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Sample records for a3ar expression level

  1. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  2. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  3. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  4. Base composition and expression level of human genes.

    PubMed

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Auletta, Fabio; Torelli, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2004-01-21

    It is well known that the gene distribution is non-uniform in the human genome, reaching the highest concentration in the GC-rich isochores. Also the amino acid frequencies, and the hydrophobicity, of the corresponding encoded proteins are affected by the high GC level of the genes localized in the GC-rich isochores. It was hypothesized that the gene expression level as well is higher in GC-rich compared to GC-poor isochores [Mol. Biol. Evol. 10 (1993) 186]. Several features of human genes and proteins, namely expression level, coding and non-coding lengths, and hydrophobicity were investigated in the present paper. The results support the hypothesis reported above, since all the parameters so far studied converge to the same conclusion, that the average expression level of the GC-rich genes is significantly higher than that of the GC-poor genes.

  5. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  6. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  7. Evaluation of gene expression levels for cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Maia, M M; Meira-Strejevitch, C S; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; de Hippólito, D D C; Silva, V O; Brandão de Mattos, C C; Frederico, F B; Siqueira, R C; de Mattos, L C

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT Group, n = 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n = 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase in mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at P < .005 and P < .0005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively), IL-10 (at P < .0005 and P < .005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively) and TGF-β (at P < .005) for NC group. mRNA levels for TNF-α and IL-12 were also upregulated in patients with OT compared to CHR and NC individuals, although without statistical significance. Additionally, mRNA levels for IL-27 and IFN-γ in PBMC of patients with OT were upregulated in comparison with NC individuals. Differences between OT and NC groups were statistically significant at P < .05 and P < .0005, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Zuan; Yao, Huai-Qi; Zhu, Sen-Zhi; Li, Qiu-Yuan; Guo, Guang-Hua; Yu, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

  9. Low-level image properties in facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Claudia; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2018-06-04

    We studied low-level image properties of face photographs and analyzed whether they change with different emotional expressions displayed by an individual. Differences in image properties were measured in three databases that depicted a total of 167 individuals. Face images were used either in their original form, cut to a standard format or superimposed with a mask. Image properties analyzed were: brightness, redness, yellowness, contrast, spectral slope, overall power and relative power in low, medium and high spatial frequencies. Results showed that image properties differed significantly between expressions within each individual image set. Further, specific facial expressions corresponded to patterns of image properties that were consistent across all three databases. In order to experimentally validate our findings, we equalized the luminance histograms and spectral slopes of three images from a given individual who showed two expressions. Participants were significantly slower in matching the expression in an equalized compared to an original image triad. Thus, existing differences in these image properties (i.e., spectral slope, brightness or contrast) facilitate emotion detection in particular sets of face images. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-02-25

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates.

  11. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04729.001 PMID:25714927

  12. The Expression Level of Septin12 Is Critical for Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Hung; Lin, Yung-Ming; Wang, Ya-Yun; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Yi-Wen; Wang, Yun-Han; Wu, Ching-Ming; Pan, Hsien-An; Chao, Shin-Chih; Yen, Pauline H.; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Septins belong to a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins that are required for many cellular functions, such as membrane compartmentalization, vesicular trafficking, mitosis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. One family member, septin12, is expressed specifically in the testis. In this study, we found septin12 expressed in multiple subcellular compartments during terminal differentiation of mouse germ cells. In humans, the testicular tissues of men with either hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest had lower levels of SEPTIN12 transcripts than normal men. In addition, increased numbers of spermatozoa with abnormal head, neck, and tail morphologies lacked SEPT12 immunostaining signals, as compared with normal spermatozoa. To elucidate the role of septin12, we generated 129 embryonic stem cells containing a septin12 mutant allele with a deletion in the exons that encode the N-terminal GTP-binding domain. Most chimeras derived from the targeted embryonic stem cells were infertile, and the few fertile chimeras only produced offspring with a C57BL/6 background. Semen analysis of the infertile chimeras showed a decreased sperm count, decreased sperm motility, and spermatozoa with defects involving all subcellular compartments. The testicular phenotypes included maturation arrest of germ cells at the spermatid stage, sloughing of round spermatids, and increased apoptosis of germ cells. Electron microscopic examination of spermatozoa showed misshapen nuclei, disorganized mitochondria, and broken acrosomes. Our data indicate that Septin12 expression levels are critical for mammalian spermiogenesis. PMID:19359518

  13. Comprehensive analysis of Arabidopsis expression level polymorphisms with simple inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Plantegenet, Stephanie; Weber, Johann; Goldstein, Darlene R; Zeller, Georg; Nussbaumer, Cindy; Thomas, Jérôme; Weigel, Detlef; Harshman, Keith; Hardtke, Christian S

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, gene expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) between natural accessions that exhibit simple, single locus inheritance are promising quantitative trait locus (QTL) candidates to explain phenotypic variability. It is assumed that such ELPs overwhelmingly represent regulatory element polymorphisms. However, comprehensive genome-wide analyses linking expression level, regulatory sequence and gene structure variation are missing, preventing definite verification of this assumption. Here, we analyzed ELPs observed between the Eil-0 and Lc-0 accessions. Compared with non-variable controls, 5′ regulatory sequence variation in the corresponding genes is indeed increased. However, ∼42% of all the ELP genes also carry major transcription unit deletions in one parent as revealed by genome tiling arrays, representing a >4-fold enrichment over controls. Within the subset of ELPs with simple inheritance, this proportion is even higher and deletions are generally more severe. Similar results were obtained from analyses of the Bay-0 and Sha accessions, using alternative technical approaches. Collectively, our results suggest that drastic structural changes are a major cause for ELPs with simple inheritance, corroborating experimentally observed indel preponderance in cloned Arabidopsis QTL. PMID:19225455

  14. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  15. High-level expression of Camelid nanobodies in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Teh, Yi-Hui Audrey; Kavanagh, Tony A

    2010-08-01

    Nanobodies (or VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from Camelid heavy chain-only antibodies. Their small size, monomeric behaviour, high stability and solubility, and ability to bind epitopes not accessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Here we describe high-level expression, in Nicotiana benthamiana, of three versions of an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) nanobody which include the original VHH from an immunized library (cAbLys3), a codon-optimized derivative, and a codon-optimized hybrid nanobody comprising the CDRs of cAbLys3 grafted onto an alternative 'universal' nanobody framework. His6- and StrepII-tagged derivatives of each nanobody were targeted for accumulation in the cytoplasm, chloroplast and apoplast using different pre-sequences. When targeted to the apoplast, intact functional nanobodies accumulated at an exceptionally high level (up to 30% total leaf protein), demonstrating the great potential of plants as a nanobody production system.

  16. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    PubMed

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-03-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Naringin promotes differentiation of bone marrow stem cells into osteoblasts by upregulating the expression levels of microRNA-20a and downregulating the expression levels of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jifeng; Li, Jie; Fan, Qinbo

    2015-09-01

    Naringin is a dihydrotestosterone flavonoid compound that significantly inhibits bone loss, improves bone density, and enhances biomechanical anti‑compression performance. Previous studies have demonstrated that naringin improves the activity levels of osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MC3T3‑E1 osteoblast precursor cells. The present study investigated the effects of naringin on osteoblastic differentiation and inhibition of adipocyte formation in bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The levels of osteogenesis were modulated via upregulation of the expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑20a, and downregulation of the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The results indicated that naringin significantly enhanced BMSC proliferation in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, naringin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of OC, ALP, and collagen type I. Furthermore, naringin decreased the protein expression levels of PPARγ, and increased the expression levels of miR‑20a in the BMSCs. These results suggested that miR‑20a may regulate the expression of PPARγ in BMSCs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report naringin‑induced osteogenesis via upregulation of the expression levels of miR‑20a, and downregulation of the expression levels of PPARγ. These results indicated the important role of naringin in BMSC differentiation.

  19. Quantifying the Effect of DNA Packaging on Gene Expression Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Harold

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression, the process by which the genetic code comes alive in the form of proteins, is one of the most important biological processes in living cells, and begins when transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region upstream of a gene. The relationship between gene expression output and transcription factor input which is termed the gene regulation function is specific to each promoter, and predicting this gene regulation function from the locations of transcription factor binding sites is one of the challenges in biology. In eukaryotic organisms (for example, animals, plants, fungi etc), DNA is highly compacted into nucleosomes, 147-bp segments of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein core, and therefore, the accessibility of transcription factor binding sites depends on their locations with respect to nucleosomes - sites inside nucleosomes are less accessible than those outside nucleosomes. To understand how transcription factor binding sites contribute to gene expression in a quantitative manner, we obtain gene regulation functions of promoters with various configurations of transcription factor binding sites by using fluorescent protein reporters to measure transcription factor input and gene expression output in single yeast cells. In this talk, I will show that the affinity of a transcription factor binding site inside and outside the nucleosome controls different aspects of the gene regulation function, and explain this finding based on a mass-action kinetic model that includes competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors.

  20. Levels of duplicate gene expression in armoured catfishes.

    PubMed

    Dunham, R A; Philipp, D P; Whitt, G S

    1980-01-01

    Species of armoured catfishes differ significantly in their cellular DNA content and chromosome number. Starch gel electrophoresis of isozymes was used to determine whether each of 16 enzyme loci was expressed in a single or duplicate state. The percent of enzyme loci exhibiting duplicate locus expression in Corydoras aeneus, Corydoras julii, Corydoras melanistius, and Corydoras myersi was 37.5 percent, 18.75 percent, 12.5 percent, and 6.25 percent, respectively. The percentage of loci expressed in duplicate is higher in the species with higher haploid DNA contents, which are 4.4 pg, 3.0 pg, and 2.3 pg, respectively. These differences in DNA contents are also associated with differences in chromosome number. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increases in DNA contents and enzyme loci occur both by tetraploidization and by regional gene duplication and that these increases are then followed by a partial loss of DNA and a reduction in the number of the duplicate isozyme loci expressed. Such analyses provide insight into the mechanisms of genome amplification and reduction as well as insights into the fats of duplicate genes.

  1. High-level SLP-2 expression and HER-2/neu protein expression are associated with decreased breast cancer patient survival.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenfeng; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yanxue; Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Shiwu; Fu, Li; Niu, Yun; Ning, Liansheng; Cao, Xuchen; Liu, Zhihua; Sun, Baocun

    2007-09-01

    There is sufficient evidence that human stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a novel cancer-related gene. Its protein is overexpressed in many human cancers. SLP-2 can contribute to the promotion of cell growth, cell adhesion, and tumorigenesis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of SLP-2, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and HER-2/neu were performed on 263 cases of primary invasive breast cancer with a tissue microarray. Of 263 cases, 138 (52.5%) showed high expression of SLP-2 protein, and 125 (47.5%) showed low or absent expression. In addition, there were significant positive associations between tumor stage and size (P = .020), lymph node metastasis (P < .001), clinical stage (P < .001), distant metastasis (P = .002), and HER-2/neu protein expression (P = .037) and high-level SLP-2 expression. High-level SLP-2 expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P = .011) and was more often found in patients with tumors larger than 20 mm, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage, distant metastasis, and HER-2/neu protein-positive expression. More important, lymph node metastasis, HER-2/neu-positive expression, and high-level SLP-2 expression were associated with significantly decreased survival.

  2. Improvement of expression level of polysaccharide lyases with new tag GAPDH in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenya; Li, Ye; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-10-20

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is widely used to express a variety of heterologous proteins. Efforts have been made to enhance the expression level of the desired protein. However, problems still exist to regulate the level of protein expression and therefore, new strategies are needed to overcome those issues. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which is properly expressed in E. coli might play a leading role and increase the expression levels of the target proteins. In this study, GAPDH was fused with a target enzyme, ChSase ABC I, an endoeliminase and polysaceharide lyase. Our results confirmed this hypothesis and indicated that GAPDH boosted the expression level of ChSase ABC I with an increase of 2.25 times, while the enzymatic activity with an increase of 2.99 times. The hypothesis were also supported by RT-PCR study and GAPDH was more effective in enhancing the expression level and enzymatic activity as compared to MBP, which is commonly used as fused tag and can improve the soluble expression of target protein. addition, the expression level and enzymatic activity of other polysaceharide lyases were also improved in the presence of GAPDH. The findings of this study prove that GAPDH has a strong effect on enhancing the expression level and enzymatic activity of the target proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Otoupal, Peter B; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment through stress

  4. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  5. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  6. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  7. HER2 over-expressing high grade endometrial cancer expresses high levels of p95HER2 variant.

    PubMed

    Growdon, Whitfield B; Groeneweg, Jolijn; Byron, Virginia; DiGloria, Celeste; Borger, Darrell R; Tambouret, Rosemary; Foster, Rosemary; Chenna, Ahmed; Sperinde, Jeff; Winslow, John; Rueda, Bo R

    2015-04-01

    Subsets of high grade endometrial cancer (EnCa) over-express HER2 (ERBB2), yet clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any anti-tumor activity utilizing trastuzumab, an approved platform for HER2 positive breast cancer (BrCa). A truncated p95HER2 variant lacking the trastuzumab binding site may confer resistance. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the expression of the p95HER2 truncated variant in EnCa. With institutional approval, 86 high grade EnCa tumors were identified with tumor specimens from surgeries performed between 2000 and 2011. Clinical data were collected and all specimens underwent tumor genotyping, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, HercepTest®), HER2 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), along with total HER2 (H2T) and p95HER2 assessment with VeraTag® testing. Regression models were used to compare a cohort of 86 breast tumors selected for equivalent HER2 protein expression. We identified 44 high grade endometrioid and 42 uterine serous carcinomas (USC). IHC identified high HER2 expression (2+ or 3+) in 59% of the tumors. HER2 gene amplification was observed in 16 tumors (12 USC, 4 endometrioid). Both HER2 gene amplification and protein expression correlated with H2T values. High p95HER2 expression above 2.8RF/mm2 was observed in 53% (n=54) with significant correlation with H2T levels. When matched to a cohort of 107 breast tumors based on HercepTest HER2 expression, high grade EnCa presented with higher p95 levels (p<0.001). These data demonstrate that compared to BrCa, high grade EnCa expresses higher levels of p95HER2 possibly providing rationale for the trastuzumab resistance observed in EnCa. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Representational momentum in dynamic facial expressions is modulated by the level of expressed pain: Amplitude and direction effects.

    PubMed

    Prigent, Elise; Amorim, Michel-Ange; de Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Humans have developed a specific capacity to rapidly perceive and anticipate other people's facial expressions so as to get an immediate impression of their emotional state of mind. We carried out two experiments to examine the perceptual and memory dynamics of facial expressions of pain. In the first experiment, we investigated how people estimate other people's levels of pain based on the perception of various dynamic facial expressions; these differ both in terms of the amount and intensity of activated action units. A second experiment used a representational momentum (RM) paradigm to study the emotional anticipation (memory bias) elicited by the same facial expressions of pain studied in Experiment 1. Our results highlighted the relationship between the level of perceived pain (in Experiment 1) and the direction and magnitude of memory bias (in Experiment 2): When perceived pain increases, the memory bias tends to be reduced (if positive) and ultimately becomes negative. Dynamic facial expressions of pain may reenact an "immediate perceptual history" in the perceiver before leading to an emotional anticipation of the agent's upcoming state. Thus, a subtle facial expression of pain (i.e., a low contraction around the eyes) that leads to a significant positive anticipation can be considered an adaptive process-one through which we can swiftly and involuntarily detect other people's pain.

  9. Diverse Soil Carbon Dynamics Expressed at the Molecular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voort, T. S.; Zell, C. I.; Hagedorn, F.; Feng, X.; McIntyre, C. P.; Haghipour, N.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stability and potential vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM) to global change remain incompletely understood due to the complex processes involved in its formation and turnover. Here we combine compound-specific radiocarbon analysis with fraction-specific and bulk-level radiocarbon measurements in order to further elucidate controls on SOM dynamics in a temperate and subalpine forested ecosystem. Radiocarbon contents of individual organic compounds isolated from the same soil interval generally exhibit greater variation than those among corresponding operationally defined fractions. Notably, markedly older ages of long-chain plant leaf wax lipids (n-alkanoic acids) imply that they reflect a highly stable carbon pool. Furthermore, marked 14C variations among shorter- and longer-chain n-alkanoic acid homologues suggest that they track different SOM pools. Extremes in SOM dynamics thus manifest themselves within a single compound class. This exploratory study highlights the potential of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis for understanding SOM dynamics in ecosystems potentially vulnerable to global change.

