 and C7 vertebrae. Initially, it was highly suspicious for malignancy. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of TB, and the patient was treated successfully with anti-TB therapy. It is important to be aware that paraspinal TB can mimic malignancy.

  20. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  1. Early malignant syphilis*

    PubMed Central

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  2. KLF4 overexpression and apigenin treatment down regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and matrix metalloproteinases to control growth of human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and IMR-32 cells.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Nishant; Ai, Walden; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2013-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor that arises from immature neuroblasts of the sympathetic nervous system. Krüpple-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor, the precise function of which in neuroblastoma is unclear. We examined the effects of KLF4 overexpression and apigenin (APG) treatment in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and IMR-32 cell lines. KLF4 overexpression in both SK-N-DZ and IMR-32 cell lines was confirmed by laser scanning immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blotting. We found that 100 nM KLF4 plasmid and 25 μM APG synergistically inhibited the growth of SK-N-DZ and IMR-32 cells. We also found increase in KLF4 expression in response to treatment with various concentrations of APG. Combination of KLF4 plasmid and APG treatment significantly increased the amounts of apoptosis in both cell lines when compared with control vector or single treatment. We also noticed that the combination therapy decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Noxa, and Puma, upregulated p53, and caused activation of caspase-3 for cleavage of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) leading to completion of apoptosis machinery. Further, combination of KLF4 overexpression and APG treatment was highly effective in inhibiting migration of both neuroblastoma cell lines and was associated with down regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2 and MMP-9. Collectively, our results from this investigation strongly suggest that KLF4 functions as a tumor suppressor and potentiates the anti-cancer activities of APG in two different human malignant neuroblastoma cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SHCBP1 is over-expressed in breast cancer and is important in the proliferation and apoptosis of the human malignant breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wen; Li, Hong-Chang; Xu, Ke; Chen, Ya-Feng; Pan, Li-Yun; Mei, Yi; Cai, Han; Jiang, Yi-Ming; Chen, Teng; Feng, Dian-Xu

    2016-08-01

    SHC SH2-binding protein 1, a member of Src homolog and collagen homolog (Shc) family, has been recently identified in different contexts in unbiased screening assays. It has been reported to be over-expressed in several malignant cancers. Immunohistochemistry of SHCBP1 on 128 breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of SHCBP1. Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. CRISPR/CAS9 method was used to knockout SHCBP1 expression. CRISPR/CAS9 technology was used to knockout SHCBP1 in 2 breast cancer cell lines. MTT assay, BrdU assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay and apoptosis analysis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were carried out to evaluate the effects of SHCBP1 on breast cancer in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed SHCBP1 was significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (82 of 128, 64%). Over-expressed SHCBP1 was correlated with advanced clinical stage and poorer survival. Ablation of SHCBP1 inhibited the proliferation in vitro. SHCBP1 knockout increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, and decreased the Cyclin B1 and CDK1. Our study suggests SHCBP1 is dysregulated expressed in breast cancer and plays a critical role in cancer progression, which can be a potential prognosis predictor of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of novel radioiodinated nicotinamides for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Pham, Tien Q; Berghofer, Paula; Chapman, Janette; Greguric, Ivan; Mitchell, Peter; Mattner, Filomena; Loc'h, Christian; Katsifis, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A series of iodonicotinamides based on the melanin-binding iodobenzamide compound N-2-diethylaminoethyl-4-iodobenzamide was prepared and evaluated for the potential imaging and staging of disseminated metastatic melanoma. [(123)I]Iodonicotinamides were prepared by iododestannylation reactions using no-carrier-added iodine-123 and evaluated in vivo by biodistribution and competition studies and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in black and albino nude mice bearing B16F0 murine melanotic and A375 human amelanotic melanoma tumours, respectively. The iodonicotinamides displayed low-affinity binding for sigma(1)-sigma(2) receptors (K(i)>300 nM). In biodistribution studies in mice, N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-5-[(123)I]iodonicotinamide ([(123)I]1) exhibited the fastest and highest uptake of the nicotinamide series in the B16F0 tumour at 1 h ( approximately 8% ID/g), decreasing slowly over time. No uptake was observed in the A375 tumour. Clearance from the animals by urinary excretion was more rapid for N-alkyl-nicotinamides than for piperazinyl derivatives. At 1 h postinjection, the urinary excretion was 66% ID for [(123)I]1, while the gastrointestinal tract amounted to 17% ID. Haloperidol was unable to reduce the uptake of [(123)I]1 in pigmented mice, indicating that this uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin. SPECT imaging of [(123)I]1 in black mice bearing the B16F0 melanoma indicated that the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour and eyes. No specific localisation was observed in nude mice bearing A375 amelanotic tumours. These findings suggest that [(123)I]1, which displays high tumour uptake with rapid clearance from the body, could be a promising imaging agent for the detection of melanotic tumours.

  5. Malignant Mesothelioma—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Start here to find information on malignant mesothelioma treatment.

  6. Statistical analysis of polarization-inhomogeneous Fourier spectra of laser radiation scattered by human skin in the tasks of differentiation of benign and malignant formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Alexander G.; Dubolazov, Alexander V.; Ushenko, Vladimir A.; Novakovskaya, Olga Y.

    2016-07-01

    The optical model of formation of polarization structure of laser radiation scattered by polycrystalline networks of human skin in Fourier plane was elaborated. The results of investigation of the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st to 4th order) parameters of polarization-inhomogeneous images of skin surface in Fourier plane were presented. The diagnostic criteria of pathological process in human skin and its severity degree differentiation were determined.

  7. EMMPRIN/CD147-encriched membrane vesicles released from malignant human testicular germ cells increase MMP production through tumor-stroma interaction.

    PubMed

    Milia-Argeiti, Eleni; Mourah, Samia; Vallée, Benoit; Huet, Eric; Karamanos, Nikos K; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Menashi, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    Elevated levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor progression but the regulation of its expression is not yet understood. Here, the regulation of EMMPRIN expression was investigated in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCTs) cell lines. EMMPRIN expression in seminoma JKT-1 and embryonal carcinoma NT2/D1 cell lines was determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted from these cells, treated or not with EMMPRIN siRNA, were isolated by differential centrifugations of their conditioned medium. MMP-2 was analyzed by zymography and qRT-PCR. The more aggressive embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells expressed more EMMPRIN mRNA than the seminoma JKT-1 cells, but surprisingly contained less EMMPRIN protein, as determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining. The protein/mRNA discrepancy was not due to accelerated protein degradation in NT2/D1 cells, but by the secretion of EMMPRIN within MVs, as the vesicles released from NT2/D1 contained considerably more EMMPRIN than those released from JKT-1. EMMPRIN-containing MVs obtained from NT2/D1, but not from EMMPRIN-siRNA treated NT2/D1, increased MMP-2 production in fibroblasts to a greater extent than those from JKT-1 cells. The data presented show that the more aggressive embryonic carcinoma cells synthesize more EMMPRIN than seminoma cells, but which they preferentially target to secreted MVs, unlike seminoma cells which retain EMMPRIN within the cell membrane. This cellular event points to a mechanism by which EMMPRIN expressed by malignant testicular cells can exert its MMP inducing effect on distant cells within the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor invasion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-01

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  9. Hypocalcaemia of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Schattner, A; Dubin, I; Huber, R; Gelber, M

    2016-07-01

    Hypercalcaemia of malignancy is well recognised, but hypocalcaemia in cancer patients is not, although it is increasingly encountered. Analysis of an exemplary case and a narrative review of the literature based on the search terms cancer and hypocalcaemia. Hypocalcaemia may affect as many as 10% of hospitalised cancer patients. We identified 12 different potential mechanisms of hypocalcaemia of malignancy. Identifying the pathogenesis is essential for the correct treatment and can usually be performed at the bedside, based on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, creatinine, phosphate, magnesium, creatine kinase, liver enzymes and 25(OH)D. Essentially, decreased or normal PTH hypocalcaemia is seen after removal or destruction of its source, hypomagnesaemia, or cinacalcet treatment. In all other cancer-associated hypocalcaemia, PTH is elevated, including significant renal impairment, critically ill patients, extensive cell destruction (rhabdomyolysis, tumour lysis, haemolysis), acute pancreatitis, adverse drug reactions, cancer or cancer treatment-related malabsorption syndromes, vitamin D deficiency, or osteoblastic metastases. Different mechanisms may often operate in tandem. Pathogenesis determines treatment and affects prognosis. However, hypocalcaemia of malignancy as such did not imply a worse prognosis, in contrast with hypercalcaemia. Hypocalcaemia in cancer patients is commonly encountered, particularly in hospitalised patients, may be mediated by diverse mechanisms and should be better recognised.

  10. TCH1036, a indeno[1,2-c]quinoline derivative, potentially inhibited the growth of human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells via suppression of the expression of Suv39h1 and PARP.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Chien-Chin; Hsiao, Pei-Chi; Chen, Yi-Fong; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chen, Jui-Chang; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-08-01

    A newly synthesized Indeno[1,2-c]quinoline derivative, which has previously been found to potentially trap DNA-topoisomerase cleavage complexes more effectively than camptothecin, could effectively inhibit the proliferation of a variety of cancers, such as breast cancer treated with TCH1030. In this study, we further explore the activity of the TCH1036, TCH1259 and TCH1030 compounds in suppressing the growth of human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells, in addition to elucidating the related mechanisms. According to tests of cytotoxicity, the GBM cells were more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the TCH1036 compound than to those of the other two compounds. Moreover, the accumulation of GBM cells in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases was clearly induced by the TCH1036 compound in a dose-dependent manner. A screening of the majority of histone-modifier enzymes indicated that the expression of Suv39h1 in the GBM cells was attenuated by treatment with each of the TCH compounds, an observation which was further confirmed by Western blotting. The increase in active-form caspase 3 in the GBM cells treated with TCH compounds caused a high degree of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and also enhanced the high ratio of hypodiploid GBM cells in the sub-G1 phase. In molecular docking simulations, it was observed that the stable forms of the TCH compounds could successfully insert into the catalytic pocket of PARP, with the highest affinity being between PARP and the TCH1036 compound. These findings suggested that the TCH1036 compound would be a promising compound in the treatment of brain malignant glioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversion of malignant phenotypes of human glioblastoma cells by β-elemene through β-catenin-mediated regulation of stemness-, differentiation- and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tingzhun; Li, Xiaoming; Luo, Lihan; Wang, Xiaogang; Li, Zhiqing; Xie, Peng; Gao, Xu; Song, Zhenquan; Su, Jingyuan; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-11-12

    Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal type of primary brain tumor. β-Elemene, a natural plant drug extracted from Curcuma wenyujin, has shown strong anti-tumor effects in various tumors with low toxicity. However, the effects of β-elemene on malignant phenotypes of human glioblastoma cells remain to be elucidated. Here we evaluated the effects of β-elemene on cell proliferation, survival, stemness, differentiation and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the mechanisms underlying these effects. Human primary and U87 glioblastoma cells were treated with β-elemene, cell viability was measured using a cell counting kit-8 assay, and treated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was carried out to determine the expression levels of stemness markers, differentiation-related molecules and EMT-related effectors. Transwell assays were performed to further determine EMT of glioblastoma cells. To evaluate the effect of β-elemene on glioblastoma in vivo, we subcutaneously injected glioblastoma cells into the flank of nude mice and then intraperitoneally injected NaCl or β-elemene. The tumor xenograft volumes were measured every 3 days and the expression of stemness-, differentiation- and EMT-related effectors was determined by Western blot assays in xenografts. β-Elemene inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis, impaired invasiveness in glioblastoma cells and suppressed the growth of animal xenografts. The expression levels of the stemness markers CD133 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 as well as the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly downregulated, whereas the expression levels of the differentiation-related effectors glial fibrillary acidic protein, Notch1, and sonic hedgehog as well as the epithelial marker E-cadherin were upregulated by β-elemene in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the expression of vimentin was increased by β-elemene in

  12. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  13. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  14. Update on non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Krown, Susan E

    2003-09-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has changed. Early in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, epidemiologic studies showed that HIV-infected patients were at higher risk for developing specific AIDS-defining malignancies. More recent studies linking HIV/AIDS databases to cancer registries have shown that HIV-infected patients are also at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining malignancies. We review the most recent data regarding clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment outcomes for these non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Recent large cohort studies linking HIV/AIDS databases to cancer registries have shown that HIV-infected patients are also at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Besides anal cancer and Hodgkin disease, the cohort studies have identified other malignancies that appear to occur at a higher rate in the HIV-infected population as compared with the general population. These malignancies include lung cancer, skin cancer, germ cell tumors, leiomyosarcomas, cancers of the head and neck, conjunctival cancer, multiple myeloma, and leukemias. As the epidemiology of non-AIDS-defining malignancies continues to evolve, it is unclear whether the appropriate treatments and outcomes for these or other malignancies are changed for HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.

  15. Silencing the Snail-dependent RNA splice regulator ESRP1 drives malignant transformation of human pulmonary epithelial cells. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is organized in cancer cells by a set of key transcription factors, but the significance of this process is still debated including in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we report increased expression of the EMT-inducing transcription factor Snail in premalignant pulmonary lesions, relative to histologically normal pulmonary epithelium. In immortalized human pulmonary epithelial cells and isogenic derivatives, we documented Snail-dependent anchorage-independent growth in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastatic behavior in vivo.

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Poletti, Giovanni; Murer, Bruno; Saragoni, Luca; Chilosi, Marco

    2007-10-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is a useful diagnostic tool in diffuse or disseminated lung malignancies that do not involve the bronchial structures visible by endoscopy. The neoplastic histotype and the intraparenchymal neoplastic growth pattern are good predictors for diagnostic yield; adenocarcinoma, and tumors with lymphangitic or lepidic growth patterns are more easily diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage; in these cases the diagnostic yield reported is higher than 80%. In hematologic malignancies the diagnostic yield is quite good in secondary diffuse indolent B cell lymphomas and in primary B cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type but low in Hodgkin disease. Morphological analysis may be implemented by immunocytochemical or molecular tests to identify the cell lineage and the presence of monoclonality. Disorders in which bronchioloalveolar cell hyperplasia/dysplasia is a significant morphological component may have cytological features in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid that mimic lung neoplasms: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are the most important clinical entities in this group.