  10. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  11. Reduced GNG2 expression levels in mouse malignant melanomas and human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Hiro; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein is composed of a Gα-subunit and a Gβγ-dimer. Previous studies have revealed that Gβγ-dimers including the Gγ2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. At present, however, there is no information on the expression level of Gng2/GNG2 alone in any kind of tumor. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analysis in a benign melanocytic tumor and a malignant melanoma from RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Gng2 transcript expression levels in a malignant melanoma were less than 1/10 of the level in a benign tumor. The difference in Gng2 transcript expression levels between benign tumors and malignant melanomas was greatest among all of the G protein γ subunits examined in this study. Moreover, protein expression levels of Gng2 were decreased in malignant melanomas compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. Analysis of human malignant melanomas also showed reduced GNG2 protein expression levels in five human malignant melanoma cell lines compared with the expression levels in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM). Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Gng2/GNG2 expression levels are reduced in malignant melanoma, suggesting that GNG2 could be a novel biomarker for malignant melanoma. PMID:22679562

  12. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Escoté, Xavier; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victoria; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Miranda, Merce; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; Peral, Belen; Cardona, Fernando; Fernández-Real, Jose Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Vendrell, Joan

    2012-01-01

    FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels), with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  13. FABP4 Dynamics in Obesity: Discrepancies in Adipose Tissue and Liver Expression Regarding Circulating Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victoria; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Miranda, Merce; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; Peral, Belen; Cardona, Fernando; Fernández-Real, Jose Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Vendrell, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. Objective In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. Methods The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. Results In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels), with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. Conclusion The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity. PMID:23139800

  14. Generation of mammalian cells stably expressing multiple genes at predetermined levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Constantinescu, S N; Sun, Y; Bogan, J S; Hirsch, D; Weinberg, R A; Lodish, H F

    2000-04-10

    Expression of cloned genes at desired levels in cultured mammalian cells is essential for studying protein function. Controlled levels of expression have been difficult to achieve, especially for cell lines with low transfection efficiency or when expression of multiple genes is required. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) has been incorporated into many types of expression vectors to allow simultaneous expression of two genes. However, there has been no systematic quantitative analysis of expression levels in individual cells of genes linked by an IRES, and thus the broad use of these vectors in functional analysis has been limited. We constructed a set of retroviral expression vectors containing an IRES followed by a quantitative selectable marker such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) or truncated cell surface proteins CD2 or CD4. The gene of interest is placed in a multiple cloning site 5' of the IRES sequence under the control of the retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. These vectors exploit the approximately 100-fold differences in levels of expression of a retrovirus vector depending on its site of insertion in the host chromosome. We show that the level of expression of the gene downstream of the IRES and the expression level and functional activity of the gene cloned upstream of the IRES are highly correlated in stably infected target cells. This feature makes our vectors extremely useful for the rapid generation of stably transfected cell populations or clonal cell lines expressing specific amounts of a desired protein simply by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the level of expression of the gene downstream of the IRES. We show how these vectors can be used to generate cells expressing high levels of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) or a dominant negative Smad3 protein and to generate cells expressing two different cloned proteins, Ski and Smad4. Correlation of a biologic effect with the level of expression of the

  15. Using Peptide-Level Proteomics Data for Detecting Differentially Expressed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Tomi; Corthals, Garry L; Nevalainen, Olli S; Elo, Laura L

    2015-11-06

    The expression of proteins can be quantified in high-throughput means using different types of mass spectrometers. In recent years, there have emerged label-free methods for determining protein abundance. Although the expression is initially measured at the peptide level, a common approach is to combine the peptide-level measurements into protein-level values before differential expression analysis. However, this simple combination is prone to inconsistencies between peptides and may lose valuable information. To this end, we introduce here a method for detecting differentially expressed proteins by combining peptide-level expression-change statistics. Using controlled spike-in experiments, we show that the approach of averaging peptide-level expression changes yields more accurate lists of differentially expressed proteins than does the conventional protein-level approach. This is particularly true when there are only few replicate samples or the differences between the sample groups are small. The proposed technique is implemented in the Bioconductor package PECA, and it can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org.

  16. Genome-Wide Tuning of Protein Expression Levels to Rapidly Engineer Microbial Traits.

    PubMed

    Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Weiss, Sophie J; Garst, Andrew D; Mutalik, Vivek K; Arkin, Adam P; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The reliable engineering of biological systems requires quantitative mapping of predictable and context-independent expression over a broad range of protein expression levels. However, current techniques for modifying expression levels are cumbersome and are not amenable to high-throughput approaches. Here we present major improvements to current techniques through the design and construction of E. coli genome-wide libraries using synthetic DNA cassettes that can tune expression over a ∼10(4) range. The cassettes also contain molecular barcodes that are optimized for next-generation sequencing, enabling rapid and quantitative tracking of alleles that have the highest fitness advantage. We show these libraries can be used to determine which genes and expression levels confer greater fitness to E. coli under different growth conditions.

  17. Functional importance of GLP-1 receptor species and expression levels in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Underwood, Christina Rye; Wulff, Birgitte Schjellerup; Fleckner, Jan

    2012-04-10

    Of the mammalian species, only the GLP-1 receptors of rat and human origin have been described and characterized. Here, we report the cloning of the homologous GLP-1 receptors from mouse, rabbit, pig, cynomolgus monkey and chimp. The GLP-1 receptor is highly conserved across species, thus underlining the physiological importance of the peptide hormone and its receptor across a wide range of mammals. We expressed the receptors by stable transfection of BHK cells, both in cell lines with high expression levels of the cloned receptors, as well as in cell lines with lower expression levels, more comparable to endogenous expression of these receptors. High expression levels of cloned GLP-1 receptors markedly increased the potency of GLP-1 and other high affinity ligands, whereas the K(d) values were not affected. For a low affinity ligand like the ago-allosteric modulator Compound 2, expression levels of the human GLP-1 receptor were important for maximal efficacy as well as potency. The two natural metabolites of GLP-1, GLP-1(9-37) and GLP-1(9-36)amide were agonists when tested on a cell line with high expression of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor, whereas they behaved as (low potent) antagonists on a cell line that expressed the receptor endogenously, as well as cells expressing a moderate level of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor. The amide form was a more potent agonist than the free acid from. In conclusion, receptor expression level is an important parametre for selecting cell lines with cloned GLP-1 receptors for functional characterization of physiological and pharmaceutical ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Zou, F.; Carrasquillo, M. M.; Pankratz, V. S.; Belbin, O.; Morgan, K.; Allen, M.; Wilcox, S. L.; Ma, L.; Walker, L. P.; Kouri, N.; Burgess, J. D.; Younkin, L. H.; Younkin, Samuel G.; Younkin, C. S.; Bisceglio, G. D.; Crook, J. E.; Dickson, D. W.; Petersen, R. C.; Graff-Radford, N.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a common disorder with a substantial genetic component. We postulate that many disease susceptibility variants act by altering gene expression levels. Methods: We measured messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 12 LOAD candidate genes in the cerebella of 200 subjects with LOAD. Using the genotypes from our LOAD genome-wide association study for the cis-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 619) of these 12 LOAD candidate genes, we tested for associations with expression levels as endophenotypes. The strongest expression cis-SNP was tested for AD association in 7 independent case-control series (2,280 AD and 2,396 controls). Results: We identified 3 SNPs that associated significantly with IDE (insulin degrading enzyme) expression levels. A single copy of the minor allele for each significant SNP was associated with ∼twofold higher IDE expression levels. The most significant SNP, rs7910977, is 4.2 kb beyond the 3′ end of IDE. The association observed with this SNP was significant even at the genome-wide level (p = 2.7 × 10−8). Furthermore, the minor allele of rs7910977 associated significantly (p = 0.0046) with reduced LOAD risk (OR = 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.70-0.94), as expected biologically from its association with elevated IDE expression. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that IDE is a late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) gene with variants that modify risk of LOAD by influencing IDE expression. They also suggest that the use of expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies may provide a powerful approach for the identification of disease susceptibility alleles. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; CI = confidence interval; GWAS = genome-wide association study; LOAD = late-onset Alzheimer disease; mRNA = messenger RNA; OR = odds ratio; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:20142614

  19. Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380

  20. Dual transcriptional-translational cascade permits cellular level tuneable expression control

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Rosa; Shankar, Jayendra; Robinson, Christopher J.; Halliwell, Samantha; Butler, Lisa; Upton, Mathew; Hay, Sam; Micklefield, Jason; Dixon, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce gene expression in a small molecule dependent manner has led to many applications in target discovery, functional elucidation and bio-production. To date these applications have relied on a limited set of protein-based control mechanisms operating at the level of transcription initiation. The discovery, design and reengineering of riboswitches offer an alternative means by which to control gene expression. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel tunable recombinant expression system, termed RiboTite, which operates at both the transcriptional and translational level. Using standard inducible promoters and orthogonal riboswitches, a multi-layered modular genetic control circuit was developed to control the expression of both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant gene(s) of interest. The system was benchmarked against a number of commonly used E. coli expression systems, and shows tight basal control, precise analogue tunability of gene expression at the cellular level, dose-dependent regulation of protein production rates over extended growth periods and enhanced cell viability. This novel system expands the number of E. coli expression systems for use in recombinant protein production and represents a major performance enhancement over and above the most widely used expression systems. PMID:26405200

  1. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Watts, D. Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A.; Tsibris, Athe M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression. PMID:25895986

  2. Compensation for intracellular environment in expression levels of mammalian circadian clock genes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Ritsuko; Okamoto, Akihiko; Node, Koichi; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock is driven by transcriptional oscillation of clock genes in almost all body cells. To investigate the effect of cell type-specific intracellular environment on the circadian machinery, we examined gene expression profiles in five peripheral tissues. As expected, the phase relationship between expression rhythms of nine clock genes was similar in all tissues examined. We also compared relative expression levels of clock genes among tissues, and unexpectedly found that quantitative variation remained within an approximately three-fold range, which was substantially smaller than that of metabolic housekeeping genes. Interestingly, circadian gene expression was little affected even when fibroblasts were cultured with different concentrations of serum. Together, these findings support a hypothesis that expression levels of clock genes are quantitatively compensated for the intracellular environment, such as redox potential and metabolite composition. However, more comprehensive studies are required to reach definitive conclusions. PMID:24504324

  3. Design of chimeric expression elements that confer high-level gene activity in chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Caroca, Rodrigo; Howell, Katharine A; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Non-green plastids, such as chromoplasts, generally have much lower activity of gene expression than chloroplasts in photosynthetically active tissues. Suppression of plastid genes in non-green tissues occurs through a complex interplay of transcriptional and translational control, with the contribution of regulation of transcript abundance versus translational activity being highly variable between genes. Here, we have investigated whether the low expression of the plastid genome in chromoplasts results from inherent limitations in gene expression capacity, or can be overcome by designing appropriate combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). We constructed chimeric expression elements that combine promoters and 5'-UTRs from plastid genes, which are suppressed during chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit ripening, either just at the translational level or just at the level of mRNA accumulation. These chimeric expression elements were introduced into the tomato plastid genome by stable chloroplast transformation. We report the identification of promoter-UTR combinations that confer high-level gene expression in chromoplasts of ripe tomato fruits, resulting in the accumulation of reporter protein GFP to up to 1% of total cellular protein. Our work demonstrates that non-green plastids are capable of expressing genes to high levels. Moreover, the chimeric cis-elements for chromoplasts developed here are widely applicable in basic and applied research using transplastomic methods. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  5. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC. PMID:28521430

  6. Geminivirus vectors for high-level expression of foreign proteins in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mor, Tsafrir S; Moon, Yong-Sun; Palmer, Kenneth E; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-02-20

    Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) is a monopartite geminivirus that can infect dicotyledonous plants. We have developed a high-level expression system that utilizes elements of the replication machinery of this single-stranded DNA virus. The replication initiator protein (Rep) mediates release and replication of a replicon from a DNA construct ("LSL vector") that contains an expression cassette for a gene of interest flanked by cis-acting elements of the virus. We used tobacco NT1 cells and biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA for evaluation of replication and expression of reporter genes contained within an LSL vector. By codelivery of a GUS reporter-LSL vector and a Rep-supplying vector, we obtained up to 40-fold increase in expression levels compared to delivery of the reporter-LSL vectors alone. High-copy replication of the LSL vector was correlated with enhanced expression of GUS. Rep expression using a whole BeYDV clone, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving either genomic rep or an intron-deleted rep gene, or 35S-rep contained in the LSL vector all achieved efficient replication and enhancement of GUS expression. We anticipate that this system can be adapted for use in transgenic plants or plant cell cultures with appropriately regulated expression of Rep, with the potential to greatly increase yield of recombinant proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 430-437, 2003.

  7. Sex differences in facial emotion recognition across varying expression intensity levels from videos.

    PubMed

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    There has been much research on sex differences in the ability to recognise facial expressions of emotions, with results generally showing a female advantage in reading emotional expressions from the face. However, most of the research to date has used static images and/or 'extreme' examples of facial expressions. Therefore, little is known about how expression intensity and dynamic stimuli might affect the commonly reported female advantage in facial emotion recognition. The current study investigated sex differences in accuracy of response (Hu; unbiased hit rates) and response latencies for emotion recognition using short video stimuli (1sec) of 10 different facial emotion expressions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, contempt, pride, embarrassment, neutral) across three variations in the intensity of the emotional expression (low, intermediate, high) in an adolescent and adult sample (N = 111; 51 male, 60 female) aged between 16 and 45 (M = 22.2, SD = 5.7). Overall, females showed more accurate facial emotion recognition compared to males and were faster in correctly recognising facial emotions. The female advantage in reading expressions from the faces of others was unaffected by expression intensity levels and emotion categories used in the study. The effects were specific to recognition of emotions, as males and females did not differ in the recognition of neutral faces. Together, the results showed a robust sex difference favouring females in facial emotion recognition using video stimuli of a wide range of emotions and expression intensity variations.

  8. Sex differences in facial emotion recognition across varying expression intensity levels from videos

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    There has been much research on sex differences in the ability to recognise facial expressions of emotions, with results generally showing a female advantage in reading emotional expressions from the face. However, most of the research to date has used static images and/or ‘extreme’ examples of facial expressions. Therefore, little is known about how expression intensity and dynamic stimuli might affect the commonly reported female advantage in facial emotion recognition. The current study investigated sex differences in accuracy of response (Hu; unbiased hit rates) and response latencies for emotion recognition using short video stimuli (1sec) of 10 different facial emotion expressions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, contempt, pride, embarrassment, neutral) across three variations in the intensity of the emotional expression (low, intermediate, high) in an adolescent and adult sample (N = 111; 51 male, 60 female) aged between 16 and 45 (M = 22.2, SD = 5.7). Overall, females showed more accurate facial emotion recognition compared to males and were faster in correctly recognising facial emotions. The female advantage in reading expressions from the faces of others was unaffected by expression intensity levels and emotion categories used in the study. The effects were specific to recognition of emotions, as males and females did not differ in the recognition of neutral faces. Together, the results showed a robust sex difference favouring females in facial emotion recognition using video stimuli of a wide range of emotions and expression intensity variations. PMID:29293674

  9. Identification of cis-elements conferring high levels of gene expression in non-green plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Ruf, Stephanie; Hasse, Claudia; Childs, Liam; Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Although our knowledge about the mechanisms of gene expression in chloroplasts has increased substantially over the past decades, next to nothing is known about the signals and factors that govern expression of the plastid genome in non-green tissues. Here we report the development of a quantitative method suitable for determining the activity of cis-acting elements for gene expression in non-green plastids. The in vivo assay is based on stable transformation of the plastid genome and the discovery that root length upon seedling growth in the presence of the plastid translational inhibitor kanamycin is directly proportional to the expression strength of the resistance gene nptII in transgenic tobacco plastids. By testing various combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals, we have used this experimental system to identify cis-elements that are highly active in non-green plastids. Surprisingly, heterologous expression elements from maize plastids were significantly more efficient in conferring high expression levels in root plastids than homologous expression elements from tobacco. Our work has established a quantitative method for characterization of gene expression in non-green plastid types, and has led to identification of cis-elements for efficient plastid transgene expression in non-green tissues, which are valuable tools for future transplastomic studies in basic and applied research. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Impact of STAT/SOCS mRNA Expression Levels after Major Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brumann, M.; Matz, M.; Kusmenkov, T.; Stegmaier, J.; Biberthaler, P.; Kanz, K.-G.; Mutschler, W.; Bogner, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fulminant changes in cytokine receptor signalling might provoke severe pathological alterations after multiple trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posttraumatic imbalance of the innate immune system with a special focus on the STAT/SOCS family. Methods. 20 polytraumatized patients were included. Blood samples were drawn 0 h–72 h after trauma; mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3 were quantified by qPCR. Results. IL-10 mRNA expression increased significantly in the early posttraumatic period. STAT 3 mRNA expressions showed a significant maximum at 6 h after trauma. SOCS 1 levels significantly decreased 6 h–72 h after trauma. SOCS 3 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors 6 h after trauma. Conclusion. We present a serial, sequential investigation in human neutrophil granulocytes of major trauma patients evaluating mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3. Posttraumatically, immune disorder was accompanied by a significant increase of IL-10 and STAT 3 mRNA expression, whereas SOCS 1 mRNA levels decreased after injury. We could demonstrate that death after trauma was associated with higher SOCS 3 mRNA levels already at 6 h after trauma. To support our results, further investigations have to evaluate protein levels of STAT/SOCS family in terms of posttraumatic immune imbalance. PMID:24648661

  11. A Theoretical Lower Bound for Selection on the Expression Levels of Proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2016-06-11

    We use simple models of the costs and benefits of microbial gene expression to show that changing a protein's expression away from its optimum by 2-fold should reduce fitness by at least [Formula: see text], where P is the fraction the cell's protein that the gene accounts for. As microbial genes are usually expressed at above 5 parts per million, and effective population sizes are likely to be above 10(6), this implies that 2-fold changes to gene expression levels are under strong selection, as [Formula: see text], where Ne is the effective population size and s is the selection coefficient.more » Thus, most gene duplications should be selected against. On the other hand, we predict that for most genes, small changes in the expression will be effectively neutral.« less

  12. A Theoretical Lower Bound for Selection on the Expression Levels of Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    We use simple models of the costs and benefits of microbial gene expression to show that changing a protein's expression away from its optimum by 2-fold should reduce fitness by at least [Formula: see text], where P is the fraction the cell's protein that the gene accounts for. As microbial genes are usually expressed at above 5 parts per million, and effective population sizes are likely to be above 10(6), this implies that 2-fold changes to gene expression levels are under strong selection, as [Formula: see text], where Ne is the effective population size and s is the selection coefficient.more » Thus, most gene duplications should be selected against. On the other hand, we predict that for most genes, small changes in the expression will be effectively neutral.« less

  13. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  14. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2015-01-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293

  15. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  16. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Albert, Frank W; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A; Plyusnina, Irina Z; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-09-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  17. A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

  18. Earth Mover's Distance (EMD): A True Metric for Comparing Biomarker Expression Levels in Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Darya Y; Zimmerman, Noah; Meehan, Stephen; Meehan, Connor; Waters, Jeffrey; Ghosn, Eliver E B; Filatenkov, Alexander; Kolyagin, Gleb A; Gernez, Yael; Tsuda, Shanel; Moore, Wayne; Moss, Richard B; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Walther, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the frequencies of cell subsets that (co)express characteristic biomarkers, or levels of the biomarkers on the subsets, are widely used as indices of drug response, disease prognosis, stem cell reconstitution, etc. However, although the currently available computational "gating" tools accurately reveal subset frequencies and marker expression levels, they fail to enable statistically reliable judgements as to whether these frequencies and expression levels differ significantly between/among subject groups. Here we introduce flow cytometry data analysis pipeline which includes the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) metric as solution to this problem. Well known as an informative quantitative measure of differences between distributions, we present three exemplary studies showing that EMD 1) reveals clinically-relevant shifts in two markers on blood basophils responding to an offending allergen; 2) shows that ablative tumor radiation induces significant changes in the murine colon cancer tumor microenvironment; and, 3) ranks immunological differences in mouse peritoneal cavity cells harvested from three genetically distinct mouse strains.

  19. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  20. Relationship between microRNA-146a expression and plasma renalase levels in hemodialyzed patients

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Gaweł, Kinga; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Milanowski, Janusz; Petkowicz, Beata; Solski, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    Background microRNA (miRNA) belongs to the non-coding RNAs family responsible for the regulation of gene expression. Renalase is a protein composed of 342 amino acids, secreted by the kidneys and possibly plays an important role in the regulation of sympathetic tone and blood pressure. The aim of the present study was to investigate plasma renalase concentration, and explore the relationship between miRNA-146a-5p expression and plasma renalase levels in hemodialyzed patients. Methods The study population comprised 55 subjects who succumbed to various cardiac events, 27 women and 28 men, aged 65–70 years. The total RNA including miRNA fraction was isolated using QiagenmiRNEasy Serum/Plasma kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The isolated miRNAs were analyzed using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique. The plasma renalase levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Results In the group of patients with high levels of renalase, higher miRNA-146a expression was found, compared with those with low concentration of renalase. Patients with simultaneous low miRNA-146a expression and high level of renalase were confirmed to deliver a significantly longer survival time compared with other patients. Conclusions miRNA-146a and plasma renalase levels were estimated as independent prognostic factors of hemodialyzed patients’ survival time. Patients with low miRNA-146a expression demonstrated a significantly longer survival time in contrast to the patients with a high expression level of miRNA-146a. Moreover, a significantly longer survival time was found in patients with high renalase activity compared with patients with low activity of the enzyme. PMID:28614373

  1. Differential gene expression of wheat progeny with contrasting levels of transpiration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; McIntyre, C Lynne; Chapman, Scott; Bower, Neil I; Way, Heather; Reverter, Antonio; Clarke, Bryan; Shorter, Ray

    2006-08-01

    High water use efficiency or transpiration efficiency (TE) in wheat is a desirable physiological trait for increasing grain yield under water-limited environments. The identification of genes associated with this trait would facilitate the selection for genotypes with higher TE using molecular markers. We performed an expression profiling (microarray) analysis of approximately 16,000 unique wheat ESTs to identify genes that were differentially expressed between wheat progeny lines with contrasting TE levels from a cross between Quarrion (high TE) and Genaro 81 (low TE). We also conducted a second microarray analysis to identify genes responsive to drought stress in wheat leaves. Ninety-three genes that were differentially expressed between high and low TE progeny lines were identified. One fifth of these genes were markedly responsive to drought stress. Several potential growth-related regulatory genes, which were down-regulated by drought, were expressed at a higher level in the high TE lines than the low TE lines and are potentially associated with a biomass production component of the Quarrion-derived high TE trait. Eighteen of the TE differentially expressed genes were further analysed using quantitative RT-PCR on a separate set of plant samples from those used for microarray analysis. The expression levels of 11 of the 18 genes were positively correlated with the high TE trait, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C). These data indicate that some of these TE differentially expressed genes are candidates for investigating processes that underlie the high TE trait or for use as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for TE.

  2. Regulation of theta-antigen expression by agents altering cyclic AMP level and by thymic factor.

    PubMed

    Bach, M A; Fournier, C; Bach, J F

    1975-02-28

    Thymic factor, cyclic AMP, and products increasing its cellular level, such as Prostaglandin E1, induce the appearance of the theta-antigen on T-cell precursors whether assessed by a rossette-inhibition assay or a cytotoxic assay after cell fractionation on BSA discontinuous gradiet. Synergism has been demonstrated between cyclic AMPT and TF for that effect. Conversely, decrease of theta expression has been obtained by altering cyclic AMP level in theta-positive cells either increasing it by dibutyryl cAMP treatment or decreasing it by indomethacin treatment. Finally, these data suggest the involvement of cyclic AMP in the regulation of theta expression under thymic hormone control.

  3. Isoform-level gene expression patterns in single-cell RNA-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trung Nghia; Wills, Quin F; Kalari, Krishna R; Niu, Nifang; Wang, Liewei; Pawitan, Yudi; Rantalainen, Mattias

    2018-02-27

    RNA sequencing of single cells enables characterization of transcriptional heterogeneity in seemingly homogeneous cell populations. Single-cell sequencing has been applied in a wide range of researches fields. However, few studies have focus on characterization of isoform-level expression patterns at the single-cell level. In this study we propose and apply a novel method, ISOform-Patterns (ISOP), based on mixture modeling, to characterize the expression patterns of isoform pairs from the same gene in single-cell isoform-level expression data. We define six principal patterns of isoform expression relationships and describe a method for differential-pattern analysis. We demonstrate ISOP through analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing data from a breast cancer cell line, with replication in three independent datasets. We assigned the pattern types to each of 16,562 isoform-pairs from 4,929 genes. Among those, 26% of the discovered patterns were significant (p<0.05), while remaining patterns are possibly effects of transcriptional bursting, drop-out and stochastic biological heterogeneity. Furthermore, 32% of genes discovered through differential-pattern analysis were not detected by differential-expression analysis. The effect of drop-out events, mean expression level, and properties of the expression distribution on the performances of ISOP were also investigated through simulated datasets. To conclude, ISOP provides a novel approach for characterization of isoformlevel preference, commitment and heterogeneity in single-cell RNA-sequencing data. The ISOP method has been implemented as a R package and is available at https://github.com/nghiavtr/ISOP under a GPL-3 license. mattias.rantalainen@ki.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  5. Elevated gene expression levels distinguish human from non-human primate brains

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Mario; Lachuer, Joel; Zapala, Matthew A.; Redmond, John C.; Kudo, Lili; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Lockhart, David J.; Preuss, Todd M.; Barlow, Carrolee

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about how the human brain differs from that of our closest relatives. To investigate the genetic basis of human specializations in brain organization and cognition, we compared gene expression profiles for the cerebral cortex of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques by using several independent techniques. We identified 169 genes that exhibited expression differences between human and chimpanzee cortex, and 91 were ascribed to the human lineage by using macaques as an outgroup. Surprisingly, most differences between the brains of humans and non-human primates involved up-regulation, with ≈90% of the genes being more highly expressed in humans. By contrast, in the comparison of human and chimpanzee heart and liver, the numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were nearly identical. Our results indicate that the human brain displays a distinctive pattern of gene expression relative to non-human primates, with higher expression levels for many genes belonging to a wide variety of functional classes. The increased expression of these genes could provide the basis for extensive modifications of cerebral physiology and function in humans and suggests that the human brain is characterized by elevated levels of neuronal activity. PMID:14557539

  6. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  7. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  8. A gene expression system offering multiple levels of regulation: the Dual Drug Control (DDC) system.

    PubMed

    Sudomoina, Marina; Latypova, Ekaterina; Favorova, Olga O; Golemis, Erica A; Serebriiskii, Ilya G

    2004-04-29

    Whether for cell culture studies of protein function, construction of mouse models to enable in vivo analysis of disease epidemiology, or ultimately gene therapy of human diseases, a critical enabling step is the ability to achieve finely controlled regulation of gene expression. Previous efforts to achieve this goal have explored inducible drug regulation of gene expression, and construction of synthetic promoters based on two-hybrid paradigms, among others. In this report, we describe the combination of dimerizer-regulated two-hybrid and tetracycline regulatory elements in an ordered cascade, placing expression of endpoint reporters under the control of two distinct drugs. In this Dual Drug Control (DDC) system, a first plasmid expresses fusion proteins to DBD and AD, which interact only in the presence of a small molecule dimerizer; a second plasmid encodes a cassette transcriptionally responsive to the first DBD, directing expression of the Tet-OFF protein; and a third plasmid encodes a reporter gene transcriptionally responsive to binding by Tet-OFF. We evaluate the dynamic range and specificity of this system in comparison to other available systems. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining two discrete drug-regulated expression systems in a temporally sequential cascade, without loss of dynamic range of signal induction. The efficient layering of control levels allowed by this combination of elements provides the potential for the generation of complex control circuitry that may advance ability to regulate gene expression in vivo.

  9. [High-level expression of heterologous protein based on increased copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinjie; He, Peng; Tao, Yong; Yang, Yi

    2013-11-04

    High-level expression system of heterologous protein mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed, which could be used for other applications of S. cerevisiae in metabolic engineering. We constructed co-expression cassette (promoter-mCherry-TIF4631 IRES-URA3) containing promoters Pilv5, Padh2 and Ptdh3 and recombined the co-expression cassette into the genome of W303-1B-A. The URA3+ transformants were selected. By comparing the difference in the mean florescence value of mCherry in transformants, the effect of three promoters was detected in the co-expression cassette. The copy numbers of the interested genes in the genome were determined by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed genetic stability by continuous subculturing transformants in the absence of selection pressure. To verify the application of co-expression cassette, the ORF of mCherry was replaced by beta-galactosidase (LACZ) and xylose reductase (XYL1). The enzyme activities and production of beta-galactosidase and xylose reductase were detected. mCherry has been expressed in the highest-level in transformants with co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter. The highest copy number of DNA fragment integrating in the genome was 47 in transformants containing Pilv5. The engineering strains showed good genetic stability. Xylose reductase was successfully expressed in the co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES. The highest enzyme activity was 0. 209 U/mg crude protein in the transformants WIX-10. Beta-galactosidase was also expressed successfully. The transformants that had the highest enzyme activity was WIL-1 and the enzyme activity was 12.58 U/mg crude protein. The system mediated by Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES could express heterologous protein efficiently in S. cerevisiae. This study offered a new strategy for expression of heterologous protein in S. cerevisiae and provided sufficient experimental evidence for metabolic engineering

  10. PCK1 expression is correlated with the plasma glucose level in the duck.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zeng, T; Li, G Q; Liu, R; Tian, Y; Li, Q H; Lu, L Z

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble) (PCK1) is a key gene in gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Although its functions have been extensively studied in mice, bats and humans, little is known in ducks. Here, PCK1 functions were studied using a duck domestication model and a 48-h fasting experiment. We found PCK1 expression significantly decreased in two breeds of domestic ducks (Jinyun Pockmark ducks and Cherry Valley ducks) as compared with wild ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Simultaneously, plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acid in domestic ducks were lower than in wild ducks. When compared with fed ducks, the plasma triglyceride level was observed to be significantly decreased, while the glucose and free fatty acid levels remained constant in 48-h fasting ducks. The expression analysis of gluconeogenic genes revealed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase genes (FBP1 and FBP2) and the glucose-6-phosphatase gene (G6PC2) were not changed, whereas PCK1 was significantly upregulated. In addition, the reported regulators of PCK1, including forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) gene and orphan nuclear receptor NR4A family genes (NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3), exhibited similar expression levels between 48-h fasting ducks and fed ducks, suggesting that PCK1 is not regulated by these genes in the duck under fasting conditions. In conclusion, PCK1 expression may affect plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acid during the duck domestication process. This work demonstrates for the first time in duck that PCK1 is a key gene in maintaining plasma glucose homeostasis during fasting and that the upregulated expression of PCK1 may be responsible for constant plasma free fatty acid level by the glyceroneogenesis process. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Intercellular Variability in Protein Levels from Stochastic Expression and Noisy Cell Cycle Processes

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mohammad; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar A.; Antunes, Duarte; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-01-01

    Inside individual cells, expression of genes is inherently stochastic and manifests as cell-to-cell variability or noise in protein copy numbers. Since proteins half-lives can be comparable to the cell-cycle length, randomness in cell-division times generates additional intercellular variability in protein levels. Moreover, as many mRNA/protein species are expressed at low-copy numbers, errors incurred in partitioning of molecules between two daughter cells are significant. We derive analytical formulas for the total noise in protein levels when the cell-cycle duration follows a general class of probability distributions. Using a novel hybrid approach the total noise is decomposed into components arising from i) stochastic expression; ii) partitioning errors at the time of cell division and iii) random cell-division events. These formulas reveal that random cell-division times not only generate additional extrinsic noise, but also critically affect the mean protein copy numbers and intrinsic noise components. Counter intuitively, in some parameter regimes, noise in protein levels can decrease as cell-division times become more stochastic. Computations are extended to consider genome duplication, where transcription rate is increased at a random point in the cell cycle. We systematically investigate how the timing of genome duplication influences different protein noise components. Intriguingly, results show that noise contribution from stochastic expression is minimized at an optimal genome-duplication time. Our theoretical results motivate new experimental methods for decomposing protein noise levels from synchronized and asynchronized single-cell expression data. Characterizing the contributions of individual noise mechanisms will lead to precise estimates of gene expression parameters and techniques for altering stochasticity to change phenotype of individual cells. PMID:27536771

  12. Impaired thymic selection in mice expressing altered levels of the SLP-76 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kimberley; Luckashenak, Nancy; Koretzky, Gary A; Clements, James L

    2008-02-01

    Intracellular signaling initiated by ligation of the TCR influences cell fate at multiple points during the lifespan of a T cell. This is especially evident during thymic selection, where the nature of TCR-dependent signaling helps to establish a MHC-restricted, self-tolerant T cell repertoire. The Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) adaptor protein is a required intermediate in multiple signaling pathways triggered by TCR engagement, several of which have been implicated in dictating the outcome of thymic selection (e.g., intracellular calcium flux and activation of ERK family MAPKs). To determine if thymocyte maturation and selection at later stages of development are sensitive to perturbations in SLP-76 levels, we analyzed these crucial events using several transgenic (Tg) lines of mice expressing altered levels of SLP-76 in the thymus. In Tg mice expressing low levels of SLP-76 in preselection thymocytes, the CD4:CD8 ratio in the thymus and spleen was skewed in a manner consistent with impaired selection and/or maturation of CD4+ thymocytes. Low SLP-76 expression also correlated with reduced CD5 expression on immature thymocytes, consistent with reduced TCR signaling potential. In contrast, reconstitution of SLP-76 at higher levels resulted in normal thymic CD5 expression and CD4:CD8 ratios in the thymus and periphery. It is curious that thymic deletion of TCR-Tg (HY) thymocytes was markedly impaired in both lines of Tg-reconstituted SLP-76-/- mice. Studies using chimeric mice indicate that the defect in deletion of HY+ thymocytes is intrinsic to the developing thymocyte, suggesting that maintenance of sufficient SLP-76 expression from the endogenous locus is a key element in the selection process.