  17. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  18. MicroRNA-9 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via targeting NRP1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Chen, Xiaofeng; He, Quanyong; Luo, Chengqun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the gene expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNA, thus resulting in mRNA degradation or translational repression. miR-9 has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development and progression of malignant melanoma (MM), but the regulatory mechanism of miR-9 in the malignant phenotypes of MM still remains largely unknown. In this study, a total of 73 pairs of MM tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of miR-9. MTT assay, wound healing assay, and transwell assay were conducted to determine the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting relationship between miR-9 and NRP1. Our data demonstrated that miR-9 expression was significantly downregulated in MM tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. The decreased miR-9 level was significantly associated with the tumor stage and metastasis of MM. We also found that the expression level of miR-9 was decreased in MM cell lines (G361, B16, A375, and HME1) compared with normal skin HACAT cells. Ectopic expression of miR-9 led to a significant decrease in the ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion in A375 cells. NRP1 was further identified as a direct target gene of miR-9, and the protein expression of NRP1 was negatively regulated by miR-9 in A375 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NRP1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-9 on the malignant phenotypes of A375 cells. In vivo study revealed that miR-9 overexpression decreased the tumor growth, while overexpression of NRP1 increased MM growth. In summary, our findings suggest that the miR-9/NRP1 axis may serve as a potential target for the treatment of MM.

  19. 17-DMAG induces heat shock protein 90 functional impairment in human bladder cancer cells: knocking down the hallmark traits of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2016-05-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. Hsp90 holds a prominent role in tumorigenesis, as numerous members of its broad clientele are involved in the generation of the hallmark traits of cancer. 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) specifically targets Hsp90 and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone, impairing its intrinsic ATPase activity and undermining proper folding of multiple protein clients. In this study, we have examined the effects of 17-DMAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent tumorigenic signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival, and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semiquantitative PCR (sqPCR), immunofluorescence, and scratch-wound assays in RT4 (p53(wt)), RT112 (p53(wt)), T24 (p53(mt)), and TCCSUP (p53(mt)) human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon exposure to 17-DMAG, bladder cancer cells display prominent cell cycle arrest and commitment to apoptotic and autophagic cell death, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-DMAG administration induced pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream oncogenic effectors, therefore causing inhibition of cell proliferation and decline of cell motility due to the molecular "freezing" of critical cytoskeletal components. In toto, we have clearly demonstrated the dose-dependent and cell type-specific effects of 17-DMAG on the hallmark traits of cancer, appointing Hsp90 as a key molecular component in bladder cancer targeted therapy.

  20. N-Myc down regulation induced differentiation, early cell cycle exit, and apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having wild type or mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2009-11-01

    Neuroblastomas, which mostly occur in children, are aggressive metastatic tumors of the sympathetic nervous system. The failure of the previous therapeutic regimens to target multiple components of N-Myc pathway resulted in poor prognosis. The present study investigated the efficacy of the combination of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR, 0.5 microM) and genistein (GST, 25 microM) to control the growth of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE2) harboring divergent molecular attributes. Combination of 4-HPR and GST down regulated N-Myc, Notch-1, and Id2 to induce neuronal differentiation. Transition to neuronal phenotype was accompanied by increase in expression of e-cadherin. Induction of neuronal differentiation was associated with decreased expression of hTERT, PCNA, survivin, and fibronectin. This is the first report that combination of 4-HPR and GST mediated reactivation of multiple tumor suppressors (p53, p21, Rb, and PTEN) for early cell cycle exit (due to G1/S phase arrest) in neuroblastoma cells. Reactivation of tumor suppressor(s) repressed N-Myc driven growth factor mediated angiogenic and invasive pathways (VEGF, b-FGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9) in neuroblastoma. Repression of angiogenic factors led to the blockade of components of mitogenic pathways [phospho-Akt (Thr 308), p65 NF-kappaB, and p42/44 Erk 1/2]. Taken together, the combination of 4-HPR and GST effectively blocked survival, mitogenic, and angiogenic pathways and activated proteases for apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. These results suggested that combination of 4-HPR and GST could be effective for controlling the growth of heterogeneous human neuroblastoma cell populations.

  1. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  2. Malignant melanoma of the nose.

    PubMed

    Souza, S D; Sujata, G

    2001-04-01

    Invasive tumors containing abnormal melanocvtes are termed ax malignant melanomas. Primary malignant melanomas of the nasal and paranasal cavities are extremely rare. A 65 years old female presented with bleeding from the nose and a gradually increasing mass in the left nostril. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed "poorly differentiated carcinoma" like features. But S-100 staining proved it to be a malignant melanoma. This case is reported here for its rarity. The literature on malignant melanoma is reviewed and the aetiology pathology, diagnostic and therapeutic problems are also discussed.

  3. Depth-resolved monitoring of diffusion of hyperosmotic agents in normal and malignant human esophagus tissues using optical coherence tomography in-vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Qingliang; Guo Zhouyi; Wei Huajiang

    2011-10-31

    Depth-resolved monitoring with differentiation and quantification of glucose diffusion in healthy and abnormal esophagus tissues has been studied in vitro. Experiments have been performed using human normal esophagus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues by the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The images have been continuously acquired for 120 min in the experiments, and the depth-resolved and average permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution have been calculated by the OCT amplitude (OCTA) method. We demonstrate the capability of the OCT technique for depth-resolved monitoring, differentiation, and quantifying of glucose diffusion in normal esophagus and ESCC tissues. It ismore » found that the permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution are not uniform throughout the normal esophagus and ESCC tissues and increase from (3.30 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and (1.57 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the mucous membrane of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues to (1.82 {+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the submucous layer approximately 742 {mu}m away from the epithelial surface of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues, respectively. (optical coherence tomography)« less

  4. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection leads to the development of head and neck lesions but offers better prognosis in malignant Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shreya; Alam, Neyaz; Chakraborty, Jayanta; Biswas, Jaydip; Mandal, Syam Sundar; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Head and neck cancers constitute a multifactorial global disease burden and are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) as a possible risk factor. The aim of the study is to understand the relationship between HPV and the development of head and neck lesions in Indian patients. To this end, frequency of HPV was assessed in relation to different demographic and etiological features and correlated with patient survival. The prevalence of HPV significantly increased from mild dysplastic lesions (43.6%) to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stage IV (68.5%) with HPV 16 being pre-dominant in both dysplasia (43.8%) and HNSCC (61.5%). Similar trend was observed in increasing grades of the tumour. In invasive lesions, patients aged below the median age of onset showed significantly higher occurrence of HPV than those above it. Patients harbouring HPV showed a significantly better survival irrespective of age of onset. Likewise, better survival was observed in tobacco habit negative/HPV-positive patients, and as reflected in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Majority of the HPV 16-positive samples showed moderate/high nuclear expression of HPV E6 and E7 proteins in tumours and respective basal layer of adjacent normal tissues. Thus, our data indicate that frequent HPV infection, along with tobacco habit, is a pre-requisite factor for the development of HNSCC of Indian patients but offers a better survival even during tobacco usage, implicating its diagnostic and prognostic importance.

  5. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  6. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells;more » to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.« less

  7. Malignant sigmoidoduodenal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Shapey, I.M.; Mahmood, K.; Solkar, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Duodenocolic fistula is a rare complication of malignant colonic disease especially when involving and originating from the sigmoid colon. We aim to discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this case as well as the investigation and management of duodenocolic fistulas. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 91 year old lady presented as an emergency to a general surgical service at a District General Hospital with diarrhoea, vomiting and weight loss. Computed Tomography (CT) reported a large ovarian cyst elevating the sigmoid colon into immediate proximity of the duodenum. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology obtained by colonoscopy. A classic apple core lesion with fistulating tract from the sigmoid colon to the duodenum was synchronously demonstrated on barium enema. DISCUSSION Sigmoido-duodenal fistulae represent a complex manifestation of gastrointestinal pathologies. CONCLUSION Management options must be considered in the context of patient wishes, their co-morbidities, and predicted post-operative outcome. In most cases this is likely to represent a non-operative approach, however surgical resection may benefit selected cases on occasion. PMID:25460456

  8. Malignant sigmoidoduodenal fistula.

    PubMed

    Shapey, I M; Mahmood, K; Solkar, M H

    2014-01-01

    Duodenocolic fistula is a rare complication of malignant colonic disease especially when involving and originating from the sigmoid colon. We aim to discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this case as well as the investigation and management of duodenocolic fistulas. A 91 year old lady presented as an emergency to a general surgical service at a District General Hospital with diarrhoea, vomiting and weight loss. Computed Tomography (CT) reported a large ovarian cyst elevating the sigmoid colon into immediate proximity of the duodenum. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology obtained by colonoscopy. A classic apple core lesion with fistulating tract from the sigmoid colon to the duodenum was synchronously demonstrated on barium enema. Sigmoido-duodenal fistulae represent a complex manifestation of gastrointestinal pathologies. Management options must be considered in the context of patient wishes, their co-morbidities, and predicted post-operative outcome. In most cases this is likely to represent a non-operative approach, however surgical resection may benefit selected cases on occasion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunology of malignant diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, V.S.; Baldwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Immunoscintigraphy: tumor detection with radiolabelled antitumor monoclonal antibodies; Bone marrow transplantation; Immunomodulating agents; Immunology in bowel cancer; Melanoma; and Immunological features of human bladder cancer.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (2 links) King Denborough syndrome Malignant hyperthermia Educational Resources (4 links) ... 19 [updated 2013 Jan 31]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean ...

  11. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory massmore » correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.« less

  12. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica

    2013-08-16

    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.

  14. Mutant KRAS promotes malignant pleural effusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Αgalioti, Theodora; Giannou, Anastasios D.; Krontira, Anthi C.; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Kati, Danai; Vreka, Malamati; Pepe, Mario; Spella, Μagda; Lilis, Ioannis; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Nikolouli, Eirini; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Papadakis, Andreas; Papadia, Konstantina; Voulgaridis, Apostolos; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Stamou, Panagiota; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Snyder, Linda A.; Antimisiaris, Sophia G.; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Psallidas, Ioannis; Μarazioti, Antonia; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2017-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is the lethal consequence of various human cancers metastatic to the pleural cavity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MPE are still obscure. Here we show that mutant KRAS is important for MPE induction in mice. Pleural disseminated, mutant KRAS bearing tumour cells upregulate and systemically release chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) into the bloodstream to mobilize myeloid cells from the host bone marrow to the pleural space via the spleen. These cells promote MPE formation, as indicated by splenectomy and splenocyte restoration experiments. In addition, KRAS mutations are frequently detected in human MPE and cell lines isolated thereof, but are often lost during automated analyses, as indicated by manual versus automated examination of Sanger sequencing traces. Finally, the novel KRAS inhibitor deltarasin and a monoclonal antibody directed against CCL2 are equally effective against an experimental mouse model of MPE, a result that holds promise for future efficient therapies against the human condition. PMID:28508873

  15. Preparation and characterization of a novel Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA conjugate for melanin-targeted imaging of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Chuan-Lin

    2016-08-15

    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated the specific binding ability of benzamide moiety to melanin. In this study, we developed a novel (18)F-labeled NOTA-benzamide conjugate, Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA, which can be synthesized in 30min with a radiochemical yield of 20-35% and a radiochemical purity of >95%. Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is highly hydrophilic (logP=-1.96) and shows good in vitro stability. Intravenous administration of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA in two melanoma-bearing mouse models revealed highly specific uptake in B16F0 melanotic melanoma (6.67±0.91 and 1.50±0.26%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively), but not in A375 amelanotic melanoma (0.87±0.21 and 0.24±0.09%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively). The clearance from most normal tissues was fast. A microPET scan of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA-injected mice also displayed high-contrast tumor images as compared with normal organs. Owing to the favorable in vivo distribution of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in all normal organs and tissues. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and thelow projected human dosimetry supported that Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is a very promising melanin-specific PET probe for melanin-positive melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma.

  17. TAK228 With Carbo and Taxol in Advanced Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-12

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract; Malignant Neoplasms Stated as Primary Lymphoid Haematopoietic

  18. Epidemiologic overview of malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma encompasses a wide variety of distinct disease entities. It is generally more common in developed countries and less common in developing countries. The East Asia region has one of the lowest incidence rates of malignant lymphoma. The incidence of malignant lymphoma around the world has been increasing at a rate of 3-4% over the last 4 decades, while some stabilization has been observed in developed countries in recent years. The reasons behind this lymphoma epidemic are poorly understood, although improving diagnostic accuracy, the recent AIDS epidemic, an aging world population and the increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors are suggested as contributing factors. Etiologies of malignant lymphoma include infectious agents, immunodeficiency, autoimmune disease, exposure to certain organic chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The distribution of many subtypes exhibit marked geographic variations. Compared to the West, T/natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas (T/NK-cell lymphoma) and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) are relatively more common, whereas other B-cell lymphomas, particularly follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, are less common in Asia. Some subtypes of T/NK-cell lymphomas defined by Epstein-Barr virus association are predominantly Asian diseases, if not exclusively so. Both ethnic and environmental factors play roles in such diversity. In this review, we discuss the geographic distribution and etiology of malignant lymphoma, as well as the trend. PMID:22783355

  19. A case of malignant hyperthermia captured by an anesthesia information management system.

    PubMed

    Maile, Michael D; Patel, Rajesh A; Blum, James M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2011-04-01

    Many cases of malignant hyperthermia triggered by volatile anesthetic agents have been described. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a report describing the precise changes in physiologic data of a human suffering from this process. Here we describe a case of malignant hyperthermia in which monitoring information was frequently and accurately captured by an anesthesia information management system.

  20. Preliminary clinical trial of immunotherapy for malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ingram, M; Shelden, C H; Jacques, S; Skillen, R G; Bradley, W G; Techy, G B; Freshwater, D B; Abts, R M; Rand, R W

    1987-10-01

    An immunotherapy protocol based on intracranial implantation of stimulated, autologous lymphocytes into the tumor bed following surgical debulking of malignant glioma is described. Phase I clinical trials in human patients are now in progress. Preliminary data representing the first 39 patients treated are presented briefly.

  1. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Malignant hemangiopericytoma of pituitary fossa.

    PubMed

    Das, Prasenjit; Haresh, Kunhi P; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Sarkar, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemangiopericytomas are rare tumors with aggressive behavior. Other than the meninges, this lesion has rarely been reported in periventricular and sellar region. We report a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma in sellar region in a 47-year-old male who presented with history of sudden onset of bilateral visual disturbances. To best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of malignant hemangiopericytoma in this location. As this intracranial lesion shows aggressive behavior, in the form of recurrence or extracranial metastasis in comparison to its extracranial counterparts, diagnosis should be made cautiously.

  3. Stenting in Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-10-01

    Decompression of the biliary system in patients with malignant biliary obstruction has been widely accepted and implemented as part of the care. Despite a wealth of literature, there remains a significant amount of uncertainty as to which approach would be most appropriate in different clinical settings. This review covers stenting of the biliary system in cases of resectable or palliative malignant biliary obstruction, potential candidates for biliary drainage, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as management of biliary stent dysfunction. Furthermore, periprocedural considerations including proper mapping of the location of obstruction and the use of antibiotics are addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  5. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangming; Han, Xiaodong; Cheng, Wei; Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yunfei; Lin, Jingrong; Song, Zhiqi

    2017-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most invasive and fatal form of cutaneous cancer. Moreover it is extremely resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Apigenin, a non-mutagenic flavonoid, has been found to exhibit chemopreventive and/or anticancerogenic properties in many different types of human cancer cells. Therefore, apigenin may have particular relevance for development as a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on the viability, migration and invasion potential, dendrite morphology, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in human melanoma A375 and C8161 cell lines in vitro. Apigenin effectively suppressed the proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, it inhibited cell migration and invasion, lengthened the dendrites, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, apigenin promoted the activation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP proteins and decreased the expression of phosphorylated (p)‑ERK1/2 proteins, p-AKT and p-mTOR. Consequently, apigenin is a novel therapeutic candidate for melanoma.

  6. Precursor Lesions of Urologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khani, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    - Precursor lesions of urologic malignancies are established histopathologic entities, which are important not only to recognize for clinical purposes, but also to further investigate at the molecular level in order to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies. - To provide a brief overview of precursor lesions to the most common malignancies that develop within the genitourinary tract with a focus on their clinical implications, histologic features, and molecular characteristics. - Literature review from PubMed, urologic pathology textbooks, and the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. All photomicrographs were taken from cases seen at Weill Cornell Medicine or from the authors' personal slide collections. - The clinical importance and histologic criteria are well established for the known precursor lesions of the most common malignancies throughout the genitourinary tract, but further investigation is warranted at the molecular level to better understand the pathogenesis of these lesions. Such investigation may lead to better risk stratification of patients and potentially novel treatments.

  7. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  8. Bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Shpitz, B.; Witz, M.; Kaufman, Z.; Griffel, B.; Manor, Y.; Dinbar, A.

    1985-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of breast in a 76 year old woman is presented. The lesion was examined by electron microscopy and immunochemistry. The diagnosis of primary malignant lymphoma remains a diagnosis by exclusion and requires extensive work-up to exclude widespread malignant process. The behaviour of this malignancy tends to be an aggressive one and the prognosis is generally poor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:4034464

  9. Bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, B; Witz, M; Kaufman, Z; Griffel, B; Manor, Y; Dinbar, A

    1985-08-01

    A rare case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of breast in a 76 year old woman is presented. The lesion was examined by electron microscopy and immunochemistry. The diagnosis of primary malignant lymphoma remains a diagnosis by exclusion and requires extensive work-up to exclude widespread malignant process. The behaviour of this malignancy tends to be an aggressive one and the prognosis is generally poor.

  10. Second primary malignancies after treatment for malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Okines, A; Thomson, C S; Radstone, C R; Horsman, J M; Hancock, B W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the incidence and possible causes of second primary malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL and NHL). A cohort of 3764 consecutive patients diagnosed with HL or NHL between January 1970 and July 2001 was identified using the Sheffield Lymphoma Group database. A search was undertaken for all patients diagnosed with a subsequent primary malignancy. Two matched controls were identified for each case. Odds ratios were calculated to detect and quantify any risk factors in the cases compared to their matched controls. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 5.2 years. A total of 68 patients who developed second cancers at least 6 months after their primary diagnosis were identified, giving a crude incidence of 1.89% overall: 3.21% among the patients treated for HL, 1.32% in those treated for NHL. Most common were bronchial, breast, colorectal and haematological malignancies. High stage at diagnosis almost reached statistical significance in the analysis of just the NHL patients (odds ratio=3.48; P=0.068) after adjustment for other factors. Treatment modality was not statistically significant in any analysis. High stage at diagnosis of NHL may be a risk factor for developing a second primary cancer. PMID:16106249

  11. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation.

    PubMed

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable.

  12. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M.; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A.; Patmanidi, Alexandra L.; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell–induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  13. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

  14. Venous thromboembolism in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, E. O.; SCHIFF, D.; MACKMAN, N.; KEY, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Malignant gliomas are associated with a very high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While many clinical risk factors have previously been described in brain tumor patients, the risk of VTE associated with newer anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab in these patients remains unclear. When VTE occurs in this patient population, concern regarding the potential for intracranial hemorrhage complicates management decisions regarding anticoagulation, and these patients have a worse prognosis than their VTE-free counterparts. Risk stratification models identifying patients at high risk of developing VTE along with predictive plasma biomarkers may guide the selection of eligible patients for primary prevention with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Recent studies exploring disordered coagulation, such as increased expression of tissue factor (TF), and tumorigenic molecular signaling may help to explain the increased risk of VTE in patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:19912518

  15. Malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devesh K; Belovay, Graham W; Tam, Diamond Y; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2014-11-01

    To report a series of eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery. Private academic practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrospective case series. Eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery were treated with medical therapy. This was followed by laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, anterior chamber reformation and intraocular lens (IOL) pushback, and finally with surgical iridozonulohyaloidovitrectomy if all other measures were unsuccessful. Refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) by anterior segment optical coherence tomography were analyzed before treatment and after treatment. The study evaluated 20 eyes of 18 female patients aged 44 to 86 years. Preoperatively, the mean refraction was +3.11 diopters (D) ± 2.89 (SD), the mean axial length was 21.30 ± 1.40 mm, and all eyes had narrow or closed angles. Malignant glaucoma was diagnosed a mean of 5.8 ± 7.1 weeks postoperatively. At diagnosis, the mean refraction was -2.15 ± 2.95 D; the mean ACD, 2.49 ± 0.72 mm; and the mean IOP, 28.3 ± 10.8 mm Hg on a mean of 1.3 ± 1.6 medications. Two eyes responded to cycloplegia, 7 to laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, and 6 to anterior chamber reformation-IOL pushback; 5 eyes required vitrectomy. Posttreatment, the mean refraction was -0.56 ± 1.07 D; the mean ACD, 3.30 ± 0.50 mm; and the mean IOP, 14.4 ± 4.60 mm Hg on a mean of 1.2 ± 1.4 medications. Cycloplegia was discontinued in 17 eyes. Malignant glaucoma can occur after phacoemulsification and presents with myopic surprise, anterior chamber shallowing and, possibly, elevated IOP. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicological characterization of ZnO nanoparticles in malignant and non-malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Moratin, Helena; Scherzad, Agmal; Gehrke, Thomas; Ickrath, Pascal; Radeloff, Katrin; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Hackenberg, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    The increasing usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in industrial applications as well as in consumer products raises concern regarding their potential adverse effects to a greater extend. Numerous studies have demonstrated toxic properties of NPs, however there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to systematically investigate cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle alterations, and genotoxicity induced by ZnO-NP. Moreover, it was an aim of the investigations to specify the diverse effects of nanoparticle exposure in malignant in comparison with non-malignant cells. Therefore, human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma-derived FaDu cells were incubated with 4-20 µg/ml of ZnO-NPs for 1-48 hr and tested for cell viability, cell cycle alterations, apoptosis and caspase-3 gene expression as a sensitive marker of molecular apoptotic processes with regard to time- and dose-dependent effects. Human mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells were used as non-malignant representatives to examine oxidative stress-related genotoxicity. Results showed a significant reduction in cell viability as well as dose- and time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells following nanoparticle treatment. Likewise, caspase-3 gene expression enhanced already before first apoptotic cells were detectable. It could be observed that doses that were cytotoxic in tumor cells did not reduce viability in stem cells. However, the same concentrations already induced significant DNA damage. The findings of the study suggest to keep a more critical eye on the use of nanoparticles as anti-cancer agents. Yet, additional in vivo studies are needed to assess safety concerns for consumers and patients. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:247-259, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  18. Metabonomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance in human pleural effusions: A route to discriminate between benign and malignant pleural effusions and to target small molecules as potential cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zennaro, Lucio; Vanzani, Paola; Nicolè, Lorenzo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2017-05-01

    Cytopathology is a noninvasive and cost-effective method for detecting cancer cells in pleural effusions (PEs), although in many cases, the diagnostic performance is hindered by the paucity of significant cells or the lack of clear morphological criteria. This study presents the results of an omics approach to improving the diagnostic performance of PE cytology. Metabolic profiling with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) was performed for 92 PEs (44 malignant cases of 8 different cancers and 48 benign cases of 7 nonneoplastic conditions). Light's criteria were used to further classify PEs as transudates or exudates, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was used to differentiate malignant pleural effusions (mPEs) from benign pleural effusions (bPEs). 1 H-NMR metabolic analysis showed clearly different spectra for mPEs and bPEs in the regions of the signals due to lipids, branched amino acids, and lactate, which were increased in mPEs. Transudates and exudates in bPEs were differentiated as well on the basis of the 1 H-NMR signals from lipids and lipoproteins, which were increased in exudates. Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1 H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for PE investigations and diagnoses. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:341-348. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Malignancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer biology and genetics. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 181. National Cancer Institute. NCI dictionary of cancer terms. Cancer.gov ...

  20. LncRNA MEG3 repressed malignant melanoma progression via inactivating Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Gao, Ying; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yu; Yuan, Jing; Guan, Huiwen; Yao, Peng

    2018-05-21

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that MEG3 can serve as a tumor suppressive lncRNA in various tumors. It is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers. However, the biological roles of MEG3 in melanoma are poorly understood. Therefore, in our study, we concentrated on the biological mechanism of MEG3 in melanoma progression. First, we observed that MEG3 was obviously decreased in melanoma cells including A375, SK-MEL-1, B16, and A2058 cells compared to human epidermal melanocytes HEMa-LP. MEG3 was restored by transfecting LV-MEG3 in to A375 and A2058 cells. Subsequently, we found that overexpression of MEG3 was able to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. Meanwhile, melanoma cell apoptosis was induced by up-regulation of MEG3. Overexpression of MEG3 greatly repressed melanoma cell migration and invasion ability. In addition, Wnt signaling pathway has been identified in the progression of various cancers. Here, in our study, it was indicated that Wnt signaling was highly activated in melanoma cells with β-catenin expression significantly increased and GSK-3β decreased. Interestingly, MEG restoration strongly inactivated Wnt signaling pathway by reducing β-catenin and CyclinD1, elevating GSK-3β levels in vitro. Finally, in vivo experiments were carried out to confirm the inhibitory roles of MEG3 in vivo. Taken these together, we suggested that MEG3 can inhibit melanoma development through blocking Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Andres Jan; Anderer, Georgia; von Knobloch, Rolf; Heidenreich, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a possible hydronephrosis. Diagnostic

  2. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

  3. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn; Callahan, Shields; Terushkin, Vitaly; Brinster, Nooshin; Leger, Marie; Soter, Nicholas A

    2016-12-15

    We report a 68-year-old woman with chroniclymphocytic leukemia, who developed numerous,pruritic, edematous, and vesicobullous skin lesionsof the face and extremities over the course of severalmonths. The diagnosis of eosinophilic dermatosis ofhematologic malignancy (EDHM) was made basedon the clinical history and histopathologic features.Owing to the possible link between EDHM and amore aggressive underlying CLL, she was startedagain on chemotherapy. This case serves as areminder that, although the precise pathogenesis ofEDHM remains unclear, the paraneoplastic disorderis the result of immune dysregulation. Patientswho develop EDHM should undergo prompthematologic/oncologic evaluation.

  4. Intracavitary Therapeutics for Pleural Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vivek; Mangalick, Keshav; Sterman, Daniel H

    2018-03-01

    Pleural malignancies remain a serious therapeutic challenge, and are frequently refractory to standard treatment; however, they have the advantage of occurring in an enclosed cavity readily accessible for examination, biopsy, and serial sampling. Novel therapeutics can be administered via intracavitary delivery to maximize efficacy by targeting the site of involvement and potentially mitigating the adverse effects of systemic therapies. The easy accessibility of the pleural space lends itself well to repeated sampling and analysis to determine efficacy and toxicity of a given treatment paradigm. These factors support the rationale for delivery of novel therapeutics directly into the pleural space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. microRNA-625 inhibits tumorigenicity by suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Fan, Yibin; Fa, Zhenzong; Xu, Jinhua; Yu, Hongyu; Li, Pu; Gu, Julin

    2017-02-21

    Dysregulated microRNA (miR)-625 expression has been observed in several kinds of cancer. MicroRNAs are important factors in the development and progression of malignant melanoma, though the clinical significance and function of miR-625 in human malignant melanoma remain unclear. Levels of miR-625 expression were therefore determined in 36 pairs of malignant melanoma and adjacent non-tumor tissue using qPCR. The effects of miR-625 dysregulation on malignant melanoma cell proliferation, wound healing, migration and invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo were investigated using CCK-8, transwell assays, and a nude mouse subcutaneous tumor model. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter system were used to predict and confirm the target gene of miR-625. miR-625 levels were frequently decreased in malignant melanoma. Ectopic expression of miR-625 suppressed proliferation, wound healing, migration, and tumorgenicity in malignant melanoma. Moreover, miR-625 acted, at least in part, by suppressing potential target SOX2. These results show that miR-625 is a tumor suppressor that inhibits the development and progression of malignant melanoma, which suggests miR-625 is potentially a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target of malignant melanoma.