  13. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-06

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  15. Correlation of Cell Surface Biomarker Expression Levels with Adhesion Contact Angle Measured by Lateral Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Walz, Jenna A; Mace, Charles R

    2018-06-05

    Immunophenotyping is typically achieved using flow cytometry, but any influence a biomarker may have on adhesion or surface recognition cannot be determined concurrently. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of lateral microscopy for correlating cell surface biomarker expression levels with quantitative descriptions of cell morphology. With our imaging system, we observed single cells from two T cell lines and two B cell lines adhere to antibody-coated substrates and quantified this adhesion using contact angle measurements. We found that SUP-T1 and CEM CD4+ cells, both of which express similar levels of CD4, experienced average changes in contact angle that were not statistically different from one another on surfaces coated in anti-CD4. However, MAVER-1 and BJAB K20 cells, both of which express different levels of CD20, underwent average changes in contact angle that were significantly different from one another on surfaces coated in anti-CD20. Our results indicate that changes in cell contact angles on antibody-coated substrates reflect the expression levels of corresponding antigens on the surfaces of cells as determined by flow cytometry. Our lateral microscopy approach offers a more reproducible and quantitative alternative to evaluate adhesion compared to commonly used wash assays and can be extended to many additional immunophenotyping applications to identify cells of interest within heterogeneous populations.

  16. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  17. Examination of Anxiety Levels and Anger Expression Manners of Undergraduate Table Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal

    2016-01-01

    This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…

  18. GRIN2A polymorphisms and expression levels are associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Yiqing; Wang, Miaomiao; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2017-04-01

    Lead acts as an antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). GRIN2A encodes an important subunit of NMDARs and may be a critical factor in the mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. Changes in GRIN2A expression levels or gene variants may be mechanisms of lead-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that GRIN2A might contribute to lead-induced neurotoxicity. A preliminary HEK293 cell experiment was performed to analyze the association between GRIN2A expression and lead exposure. In addition, in a population-based study, serum GRIN2A levels were measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To detect further the influence of GRIN2A gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced neurotoxicity, 3 tag SNPs (rs2650429, rs6497540, and rs9302415) were genotyped in a case-control study that included 399 lead-exposed subjects and 398 controls. Lead exposure decreased GRIN2A expression levels in HEK293 cells ( p < 0.001) compared with lead-free cells. Lead-exposed individuals had lower serum GRIN2A levels compared with controls ( p < 0.001), and we found a trend of decreasing GRIN2A level with an increase in blood lead level ( p < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant association between rs2650429 CT and TT genotypes and risk of lead poisoning compared with the rs2650429 CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 1.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.00]. Therefore, changes in GRIN2A expression levels and variants may be important mechanisms in the development of lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun; Hagen, Stephen J., E-mail: sjhagen@ufl.edu

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for extracting gene expression data from images of bacterial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method does not employ cell segmentation and does not require high magnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence and phase contrast images of the cells are correlated through the physics of phase contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the method by characterizing noisy expression of comX in Streptococcus mutans. -- Abstract: Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on amore » segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly.« less

  20. Quantitating Antibody Uptake In Vivo: Conditional Dependence on Antigen Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Antibodies form an important class of cancer therapeutics, and there is intense interest in using them for imaging applications in diagnosis and monitoring of cancer treatment. Despite the expanding body of knowledge describing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of antibodies in vivo, discrepancies remain over the effect of antigen expression level on tumoral uptake with some reports indicating a relationship between uptake and expression and others showing no correlation. Procedures Using a cell line with high EpCAM expression and moderate EGFR expression, fluorescent antibodies with similar plasma clearance were imaged in vivo. A mathematical model and mouse xenograft experiments were used to describe the effect of antigen expression on uptake of these high affinity antibodies. Results As predicted by the theoretical model, under subsaturating conditions, uptake of the antibodies in such tumors is similar because localization of both probes is limited by delivery from the vasculature. In a separate experiment, when the tumor is saturated, the uptake becomes dependent on the number of available binding sites. In addition, targeting of small micrometastases is shown to be higher than larger vascularized tumors. Conclusions These results are consistent with the prediction that high affinity antibody uptake is dependent on antigen expression levels for saturating doses and delivery for subsaturating doses. It is imperative for any probe to understand whether quantitative uptake is a measure of biomarker expression or transport to the region of interest. The data provide support for a predictive theoretical model of antibody uptake, enabling it to be used as a starting point for the design of more efficacious therapies and timely quantitative imaging probes. PMID:20809210

  1. Quantitating antibody uptake in vivo: conditional dependence on antigen expression levels.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Greg M; Weissleder, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    Antibodies form an important class of cancer therapeutics, and there is intense interest in using them for imaging applications in diagnosis and monitoring of cancer treatment. Despite the expanding body of knowledge describing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of antibodies in vivo, discrepancies remain over the effect of antigen expression level on tumoral uptake with some reports indicating a relationship between uptake and expression and others showing no correlation. Using a cell line with high epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression and moderate epidermal growth factor receptor expression, fluorescent antibodies with similar plasma clearance were imaged in vivo. A mathematical model and mouse xenograft experiments were used to describe the effect of antigen expression on uptake of these high-affinity antibodies. As predicted by the theoretical model, under subsaturating conditions, uptake of the antibodies in such tumors is similar because localization of both probes is limited by delivery from the vasculature. In a separate experiment, when the tumor is saturated, the uptake becomes dependent on the number of available binding sites. In addition, targeting of small micrometastases is shown to be higher than larger vascularized tumors. These results are consistent with the prediction that high affinity antibody uptake is dependent on antigen expression levels for saturating doses and delivery for subsaturating doses. It is imperative for any probe to understand whether quantitative uptake is a measure of biomarker expression or transport to the region of interest. The data provide support for a predictive theoretical model of antibody uptake, enabling it to be used as a starting point for the design of more efficacious therapies and timely quantitative imaging probes.

  2. Association of genetic variants and expression levels of porcine FABP4 and FABP5 genes.

    PubMed

    Ballester, M; Puig-Oliveras, A; Castelló, A; Revilla, M; Fernández, A I; Folch, J M

    2017-12-01

    The FABP4 and FABP5 genes, coding for fatty acid transport proteins, have long been studied as positional candidate genes for SSC4 QTL affecting fat deposition and composition traits in pigs. Polymorphisms in these genes, FABP4:g.2634_2635insC and FABP5:g.3000T>G, have previously been associated with fatness traits in an Iberian by Landrace cross (IBMAP). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the functional implication of these genetic variants. For this purpose, FABP4 and FABP5 mRNA expression levels in 114 BC1_LD animals (25% Iberian × 75% Landrace) were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR in backfat and muscle. FABP4 gene expression in backfat, but not in muscle, was associated with FABP4:g.2634_2635insC. In contrast, FABP5:g.3000T>G was not associated with gene expression levels. An expression-based genome-wide association study highlighted the FABP4:g.2634_2635insC polymorphism as the polymorphism most associated with FABP4 gene expression in backfat. Furthermore, other genomic regions associated in trans with the mRNA expression of FABP4 in backfat and FABP5 in muscle were also identified. Finally, two putative transcription binding sites for PPARG and NR4A2 may be affected by the FABP4:g.2634_2635insC polymorphism, modifying FABP4 gene expression. Our results reinforce FABP4 as a candidate gene for fatness traits on SSC4. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Macrophages from Behcet's Disease Patients Express Decreased Level of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palizgir, Mohammad Taghi; Akhtari, Maryam; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Mostafaei, Shayan; Rezaeimanesh, Alireza; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Shahram, Farhad

    2017-10-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, connecting environmental stimulators with the immune system. M1 macrophages are a part of immune system that contribute to the inflammatory events in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). The effect of AHR on the macrophages in BD patients is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mRNA expression of AHR in the monocyte-derived and M1 macrophages in active BD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Isolated monocytes from 10 healthy controls and 10 active BD patients were differentiated to macrophages by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days. Cells were then polarized to M1 macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) for 24h. Monocyte purity and macrophage markers expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Analysis of AHR mRNA expression was performed by SYBR Green real-time PCR. Our results showed that AHR expression is significantly down-regulated in M1 macrophages compare to monocyte-derived macrophages. It was shown that both monocyte-derived macrophages and M1 macrophages from BD patients significantly express lower level of AHR mRNA compared to healthy individuals. Our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for AHR in macrophages, which suggest that decreased AHR expression is associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and BD susceptibility.

  4. High-level expression, purification and antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferricin and lactoferrampin in Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiru; Zhang, Youming; Stewart, Adrian Francis; Geng, Meimei; Tang, Xiangsha; Tu, Qiang; Yin, Yulong

    2010-10-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LFC) and bovine lactoferrampin (LFA) are two active fragments located in the N(1)-domain of bovine lactoferrin. Recent studies suggested that LFC and LFA have broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To date, LFC and LFA have usually been produced from milk. We report here the high-level expression, purification and characterization of LFC and LFA using the Photorhabdus luminescens expression system. After the cipA and cipB genes were deleted by ET recombination, the expression host P. luminescens TZR(001) was constructed. A synthetic LFC-LFA gene containing LFC and LFA was fused with the cipB gene to form a cipB-LFC-LFA gene. To obtain the expression vector pBAD-cipB-LFC-LFA, the cipB-LFC-LFA gene was cloned on the L-arabinose-inducible expression vector pBAD24. pBAD-cipB-LFC-LFA was transformed into P. luminescens TZR(001). The cipB-LFC-LFA fusion protein was expressed under the induction of L-arabinose and its yield reached 12 mg L(-1) bacterial culture. Recombinant LFC-LFA was released from cipB by pepsin. The MIC of recombinant LFC-LFA toward E. coli 0149, 0141 and 020 was 6.25, 12.5 and 3.175 microg ml(-1), respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of type 1 and type 3 deiodinase expression levels in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Orzechowska, Agata; Maes, Michael; Górski, Paweł; Szemraj, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    A depressive disorder is a disease characterized by a heterogenous background. The important processes observed and diagnosed in depressed patients indicate that the etiology of depression may include disturbances in thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the occurrence of immune-inflammatory activation. Type 1 (DIO1) and type 3 (DIO3) iodothyronine deiodinases are the enzymes which determine the peripheral and tissue levels of TH, but also interfere with immunological cells and inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the levels of DIO1 and DIO3 in the patients suffering from recurrent depressive disorders (rDD). Data collected from 91 rDD patients and 105 healthy controls were analyzed. The diagnoses were made based on the ICD-10 criteria (F33.0-F33.8). The expression levels of DIO1 and DIO3 were estimated using the polymerase chain reaction method and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of DIO1 on mRNA/protein levels in the rDD patients was reduced in comparison to the control subjects, while the expression of DIO3 was higher in the patients suffering from depression. No significant relationship was found between the investigated DIOs and other clinical parameters. Our results indicate and suggest a role of DIO1 and DIO3-related pathways in the pathophysiology of depression. The results represent a promising way to investigate the biological markers of depression.

  6. Inducible nitric oxide expression correlates with the level of inflammation in periapical cysts.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2007-10-01

    In an attempt to elucidate if inducible nitric oxide expression (iNOS) is correlated with the level of inflammation in periapical cysts with accuracy, the goal of this study was to evaluate the expression of iNOS in these ones. 30 cases were included in this study being iNOS evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by the post-hoc Dunn's test. iNOS stain was detected throughout the epithelium, subepithelial fibroblasts and macrophages in all cases, indistinctly. Nevertheless, iNOS immunostaining in periapical cysts was different according to the levels of inflammation, being the strongest effect associated with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Taken together, our results indicate that immunoreactivity of iNOS was expressed in several cellular types present in periapical cyst, being positively correlated with the level of inflammation. Therefore, iNOS expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical cysts.

  7. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    PubMed

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  8. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB)—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3)/100 BW (OT). The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity. PMID:22645452

  9. Genome-Level Longitudinal Expression of Signaling Pathways and Gene Networks in Pediatric Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Shanley, Thomas P; Cvijanovich, Natalie; Lin, Richard; Allen, Geoffrey L; Thomas, Neal J; Doctor, Allan; Kalyanaraman, Meena; Tofil, Nancy M; Penfil, Scott; Monaco, Marie; Odoms, Kelli; Barnes, Michael; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; Aronow, Bruce J; Wong, Hector R

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted longitudinal studies focused on the expression profiles of signaling pathways and gene networks in children with septic shock. Genome-level expression profiles were generated from whole blood-derived RNA of children with septic shock (n = 30) corresponding to day one and day three of septic shock, respectively. Based on sequential statistical and expression filters, day one and day three of septic shock were characterized by differential regulation of 2,142 and 2,504 gene probes, respectively, relative to controls (n = 15). Venn analysis demonstrated 239 unique genes in the day one dataset, 598 unique genes in the day three dataset, and 1,906 genes common to both datasets. Functional analyses demonstrated time-dependent, differential regulation of genes involved in multiple signaling pathways and gene networks primarily related to immunity and inflammation. Notably, multiple and distinct gene networks involving T cell- and MHC antigen-related biology were persistently downregulated on both day one and day three. Further analyses demonstrated large scale, persistent downregulation of genes corresponding to functional annotations related to zinc homeostasis. These data represent the largest reported cohort of patients with septic shock subjected to longitudinal genome-level expression profiling. The data further advance our genome-level understanding of pediatric septic shock and support novel hypotheses. PMID:17932561

  10. RNA-Seq workflow: gene-level exploratory analysis and differential expression

    PubMed Central

    Love, Michael I.; Anders, Simon; Kim, Vladislav; Huber, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Here we walk through an end-to-end gene-level RNA-Seq differential expression workflow using Bioconductor packages. We will start from the FASTQ files, show how these were aligned to the reference genome, and prepare a count matrix which tallies the number of RNA-seq reads/fragments within each gene for each sample. We will perform exploratory data analysis (EDA) for quality assessment and to explore the relationship between samples, perform differential gene expression analysis, and visually explore the results. PMID:26674615

  11. Expression Levels of LCORL Are Associated with Body Size in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Schrimpf, Rahel; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important characteristic for horses of various breeds and essential for the classification of ponies concerning the limit value of 148 cm (58.27 inches) height at the withers. Genome-wide association analyses revealed the highest associated quantitative trait locus for height at the withers on horse chromosome (ECA) 3 upstream of the candidate gene LCORL. Using 214 Hanoverian horses genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 BeadChip and 42 different horse breeds across all size ranges, we confirmed the highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism BIEC2-808543 (−log10P = 8.3) and the adjacent gene LCORL as the most promising candidate for body size. We investigated the relative expression levels of LCORL and its two neighbouring genes NCAPG and DCAF16 using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We could demonstrate a significant association of the relative LCORL expression levels with the size of the horses and the BIEC2-808543 genotypes within and across horse breeds. In heterozygous C/T-horses expression levels of LCORL were significantly decreased by 40% and in homozygous C/C-horses by 56% relative to the smaller T/T-horses. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that this SNP T>C mutation is disrupting a putative binding site of the transcription factor TFIID which is important for the transcription process of genes involved in skeletal bone development. Thus, our findings suggest that expression levels of LCORL play a key role for body size within and across horse breeds and regulation of the expression of LCORL is associated with genetic variants of BIEC2-808543. This is the first functional study for a body size regulating polymorphism in horses and a further step to unravel the mechanisms for understanding the genetic regulation of body size in horses. PMID:23418579

  12. Interplay between Selenium Levels, Selenoprotein Expression, and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Legrain, Yona; Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Chavatte, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element, which is incorporated as selenocysteine into at least 25 selenoproteins using a unique translational UGA-recoding mechanism. Selenoproteins are important enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and redox signaling pathways. Selenium levels decline during aging, and its deficiency is associated with a marked increase in mortality for people over 60 years of age. Here, we investigate the relationship between selenium levels in the culture medium, selenoprotein expression, and replicative life span of human embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. Selenium levels regulate the entry into replicative senescence and modify the cellular markers characteristic for senescent cells. Whereas selenium supplementation extends the number of population doublings, its deficiency impairs the proliferative capacity of WI-38 cells. We observe that the expression of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense is specifically affected in response to cellular senescence. Their expression is selectively controlled by the modulation of mRNA levels and translational recoding efficiencies. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into how selenium impacts the replicative life span of mammalian cells by identifying several selenoproteins as new targets of senescence. PMID:24425862

  13. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels.