  6. Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in malignant, dysplastic, nondysplastic and normal oral epithelium by nested polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and transitional electron microscopy in patients of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Blioumi, E; Chatzidimitriou, D; Pazartzi, Ch; Katopodi, Th; Tzimagiorgis, G; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, E-N; Markopoulos, A; Kalekou, C; Lazaridis, N; Diza, E; Antoniades, D

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis, we examined the prevalence of HPV in malignant, potentially malignant and normal oral epithelium and studied the relation of HPV prevalence with other factors obtained from the patient's records. Our material consisted of 291 tissue specimens from 258 individuals. From every individual formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues were examined by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (NPCR) for the detection of HPV DNA and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the in situ detection of HPV L1 protein. Positive PCR products were sequenced in order to type HPVs. Also 33 fresh tissues were obtained, fixed and used to detect HPV particles by transitional electron microscopy (TEM). HPV was detected in 32.9% of the tissue specimens by NPCR, in 4.7% by immunohistochemistry and in 28.1% by TEM. In detail, by nested PCR HPV L1 DNA was detected in 40% of normal tissues, 40% of fibromas, 35.8% of non-dysplastic leukoplakias, 31.6% of dysplastic leukoplakias and 22.2% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HPV viral load of 96.5% of the samples was very low (1 viral copy per 10(2)-10(4) cells). HPV16 prevails in all histological groups in 89-100%. We conclude that HPV does not seem, from the specific sample examined, to play a substantial role in oral carcinogenesis. However, it cannot be excluded that HPV could be involved in oral carcinogenesis only in cases with high viral load or at early stages of carcinogenesis possibly through the hit-and-run mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EF24 and RAD001 potentiates the anticancer effect of platinum-based agents in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) cells and protects nonmalignant mesothelial (MET-5A) cells.

    PubMed

    Onen, H I; Yilmaz, A; Alp, E; Celik, A; Demiroz, S M; Konac, E; Kurul, I C; Menevse, E S

    2015-02-01

    The most widespread neoplasm of the pleura is malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with low prevalence rate. The mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway, inhibited by RAD001, was shown to be deregulated in MPM development and considered a novel target for the MPM therapy. The EF24, a curcumin analog, also affects several signaling pathways and kills cancer cells as a single agent or in combination with classical drugs. We aimed to evaluate possible effects of RAD001, EF24, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin treatments on both malignant pleural mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) and nonmalignant mesothelial (Met-5A) cell lines. The effects of the agents on MSTO-211H and Met-5A cells were evaluated in terms of cell viability, cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis rate, quantitation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase 3 levels. Moreover, quantitative messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis of apoptotic (CASP9) and antiapoptotic (BCL2L1 and BCL2) genes were also performed. We found that both EF24 and RAD001 alone treatments decreased only MSTO-211H cell viability, but cisplatin and oxaliplatin affected both cell lines. Pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 followed by cisplatin increased the effects of cisplatin alone application. EF24 and RAD001 pretreatment decreased DNA fragmentation rate when compared with cisplatin alone treatment in Met-5A cells. Sequential treatments resulted in a significant increase of CASP9 mRNA expression in MSTO-211H cells but not in Met-5A cells. Our preliminary results suggest that pretreatment with EF24 or RAD001 may reduce cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on nonmalignant mesothelial cells and increase cell death response of MPM cells. Further analyses using animal models are needed to confirm these findings in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words: Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer.

  9. Familial association of specific histologic types of ovarian malignancy with other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Rawal, Rajesh; Hemminki, Kari

    2004-04-01

    Population-based data on the familial association of specific histologic types of ovarian malignancy with other malignancies are limited. Such data may help to elucidate etiologic differences among histologic types of ovarian malignancy. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database, which includes 10.3 million individuals and 20,974 ovarian carcinomas, was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for age- and histology-specific ovarian malignancies in women whose parents or siblings were affected with malignancies at the most common disease sites. Ovarian malignancy was found to be associated with ovarian, laryngeal, breast, endometrial, liver, and colon carcinoma, as well as myeloma; epithelial ovarian malignancy was found to be associated with ovarian, endometrial, and skin malignancies and with melanoma and myeloma; papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma was found to be associated with ovarian and skin malignancies and with myeloma; and endometrioid carcinoma was found to be associated with endometrial, ovarian, and prostate malignancies and with melanoma. For younger women (ages 40-45 years) whose mothers were affected with endometrial malignancies, the risk of developing endometrioid carcinoma was slightly greater than the risk of developing papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Specific types of ovarian malignancy may be associated with specific familial disease sites, with such associations depending on age at diagnosis; the strength of the observed associations varied according to histology. Associations were found between endometrioid carcinoma and endometrial malignancy and between serous carcinoma and Hodgkin disease. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  10. Malignant mesothelioma with squamous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akiko; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Tomita, Masaki; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2018-06-01

    We report the autopsy findings of a 58-year-old man with malignant mesothelioma in the left pleural cavity. The patient had a history of asbestos exposure, and the chest computed tomography scan on initial admission demonstrated an extrapleural sign, suggesting a nodular lesion in the chest wall. However, no nodular lesions were detectable in either of his lungs. In spite of chemotherapy, he died 4 months after the initial admission. An autopsy revealed markedly thickened pleura in a large section of the left pleural cavity without visible intrapulmonary primary tumour lesions. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen obtained prior to chemotherapy and that of an autopsy specimen showed that the pleural tumour was composed of a mixture of mesothelioma and tumour cells with squamous differentiation mimicking squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of mesothelioma with extensive squamous differentiation in the English-language literature. The extensive squamous differentiation reminiscent of squamous cell carcinoma can be a pitfall in the pathological diagnosis of pleural cytology and that of biopsy specimens from patients with mesothelioma. Here, we report autopsy findings of a case of malignant mesothelioma with portions of extensive squamous differentiation, mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cellular immunotherapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Okada, Hideho

    2016-10-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made much progress in recent years. Clinical trials evaluating a variety of immunotherapeutic approaches are underway in patients with malignant gliomas. Thanks to recent advancements in cell engineering technologies, infusion of ex vivo prepared immune cells have emerged as promising strategies of cancer immunotherapy. Herein, the authors review recent and current studies using cellular immunotherapies for malignant gliomas. Specifically, they cover the following areas: a) cellular vaccine approaches using tumor cell-based or dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines, and b) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) approaches, including lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, γδ T cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. While some of the recent studies have shown promising results, the ultimate success of cellular immunotherapy in brain tumor patients would require improvements in the following areas: 1) feasibility in producing cellular therapeutics; 2) identification and characterization of targetable antigens given the paucity and heterogeneity of tumor specific antigens; 3) the development of strategies to promote effector T-cell trafficking; 4) overcoming local and systemic immune suppression, and 5) proper interpretation of imaging data for brain tumor patients receiving immunotherapy.

  12. Cellular immunotherapy for malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer immunotherapy has made much progress in recent years. Clinical trials evaluating a variety of immunotherapeutic approaches are underway in patients with malignant gliomas. Thanks to recent advancements in cell engineering technologies, infusion of ex vivo prepared immune cells have emerged as promising strategies of cancer immunotherapy. Areas covered Herein, the authors review recent and current studies using cellular immunotherapies for malignant gliomas. Specifically, they cover the following areas: a) cellular vaccine approaches using tumor cell-based or dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines, and b) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) approaches, including lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, γδ T cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and T-cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. Expert opinion While some of the recent studies have shown promising results, the ultimate success of cellular immunotherapy in brain tumor patients would require improvements in the following areas: 1) feasibility in producing cellular therapeutics; 2) identification and characterization of targetable antigens given the paucity and heterogeneity of tumor specific antigens; 3) the development of strategies to promote effector T-cell trafficking; 4) overcoming local and systemic immune suppression, and 5) proper interpretation of imaging data for brain tumor patients receiving immunotherapy. PMID:27434205

  13. HIV-Associated Urogenital Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hentrich, Marcus; Pfister, David

    2017-01-01

    Non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADM) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected subjects. The risk of testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) and renal cell cancer is slightly increased in the setting of HIV, whereas there is a slightly decreased risk of prostate cancer and bladder cancer. As in industrialized countries the majority of people living with HIV are men, and people aged 55 and older now account for more than a quarter of persons living with HIV, both testis and prostate cancer are assumed to occur with increased frequency in HIV-infected subjects. Overall, treatments should be the same as in HIV-negative patients with urogenital malignancies. Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the outcome appears to have improved due to a decrease in HIV-related deaths. HIV-infected men who are treated with standard therapies for GCC now have a similar cancer-free survival compared with their HIV-negative counterparts. Screening and treatment for prostate cancer should follow recommendations established for HIV-negative men. During radio- or chemotherapy patients should receive concurrent cART but the drug-drug interaction potential must be taken into account. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. [Acute surgical treatment of malignant stroke].

    PubMed

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Eskesen, Vagn; Hansen, Klaus; Kondziella, Daniel; Kelsen, Jesper

    2016-10-24

    Malignant stroke is an intracranial herniation syndrome caused by cerebral oedema after a large hemispheric or cerebellar stroke. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a devastating disease with a mortality around 80% despite intensive medical treatment. Decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality and improves functional outcome - especially in younger patients (age ≤ 60 years). Decompression of the posterior fossa is a life-saving procedure in patients with malignant cerebellar infarctions and often leads to good neurological outcome.

  15. Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

  16. Cerebellar degeneration following neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, V.; Sardana, V.; Thussu, A.; Sawhney, I. M.; Prabhakar, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of bipolar affective disorder developed hyperpyrexia, rigidity and depressed consciousness (neuroleptic malignant syndrome) after commencing neuroleptic therapy. On regaining consciousness, she was mute and had signs suggesting pancerebellar involvement. Hyperpyrexia, which is a cardinal feature of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, may have caused cerebellar damage. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome needs both early recognition and prompt treatment to obviate devastating complications. PMID:9519191

  17. Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-17

    Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25 years.

  18. Malignant histiocytic lymphoma with large lacunar cells.

    PubMed

    Leahu, S; Dobrea, M

    1997-01-01

    A case of lymph node biopsy with a peculiar histological aspect is described. The clinical data suggest a malignant lymphoid disease. The histological picture is that of a malignant histiocytosis but, among the majority of small histiocytes, there are some large cells like the large lacunar cells from Hodgkin's disease. These large cells (and some small cells) contain the CD 30 antigen of Reed-Sternberg cells. It is discussed whether the appropriate diagnosis is Hodgkin's disease, malignant histiocytosis, or non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma. Our diagnosis is Hodgkin's disease, the nodular sclerosing form.

  19. Markers of Oral Lichen Planus Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Tampa, Mircea; Mitran, Madalina; Mitran, Cristina; Matei, Clara; Georgescu, Simona-Roxana

    2018-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Malignant transformation into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered as one of the most serious complications of the disease; nevertheless, controversy still persists. Various factors seem to be involved in the progression of malignant transformation; however, the mechanism of this process is not fully understood yet. Molecular alterations detected in OLP samples might represent useful biomarkers for predicting and monitoring the malignant progression. In this review, we discuss various studies which highlight different molecules as ominous predictors of OLP malignant transformation. PMID:29682099

  20. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-29

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  1. Investigating the role of melanin in UVA/UVB- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Swalwell, Helen; Latimer, Jennifer; Haywood, Rachel M; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide, with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) a predominant factor. The UVA component initiates oxidative stress in human skin, although its exact role in the initiation of skin cancer, particularly malignant melanoma, remains unclear and is controversial because there is evidence for a melanin-dependent mechanism in UVA-linked melanoma studies. Nonpigmented (CHL-1, A375), moderately pigmented (FM55, SKmel23), and highly pigmented (FM94, hyperpigmented FM55) human melanoma cell lines have been used to investigate UVA-induced production of reactive oxygen species using FACS analysis, at both the cellular (dihydrorhodamine-123) and the mitochondrial (MitoSOX) level, where most cellular stress is generated. For the first time, downstream mtDNA damage (utilizing a quantitative long-PCR assay) has been investigated. Using UVA, UVB, and H(2)O(2) as cellular stressors, we have explored the dual roles of melanin as a photoprotector and photosensitizer. The presence of melanin has no influence over cellular oxidative stress generation, whereas, in contrast, melanin protects against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's analysis, P<0.001). We show that if melanin binds directly to DNA, it acts as a direct photosensitizer of mtDNA damage during UVA irradiation (P<0.001), providing evidence for the dual roles of melanin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Malignant biliary disease: percutaneous interventions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R A; Adam, A N

    2001-09-01

    Interventional radiologists have an important role in the management of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. This article describes the techniques for percutaneous biliary drainage, insertion of biliary endoprostheses, and the management of occluded biliary endoprostheses. Most procedures are performed by using fluoroscopic guidance alone. Ultrasound is also a useful modality for guiding biliary drainage, particularly drainage of the left biliary ducts. Patients should be treated by internal drainage if possible. Metallic endoprostheses can be inserted at the time of the initial biliary drainage procedure. Plastic tubes should be inserted a few days after biliary drainage because of their relatively large size compared with metallic stents. Occluded plastic stents should be replaced. Blocked metallic stents should be treated either by placement of additional overlapping metallic stents or by placement of plastic stents within the metallic stent lumen. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  3. The genetics of malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, S P; Johnson, K J

    1993-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility remains the commonest cause of death owing to general anaesthesia. This is despite the availability of presymptomatic testing, admittedly by a highly invasive method, and a recognised treatment for implementation immediately a patient shows signs of developing a crisis. Recently the finding of linkage to markers from chromosome 19q13.1-13.2 and the identification of mutations in a candidate gene held out hope of genetic diagnosis being available. However, it is likely that only about 50% of families have a mutation of the skeletal muscle calcium release channel gene. With this degree of genetic heterogeneity, presymptomatic testing based on DNA markers can only be offered at present to a limited number of families where linkage to markers from 19q13.1-13.2 has been clearly shown. Images PMID:8383206

  4. Management of malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbin; Brahmer, Julie

    2008-07-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) often presents in patients with cancer at an advanced stage and thus carries a poor prognosis. This review updates the current knowledge on the management of MPE, focusing on recent literature about the efficacy and safety of the most common methods, including pleurodesis by either thoracoscopy with talc insufflation or thoracostomy with talc slurry, use of an indwelling pleural catheter, and intrapleural chemotherapy. Talc remains the agent of choice in pleurodesis, although the use of alternative agents continues to be explored. The choice of procedure to achieve pleurodesis depends on careful patient selection based on predictive factors and individual characteristics. Talc pleuro-desis is relatively well tolerated and safe, as is an indwelling pleural catheter, in an appropriate patient population. Because MPE is a common problem in cancer patients, future research with more randomized, prospective designs and innovative interventions is needed.

  5. Salvage immunotherapy of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ingram, M; Jacques, S; Freshwater, D B; Techy, G B; Shelden, C H; Helsper, J T

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of a phase I trial of adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent or residual malignant glioma. The protocol is based on surgical debulking followed by implantation into the tumor bed of autologous lymphocytes that have been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P and then cultured in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2. Fifty-five patients with a mean Karnofsky rating of 64 were treated between February 1985 and March 1987. No significant toxicity was associated with the immunotherapy. Fifty patients had a positive initial response to therapy, nine patients had early recurrence (two to four months after treatment), and 22 patients died. We comment on major differences between the protocol described and other immunotherapy protocols.

  6. Alterations in bone marrow and blood mononuclear cell polyamine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) levels: phase I evaluation of alpha-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment of human hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maddox, A M; Freireich, E J; Keating, M J; Haddox, M K

    1988-03-01

    Nine patients with hematological malignancies were treated with difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The number of circulating blast cells decreased in all of the patients treated with DFMO and MGBG for longer than 1 wk. Morphological evidence of myeloid maturation was evident in four patients with leukemia and the circulating M Protein decreased in one patient with multiple myeloma. The polyamine content of the mononuclear cells in both the peripheral blood and bone marrow was transiently increased after the initial MGBG dose. During administration of DFMO decreases were achieved in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell putrescine levels in 7 patients, spermidine levels in 5 patients, and spermine levels in 4 patients. Alterations in bone marrow mononuclear cell polyamine levels were similar to those which occurred in the peripheral cells. An average of 9 days of DFMO treatment was required to lower mononuclear cell polyamine levels. Three of the 4 evaluable patients receiving multiple MGBG doses had an increased mononuclear cell content of MGBG after DFMO pretreatment. Enhancement of cellular MGBG levels was not directly correlated to the degree of cellular polyamine depletion.

  7. Imaging enhancement of malignancy by cyclophosphamide: surprising chemotherapy opposite effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yang, Meng; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Jiang, Ping; Xu, Mingxu; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Moossa, A. R.; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    Although side effects of cancer chemotherapy are well known, "opposite effects" of chemotherapy which enhance the malignancy of the treated cancer are not well understood. We have observed a number of steps of malignancy that are enhanced by chemotherapy pre-treatment of mice before transplantation of human tumor cells. The induction of intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and colony formation by cancer cells, critical steps of metastasis was enhanced by pretreatment of host mice with the commonly-used chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide appears to interfere with a host process that inhibits intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and extravascular colony formation by at least some tumor cells. Cyclophosphamide does not directly affect the cancer cells since cyclophosphamide has been cleared by the time the cancer cells were injected. Without cyclophosphamide pretreatment, human colon cancer cells died quickly after injection in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the cancer cells occurred within 6 hours. The number of apoptotic cells rapidly increased within the portal vein within 12 hours of injection. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the cancer cells survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the cancer cells. This review describes an important unexpected "opposite effects" of chemotherapy that enhances critical steps in malignancy rather than inhibiting them, suggesting that certain current approaches to cancer chemotherapy should be modified.

  8. Toward effective immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Duane A; Sampson, John H

    2009-07-01

    The immunologic treatment of cancer has long been heralded as a targeted molecular therapeutic with the promise of eradicating tumor cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. However, a demonstrative example of the efficacy of immunotherapy in modulating cancer progression is still lacking for most human cancers. Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to full T-cell activation, and recognition of the importance of overcoming tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms, have shed new light on how to generate effective anti-tumor immune responses in humans, and sparked a renewed and enthusiastic effort to realize the full potential of cancer immunotherapy. The immunologic treatment of invasive malignant brain tumors has not escaped this re-invigorated endeavor, and promising therapies are currently under active investigation in dozens of clinical trials at several institutions worldwide. This review will focus on some of the most important breakthroughs in our understanding of how to generate potent anti-tumor immune responses, and some of the clear challenges that lie ahead in achieving effective immunotherapy for the majority of patients with malignant brain tumors. A review of immunotherapeutic strategies currently under clinical evaluation, as well as an outline of promising novel approaches on the horizon, is included to provide perspective on the active and stalwart progress toward effective immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  9. Cleaved CD147 shed from the surface of malignant melanoma cells activates MMP2 produced by fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Miho; Higashi, Yuko; Fukushige, Tomoko; Baba, Naoko; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Su, Juan; Zeng, Weiqi; Chen, Xiang; Kanekura, Takuro

    2014-12-01

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147)/basigin on the malignant tumor cell surface is critical for tumor proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. CD147 expressed on malignant melanoma cells can induce tumor cell invasion by stimulating the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by surrounding fibroblasts. Membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes have attracted attention, as vehicles of functional molecules and their association with CD147 has been reported. Cleaved CD147 fragments released from tumor cells were reported to interact with fibroblasts. We investigated the intercellular mechanisms by which CD147 stimulates fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. CD147 was knocked-down using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The stimulatory effect of CD147 in cell culture supernatants, microvesicles, and exosomes on the enzymatic activity of MMP2 was examined by gelatin zymography. Supernatants from A375 control cells induced increased enzymatic activity of fibroblasts; such activity was significantly lower in CD147 knock-down cells. Cleaved CD147 plays a pivotal role in stimulating fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Histopathology of malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-07-01

    This report is based upon the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg and on the second revised edition of the WHO Histological Typing of Salivary Gland Tumours. The group of malignant salivary gland tumours contains carcinomas, malignant non-epithelial tumours, malignant lymphomas and secondary tumours. The various carcinomas are classified in a continuous separate listing because the different types are distinguished not only by histopathology, but also by differences in prognosis and treatment. The term "tumour" is replaced by "carcinoma" in two entities: acinic cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. New entities are: polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma and malignant myoepithelioma. Carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma can be distinguished as non-invasive and invasive carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma. Malignant non-epithelial tumours are mostly malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. The large majority of malignant lymphomas are non-Hodgkin-lymphomas with high differentiation. Many lymphomas are associated with chronic immunosialadenitis (Sjögren's syndrome). Secondary tumours are mostly metastases from primary squamous cell carcinomas or from melanomas of the skin (head and neck area). Haematogeneous metastases are very rare (mainly from lung, kidney or breast).

  11. Malignancy in solitary solid cold thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, M; Amin, A H; Ahmed, M U; Karim, S S; Moslem, F; Kamal, M

    2012-04-01

    Solitary thyroid nodule is a common endocrine problem. The main concern of solitary thyroid nodule lies in excluding the malignancy & to operate on as few patients as possible. Other than history & clinical examination, hormone assessment, USG of thyroid gland, radionuclide scan & FNAC were used to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones. In this study 127 cases with solitary thyroid nodule of all age group & both sexes were included from Endocrine & Thyroid clinic of BSMMU. They were clinically & biochemically euthyroid & had cold nodule on radionuclide scan. USG & FNAC were done & subsequently they underwent surgical procedure. On the basis of postoperative histopathological report the specimens were divided into benign & malignant groups. All the nodules were cold among which 104 were solid & 23 were mixed in consistency. Of the 104 solid cold nodules histopathology revealed 36(34.6%) malignant & 68(65.4%) benign cases. From the 23 mixed cold solitary nodule 5(21.7%) appeared malignant & 18(78.3%) were benign. So malignancy was higher in solid cold group than the mixed cold one but this was not statistically significant (p=0.673). FNAC was done & it revealed that 83(65.5%) cases were benign, 10(7.8%) cases were suspicious & 34(26.7%) were malignant. Finally histopathology showed 41(32.3%) cases were positive & 86(67.7%) cases were negative for malignancy.

  12. Malignant Mesothelioma—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Epithelial mesothelioma is the most common type of malignant mesothelioma, which forms in the cells that line organs. The other types begin in spindle-shaped cells called sarcomatoid cells or are a mixture of both cell types. Find evidence-based information on malignant mesothelioma treatment.

  13. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  14. Advances in recurrence and malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjia; An, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Zhu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and sinus. SIP is characterized by aggressive malignant transformation and a high rate of recurrence. Inadequate removal of the tumor during surgery is one of the most significant contributors to SIP recurrence. A growing body of evidence suggests that molecular alteration in SIP, including human papilloma virus infections, single nucleotide polymorphisms of key genes, deregulation of signaling pathways and immunological changes, may lead to SIP occurrence and malignant transformation. However, the extent to which these molecular mechanisms contribute to SIP pathology and transformation remains unclear due to limited research. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the primary dependent factors that contribute to SIP etiology. The present article reviewed risk factors of progression and recurrence of SIP, including outdoor and industrial occupational exposure, smoking, septal deviation, SIP location, recurrent cases, stage of SIP-associated squamous cell carcinoma and choice of surgical method. PMID:28599459

  15. Trichosporon asahii sepsis in a patient with pediatric malignancy.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur; Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Cengiz, Ali Bulent; Kara, Ates; Yigit, Atilla; Gucer, Safak; Gur, Deniz

    2016-02-01

    Trichosporon asahii is a rare opportunistic infection, especially in children, causing a life-threatening fungal infection underlying hematologic malignancies. Predisposing factors for infection with this pathogen are immunodeficiency including underlying malignancy, organ transplantation, extensive burns, human immunodeficiency virus infection, corticosteroid therapy, prosthetic valve surgery, and peritoneal dialysis. In the literature, a breakthrough under caspofungin, micafungin therapy is reported. In this article we report on a 16-year-old patient with Ewing sarcoma who had T. asahii sepsis. The patient died although he had been receiving caspofungin for less than 3 months and amphotericin B therapy for 3 days. A postmortem study of conchal tissues revealed T. asahii and mucormycosis histopathologically, and blood culture grew T. asahii. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) in Patients with Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ensslen, Silke; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Joussen, Sylvia; Beer, Daniel; Abele, Rupert; Plewnia, Gabriele; Tampé, Robert; Merk, Hans F.; Hermanns, Heike M.; Baron, Jens M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interferon alpha (IFNα) is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1) is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling. Results We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment. Conclusion We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in ‘silent’ metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and

  17. Increased expression of sex determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11) in cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jiao; Guoying, Wang; Jing, Zhao

    2013-08-01

    To observe sex determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11) gene expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma and its effect on tumour cell proliferation. Clinicopathological data and tissue samples from patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with tissue samples from healthy volunteers (controls), were retrospectively reviewed. Protein levels of SOX11 and the antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (Ki-67) in skin lesions were analysed using immunohistochemistry. The correlation between protein levels and clinipathological parameters was investigated. Out of 40 patient samples, 25 (62.5%) were positive for SOX11 protein in malignant melanoma tissue. This was significantly higher than in 40 control tissue samples, in which no SOX11 protein was detected. Presence of SOX11 protein was positively related to the proliferation index of cutaneous malignant melanoma tumour cells. Presence of SOX11 protein in cutaneous malignant melanoma was related to tumour type, tumour location, lymph node metastasis and 5-year survival rate. Human cutaneous malignant melanoma tissues expressed high levels of SOX11 compared with healthy controls, suggesting that SOX11 may be a new prognostic marker for malignant melanoma.

  18. Risk prediction for malignant conversion of oral epithelial dysplasia by hypoxia related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglan; Han, Seonhui; Han, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Ki-Yeol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Cha, In-Ho; Kim, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Increased aerobic glycolysis is a unique finding in cancers and hypoxia-related proteins are associated with aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether hypoxia-related proteins can be predictive markers for malignant conversion of oral premalignant lesions with epithelial dysplasia (OED). Expression of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and CA9 were detected in clinical samples of eight normal oral mucosa, 85 transitional areas of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 28 OED with or without malignant conversion using immunohistochemistry and were also comparatively detected in immortalised human oral keratinocyte (IHOK) and OSCC cell lines under hypoxia using immunoblotting. Sequential expression of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and CA9 was found both in transitional areas of OSCC and cell lines of IHOK and OSCC under hypoxia, supporting hypoxia-aerobic glycolysis-acidosis axis. Expression of all proteins showed significant association with malignant conversion of OED and CA9 was an independent risk factor of malignant transformation of OED. But the predictability of malignant transformation was improved when all three proteins were applied together. High expression of CA9 was an independent predictive marker of malignant conversion. Moreover, the combined application of these three proteins may be useful to assess the risk of malignant conversion of OED.

  19. Inducement of mitosis delay by cucurbitacin E, a novel tetracyclic triterpene from climbing stem of Cucumis melo L., through GADD45γ in human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y-C; Chen, M-J; Huang, T-Y

    2014-02-27

    Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to have anti-feedant, antioxidant and antitumor activities as well as a potent chemo-preventive action against cancer. The present study investigates its anti-proliferative property using MTT assay; CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest in these cells. CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5-10 μM) as determined using MPM-2 by flow cytometry. We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of CuE in GBM 8401 cells. We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. The CuE reduced the expression of 558 genes and elevated the levels of 1354 genes, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of G2/M arrest. We identified the RB (GADD45β and GADD45γ) and the p53 (GADD45α) signaling pathways as the common pathways, serving as key molecules that regulate cell cycle. Results indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the upregulation of GADD45 γ and binding with CDC2. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE, suggesting that the CuE-induced mitosis delay is regulated by GADD45γ overexpression. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activity in glioma therapy.