    PubMed

    Steinacher, Arno; Bates, Declan G; Akman, Ozgur E; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability) under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest an explanation for

  14. Zinc Fortification Decreases ZIP1 Gene Expression of Some Adolescent Females with Appropriate Plasma Zinc Levels

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  15. Natural killer cells attack tumor cells expressing high levels of sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Chikara; Kanto, Satoru; Kato, Kazunori; Nakano, Osamu; Arai, Yoichi; Kato, Tetsuro; Chen, Shihao; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Fukuda, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    Epithelial carcinoma and leukemia cells express sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. To determine the role of sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides in tumor dissemination, human melanoma MeWo cells, which do not express sialyl Lewis x, were transfected with α1,3-fucosyltransferase III (FTIII), and cell lines expressing different amounts of sialyl Lewis x were isolated. When these cells were injected into the tail vein of nude mice, cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII⋅M) produced a significantly greater number of lung tumor foci than did parental MeWo cells. In contrast, cells expressing large amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII⋅H) produced few lung tumor foci in nude mice but were highly tumorigenic in beige mice, which have defective natural killer (NK) cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells are much more sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity than are MeWo-FTIII⋅M cells or parental MeWo cells and the susceptibility of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis can be inhibited by preincubating MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells with anti-sialyl Lewis x antibody. Moreover, we discovered that NK cell-mediated cytolysis of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells can be inhibited by the addition of an antibody against the NK cell receptor CD94 or sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides. These results, combined with structural analysis of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cell carbohydrates, indicate that moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x lead to tumor metastasis, whereas expression of high levels of sialyl Lewis x leads to an NK cell attack on tumor cells, demonstrating that expression of different amounts of sialyl Lewis x results in entirely different biological consequences. PMID:12370411

  16. High Level Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins from Escherichia coli with AK-TAG

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Wen, Caixia; Zhao, Rongchuan; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Xinxin; Cui, Jingjing; Liang, Joshua G.; Liang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli was used as both solubility and affinity tag for recombinant protein production. When fused to the N-terminus of a target protein, an AK fusion protein could be expressed in soluble form and purified to near homogeneity in a single step from Blue-Sepherose via affinity elution with micromolar concentration of P1, P5- di (adenosine—5’) pentaphosphate (Ap5A), a transition-state substrate analog of AK. Unlike any other affinity tags, the level of a recombinant protein expression in soluble form and its yield of recovery during each purification step could be readily assessed by AK enzyme activity in near real time. Coupled to a His-Tag installed at the N-terminus and a thrombin cleavage site at the C terminus of AK, the streamlined method, here we dubbed AK-TAG, could also allow convenient expression and retrieval of a cleaved recombinant protein in high yield and purity via dual affinity purification steps. Thus AK-TAG is a new addition to the arsenal of existing affinity tags for recombinant protein expression and purification, and is particularly useful where soluble expression and high degree of purification are at stake. PMID:27214237

  17. High-level expression of human immunodeficiency virus antigens from the tobacco and tomato plastid genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Karcher, Daniel; Gonzalez-Rabade, Nuria; Piepenburg, Katrin; Borchers, A-M Inka; Maloney, Alan P; Kavanagh, Tony A; Gray, John C; Bock, Ralph

    2008-12-01

    Transgene expression from the plant's plastid genome represents a promising strategy in molecular farming because of the plastid's potential to accumulate foreign proteins to high levels and the increased biosafety provided by the maternal mode of organelle inheritance. In this article, we explore the potential of transplastomic plants to produce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens as potential components of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine. It is shown that the HIV antigens p24 (the major target of T-cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-positive individuals) and Nef can be expressed to high levels in plastids of tobacco, a non-food crop, and tomato, a food crop with an edible fruit. Optimized p24-Nef fusion gene cassettes trigger antigen protein accumulation to up to approximately 40% of the plant's total protein, demonstrating the great potential of transgenic plastids to produce AIDS vaccine components at low cost and high yield.

  18. Protein Expression Level of Skin Wrinkle-Related Factors in Hairless Mice Fed Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Jin; Song, Hye-Jin; Yu, Heui-Jong; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Dae-Ok; Choe, Soo-Young; Sohn, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wrinkle improving effect of hyaluronic acid intakes. Wrinkles were induced by exposing the skin of hairless mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation for 14 weeks. Hyaluronic acid was administered to the mice for 14 weeks including 4 weeks before experiments. Skin tissue was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine protein expression of wrinkle-related markers. The group supplemented with high concentrations of hyaluronic acid appeared significantly better than control group for collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 assay. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS-2) were not shown to be significantly different. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid administration regulated expression levels of proteins associated with skin integrity, and improved the wrinkle level in skin subjected to UVB irradiation.

  19. Novel gene sets improve set-level classification of prokaryotic gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Holec, Matěj; Kuželka, Ondřej; Železný, Filip

    2015-10-28

    Set-level classification of gene expression data has received significant attention recently. In this setting, high-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to genes are converted into lower-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to biologically interpretable gene sets. The dimensionality reduction brings the promise of a decreased risk of overfitting, potentially resulting in improved accuracy of the learned classifiers. However, recent empirical research has not confirmed this expectation. Here we hypothesize that the reported unfavorable classification results in the set-level framework were due to the adoption of unsuitable gene sets defined typically on the basis of the Gene ontology and the KEGG database of metabolic networks. We explore an alternative approach to defining gene sets, based on regulatory interactions, which we expect to collect genes with more correlated expression. We hypothesize that such more correlated gene sets will enable to learn more accurate classifiers. We define two families of gene sets using information on regulatory interactions, and evaluate them on phenotype-classification tasks using public prokaryotic gene expression data sets. From each of the two gene-set families, we first select the best-performing subtype. The two selected subtypes are then evaluated on independent (testing) data sets against state-of-the-art gene sets and against the conventional gene-level approach. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. Novel gene sets defined on the basis of regulatory interactions improve set-level classification of gene expression data. The experimental scripts and other material needed to reproduce the experiments are available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/novelgenesets.tar.gz.

  20. Persistent and High-Level Expression of Human Liver Prolidase in Vivo in Mice Using Adenovirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    types of nerve agents and pesticide compounds, is mostly exported into the circulation [11]. Similarly, human paraoxonase1, a promising enzyme in the...of human butyrylcholinesetrase results in persistent high-level transgene expression in vivo, Chem. Biol. Interact. 175 (2008) 327– 331. [11] K...paraoxonase1 gene transfer to provide protection against the toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide toxicant diazoxon, Gene Ther. 18 (2011) 250–257. [14

  1. Rachiplusia nu larva as a biofactory to achieve high level expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucía Virginia; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Wolman, Federico Javier; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, María Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A process based on orally-infected Rachiplusia nu larvae as biological factories for expression and one-step purification of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRP-C) is described. The process allows obtaining high levels of pure HRP-C by membrane chromatography purification. The introduction of the partial polyhedrin homology sequence element in the target gene increased HRP-C expression level by 2.8-fold whereas it increased 1.8-fold when the larvae were reared at 27 °C instead of at 24 °C, summing up a 4.6-fold overall increase in the expression level. Additionally, HRP-C purification by membrane chromatography at a high flow rate greatly increase D the productivity without affecting the resolution. The V(max) and K(m) values of the recombinant HRP-C were similar to those of the HRP from Armoracia rusticana roots. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  2. Increased SHP-1 Protein Expression by High Glucose Levels Reduces Nephrin Phosphorylation in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Denhez, Benoit; Lizotte, Farah; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Jones, Nina; Takano, Tomoko; Geraldes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nephrin, a critical podocyte membrane component that is reduced in diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to activate phosphotyrosine signaling pathways in human podocytes. Nephrin signaling is important to reduce cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli. We have shown previously that high glucose level exposure and diabetes increased the expression of SHP-1, causing podocyte apoptosis. SHP-1 possesses two Src homology 2 domains that serve as docking elements to dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of target proteins. However, it remains unknown whether SHP-1 interacts with nephrin and whether its elevated expression affects the nephrin phosphorylation state in diabetes. Here we show that human podocytes exposed to high glucose levels exhibited elevated expression of SHP-1, which was associated with nephrin. Coexpression of nephrin-CD16 and SHP-1 reduced nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. A single tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation revealed that rat nephrin Tyr1127 and Tyr1152 are required to allow SHP-1 interaction with nephrin. Overexpression of dominant negative SHP-1 in human podocytes prevented high glucose-induced reduction of nephrin phosphorylation. In vivo, immunoblot analysis demonstrated that nephrin expression and phosphorylation were decreased in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic Akita mice (Ins2+/C96Y) compared with control littermate mice (Ins2+/+), and this was associated with elevated SHP-1 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis indicated increased colocalization of SHP-1 with nephrin in diabetic mice compared with control littermates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high glucose exposure increases SHP-1 interaction with nephrin, causing decreased nephrin phosphorylation, which may, in turn, contribute to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25404734

  3. Intrinsic MYH7 expression regulation contributes to tissue level allelic imbalance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Montag, Judith; Syring, Mandy; Rose, Julia; Weber, Anna-Lena; Ernstberger, Pia; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Becker, Edgar; Keyser, Britta; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Perrot, Andreas; van der Velden, Jolanda; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francesco; Ho, Carolyn Yung; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2017-08-01

    HCM, the most common inherited cardiac disease, is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. More than a third of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain. In HCM-patients, expression of the mutant and the wildtype allele can be unequal, thus leading to fractions of mutant and wildtype mRNA and protein which deviate from 1:1. This so-called allelic imbalance was detected in whole tissue samples but also in individual cells. There is evidence that the severity of HCM not only depends on the functional effect of the mutation itself, but also on the fraction of mutant protein in the myocardial tissue. Allelic imbalance has been shown to occur in a broad range of genes. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the MYH7-alleles are intrinsically expressed imbalanced or whether the allelic imbalance is solely associated with the disease. We compared the expression of MYH7-alleles in non-HCM donors and in HCM-patients with different MYH7-missense mutations. In the HCM-patients, we identified imbalanced as well as equal expression of both alleles. Also at the protein level, allelic imbalance was determined. Most interestingly, we also discovered allelic imbalance and balance in non-HCM donors. Our findings therefore strongly indicate that apart from mutation-specific mechanisms, also non-HCM associated allelic-mRNA expression regulation may account for the allelic imbalance of the MYH7 gene in HCM-patients. Since the relative amount of mutant mRNA and protein or the extent of allelic imbalance has been associated with the severity of HCM, individual analysis of the MYH7-allelic expression may provide valuable information for the prognosis of each patient.

  4. ORMDL3 expression levels have no influence on the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhakupova, Assem; Debeuf, Nincy; Krols, Michiel; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Alecu, Irina; Kutalik, Zoltán; Vollenweider, Peter; Ernst, Daniela; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Hornemann, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    ORMDL proteins are believed to be negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in sphingolipid (SL) de novo synthesis. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are close to the ORMDL3 locus have been reported to increase ORMDL3 expression and to be associated with an elevated risk for early childhood asthma; however, the direct effect of ORMDL3 expression on SPT activity and its link to asthma remains elusive. In this study, we investigated whether ORMDL3 expression is associated with changes in SPT activity and total SL levels. Ormdl3-knockout (Ormdl3 -/- ) and transgenic (Ormdl3 Tg/wt ) mice were generated to study the effect of ORMDL3 on total SL levels in plasma and tissues. Cellular SPT activity was measured in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Ormdl3 -/- mice, as well as in HEK293 cells in which ORMDL3 was overexpressed and silenced. Furthermore, we analyzed the association of the reported ORMDL3 asthma SNPs with plasma sphingoid bases in a population-based cohort of 971 individuals. Total C 18 -long chain bases were not significantly altered in the plasma and tissues of Ormdl3 -/- mice, whereas C 18 -sphinganine showed a small and significant increase in plasma, lung, and liver tissues. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells from Ormdl3 -/- mice did not show an altered SPT activity compared with Ormdl3 +/- and Ormdl3 +/+ mice. Overexpression or knockdown of ORMDL3 in HEK293 cells did not alter SPT activity; however, parallel knockdown of all 3 ORMDL isoforms increased enzyme activity significantly. A significant association of the annotated ORMDL3 asthma SNPs with plasma long-chain sphingoid base levels could not be confirmed. ORMDL3 expression levels seem not to be directly associated with changes in SPT activity. ORMDL3 might influence de novo sphingolipid metabolism downstream of SPT.-Zhakupova, A., Debeuf, N., Krols, M., Toussaint, W., Vanhoutte, L., Alecu, I., Kutalik, Z., Vollenweider, P

  5. SOX2 expression levels distinguish between neural progenitor populations of the developing dorsal telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Scott R; Pevny, Larysa H

    2011-04-01

    The HMG-Box transcription factor SOX2 is expressed in neural progenitor populations throughout the developing and adult central nervous system and is necessary to maintain their progenitor identity. However, it is unclear whether SOX2 levels are uniformly expressed across all neural progenitor populations. In the developing dorsal telencephalon, two distinct populations of neural progenitors, radial glia and intermediate progenitor cells, are responsible for generating a majority of excitatory neurons found in the adult neocortex. Here we demonstrate, using both cellular and molecular analyses, that SOX2 is differentially expressed between radial glial and intermediate progenitor populations. Moreover, utilizing a SOX2(EGFP) mouse line, we show that this differential expression can be used to prospectively isolate distinct, viable populations of radial glia and intermediate cells for in vitro analysis. Given the limited repertoire of cell-surface markers currently available for neural progenitor cells, this provides an invaluable tool for prospectively identifying and isolating distinct classes of neural progenitor cells from the central nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-level expression of two thermophilic β-mannanases in Yarrowialipolytica.