  20. A first in human, safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity phase I study of once weekly administration of the Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib (STA-9090) in patients with solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This phase I study investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of ganetespib in patients with solid malignancies. Methods Patients were enrolled in cohorts of escalating ganetespib doses, given as 1 hour IV infusion, once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and preliminary clinical activity. Results Fifty-three patients were treated at doses escalating from 7 to 259 mg/m2. The most common adverse events were Grade 1 and 2 diarrhea, fatigue, nausea or vomiting. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) observed were: one Grade 3 amylase elevation (150 mg/m2), one Grade 3 diarrhea and one Grade 3 and one Grade 4 asthenia (259 mg/m2). The MTD was 216 mg/m2 and the recommended phase 2 dose was established at 200 mg/m2 given IV at Days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks. There was a linear relationship between dose and exposure. Plasma HSP70 protein levels remained elevated for over a week post treatment. Disease control rate (objective response and stable disease at ≥ 16 weeks) was 24.4%. Conclusions Ganetespib is well tolerated as a weekly infusion for 3 of every 4 weeks cycle. The recommended phase II dose is 200 mg/m2, and is associated with an acceptable tolerability profile. Trial registration NCT00687934 PMID:23530663

  1. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells;more » to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.« less

  2. Malignant Degeneration of Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, H.

    1939-01-01

    Malignant degeneration is the most serious complication of gastric ulcer. Its recognition is difficult both in the early stage and in advanced cases in which only the evidence of a previous ulcer-cavity, and the radiating folds of the mucous membrane indicate progressive development of carcinoma from an original ulcer. It is impossible to say how often gastric ulcer becomes malignant; one can only state the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma, found in gastric resections. One hundred and forty-one personal cases of ulcer-carcinoma are recorded, and are divided into three groups. Group I: 41 which were diagnosed clinically and at operation as cases of ulcer, but in which histological examination showed incipient cancer. Group II: 55 diagnosed clinically as cases of ulcer, but in which a diagnosis of ulcer-carcinoma was made during operation and afterwards histologically confirmed. Group III: 45 diagnosed both clinically and macroscopically (from the typical folding of the mucous membrane) as cases of ulcer-cancer, in which the cancer had entirely overgrown the ulcer. Therefore in the series of 532 resections for gastric ulcer the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 20.9%, or 15.2% if the third group is omitted. In a series of 718 resections for gastric cancer, the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 19.6% (or 14.2% if the third group is omitted). The mortality in simple two-third resection of the stomach is low (four deaths in 99 cases = 4%). When the pancreas, liver, colon, or œsophagus, is involved, the resection mortality is high (14 deaths in 42 cases = 33.3%), but even in these cases the operation is justifiable because permanent cures were achieved in a number of cases. The prognosis in cases of ulcer-cancer is very grave. In many cases, judging from the author's own experience, patients suffering from incipient ulcer-cancer—only histologically diagnosed as cancer—die from liver metastases, in spite of radical resection. It will thus be seen that the end-results of

  3. What's New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Malignant Mesothelioma About Malignant Mesothelioma What’s New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment? There is ... that has shown promise in some studies. Other new drugs have different targets. For example, some new ...

  4. Changing presentation of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Klit, Anders; Lassen, Cecilie Brandt; Olsen, Caroline Holkmann; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing in Denmark like in other Northern and Western European countries. Our objective was to investigate the characteristics of current patients suffering from cutaneous malignant melanoma. We evaluated patient and tumour characteristics in a cross-sectional study based on data from the Danish Melanoma Register. We included all patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Healthcare Region Zealand in 2012 and 2013. We identified 520 patients with invasive cutaneous malignant melanoma. More females than males suffered from cutaneous malignant melanoma. Furthermore, females were younger than males, and the anatomical distribution of malignant melanoma varied between the genders. Outcome of sentinel lymph node biopsy was associated with tumour thickness. When comparing findings in our study with earlier Danish studies, we see a trend towards an increase in age at diagnosis. Furthermore, tumour thickness is decreasing and the topical distribution of cutaneous malignant melanoma in females changes towards a male pattern. none. The study has been approved by the Danish National Data Protection Agency.

  5. Metastatic malignant blue nevus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozgür, F; Akyürek, M; Kayikçioğlu, A; Barişta, I; Gököz, A

    1997-10-01

    This report presents a 63-year-old Caucasian woman with a malignant blue nevus, which is an extremely rare form of melanoma originating from or associated with a preexisting blue nevus. The background blue nevus on the left upper arm, which had been present for 5 to 6 years, increased in size and darkened in color for 3 months prior to histological diagnosis of malignant blue nevus. Although the tumor looked much like a nodular melanoma clinically, the diagnosis of malignant blue nevus was established histologically. The patient had a poor outcome due to metastatic spread of the tumor to the visceral organs 1 year following the initial excision of the tumor. To distinguish this rare tumor from other melanocytic lesions, strict histological criteria are needed to make the diagnosis of malignant blue nevus. Differential diagnosis includes cellular blue nevus, atypical cellular blue nevus, primary malignant melanoma, and metastatic melanoma to the dermis. Malignant blue nevus is most commonly seen on the scalp. The tumor has an aggressive behavior and metastasizes in the majority of patients. This paper describes the second reported case of malignant blue nevus involving the upper arm. Clinical and histological features of this uncommon tumor are presented, along with a review of the literature.

  6. Parasitic infections associated with malignancy and leprosy.

    PubMed

    Azab, M E; Mohamed, N H; Salem, S A; Safar, E H; Bebars, M A; Sabry, N M; Mohamed, M S

    1992-04-01

    Results of parasitic infections, as revealed by urine and stool examination was significant (P less than 0.05) in 43.3% of patients suffering from different malignant diseases and non significant (P greater than 0.05) in 29.3% of leprosy patients compared to 22% in control subjects. The most prevalent parasites were E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Cryptosporidium occysts were not detected. By stool examination and culture, S. stercoralis larvae were detected only in the malignancy group. The most common parasites occurring concomitantly were A. duodenale and S. stercoralis. By the IFAT, strongyloidiasis gave significantly higher positive results in the malignancy group than in the leprosy and control groups. IFAT for toxocariasis, showed highly significant positivity in the leprosy group and significantly positivity in the malignancy group. For toxoplasmosis, it showed highly significant positive results in both leprosy and malignancy groups. Eosinophilia was significantly more prominent among malignancy patients and insignificant among those with leprosy. Parasitic infection detected by urine and stool examination among patients with eosinophilia was found in 76% of the malignancy patients and in 66.7% of the leprosy patients.

  7. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [About the signs of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Makanin, M A; Dulin, P A; Vasilchenko, M I; Lesovik, V S

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for malignant pheochromocytoma remain to be developed According to the WHO recommendations, the sole absolute criteria is the presence of metastases in the organs normally containing no chromaffin tissue. Such signs as cellular and nuclear polymorphism, mytotic activity, vascular invasion, capsular ingrowth are not sufficient to describe a pheochromocytoma as malignant. It is equally dfficult to differentiate between malignant and benign tumours based on histological data since histologically mature neoplasms can produce metastases. Based on the results of original studies, the authors believe that such histological features as vascular and capsular invasion do not necessarily suggest unfavourable prognosis. Therefore, the conclusion of malignancy based on such features can not be regarded as absolute. Probably such neoplasms should be called "pheochromocytomas with morphological signs of malignant growths". They should be referred to the tumours with uncertain malignancy potential based on the known discrepancy between morphological structure and biological activity of neoplasms. Comparative studies of clinical and morphological features of pheochromocytomas showed that their histological type (alveolar; solid, dyscomplexed, trabecular) and morphological signs of malignant growth influence both the clinical picture and arterial hypertension. There are no significant relationship between the above morphological signs, timour mass and clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

  9. P16.29 Malignant craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Unal, E.; Kilic, K.; Ozdemir, N.; Gunver, F.; Isik, S.; Can, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Malignant transformation of craniopharyngioma has rarely been described. In this article, we report a case of 28th malignant craniopharyngioma ever mentioned in English literature. Materials and Methods: We performed a PUBMED, HUBMED, BAU Library Database and Ovid search on malignant craniopharyngiomas and identified 27 reported cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: 44 years old female patient was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma two years ago and underwent surgical resection of a typical craniopharyngioma, the histopathological result was adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma of Grade I. There was no malignancy. One year ago cavernous sinus invasion has been detected and gamma knife irradiation has been made. At admission she was blind in the right eye for the last six months and the vision was diminished in the left eye for a month. The MRI showed that nasal cavity was full of tumor, that the clivus was almost completely destructed and that orbita and maxillary sinus were also invaded. Firstly the ENT surgeons debulked the tumor via transmaxillary route and then the transcranial approach allowed only a subtotal removal due to a profuse bleeding. The histopatological examination showed malignant tumoral infiltration rich in cells with many mitoses. The patient died two years later. CONCLUSION: The relevant literature of malignant craniopharyngioma is reviewed and discussed. The surgeon must be aware that total removal of a malignant craniopharyngioma can be hazardous because of intractable bleedings occurring during surgery.

  10. [Diode laser in "Malignant Glaucoma" treatment].

    PubMed

    Bresson Dumont, H; Ballereau, L; Lehoux, A; Santiago, P-Y

    2006-05-01

    Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most dramatic complications of ocular surgery. It can occur after glaucoma surgery but also after iridotomy, capsulotomy, or cataract extraction. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. to evaluate diode laser cyclodestruction as a complementary treatment in refractory malignant glaucoma. Seven women with malignant glaucoma with onset several months before (mean, 43 months; range, 12-96 months), in whom shallow anterior chamber and high IOP (25 mmHg +/- 5.5 treated with 2.86 +/- 0.9 topical and systemic medications) persisted despite prior surgical treatment (mean, 2; range, 1-5). Controlateral eyes had hyperopia (mean, +3.7 D, range, +1 to +6), five had shallow anterior chamber and high IOP. UBM detected plateau iris in four women. Seven eyes with malignant glaucoma and three controlateral eyes underwent cyclodestruction with diode laser (Viridis Twin Quantel Medical, laser, 810 nm), 22 burns around 270 degrees , 2 mm from the limbus for glaucomatous eyes and 15 inferior burns for controlateral eyes. Resolution of malignant glaucoma, with lower pressure (mean, 35%; range, 10%-70%), lower levels of medications (64%), final IOP at 13.2 mmHg (+/- 4.7), and deepening anterior chamber was achieved in all cases (mean follow-up, 18 months; range, 12-22). Cycloplegic topical treatment was stopped in 70% of cases. Diode laser cyclodestruction can help to resolve refractory malignant glaucoma. Larger UBM studies could help us to better understand the mechanisms of malignant glaucoma.

  11. Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P; Agarwal, R

    2004-01-01

    Approximately half of all patients with metastatic cancer develop a malignant pleural effusion which is likely to lead to a significant reduction in quality of life secondary to symptoms such as dyspnoea and cough. The aim of pleurodesis in these patients is to prevent re-accumulation of the effusion and thereby of symptoms, and avoid the need for repeated hospitalization for thoracocentesis. Numerous clinical studies have been performed to try to determine the optimal pleurodesis strategy, and synthesis of the available evidence should facilitate this. The aims of this review were to ascertain the optimal technique of pleurodesis in cases of malignant pleural effusion; to confirm the need for a sclerosant; and to clarify which, if any, of the sclerosants is the most effective. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was searched for studies on 'pleurodesis'. Studies for inclusion were also identified from MEDLINE (1980 to June 2002) and EMBASE (1980 to May 2002). No language restriction was applied. RCTs of adults subjects undergoing pleurodesis for pleural effusion in the context of metastatic malignancy (or a malignant process leading to pleural effusion) were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion in the review, and extracted data using a standard data collection form. Primary outcome measures sought were effectiveness of pleurodesis as defined by freedom from recurrence of effusions, and mortality after pleurodesis. Secondary outcomes were adverse events due to pleurodesis. Dichotomous data were meta-analysed using a fixed effect model and expressed as relative risk. The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) was calculated for pleurodesis efficacy. In addition, for adverse events, the overall percentage of patients across studies exhibiting a particular adverse effect such as fever, pain, or gastrointestinal symptoms was calculated. A total of 36 RCTs with 1499 subjects were eligible for meta-analysis. The use of sclerosants

  12. Malignant presentation of uterine lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Szpurek, Dariusz; Szubert, Sebastian; Zielinski, Pawel; Frankowski, Andrzej; Sajdak, Stefan; Moszynski, Rafal

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this case report was to present the method of diagnosis, management, and the 12-year-follow-up of a patient diagnosed with primary uterine lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to the Department of Thoracosurgery due to pulmonary lesions suspected to be metastatic. The potential primary site of the neoplasm was not identified by previous imaging studies and specialist counseling. The patient had a history of total abdominal hysterectomy without ovaries due to a uterine tumor recognized as cellular leiomyoma and left salpingo-oophorectomy due to a solid ovarian tumor also recognized as leiomyoma. She had previously undergone the removal of a left kidney angiomyolipoma. After histopathological examination of the pulmonary lesions and repeated evaluation of the ovarian and uterine tumors, the diagnosis of primary uterine LAM with metastases to the ovary and the lungs was established. Although new metastatic lesions occurred, the patient remained in good condition during the 12-year-follow-up. The history of our patient and review of the literature suggest that although uterine LAM presents malignant features (i.e., metastasis), the disease is long lasting and the patient can be in good condition for a number of years. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Novel immunotherapies for hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system is designed to discriminate between self and tumor tissue. Through genetic recombination, there is fundamentally no limit to the number of tumor antigens that immune cells can recognize. Yet, tumors use a variety of immunosuppressive mechanisms to evade immunity. Insight into how the immune system interacts with tumors is expanding rapidly and has accelerated the translation of immunotherapies into medical breakthroughs. Herein, we appraise the state of the art in immunotherapy with a focus on strategies that exploit the patient’s immune system to kill cancer. We review various forms of immune-based therapies, which have shown significant promise in patients with hematological malignancies, including (i) conventional monoclonal therapies like rituximab, (ii) engineered monoclonal antibodies called bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), (iii) monoclonal antibodies and pharmaceutical drugs that block inhibitory T-cell pathways (i.e. PD-1, CTLA-4 and IDO), and (iv) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or T-cell receptors (TCRs). We also assess the idea of using these therapies in combination and conclude by suggesting multi-prong approaches to improve treatment outcomes and curative responses in patients. PMID:25510273

  14. Radiotherapy of oral malignant melanomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, L; Dobson, J M

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate response to radiotherapy in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. Clinical trial. 36 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanomas. The prescribed radiation dose was 36 Gy given in 4 fractions of 9 Gy at 7-day intervals. The primary radiation source was a linear accelerator. In 25 of 36 dogs, complete remission was achieved, and in 9 dogs, partial remission was achieved. Recurrence of the primary tumor was the cause of euthanasia of 4 dogs. Twenty-one dogs were euthanatized because of metastasis. Radiotherapy was an effective palliative treatment for the primary tumor in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. However, rapid development of metastatic disease remained a major challenge.

  15. Tumor malignancy is engaged to prokaryotic homolog toolbox.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Janaina; Guedes, Patrícia G; Lage, Celso Luiz S; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola F; Lage, Claudia de Alencar S

    2012-04-01

    Cancer cells display high proliferation rates and survival provided by high glycolysis, chemoresistance and radioresistance, metabolic features that appear to be activated with malignancy, and seemed to have arisen as early in evolution as in unicellular/prokaryotic organisms. Based on these assumptions, we hypothesize that aggressive phenotypes found in malignant cells may be related to acquired unicellular behavior, launched within a tumor when viral and prokaryotic homologs are overexpressed performing likely robust functions. The ensemble of these expressed viral and prokaryotic close homologs in the proteome of a tumor tissue gives them advantage over normal cells. To assess the hypothesis validity, sequences of human proteins involved in apoptosis, energetic metabolism, cell mobility and adhesion, chemo- and radio-resistance were aligned to homologs present in other life forms, excluding all eukaryotes, using PSI-BLAST, with further corroboration from data available in the literature. The analysis revealed that selected sequences of proteins involved in apoptosis and tumor suppression (as p53 and pRB) scored non-significant (E-value>0.001) with prokaryotic homologs; on the other hand, human proteins involved in cellular chemo- and radio-resistance scored highly significant with prokaryotic and viral homologs (as catalase, E-value=zero). We inferred that such upregulated and/or functionally activated proteins in aggressive malignant cells represent a toolbox of modern human homologs evolved from a similar key set that have granted survival of ancient prokaryotes against extremely harsh environments. According to what has been discussed along this analysis, high mutation rates usually hit hotspots in important conserved protein domains, allowing uncontrolled expansion of more resistant, death-evading malignant clones. That is the case of point mutations in key viral proteins affording viruses escape to chemotherapy, and human homologs of such retroviral

  16. Telomerase activity as a marker for malignancy in feline tissues.

    PubMed

    Cadile, C D; Kitchell, B E; Biller, B J; Hetler, E R; Balkin, R G

    2001-10-01

    To establish the diagnostic significance of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay in detecting feline malignancies. Solid tissue specimens collected from 33 client-owned cats undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between July 1997 and September 1999 and an additional 20 tissue samples were collected from 3 clinically normal control cats euthanatized at the conclusion of an unrelated study. The TRAP assay was used for detection of telomerase activity. Each result was compared to its respective histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-nine of 31 malignant and 1 of 22 benign or normal tissue samples had telomerase activity, indicating 94% sensitivity and 95% specificity of the TRAP assay in our laboratory. The diagnostic significance of telomerase activity has been demonstrated in humans and recently in dogs by our laboratory. We tested feline samples to determine whether similar patterns of telomerase activity exist. On the basis of our results, the TRAP assay may be clinically useful in providing a rapid diagnosis of malignancy in cats. The telomerase enzyme may also serve as a therapeutic target in feline tumors.

  17. Enhanced targeting of triple-negative breast carcinoma and malignant melanoma by photochemical internalization of CSPG4-targeting immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Eng, M S; Kaur, J; Prasmickaite, L; Engesæter, B Ø; Weyergang, A; Skarpen, E; Berg, K; Rosenblum, M G; Mælandsmo, G M; Høgset, A; Ferrone, S; Selbo, P K

    2018-05-16

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and malignant melanoma are highly aggressive cancers that widely express the cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4/NG2). CSPG4 plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival and promotes chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, suggesting that CSPG4 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. In the present work, we applied the drug delivery technology photochemical internalization (PCI) in combination with the novel CSPG4-targeting immunotoxin 225.28-saporin as an efficient and specific strategy to kill aggressive TNBC and amelanotic melanoma cells. Light-activation of the clinically relevant photosensitizer TPCS2a (fimaporfin) and 225.28-saporin was found to act in a synergistic manner, and was superior to both PCI of saporin and PCI-no-drug (TPCS2a + light only) in three TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and SUM149) and two BRAFV600E mutated malignant melanoma cell lines (Melmet 1 and Melmet 5). The cytotoxic effect was highly dependent on the light dose and expression of CSPG4 since no enhanced cytotoxicity of PCI of 225.28-saporin compared to PCI of saporin was observed in the CSPG4-negative MCF-7 cells. The PCI of a smaller, and clinically relevant CSPG4-targeting toxin (scFvMEL-rGel) validated the CSPG4-targeting concept in vitro and induced a strong inhibition of tumor growth in the amelanotic melanoma xenograft A-375 model. In conclusion, the combination of the drug delivery technology PCI and CSPG4-targeting immunotoxins is an efficient, specific and light-controlled strategy for the elimination of aggressive cells of TNBC and malignant melanoma origin. This study lays the foundation for further preclinical evaluation of PCI in combination with CSPG4-targeting.

  18. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  19. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  20. Specific c-Jun target genes in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Patrick; Kuphal, Silke; Vardimon, Lily; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Kappelmann, Melanie

    2016-05-03

    A fundamental event in the development and progression of malignant melanoma is the de-regulation of cancer-relevant transcription factors. We recently showed that c-Jun is a main regulator of melanoma progression and, thus, is the most important member of the AP-1 transcription factor family in this disease. Surprisingly, no cancer-related specific c-Jun target genes in melanoma were described in the literature, so far. Therefore, we focused on pre-existing ChIP-Seq data (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) of 3 different non-melanoma cell lines to screen direct c-Jun target genes. Here, a specific c-Jun antibody to immunoprecipitate the associated promoter DNA was used. Consequently, we identified 44 direct c-Jun targets and a detailed analysis of 6 selected genes confirmed their deregulation in malignant melanoma. The identified genes were differentially regulated comparing 4 melanoma cell lines and normal human melanocytes and we confirmed their c-Jun dependency. Direct interaction between c-Jun and the promoter/enhancer regions of the identified genes was confirmed by us via ChIP experiments. Interestingly, we revealed that the direct regulation of target gene expression via c-Jun can be independent of the existence of the classical AP-1 (5´-TGA(C/G)TCA-3´) consensus sequence allowing for the subsequent down- or up-regulation of the expression of these cancer-relevant genes. In summary, the results of this study indicate that c-Jun plays a crucial role in the development and progression of malignant melanoma via direct regulation of cancer-relevant target genes and that inhibition of direct c-Jun targets through inhibition of c-Jun is a potential novel therapeutic option for treatment of malignant melanoma.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  2. New developments in surgery of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Vranic, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant gliomas account for a high proportion of brain tumours. With new advances in neurooncology, the recurrence-free survival of patients with malignant gliomas has been substantially prolonged. It, however, remains dependent on the thoroughness of the surgical resection. The maximal tumour resection without additional postoperative deficit is the goal of surgery on patients with malignant gliomas. In order to minimize postoperative deficit, several pre- and intraoperative techniques have been developed. Conclusions Several techniques used in malignant glioma surgery have been developed, including microsurgery, neuroendoscopy, stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. Imaging and functional techniques allowing for safer tumour resection have a special value. Imaging techniques allow for better preoperative visualization and choice of the approach, while functional techniques help us locate eloquent regions of the brain. PMID:22933950

  3. Stages of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovarian low malignant potential tumor . The type of surgery usually depends on whether a woman plans to have children. For women who plan to have children, surgery is either: unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy ; or partial oophorectomy . ...

  4. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  5. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Dominguez, Fernando; González-López, Esther; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gomez-Bueno, Manuel; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Millan, Isabel; Segovia, Javier; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a well-known aetiology of atrial arrhythmias but there is little information concerning the prevalence or incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). This study sought to investigate incidence and predictive factors of ventricular arrhythmias in ACM. Retrospective observational study of the clinical characteristics and long-term arrhythmic events in 282 consecutive patients with ACM (94 individuals) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) (188 individuals) evaluated between 1993 and 2011. During a median follow-up of 38months (IQR:12-77), 42 patients died and 79 underwent heart transplantation [31 (33%) with ACM vs 90 (48%) with IDCM; p=0.017]. A total of 37 (13%) patients [18 (19%) ACM vs 20 (11%) IDCM; p=0.048] suffered malignant ventricular arrhythmias. On multivariate analysis, left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR 2.4; CI95%: 1.2-5; p=0.015) and alcoholic aetiology (OR 2.3; CI95%: 1.1-4.5; p=0.026) were the only independent predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmic events. A total of 18 (19%) ACM patients experienced 20 malignant ventricular arrhythmic events (4 aborted SCD, 8 SCD and 8 appropriate ICD therapies). At baseline evaluation, the only independent predictor of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in ACM patients was LBBB (OR 11.2; CI95%: 2.6-50; p=0.001). No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during follow-up in ACM patients if left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) had increased or remained ≥40%. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are more frequent in ACM than in IDCM. LBBB identifies ACM patients with increased risk of SCD. No malignant ventricular arrhythmias were found during follow-up in ACM patients when LVEF was ≥40%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  7. [Multiple conjunctival malignant melanomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Haddad, R

    1979-04-01

    5 1/2 years after excision of pigmented malignant melanoma which apparently arose in a nevus of the paralimbal bulbar conjunctiva, this 42-year-old male presented himself with a nonpigmented mass of the lid margin which also proved to be a malignant melanoma. "Acquired melanosis sine pigmento" was considered as a site of origin, but histopathologically there is more evidence that this melanoma arose in a non-pigmented compound nevus.

  8. Malignant lymphoma simulating lymph node toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Franssila, K

    1982-03-01

    On histological examination of 667 cases originally suspected of lymph node toxoplasmosis, 12 cases were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma and 15 cases as atypical hyperplasia (AH), suspicious of malignant lymphoma. All 12 malignant cases were of Hodgkin's disease: eight of the lymphocyte predominant nodular type, two of lymphocyte predominant diffuse type, and two of the nodular sclerosis type. In all cases, the lymph nodes contained small groups of epithelioid cells which were virtually indistinguishable from those seen in toxoplasmosis. In the differential diagnosis between lymph node toxoplasmosis and malignant lymphoma, the following features were found helpful. In toxoplasmosis the general structure is preserved and germinal centres are frequent, while in malignant lymphoma and in AH the general structure is destroyed. However, in some cases of toxoplasmosis germinal centres may be difficult to identify because their margins are indistinct due to clusters of epithelioid cells. Also, in some types of Hodgkin's disease and in some cases of AH with epithelioid cells, the general structure of the lymph node may be partially preserved. The occurrence of epithelioid cells within germinal centres seems to be a specific feature for toxoplasmosis; it was never seen in malignant lymphoma nor in AH. The occurrence of strands of monocytoid cells (unreife Sinushistiocytose) though a fairly typical feature of toxoplasmosis, was also occasionally seen in Hodgkin's disease or AH.

  9. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  10. JAK and MPL mutations in myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2008-03-01

    The Janus family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2) transduces signals downstream of type I and II cytokine receptors via signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). JAK3 is important in lymphoid and JAK2 in myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation. The thrombopoietin receptor MPL is one of several JAK2 cognate receptors and is essential for myelopoiesis in general and megakaryopoiesis in particular. Germline loss-of-function (LOF) JAK3 and MPL mutations cause severe combined immunodeficiency and congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, respectively. Germline gain-of-function (GOF) MPL mutation (MPLS505N) causes familial thrombocytosis. Somatic JAK3 (e.g. JAK3A572V, JAK3V722I, JAK3P132T) and fusion JAK2 (e.g. ETV6-JAK2, PCM1-JAK2, BCR-JAK2) mutations have respectively been described in acute megakaryocytic leukemia and acute leukemia/chronic myeloid malignancies. However, current attention is focused on JAK2 (e.g. JAK2V617F, JAK2 exon 12 mutations) and MPL (e.g. MPLW515L/K/S, MPLS505N) mutations associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). A JAK2 mutation, primarily JAK2V617F, is invariably associated with polycythemia vera (PV). The latter mutation also occurs in the majority of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF). MPL mutational frequency in MPNs is substantially less (<10%). In general, despite a certain degree of genotype - phenotype correlations, the prognostic relevance of harbouring one of these mutations, or their allele burden when present, remains dubious. Regardless, based on the logical assumption that amplified JAK-STAT signalling is central to the pathogenesis of PV, ET and PMF, several anti-JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and are currently being tested in humans with these disorders.

  11. Kruppel-like factor 6 in the progression and prognosis of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Daxing; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Qing

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) protein staining in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma and examine its potential relevance to clinicopathological characteristics and tumour cell proliferation. Clinicopathological data from patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were analysed retrospectively. Presence of KLF6 and the antigen Ki-67 in malignant melanoma and healthy tissue samples from each patient was detected by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation index was calculated on the basis of Ki-67 expression. The relationship between KLF6 and clinicopathological characteristics was also analysed. KLF6 was detected more frequently in normal healthy skin tissue compared with cutaneous malignant melanoma lesions (n = 40). There was a negative correlation between the presence of KLF6 and the proliferation index. The presence of KLF6 was also significantly correlated with tumour diameter, lymph node metastasis, tumour-node-metastasis stage and 3-year survival rate. KLF6 protein is downregulated in human cutaneous malignant melanoma lesions compared with healthy skin tissue. KLF6 may be involved in tumour progression and may be a tumour suppressor and prognostic marker for cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  12. Malignant transformation of actinic cheilitis: A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Dancyger, Alex; Heard, Victoria; Huang, Baikai; Suley, Cameron; Tang, Dorothy; Ariyawardana, Anura

    2018-06-04

    The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the malignant transformation rate of actinic cheilitis (AC). A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Medline/PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, OvidSP, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria comprised of observational human studies involving the malignant transformation of AC and publications in English. Studies included in this review were clinical follow-up, cohort, retrospective, or prospective investigations. The search yielded 1126 articles, and after exclusion, 34 full-text articles were eligible for full-text analysis. Only one article met the inclusion criteria. Based on the included article, it was determined that the malignant transformation rate of AC to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 3.07%. Excluded articles focused on the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment efficacies of AC, and no malignant transformation rate was assessed. There is a need for more clinical studies on the malignant transformation of AC, as lip cancer is a public health concern. High-risk populations, including those living in tropical regions, have excessive exposure to UV radiation, and have older aged males, fair-skinned people, and smokers should be identified to prevent AC and its malignant change. Health practitioners should facilitate early intervention to prevent the progression of AC to SCC of the lip. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up- regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16 days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25016296

  14. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  15. Can malignant and inflammatory pleural effusions in dogs be distinguished using computed tomography?