    PubMed

    YaPing, Wang; Ben, Rao; Ling, Zhang; Lixin, Ma

    2017-05-01

    Two thermophilic β-mannanases (ManA and ManB)were successfully expressed in Yarrowialipolytica using vector pINA1296I. The sequences of manA from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 and manB from Bacillus subtilis BCC41051 were optimized based on codon-usage bias in Y.lipolytica and synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized the pINA1296I vector, which allows inserting and expression of multiple copies of an expression cassette, to engineer recombinant strains containing multiple copies of manA or manB. Following verification of target-gene expression by quantitative PCR, fermentation experiments indicated that recombinant protein levels and enzyme activity increased along with increasing manA/manB copy number.After production in a 10 l fermenter, we obtained maximum enzyme activity from strains YLA6 and YLB6 of3024 U/mL and 1024 U/mL, respectively. Additionally, purification and characterization results revealed that the optimum pH and temperature for manA activity were pH∼5 and ∼70 °C, and for manB activity were pH∼7 and 60 °C, respectively. These results indicated that the thermo stabilities of these two enzymes were higher than most other mannanases, making them potentially useful for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE p300 MODULATES GENE EXPRESSION IN AN EPIGENETIC MANNER AT HIGH BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; French, Barbara A.; Joyce, Michael; Baires, Mercedes; Montgomery, Rosalyn O.; Li, Jun; French., Samuel

    2007-01-01

    When rats are fed ethanol intragastrically at a constant rate for 1 month, the urinary alcohol level (UAL) cycles over 7–9 day intervals. At the peak UAL, the liver is hypoxic shifting from a redox state to a reduced rate. Microarray analysis done on livers at the UAL peaks shows changes in ~1300 gene expression compared to the pair-fed controls. To determine the mechanism of the gene expression changes, histone acetylation regulation was investigated in liver nuclear extracts at the peaks and troughs of the UAL and their pair-fed controls. No change occurred in SirT-1. P300, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), which acetylates histone H3 on lysine 9, was increased at the peaks. Histone 3 acetylated at lysine 9 was also increased at the peaks. This indicates that the up regulated genes at the UAL peaks resulted from an increase in p300 transcription regulation, epigenetically. P300 activates transcription of numerous genes in response to signal transcription factors such as H1F 1α, increased in the nucleus at UAL peaks. Signal transduction pathways, such as NFκB, AP-1, ERK, JNK, and p38 were not increased at the peaks. β-catenin was increased in the nuclear extract at the UAL peaks and troughs, where increased gene expression was absent. The increase in gene expression at the peaks was due, in part, to increased acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9. PMID:17208223

  8. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN ARSENIC-TREATED MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS EXPRESSING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HSP70

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression profiles in arsenic-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing different levels of HSP70

    Gail Nelson, Susan Hester, Ernest Winkfield, Jill Barnes, James Allen
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Rese...

  9. Expression levels of MHC class I molecules are inversely correlated with promiscuity of peptide binding

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Paul E; Meziane, El Kahina; Harrison, Michael; Magiera, Łukasz; Hermann, Clemens; Mears, Laura; Wrobel, Antoni G; Durant, Charlotte; Nielsen, Lise Lotte; Buus, Søren; Ternette, Nicola; Mwangi, William; Butter, Colin; Nair, Venugopal; Ahyee, Trudy; Duggleby, Richard; Madrigal, Alejandro; Roversi, Pietro; Lea, Susan M; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are at the heart of adaptive immune responses, playing crucial roles in many kinds of disease and in vaccination. We report that breadth of peptide presentation and level of cell surface expression of class I molecules are inversely correlated in both chickens and humans. This relationship correlates with protective responses against infectious pathogens including Marek's disease virus leading to lethal tumours in chickens and human immunodeficiency virus infection progressing to AIDS in humans. We propose that differences in peptide binding repertoire define two groups of MHC class I molecules strategically evolved as generalists and specialists for different modes of pathogen resistance. We suggest that differences in cell surface expression level ensure the development of optimal peripheral T cell responses. The inverse relationship of peptide repertoire and expression is evidently a fundamental property of MHC molecules, with ramifications extending beyond immunology and medicine to evolutionary biology and conservation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05345.001 PMID:25860507

  10. Divergent prion strain evolution driven by PrPC expression level in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Le Dur, Annick; Laï, Thanh Lan; Stinnakre, Marie-George; Laisné, Aude; Chenais, Nathalie; Rakotobe, Sabine; Passet, Bruno; Reine, Fabienne; Soulier, Solange; Herzog, Laetitia; Tilly, Gaëlle; Rézaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Laude, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Prions induce a fatal neurodegenerative disease in infected host brain based on the refolding and aggregation of the host-encoded prion protein PrPC into PrPSc. Structurally distinct PrPSc conformers can give rise to multiple prion strains. Constrained interactions between PrPC and different PrPSc strains can in turn lead to certain PrPSc (sub)populations being selected for cross-species transmission, or even produce mutation-like events. By contrast, prion strains are generally conserved when transmitted within the same species, or to transgenic mice expressing homologous PrPC. Here, we compare the strain properties of a representative sheep scrapie isolate transmitted to a panel of transgenic mouse lines expressing varying levels of homologous PrPC. While breeding true in mice expressing PrPC at near physiological levels, scrapie prions evolve consistently towards different strain components in mice beyond a certain threshold of PrPC overexpression. Our results support the view that PrPC gene dosage can influence prion evolution on homotypic transmission. PMID:28112164

  11. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Boël, Grégory; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K.; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Aalberts, Daniel P.; Hunt, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyze the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  12. Immunotherapy for osteosarcoma: genetic modification of T cells overcomes low levels of tumor antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nabil; Salsman, Vita S; Yvon, Eric; Louis, Chrystal U; Perlaky, Laszlo; Wels, Winfried S; Dishop, Meghan K; Kleinerman, Eugenie E; Pule, Martin; Rooney, Cliona M; Heslop, Helen E; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is expressed by the majority of human osteosarcomas and is a risk factor for poor outcome. Unlike breast cancer, osteosarcoma cells express HER2 at too low, a level for patients to benefit from HER2 monoclonal antibodies. We reasoned that this limitation might be overcome by genetically modifying T cells with HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), because even a low frequency of receptor engagement could be sufficient to induce effector cell killing of the tumor. HER2-specific T cells were generated by retroviral transduction with a HER2-specific CAR containing a CD28.zeta signaling domain. HER2-specific T cells recognized HER2-positive osteosarcoma cells as judged by their ability to proliferate, produce immunostimulatory T helper 1 cytokines, and kill HER2-positive osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. The adoptive transfer of HER2-specific T cells caused regression of established osteosarcoma xenografts in locoregional as well as metastatic mouse models. In contrast, delivery of nontransduced (NT) T cells did not change the tumor growth pattern. Genetic modification of T cells with CARs specific for target antigens, expressed at too low a level to be effectively recognized by monoclonal antibodies, may allow immunotherapy to be more broadly applicable for human cancer therapy.

  13. Quercetin nanoparticle complex attenuated diabetic nephropathy via regulating the expression level of ICAM-1 on endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Liu, Suhuan; Yan, Bing; Li, Xuejun; Ruan, Shiwei; Yang, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to reveal the therapeutic effect of quercetin (QUE) nanoparticle complex on diabetic nephropathy (DN) by regulating the expression of intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelium as compared to free QUE. QUE 10 mg/kg as a single abdominal subcutaneous injection daily for 8 weeks continuously in diabetic rats and 10 mg/kg QUE nanoparticle complex as a single abdominal subcutaneous injection every 5 days, continuously administered for 8 weeks to diabetic rats. Blood and left kidneys were collected; pathological change of kidney, renal function, oxidative stress level, blood glucose level, serum lipid, urine protein, and albumin/creatinine ratio were measured; and neutrophil adhesion, ICAM-1 expression, and CD11b+ cells infiltration were observed. Both QUE and QUE nanoparticle complex preconditioning ameliorated the pathological damage of kidney and improved renal function, alleviated renal oxidative stress injury, restricted inflammatory cells infiltration, and downregulated the ICAM-1 expression as compared to DN group, while QUE nanoparticle complex significantly alleviated this effect. PMID:29123394

  14. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun; Hagen, Stephen J

    2012-05-11

    Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on a segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on homocysteine levels and related enzyme expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyan; Rech, Leslie; Wu, Yinghong; Goltz, Douglas; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D

    2015-04-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are both zinc (Zn)-dependent methyltransferases and involved in the methylation of homocysteine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn supply on homocysteine levels and expression of the two enzymes in growing rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n=8/group) for 3 weeks: Zn deficient (ZD; <1mg Zn/kg); Zn control (ZC; 30mg Zn/kg); Zn supplemented (ZS; 300mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Serum and femur Zn concentrations were 83% and 58% lower in ZD, and 49% and 62% higher in ZS compared to ZC (P<0.001), respectively. The ZD rats had lower feed intake (37%), body weight gains (45%), liver (43%) and kidney (31%) weights than those of ZC (P<0.001), but these parameters in ZD were not significantly different from the PF controls. Serum homocysteine concentrations were 65% higher in ZD compared to PF (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in serum folate levels between ZD and PF groups. The mRNA expression of liver and kidney MS was 57% and 38% lower in ZD than PF (P<0.001), respectively. Hepatic and renal BHMT mRNA levels were not altered in ZD compared to controls. The aforementioned measurements were not significantly different between ZS and ZC groups, except Zn levels. These results demonstrated that homocysteine homeostasis appeared to be disturbed by Zn deficiency but not Zn supplementation, and elevated serum homocysteine might be due to reduced expression of MS during Zn deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Expression Levels and Folding of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Enzyme in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Khajeh, Khosro; Farnoosh, Gholamreza; Hassanpour, Kazem; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) is a type of organophosphate-degrading enzyme which is widely used in the bioremediation process. Objectives: In this study, the periplasmic and cytoplasmic productions and the activity of recombinant OPH in Escherichia coli were investigated and compared using two pET systems (pET21a and pET26b). Materials and Methods: The sequence encoding the opd gene was synthesized and expressed in the form of inclusion body using pET21a-opd and in the periplasmic space in pET26b-opd. Results: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed a band of about 37 kDa with a maximum expression level at 30°C from pET21a-opd.However, the obtained results of the periplasmic space extraction of OPH (pET26b-opd) showed a very weak band, while the cytoplasmic expression of OPH (pET21a-opd) produced a strong protein band. Conclusions: The activities studied by the production of PNP were determined by following the increase at 410 nm. The maximum PNP was produced at 30°C with an optical density of 10.62 in the presence of cytoplasmic expression of OPH (pET21a-opd). Consequently, our results suggest cytoplasmic expression system as an appropriate candidate with a high amount of OPH in spite of inclusion body formation, which needs an additional refolding step. PMID:26870308

  17. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of Cloned Miniature Pigs Expressing High Levels of Human Apolipoprotein(a) in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masayuki; Himaki, Takehiro; Ookutsu, Shoji; Mizobe, Yamato; Ogawa, Junki; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Yabuki, Akira; Fan, Jianglin; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. However, because apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the unique component of Lp(a), is found only in primates and humans, the study of human Lp(a) has been hampered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques, we produced transgenic miniature pigs expressing human apo(a) in the plasma. First, we placed the hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged cDNA of human apo(a) under the control of the β-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, and then introduced this construct into kidney epithelial cells. Immunostaining of cells with anti-HA antibody allowed identification of cells stably expressing apo(a); one of the positive clones was used to provide donor cells for SCNT, yielding blastocysts that expressed apo(a). Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections and RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from organs of cloned piglet revealed that apo(a) is expressed in various tissues/organs including heart, liver, kidney, and intestine. More importantly, a transgenic line exhibited a high level (>400 mg/dL) of Lp(a) in plasma, and the transgenic apo(a) gene was transmitted to the offspring. Thus, we generated a human apo(a)-transgenic miniature pig that can be used as a model system to study advanced atherosclerosis related to human disease. The anatomical and physiological similarities between the swine and human cardiovascular systems will make this pig model a valuable source of information on the role of apo(a) in the formation of atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms underlying vascular health and disease.

  19. Recurrent selection for transgene expression levels in maize results in proxy selection for a native gene with the same promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High expression levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High expression levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurre...

  20. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Expression of Estrogen Receptors in Relation to Hormone Levels and the Nottingham Prognostic Index.

    PubMed

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen hormones have a large impact on both normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 women undergoing surgery were included. The estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), ERα36 and G-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) were determined in benign and malignant breast tissue. The ERα36 and ERα mRNA levels were highest in malignant tumors. Stromal ERβ immunostaining in benign tumors was higher than in the paired normal tissue. GPER expression was lowest in benign tumors. In the malignant tumors, the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) correlated positively with stromal GPER and the serum testosterone level. The serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level correlated negatively with GPER mRNA and glandular ERα. The expression of ERα36 is stronger in malignant breast tissue. The strong positive correlation between NPI and GPER in malignant breast stroma indicates an important role for GPER in breast cancer prognosis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. FBXW10 is negatively regulated in transcription and expression level by protein O-GlcNAcylation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhou; Hui, Yan; Ling, Li; Xiaoyan, Liu; Yuqiu, Wang; Peng, Wang; Lianwen, Zhang

    2013-08-23

    Intricate cross-talks exist among multiple post-translational modifications that play critical roles in various cellular events, such as the control of gene expression and regulation of protein function. Here, the cross-talk between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination was investigated in HEK293T cells. By PCR array, 84 ubiquitination-related genes were explored in transcription level in response to the elevation of total protein O-GlcNAcylation due to over-expression of OGT, inhibition of OGA or GlcN treatment. Varied genes were transcriptionally regulated by using different method. But FBXW10, an F-box protein targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination, could be negatively regulated in all ways, suggesting its regulation by protein O-GlcNAcylation. By RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, it was found that FBXW10 could be sharply down-regulated in mRNA and protein level in GlcN-treated cells in a time-dependent way, in line with the enhancement of protein O-GlcNAcylation. It was also found that endogenous FBXW10 was modified by O-GlcNAc in HEK293T cells, implying O-GlcNAcylation might regulate FBXW10 in multiple levels. These findings indicate that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in the regulation of ubiquitination-related genes, and help us understand the cross-talk between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression levels of elastin and fibulin-5 according to differences between carotid plaque regions.

    PubMed

    Sivrikoz, Emre; Timirci-Kahraman, Özlem; Ergen, Arzu; Zeybek, Ümit; Aksoy, Murat; Yanar, Fatih; İsbir, Turgay; Kurtoğlu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene expression levels of elastin and fibulin-5 according to differences between carotid plaque regions and to correlate it with clinical features of plaque destabilization. The study included 44 endarterectomy specimens available from operated symptomatic carotid artery stenoses. The specimens were separated according to anatomic location: internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and common carotid artery (CCA), and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The amounts of cDNA for elastin and fibulin-5 were determined by Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Target gene copy numbers were normalized using hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT1) gene. The delta-delta CT method was applied for relative quantification. Q-RT-PCR data showed that relative fibulin-5 gene expression was increased in ICA plaque regions when compared to CCA regions but not reaching significance (p=0.061). At the same time, no differences were observed in elastin mRNA level between different anatomic plaque regions (p>0.05). Moreover, elastin and fibulin-5 mRNA expression and clinical parameters were compared in ICA plaques versus CCA and ECA regions, respectively. Up-regulation of elastin and fibulin-5 mRNA levels in ICA were strongly correlated with family history of cardiovascular disease when compared to CCA (p<0.05). Up-regulation of fibulin-5 in ICA was significantly associated with diabetes, and elevated triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) when compared to ECA (p<0.05). The clinical significance is the differences between the proximal and distal regions of the lesion, associated with the ICA, CCA and ECA respectively, with increased fibulin-5 in the ICA region. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. High expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor sustain the innate immune responses of neonates.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thierry; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Sweep, Fred C G J; Le Roy, Didier; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2016-02-23

    The vulnerability to infection of newborns is associated with a limited ability to mount efficient immune responses. High concentrations of adenosine and prostaglandins in the fetal and neonatal circulation hamper the antimicrobial responses of newborn immune cells. However, the existence of mechanisms counterbalancing neonatal immunosuppression has not been investigated. Remarkably, circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory immunoregulatory cytokine expressed constitutively, were 10-fold higher in newborns than in children and adults. Newborn monocytes expressed high levels of MIF and released MIF upon stimulation with Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the leading pathogens of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Inhibition of MIF activity or MIF expression reduced microbial product-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and secretion of cytokines. Recombinant MIF used at newborn, but not adult, concentrations counterregulated adenosine and prostaglandin E2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and TNF production in newborn monocytes exposed to E. coli. In agreement with the concept that once infection is established high levels of MIF are detrimental to the host, treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of MIF reduced systemic inflammatory response, bacterial proliferation, and mortality of septic newborn mice. Altogether, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for how newborns may cope with an immunosuppressive environment to maintain a certain threshold of innate defenses. However, the same defense mechanisms may be at the expense of the host in conditions of severe infection, suggesting that MIF could represent a potential attractive target for immune-modulating adjunctive therapies for neonatal sepsis.