    PubMed

    Watton, Thom C; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Lamb, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging modality used to investigate human patients with suspected malignant or inflammatory pleural effusion, but there is a lack of information about the clinical use of this test in dogs. To identify CT signs that could be used to distinguish pleural malignant neoplasia from pleuritis, a retrospective case-control study was done based on dogs that had pleural effusion, pre- and postcontrast thoracic CT images, and cytological or histopathological diagnosis of malignant or inflammatory pleural effusion. There were 20 dogs with malignant pleural effusion (13 mesothelioma, 6 carcinoma; 1 lymphoma), and 32 dogs with pleuritis (18 pyothorax; 14 chylothorax). Compared to dogs with pleuritis, dogs with malignant pleural effusions were significantly older (median 8.5 years vs. 4.9 years, P = 0.001), more frequently had CT signs of pleural thickening (75% vs.44%, P = 0.04), tended to have thickening of the parietal pleura only (65% vs. 13%, P = 0.01) and had more marked pleural thickening (median 3 mm vs. 0 mm, P = 0.01). Computed tomography signs of thoracic wall invasion were observed only in dogs with malignant pleural effusions (P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in pleural fluid volume, distribution or attenuation, degree of pleural contrast accumulation, amount of pannus, or prevalence of mediastinal adenopathy. Although there was considerable overlap in findings in dogs with malignant pleural effusion and pleuritis, marked thickening affecting the parietal pleural alone and signs of thoracic wall invasion on CT support diagnosis of pleural malignant neoplasia, and may help prioritize further diagnostic testing. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. The expression analysis of ICOS-L on activated T cells and immature dendritic cells as well as malignant B cells and Grave's-disease-derived thyroid tissues by two novel mAbs against human ICOS-L.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zhu, W; Liu, T; Sun, Z; Ju, S; Ju, S; Yu, G; Xie, W; Deng, Z; Lu, B; Zhang, X

    2007-01-01

    ICOS-L, a newly identified member of B7 superfamily, plays an important role in immune responses. In this article, we report on two novel mouse anti-human ICOS-L monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) named as 11C4 and 12B11, whose specificities were verified by methods of flow cytometry, western blotting, and epitope competition assay. The two mAbs bound to distinct ICOS-L epitopes on B cells. Interestingly, mAb 11C4 could well recognize ICOS-L molecule on activated T cells and Jurkat cell lines, which is different from commercial anti-ICOS-L mAb (clone number MIH12) and the other mAb 12B11. In addition, we found that the expression of ICOS-L molecule was only detected on the surface of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) and was sharply decreased after induction of mature Mo-DCs activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha or CD40. Furthermore, we showed that 11C4 could effectively suppress the maturation of Mo-DCs in vitro as evidenced by the low expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and human leukocyte antigen-DR, which suggested that ICOS-L may be involved in the maturation of Mo-DCs. Using immunohistochemistry staining with mAb 11C4, the expression of ICOS-L was found in B lymphoma tissues and thyroid tissues from the Grave's disease but not in thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissues.

  17. Arsenicals produce stable progressive changes in DNA methylation patterns that are linked to malignant transformation of immortalized urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724; Novak, Petr

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation participates in carcinogenesis and is a molecular hallmark of a tumor cell. Tumor cells generally exhibit a redistribution of DNA methylation resulting in global hypomethylation with regional hypermethylation; however, the speed in which these changes emerge has not been fully elucidated and may depend on the temporal location of the cell in the path from normal, finite lifespan to malignant transformation. We used a model of arsenical-induced malignant transformation of immortalized human urothelial cells and DNA methylation microarrays to examine the extent and temporal nature of changes in DNA methylation that occur during the transition from immortalmore » to malignantly transformed. Our data presented herein suggest that during arsenical-induced malignant transformation, aberrant DNA methylation occurs non-randomly, progresses gradually at hundreds of gene promoters, and alters expression of the associated gene, and these changes are coincident with the acquisition of malignant properties, such as anchorage independent growth and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. The DNA methylation changes appear stable, since malignantly transformed cells removed from the transforming arsenical exhibited no reversion in DNA methylation levels, associated gene expression, or malignant phenotype. These data suggest that arsenicals act as epimutagens and directly link their ability to induce malignant transformation to their actions on the epigenome.« less

  18. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-11

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Noninvasive Predictors of Malignant Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Golukhova, Elena Z; Gromova, Olga; Grigoryan, Marina; Merzlyakov, Vadim; Shumkov, Konstantin; Bockeria, Leo; Serebruany, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and potential prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) represent an obvious unmet medical need. We estimated the prognostic relevance of numerous biomarkers associated with future MVA development in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) over 2 years of follow-up. Patients with stable documented CAD (n = 97) with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years were prospectively enrolled in a single-center observational cohort study. Heart failure was diagnosed in 68% of the patients (NYHA class II-III). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50 ± 13%, while 20% of patients had LVEF ≤35%. Sixty-two patients underwent myocardial revascularization during the follow-up (mean 25 ± 11 months). Clinical characteristics (age, gender, diabetes, history of coronary disease and arrhythmias, prior interventions and antecedent medications), noninvasive electrophysiological markers [microvolt T-wave alterations, signal-averaged electrocardiography, QT interval duration and alteration, and heart rate turbulence (HRT) and HR variability], laboratory indices [serum creatinine and creatinine clearance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein and troponin T levels] were assessed with regard to the MVA prognosis. MVA was diagnosed in 11 patients during the prospective follow-up. Prior percutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.05), MVA or syncope (p < 0.05), on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during follow-up (p < 0.01), LVEF ≤47% (p < 0.01), a left atrium size ≥4.7 cm (p < 0.05), left atrium index (p = 0.01), filtered QRS duration (p < 0.05), abnormal HRT (x03C7;2 = 6.2, p = 0.01) or turbulence slope (x03C7;2 = 9.5, p < 0.01), BNP ≥158 pg/ml (p < 0.01) and NT-proBNP ≥787 pg/ml (x03C7;2 = 4.4, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with MVA risk by univariate analysis. However, only prior MVA or syncope [odds ratio (OR) 11.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-44.4; p < 0

  20. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  1. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  2. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    PubMed

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  3. Expression and clinicopathological significance of microRNA-21 and programmed cell death 4 in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To measure levels of microRNA (miR)-21 and its target gene, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in samples of human cutaneous malignant melanoma and normal non-malignant control skin. Relative levels of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were measured using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the levels of the two molecules and the clinicopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma were analysed. A total of 67 cases of human cutaneous malignant melanoma were analysed and compared with 67 samples of normal nonmalignant control skin. Compared with normal skin samples, the relative level of miR-21 was significantly higher and the relative level of PDCD4 mRNA was significantly lower in the melanoma specimens. A significant negative correlation between PDCD4 mRNA and miR-21 was demonstrated in malignant melanoma (r = -0.602). Elevated miR-21 and reduced PDCD4 mRNA levels were both significantly correlated with increased tumour size, a higher Clark classification level and the presence of lymph node metastases in malignant melanoma. These findings suggest that miR-21 and PDCD4 might be potential biomarkers for malignant melanoma and might provide treatment targets in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Malignant Mesothelioma and Its Non-Asbestos Causes.

    PubMed

    Attanoos, Richard L; Churg, Andrew; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Gibbs, Allen R; Roggli, Victor L

    2018-06-01

    - Although many mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure, not all are, and there is increasing information on other causes of mesothelioma. - To provide a review of non-asbestos causes for malignant mesothelioma. - Review of relevant published literature via PubMed and other search engines. - Currently, most pleural mesotheliomas (70% to 90%) in men in Europe and North America are attributable to asbestos exposure; for peritoneal mesothelioma the proportion is lower. In North America few mesotheliomas in women at any site are attributable to asbestos exposure, but in Europe the proportion is higher and varies considerably by locale. In certain geographic locations other types of mineral fibers (erionite, fluoro-edenite, and probably balangeroite) can induce mesothelioma. Therapeutic radiation for other malignancies is a well-established cause of mesothelioma, with relative risks as high as 30. Carbon nanotubes can also induce mesotheliomas in animals but there are no human epidemiologic data that shed light on this issue. Chronic pleural inflammation may be a cause of mesothelioma but the data are scanty. Although SV40 can induce mesotheliomas in animals, in humans the epidemiologic data are against a causative role. A small number of mesotheliomas (probably in the order of 1%) are caused by germline mutations/deletions of BRCA1-associated protein-1 ( BAP1) in kindreds that also develop a variety of other cancers. All of these alternative etiologies account for a small proportion of tumors, and most mesotheliomas not clearly attributable to asbestos exposure are spontaneous (idiopathic).

  5. Inhibition of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III))-induced cell malignant transformation through restoring dysregulated histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yichen; Gong, Zhihong; Olson, James R; Xu, Peilin; Buck, Michael J; Ren, Xuefeng

    2013-10-04

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its high toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), are able to induce malignant transformation of human cells. Chronic exposure to these chemicals is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple cancers in human. However, the mechanisms contributing to iAs/MMA(III)-induced cell malignant transformation and carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. We recently showed that iAs/MMA(III) exposure to human cells led to a decreased level of histone acetylation globally, which was associated with an increased sensitivity to arsenic cytotoxicity. In the current study, it demonstrated that prolonged exposure to low-level MMA(III) in human urothelial cells significantly increased the expression and activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with an associated reduction of histone acetylation levels both globally and lysine specifically. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), at 4 weeks after the initial MMA(III) treatment inhibited the MMA(III)-mediated up-regulation of the expression and activities of HDACs, leading to increase histone acetylation and prevention of MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation. These new findings suggest that histone acetylation dysregulation may be a key mechanism in MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation and carcinogenesis, and that HDAC inhibitors could be targeted to prevent or treat iAs-related cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-malignant complications of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G K

    1996-05-01

    Patients with coeliac disease are at increased risk of developing complications which increase morbidity and mortality. Emphasis on malignant complications has often overshadowed the non-malignant risks, which have received relatively little attention, although some of these can be very troublesome and even life-threatening. This article points out that a large population of unidentified or neglected coeliac patients is at potential risk. The challenge is to identify this group by case-finding or screening programmes in selected populations, so that they can be offered a gluten-free diet and other treatments which will not only improve general health but may also prevent or reduce the development of health problems. The non-malignant risks are outlined and bone and neuropsychiatric disturbances considered in more detail because of recent developments in these areas.

  7. Minimal-change nephropathy and malignant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Varsano, S; Bruderman, I; Bernheim, J L; Rathaus, M; Griffel, B

    1980-05-01

    A 56-year-old man had fever, precordial pain, and a mediastinal mass. The mass disappeared two months later and the patient remained asymptomatic for 2 1/2 years. At that time a full-blown nephrotic syndrome developed, with minimal-change glomerulopathy. The chest x-ray film showed the reappearance of a giant mediastinal mass. On biopsy of the mass, malignant thymoma was diagnosed. Association between minimal-change disease and Hodgkin's disease is well known, while the association with malignant thymoma has not been previously reported. The relationship between malignant thymoma and minimal-change disease is discussed, and a possible pathogenic mechanism involving cell-mediated immunity is proposed.

  8. Malignant histiocytosis in childhood: morphologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Jurco, S; Starling, K; Hawkins, E P

    1983-12-01

    Eight cases diagnosed over a ten-year period as malignant histiocytosis (MH; histiocytic medullary reticulosis) were reviewed to clarify diagnostic criteria for the childhood disease and to identify sources of diagnostic confusion. Five of the eight cases met the authors' criteria for diagnosis; i.e., they were characterized by loose mixed infiltrates composed of three cell types--well-differentiated histiocytes, prohistiocytes, and malignant histiocytes--and they had no leukemic phase. Three cases did not share these features and were reclassified. The liver was found to be the organ most useful in premortem diagnosis, and immunoperoxidase staining for immunoglobulins and lysozyme was also helpful. The clinical and morphologic features of the five cases confirm the authors' view that diagnoses of MH should be limited to cases in which there is a loose pleomorphic population of all three types of histiocytes and that cases with monomorphous populations of aggregated malignant cells should be classified as lymphomas.

  9. [Malignant vascular tumors of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, A; Tchernev, G

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increased vascularity as well as the unique anatomical structure, vascular lesions, which occur in the female reproductive system are common observed and diverse by their morphology. The majority of them are benign, including vascular malformations, lesions due to vascular hyperplasia, tumors with significant vascular component and others. Malignant vascular tumors are rare in the area of the vulva accounting about 1% of all vulvar lesions with vascular origin. Kaposi sarcoma, epithelioid hemangioepithelioma and epithelioid angiosarcoma have been reported with vulvar localization. With a view to their rare incidence, nonspecific clinical manifestation and aggressive behavior associated with high mortality, we present the most common malignant tumors of vascular origin arising in the vulva, as we emphasize on their epidemiology and clinical features, differential diagnosis and therapeutic algorithms for this rare type of malignancies.

  10. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  11. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Nakatsu, S; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1995-07-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that selenium can inhibit tumorigenesis in some tissues of animal. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect on malignant tumor cells of brain. The purpose of our study was to determine the biological effect of selenium on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma cell lines. Cell lines C6 and A172 were obtained from Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan (JCRB). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of air and 5% CO2. Antiproliferative effects of selenium were evaluated using growth rate assay quantifying cell number by MTT assay. An antiproliferative effect of selenium was found in two cell lines, which was more effective on human A172 glioblastoma and less effective on rat C6 glioma.

  12. Advances in the management of malignant mesothelioma.