  5. Characterization of Changes in Gene Expression and Biochemical Pathways at Low Levels of Benzene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Hubbard, Alan E.; McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Jinot, Jennifer; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.; Smith, Martyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, through transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we reported dose-dependent effects of benzene exposure on gene expression and biochemical pathways in 83 workers exposed across four airborne concentration ranges (from <1 ppm to >10 ppm) compared with 42 subjects with non-workplace ambient exposure levels. Here, we further characterize these dose-dependent effects with continuous benzene exposure in all 125 study subjects. We estimated air benzene exposure levels in the 42 environmentally-exposed subjects from their unmetabolized urinary benzene levels. We used a novel non-parametric, data-adaptive model selection method to estimate the change with dose in the expression of each gene. We describe non-parametric approaches to model pathway responses and used these to estimate the dose responses of the AML pathway and 4 other pathways of interest. The response patterns of majority of genes as captured by mean estimates of the first and second principal components of the dose-response for the five pathways and the profiles of 6 AML pathway response-representative genes (identified by clustering) exhibited similar apparent supra-linear responses. Responses at or below 0.1 ppm benzene were observed for altered expression of AML pathway genes and CYP2E1. Together, these data show that benzene alters disease-relevant pathways and genes in a dose-dependent manner, with effects apparent at doses as low as 100 ppb in air. Studies with extensive exposure assessment of subjects exposed in the low-dose range between 10 ppb and 1 ppm are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24786086

  6. Luciferase NanoLuc as a reporter for gene expression and protein levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Masser, Anna E; Kandasamy, Ganapathi; Kaimal, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan; Andréasson, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Reporter proteins are essential tools in the study of biological processes and are employed to monitor changes in gene expression and protein levels. Luciferases are reporter proteins that enable rapid and highly sensitive detection with an outstanding dynamic range. Here we evaluated the usefulness of the 19 kDa luciferase NanoLuc (Nluc), derived from the deep sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, as a reporter protein in yeast. Cassettes with codon-optimized genes expressing yeast Nluc (yNluc) or its destabilized derivative yNlucPEST have been assembled in the context of the dominant drug resistance marker kanMX. The reporter proteins do not impair the growth of yeast cells and exhibit half-lives of 40 and 5 min, respectively. The commercial substrate Nano-Glo® is compatible with detection of yNluc bioluminescence in < 50 cells. Using the unstable yNlucPEST to report on the rapid and transient expression of a heat-shock promoter (PCYC1-HSE ), we found a close match between the intensity of the bioluminescent signal and mRNA levels during both induction and decay. We demonstrated that the bioluminescence of yNluc fused to the C-terminus of a temperature-sensitive protein reports on its protein levels. In conclusion, yNluc and yNlucPEST are valuable new reporter proteins suitable for experiments with yeast using standard commercial substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  8. Selective probing of mRNA expression levels within a living cell.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, D; Turan, T; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2009-08-24

    We report on a selective and nondestructive measurement of mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression levels within a living cell. We first modify an atomic force microscope tip to create a tapered nanoscale coaxial cable. Application of an ac (alternating potential) between the inner and outer electrodes of this cable creates a dielectrophoretic force attracting mRNA molecules toward the tip-end which is pretreated with gene specific primers. We selectively extracted and analyzed both high ( approximately 2500) and extremely low (11 0) copy number mRNA from a living cell mRNA in less than 10 s.

  9. Selective probing of mRNA expression levels within a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, D.; Turan, T.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    We report on a selective and nondestructive measurement of mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression levels within a living cell. We first modify an atomic force microscope tip to create a tapered nanoscale coaxial cable. Application of an ac (alternating potential) between the inner and outer electrodes of this cable creates a dielectrophoretic force attracting mRNA molecules toward the tip-end which is pretreated with gene specific primers. We selectively extracted and analyzed both high (∼2500) and extremely low (11¯0) copy number mRNA from a living cell mRNA in less than 10 s. PMID:19777090

  10. Gene expression levels of heat shock proteins in the soleus and plantaris muscles of rats after hindlimb suspension or spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Takeda, Isao; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-12-01

    Gene expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles of rats were determined after hindlimb suspension or spaceflight. Male rats were hindlimb-suspended for 14 d or exposed to microgravity for 9 d. The mRNA expression levels of HSP27, HSP70, and HSP84 in the hindlimb-suspended and microgravity-exposed groups were compared with those in the controls. The mRNA expression levels of the 3 HSPs in the soleus muscle under normal conditions were higher compared with those in the plantaris muscle. The mRNA expression levels of the 3 HSPs in the soleus muscle were inhibited by hindlimb suspension and spaceflight. The mRNA expression levels of the 3 HSPs in the plantaris muscle did not change after hindlimb suspension. It is suggested that the mRNA expression levels of the 3 HSPs are regulated by the mechanical and neural activity levels, and therefore the decreased mRNA expression levels of HSPs in the slow-twitch muscle following hindlimb suspension and spaceflight are related to a reduction in the mechanical and neural activity levels.

  11. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    PubMed

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  12. Fluctuations in Species-Level Protein Expression Occur during Element and Nutrient Cycling in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Nicora, Carrie D.

    2013-03-05

    While microbial activities in environmental systems play a key role in the utilization and cycling of essential elements and compounds, microbial activity and growth frequently fluctuates in response to environmental stimuli and perturbations. To investigate these fluctuations within a saturated aquifer system, we monitored a carbon-stimulated in situ Geobacter population while iron reduction was occurring, using 16S rRNA abundances and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry proteome measurements. Following carbon amendment, 16S rRNA analysis of temporally separated samples revealed the rapid enrichment of Geobacter-like environmental strains with strong similarity to G. bemidjiensis. Tandem mass spectrometry proteomics measurements suggest high carbon flux throughmore » Geobacter respiratory pathways, and the synthesis of anapleurotic four carbon compounds from acetyl-CoA via pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity. Across a 40-day period where Fe(III) reduction was occurring, fluctuations in protein expression reflected changes in anabolic versus catabolic reactions, with increased levels of biosynthesis occurring soon after acetate arrival in the aquifer. In addition, localized shifts in nutrient limitation were inferred based on expression of nitrogenase enzymes and phosphate uptake proteins. These temporal data offer the first example of differing microbial protein expression associated with changing geochemical conditions in a subsurface environment.« less

  13. Dynamic Expression of the Translational Machinery during Bacillus subtilis Life Cycle at a Single Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Alex; Sinai, Lior; Smith, Yoav; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to responsively regulate the expression of translation components is crucial for rapid adaptation to fluctuating environments. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) as a model organism, we followed the dynamics of the translational machinery at a single cell resolution during growth and differentiation. By comprehensive monitoring the activity of the major rrn promoters and ribosomal protein production, we revealed diverse dynamics between cells grown in rich and poor medium, with the most prominent dissimilarities exhibited during deep stationary phase. Further, the variability pattern of translational activity varied among the cells, being affected by nutrient availability. We have monitored for the first time translational dynamics during the developmental process of sporulation within the two distinct cellular compartments of forespore and mother-cell. Our study uncovers a transient forespore specific increase in expression of translational components. Finally, the contribution of each rrn promoter throughout the bacterium life cycle was found to be relatively constant, implying that differential expression is not the main purpose for the existence of multiple rrn genes. Instead, we propose that coordination of the rrn operons serves as a strategy to rapidly fine tune translational activities in a synchronized fashion to achieve an optimal translation level for a given condition. PMID:22848659

  14. Stable, high-level expression of a type I antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R G; Appels, R

    1999-06-01

    The type I antifreeze proteins are simple amphipathic helical proteins found in abundance in polar fish species, where they act to prevent freezing of internal fluids by a mechanism of noncolligative freezing point depression. Large-scale production of these proteins for research and biotechnological purposes has been hampered by their apparent instability when expressed in heterologous host systems. This has necessitated their production as fusion proteins, in polymeric form, or as proproteins for secretion, with the concomitant necessity for postpurification processing to generate the mature form of the protein. We have successfully expressed a recombinant variant of type I antifreeze protein (rAFP) in Escherichia coli using the inducible T7 polymerase transcription expression system. The rAFP contains five copies of the 11 amino acid ice-binding repeat motif found in all type I antifreeze proteins. The protein accumulates to high levels intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies, with no apparent degradation by the cellular proteolytic machinery. We have devised a simple and rapid purification protocol for this recombinant type I antifreeze protein which does not require cellular fractionation, purification of the inclusion bodies, or chromatographic steps. This protocol may be of general use for this class of protein. The protein displays all three activities common to these proteins: recrystallization inhibition, noncolligative freezing point depression, and modification of the morphology of single ice crystals in solution.

  15. Regulatory Nexus of Synthesis and Degradation Deciphers Cellular Nrf2 Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Takaya, Kai; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kohno, Takashi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Furuta, Koh; Goto, Koichi; Hosoda, Fumie; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is essential for oxidative and electrophilic stress responses. While it has been well characterized that Nrf2 activity is tightly regulated at the protein level through proteasomal degradation via Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-mediated ubiquitination, not much attention has been paid to the supply side of Nrf2, especially regulation of Nrf2 gene transcription. Here we report that manipulation of Nrf2 transcription is effective in changing the final Nrf2 protein level and activity of cellular defense against oxidative stress even in the presence of Keap1 and under efficient Nrf2 degradation, determined using genetically engineered mouse models. In excellent agreement with this finding, we found that minor A/A homozygotes of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human NRF2 upstream promoter region (rs6721961) exhibited significantly diminished NRF2 gene expression and, consequently, an increased risk of lung cancer, especially those who had ever smoked. Our results support the notion that in addition to control over proteasomal degradation and derepression from degradation/repression, the transcriptional level of the Nrf2 gene acts as another important regulatory point to define cellular Nrf2 levels. These results thus verify the critical importance of human SNPs that influence the levels of transcription of the NRF2 gene for future personalized medicine. PMID:23572560

  16. High-level expression and efficient purification of bioactive swollenin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meihua; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lv, Zhengbin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Xu, Zhinan

    2010-11-01

    The bioactivity of swollenin is beneficial to cellulose decomposition by cellulase despite the lack of hydrolytic activity itself. In order to improve the productivity of swollenin, the effects of culture conditions on the expression level in recombinant Aspergillus oryzae were investigated systematically. With regard to the bioactivity of swollenin, glycerin and peanut meal were the optimal carbon or nitrogen source, respectively. The highest level production of swollenin (50 mg L(-1)) was attained after 88 h cultivation with the initial pH of 5.6 in the culture medium. Then the soluble swollenin was effectively purified from the cultural supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cationic exchange chromatography with recovery yield of 53.2%. The purified swollenin was fully bioactive due to its strong synergistic activity with cellulose.

  17. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. P63 EXPRESSION LEVELS IN SIDE POPULATION AND LOW LIGHT SCATTERING OCULAR SURFACE EPITHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Seth P; Wolosin, J. Mario; Asbell, Penny A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Because stem cells exhibit high self-renewal capacity, slow cycling, and high proliferative potential, and one of many markers postulated for epithelial stem cells, p63, is challenged by widespread expression within stem cell–free regions, we examined p63 expression in these stem cell–associated cohorts compared with their controls. Methods Rabbit limbocorneal cryosections, cytospun cell-sorted (by fluorescence-activated cell sorter) side population (SP) and low side scatter (LSSC) cells, and limbal epithelial cells over feeders were stained for p63 by indirect immunofluorescence. Clones were fixed and stained daily for 7 days. Image analysis measured p63 intensity, plotting it against colony size. Results All basal limbal cells were positive for p63, yet only 5% to 7% expressed high p63 intensities, 40% intermediate, and the majority low. Side population cells were less than 1% of total cells. The average intensity of SP staining was three times that of controls. Subpopulations displaying stemlike features exhibited highest p63 expression. Replication rates of isolated cells differed. Day 5 colonies contained 256 (16 hours/cycle) to two (96 hours/cycle) cells. Whereas all cells were positive for p63, intensity in slow-cycling cells was three to four times that in rapidly proliferating congeners. Increased cell doublings did not decrease fluorescence. Conclusions Results suggest that p63 concentration is maximal in stem cells and decreases with differentiation. High p63 levels seem to correlate with cells of the SP and LSSC phenotypes, indicating high cell stemness. With identification of stem cells, further studies can elucidate their use in supporting ocular surface health. PMID:17057802

  19. Characteristics of functional enrichment and gene expression level of human putative transcriptional target genes.

    PubMed

    Osato, Naoki

    2018-01-19

    Transcriptional target genes show functional enrichment of genes. However, how many and how significantly transcriptional target genes include functional enrichments are still unclear. To address these issues, I predicted human transcriptional target genes using open chromatin regions, ChIP-seq data and DNA binding sequences of transcription factors in databases, and examined functional enrichment and gene expression level of putative transcriptional target genes. Gene Ontology annotations showed four times larger numbers of functional enrichments in putative transcriptional target genes than gene expression information alone, independent of transcriptional target genes. To compare the number of functional enrichments of putative transcriptional target genes between cells or search conditions, I normalized the number of functional enrichment by calculating its ratios in the total number of transcriptional target genes. With this analysis, native putative transcriptional target genes showed the largest normalized number of functional enrichments, compared with target genes including 5-60% of randomly selected genes. The normalized number of functional enrichments was changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter interactions such as distance from transcriptional start sites and orientation of CTCF-binding sites. Forward-reverse orientation of CTCF-binding sites showed significantly higher normalized number of functional enrichments than the other orientations. Journal papers showed that the top five frequent functional enrichments were related to the cellular functions in the three cell types. The median expression level of transcriptional target genes changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter assignments (i.e. interactions) and was correlated with the changes of the normalized number of functional enrichments of transcriptional target genes. Human putative transcriptional target genes showed significant functional enrichments. Functional

  20. Patterns of expression and normalized levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, Robert A; Clack, Ted

    2002-09-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies specific for each apoprotein and full-length purified apoprotein standards, the levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes and their patterns of expression in seedlings and mature plants and under different light conditions have been characterized. Phytochrome levels are normalized to the DNA content of the various tissue extracts to approximate normalization to the number of cells in the tissue. One phytochrome, phytochrome A, is highly light labile. The other four phytochromes are much more light stable, although among these, phytochromes B and C are reduced 4- to 5-fold in red- or white-light-grown seedlings compared with dark-grown seedlings. The total amount of extractable phytochrome is 23-fold lower in light-grown than dark-grown tissues, and the percent ratios of the five phytochromes, A:B:C:D:E, are measured as 85:10:2:1.5:1.5 in etiolated seedlings and 5:40:15:15:25 in seedlings grown in continuous white light. The four light-stable phytochromes are present at nearly unchanging levels throughout the course of development of mature rosette and reproductive-stage plants and are present in leaves, stems, roots, and flowers. Phytochrome protein expression patterns over the course of seed germination and under diurnal and circadian light cycles are also characterized. Little cycling in response to photoperiod is observed, and this very low amplitude cycling of some phytochrome proteins is out of phase with previously reported cycling of PHY mRNA levels. These studies indicate that, with the exception of phytochrome A, the family of phytochrome photoreceptors in Arabidopsis constitutes a quite stable and very broadly distributed array of sensory molecules.

  1. High Levels of Exosomes Expressing CD63 and Caveolin-1 in Plasma of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Borghi, Martina; Calabrò, Luana; Spada, Massimo; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Daria; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Santinami, Mario; Huber, Veronica; Maio, Michele; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504±315) or caveolin-1 (619±310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223±125 and 228±102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. Conclusions/Significance We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients. PMID:19381331

  2. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Borghi, Martina; Calabrò, Luana; Spada, Massimo; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Daria; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Santinami, Mario; Huber, Veronica; Maio, Michele; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315) or caveolin-1 (619+/-310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  3. RBSDesigner: software for designing synthetic ribosome binding sites that yields a desired level of protein expression.

    PubMed

    Na, Dokyun; Lee, Doheon

    2010-10-15

    RBSDesigner predicts the translation efficiency of existing mRNA sequences and designs synthetic ribosome binding sites (RBSs) for a given coding sequence (CDS) to yield a desired level of protein expression. The program implements the mathematical model for translation initiation described in Na et al. (Mathematical modeling of translation initiation for the estimation of its efficiency to computationally design mRNA sequences with a desired expression level in prokaryotes. BMC Syst. Biol., 4, 71). The program additionally incorporates the effect on translation efficiency of the spacer length between a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence and an AUG codon, which is crucial for the incorporation of fMet-tRNA into the ribosome. RBSDesigner provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for the convenient design of synthetic RBSs. RBSDesigner is written in Python and Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and is publicly available as precompiled stand-alone software on the web (http://rbs.kaist.ac.kr). dhlee@kaist.ac.kr

  4. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Oliveira Rodini, Camila; Cruvinel Silva, Thiago; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy.

  5. HPV 5 and 8 E6 Expression Reduces ATM Protein Levels and Attenuates LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Nicholas A.; Gasior, Stephen L.; Faber, Zachary J.; Howie, Heather L.; Deininger, Prescott L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the E6 protein from certain members of the HPV genus β (β HPV 5 and 8 E6) can disrupt p53 signaling by diminishing the steady state levels of two p53 modifying enzymes, ATR and p300. Here, we show that β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 are also capable of reducing the steady state levels of another p53 modifying enzyme, ATM, and as a result restrict LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of both ATM and LINE-1 retrotransposition is dependent upon the ability of β-HPV 8 E6 to bind and degrade p300. We use inhibitors and dominant negative mutants to confirm that ATM is needed for efficient LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, neither sensitivity to LINE-1 expression nor LINE-1 induced DSB formation is altered in an ATM deficient background. Together, these data illustrate the broad impact some β-HPVs have on DNA damage signaling by promoting p300 degradation. PMID:23706308

  6. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  8. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  9. Importance of correlation between gene expression levels: application to the type I interferon signature in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Frédéric; Petit, Fabien; Paye, Malick; Turrel-Davin, Fanny; Imbert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hot, Arnaud; Mougin, Bruno; Miossec, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of gene expression data shows that many genes display similarity in their expression profiles suggesting some co-regulation. Here, we investigated the co-expression patterns in gene expression data and proposed a correlation-based research method to stratify individuals. Using blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we investigated the gene expression profiles from whole blood using Affymetrix microarray technology. Co-expressed genes were analyzed by a biclustering method, followed by gene ontology analysis of the relevant biclusters. Taking the type I interferon (IFN) pathway as an example, a classification algorithm was developed from the 102 RA patients and extended to 10 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 100 healthy volunteers to further characterize individuals. We developed a correlation-based algorithm referred to as Classification Algorithm Based on a Biological Signature (CABS), an alternative to other approaches focused specifically on the expression levels. This algorithm applied to the expression of 35 IFN-related genes showed that the IFN signature presented a heterogeneous expression between RA, SLE and healthy controls which could reflect the level of global IFN signature activation. Moreover, the monitoring of the IFN-related genes during the anti-TNF treatment identified changes in type I IFN gene activity induced in RA patients. In conclusion, we have proposed an original method to analyze genes sharing an expression pattern and a biological function showing that the activation levels of a biological signature could be characterized by its overall state of correlation.

  10. Tocopherol levels in different mango varieties correlate with MiHPPD expression and its over-expression elevates tocopherols in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh K; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Bari, Rupesh; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Mango fruit tocopherol levels vary in different varieties during ripening. This study shows that tocopherol accumulation is highly correlated with its p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase ( MiHPPD ) gene expression during ripening. MiHPPD transcript is ethylene induced and differentially expressed in four mango varieties used in this study. Higher/lower accumulation of tocopherol (mainly α-tocopherol) was achieved by heterologous expression of MiHPPD in Arabidopsis and tomato. The results suggest that tocopherol accumulation in mango fruit is correlated to MiHPPD gene expression. Over-expression of MiHPPD gene channelizes the flux towards tocophreol biosynthesis and could be used as a potential tool for metabolic engineering.

  11. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called “China wood oil” is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. Results The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. Conclusions This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw

  12. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-02-21

    Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw material and a chimeric lipase

  13. Functionally distinct roles for different miR-155 expression levels through contrasting effects on gene expression, in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Narayan, N; Morenos, L; Phipson, B; Willis, S N; Brumatti, G; Eggers, S; Lalaoui, N; Brown, L M; Kosasih, H J; Bartolo, R C; Zhou, L; Catchpoole, D; Saffery, R; Oshlack, A; Goodall, G J; Ekert, P G

    2017-04-01

    Enforced expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in myeloid cells has been shown to have both oncogenic or tumour-suppressor functions in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We sought to resolve these contrasting effects of miR-155 overexpression using murine models of AML and human paediatric AML data sets. We show that the highest miR-155 expression levels inhibited proliferation in murine AML models. Over time, enforced miR-155 expression in AML in vitro and in vivo, however, favours selection of intermediate miR-155 expression levels that results in increased tumour burden in mice, without accelerating the onset of disease. Strikingly, we show that intermediate and high miR-155 expression also regulate very different subsets of miR-155 targets and have contrasting downstream effects on the transcriptional environments of AML cells, including genes involved in haematopoiesis and leukaemia. Furthermore, we show that elevated miR-155 expression detected in paediatric AML correlates with intermediate and not high miR-155 expression identified in our experimental models. These findings collectively describe a novel dose-dependent role for miR-155 in the regulation of AML, which may have important therapeutic implications.

  14. Stability and Expression Levels of HLA-C on the Cell Membrane Modulate HIV-1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT HLA-C expression is associated with a differential ability to control HIV-1 infection. Higher HLA-C levels may lead to better control of HIV-1 infection through both a higher efficiency of antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the triggering of activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors on NK cells, whereas lower levels may provide poor HIV-1 control and rapid progression to AIDS. We characterized the relative amounts of HLA-C heterotrimers (heavy chain/β2 microglobulin [β2m]/peptide) and HLA-C free heavy chains on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors harboring both alleles with stable or unstable binding to β2m/peptide. We analyzed the stability of HLA-C heterotrimers of different allotypes and the infectivity of HIV-1 virions produced by PBMCs with various allotypes. We observed significant differences in HLA-C heterotrimer stability and in expression levels. We found that R5 HIV-1 virions produced by PBMCs harboring unstable HLA-C alleles were more infectious than those produced by PBMCs carrying the stable variants. We propose that HIV-1 infectivity might depend both on the amounts of HLA-C molecules and on their stability as trimeric complex. According to this model, individuals with low-expression HLA-C alleles and unstable binding to β2m/peptide might have worse control of HIV-1 infection and an intrinsically higher capacity to support viral replication. IMPORTANCE Following HIV-1 infection, some people advance rapidly to AIDS while others have slow disease progression. HLA-C, a molecule involved in immunity, is a key determinant of HIV-1 control. Here we reveal how HLA-C variants contribute to the modulation of viral infectivity. HLA-C is present on the cell surface in two different conformations. The immunologically active conformation is part of a complex that includes β2 microglobulin/peptide; the other conformation is not bound to β2 microglobulin/peptide and can associate with HIV-1

  15. Testing the Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wai Tong; Chan, Zenobia Chung-Yee; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P < 0.01), and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86–0.92). Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement), accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ 2/df = 1.93, P = 0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78) to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54) and family burden (r = 0.49) and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90). The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P < 0.01). The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families' expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries. PMID:24511302

  16. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  17. Low-level laser therapy promotes dendrite growth via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chengbo; He, Zhiyong; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since BDNF plays a critical role in neuronal survival and dendrite growth, BDNF upregulation may contribute to rescue dendrite atrophy and cell loss in AD. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal function both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that LLLT rescued neurons loss and dendritic atrophy via the increase of both BDNF mRNA and protein expression. In addition, dendrite growth was improved after LLLT, characterized by upregulation of PSD95 expression, and the increase in length, branching, and spine density of dendrites in hippocampal neurons. Together, these studies suggest that upregulation of BDNF with LLLT can ameliorate Aβ-induced neurons loss and dendritic atrophy, thus identifying a novel pathway by which LLLT protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. A cloud-based workflow to quantify transcript-expression levels in public cancer compendia

    PubMed Central

    Tatlow, PJ; Piccolo, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Public compendia of sequencing data are now measured in petabytes. Accordingly, it is infeasible for researchers to transfer these data to local computers. Recently, the National Cancer Institute began exploring opportunities to work with molecular data in cloud-computing environments. With this approach, it becomes possible for scientists to take their tools to the data and thereby avoid large data transfers. It also becomes feasible to scale computing resources to the needs of a given analysis. We quantified transcript-expression levels for 12,307 RNA-Sequencing samples from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and The Cancer Genome Atlas. We used two cloud-based configurations and examined the performance and cost profiles of each configuration. Using preemptible virtual machines, we processed the samples for as little as $0.09 (USD) per sample. As the samples were processed, we collected performance metrics, which helped us track the duration of each processing step and quantified computational resources used at different stages of sample processing. Although the computational demands of reference alignment and expression quantification have decreased considerably, there remains a critical need for researchers to optimize preprocessing steps. We have stored the software, scripts, and processed data in a publicly accessible repository (https://osf.io/gqrz9). PMID:27982081

  19. Molecular Characterization of the NLRC4 Expression in Relation to Interleukin-18 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Tanja; Haase, Tina; Müller, Christian; Riess, Helene; Lau, Denise; Zeller, Simon; Krause, Jasmin; Baumert, Jens; Pless, Ole; Dupuis, Josée; Wild, Philipp S.; Eleftheriadis, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Ziegler, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Tiret, Laurence; Proust, Carole; Marzi, Carola; Munzel, Thomas; Strauch, Konstantin; Prokisch, Holger; Lackner, Karl J.; Herder, Christian; Thorand, Barbara; Benjamin, Emilia J.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Koenig, Wolfgang; Schnabel, Renate B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine centrally involved in the cytokine cascade with complex immunomodulatory functions in innate and acquired immunity. Circulating IL-18 concentrations are associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular events and diverse inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Methods and Results To identify causal variants affecting circulating IL-18 concentrations, we applied various omics and molecular biology approaches. By GWAS, we confirmed association of IL-18 levels with a SNP in the untranslated exon 2 of the inflammasome component NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing 4) gene on chromosome 2 (rs385076, P=2.4×10−45). Subsequent molecular analyses by gene expression analysis and reporter gene assays indicated an effect of rs385076 on NLRC4 expression and differential isoform usage by modulating binding of the transcription factor PU.1. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the functional causality of SNP rs385076 within the NLRC4 gene in relation to IL-18 activation. PMID:26362438

  20. Gene and process level modulation to overcome the bottlenecks of recombinant proteins expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Ashish A; Boro, Bibari; Bharali, Biju; Chakraborty, Shuchishloka; Dasu, Veeranki V

    2017-01-01

    Process development involving system metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering has become one of the major thrust for the development of therapeutic proteins or enzymes. Pichia pastoris has emerged as a prominent host for the production of therapeutic protein or enzymes. Regardless of producing high protein titers, various cellular and process level bottlenecks restrict the expression of recombinant proteins in P. pastoris. In the present review, we have summarized the recent developments in the expression of foreign proteins in P. pastoris. Further, we have discussed various cellular engineering strategies which include codon optimization, pathway engineering, signal peptide processing, development of protease deficient strain and glyco-engineered strains for the high yield protein secretion of recombinant protein. Bioprocess development of recombinant proteins in large-scale bioreactor including medium optimization, optimum feeding strategy and co-substrate feeding in fed-batch as well as continuous cultivation have been described. The recent advances in system and synthetic biology studies including metabolic flux analysis in understanding the phenotypic characteristics of recombinant Pichia and genome editing with CRISPR-CAS system have also been summarized. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Cloning and High-Level Expression of α-Galactosidase cDNA from Penicillium purpurogenum

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Hajime; Nagasaki, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yoshida, Shigeki; Park, Gwi Gun; Kusakabe, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    The cDNA coding for Penicillium purpurogenum α-galactosidase (αGal) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the α-Gal cDNA showed that the mature enzyme consisted of 419 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 46,334 Da. The derived amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed similarity to eukaryotic αGals from plants, animals, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The highest similarity observed (57% identity) was to Trichoderma reesei AGLI. The cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the yeast GAL10 promoter. Almost all of the enzyme produced was secreted into the culture medium, and the expression level reached was approximately 0.2 g/liter. The recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity was highly glycosylated, showed slightly higher specific activity, and exhibited properties almost identical to those of the native enzyme from P. purpurogenum in terms of the N-terminal amino acid sequence, thermoactivity, pH profile, and mode of action on galacto-oligosaccharides. PMID:9797312

  2. The effects of laughter on post-prandial glucose levels and gene expression in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2009-07-31

    This report mainly summarizes the results of our study in which the physiological effects of laughter--as a positive emotional expression--were analyzed with respect to gene expression changes to demonstrate the hypothesis that the mind and genes mutually influence each other. We observed that laughter suppressed 2-h postprandial blood glucose level increase in patients with type 2 diabetes and analyzed gene expression changes. Some genes showed specific changes in their expression. In addition, we revealed that laughter decreased the levels of prorenin in blood; prorenin is involved in the onset of diabetic complications. Further, laughter normalized the expression of the prorenin receptor gene on peripheral blood leukocytes, which had been reduced in diabetic patients; this demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of laughter on the onset/deterioration of diabetic complications at the gene-expression level. In a subsequent study, we demonstrated the effects of laughter by discriminating 14 genes, related to natural killer (NK) cell activity, to exhibit continuous increases in expression as a result of laughter. Our results supported NK cell-mediated improvement in glucose tolerance at the gene-expression level. In this report, we also review other previous studies on laughter.

  3. Application of meta-analysis methods for identifying proteomic expression level differences.

    PubMed

    Amess, Bob; Kluge, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Emanuel; Haenisch, Frieder; Alsaif, Murtada; Yolken, Robert H; Leweke, F Markus; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    We present new statistical approaches for identification of proteins with expression levels that are significantly changed when applying meta-analysis to two or more independent experiments. We showed that the Euclidean distance measure has reduced risk of false positives compared to the rank product method. Our Ψ-ranking method has advantages over the traditional fold-change approach by incorporating both the fold-change direction as well as the p-value. In addition, the second novel method, Π-ranking, considers the ratio of the fold-change and thus integrates all three parameters. We further improved the latter by introducing our third technique, Σ-ranking, which combines all three parameters in a balanced nonparametric approach. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Intra and Interspecific Variations of Gene Expression Levels in Yeast Are Largely Neutral: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2016, Gold Coast).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Maclean, Calum J; Park, Chungoo; Zhao, Huabin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly, although not universally, accepted that most intra and interspecific genome sequence variations are more or less neutral, whereas a large fraction of organism-level phenotypic variations are adaptive. Gene expression levels are molecular phenotypes that bridge the gap between genotypes and corresponding organism-level phenotypes. Yet, it is unknown whether natural variations in gene expression levels are mostly neutral or adaptive. Here we address this fundamental question by genome-wide profiling and comparison of gene expression levels in nine yeast strains belonging to three closely related Saccharomyces species and originating from five different ecological environments. We find that the transcriptome-based clustering of the nine strains approximates the genome sequence-based phylogeny irrespective of their ecological environments. Remarkably, only ∼0.5% of genes exhibit similar expression levels among strains from a common ecological environment, no greater than that among strains with comparable phylogenetic relationships but different environments. These and other observations strongly suggest that most intra and interspecific variations in yeast gene expression levels result from the accumulation of random mutations rather than environmental adaptations. This finding has profound implications for understanding the driving force of gene expression evolution, genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation, and general role of stochasticity in evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Methods: Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Results: Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Conclusions: Decreased

  6. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Decreased hepatic TRβ protein expression occurred

  7. Dynamics of cellular level function and regulation derived from murine expression array data.

    PubMed

    de Bivort, Benjamin; Huang, Sui; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-12-21

    A major open question of systems biology is how genetic and molecular components interact to create phenotypes at the cellular level. Although much recent effort has been dedicated to inferring effective regulatory influences within small networks of genes, the power of microarray bioinformatics has yet to be used to determine functional influences at the cellular level. In all cases of data-driven parameter estimation, the number of model parameters estimable from a set of data is strictly limited by the size of that set. Rather than infer parameters describing the detailed interactions of just a few genes, we chose a larger-scale investigation so that the cumulative effects of all gene interactions could be analyzed to identify the dynamics of cellular-level function. By aggregating genes into large groups with related behaviors (megamodules), we were able to determine the effective aggregate regulatory influences among 12 major gene groups in murine B lymphocytes over a variety of time steps. Intriguing observations about the behavior of cells at this high level of abstraction include: (i) a medium-term critical global transcriptional dependence on ATP-generating genes in the mitochondria, (ii) a longer-term dependence on glycolytic genes, (iii) the dual role of chromatin-reorganizing genes in transcriptional activation and repression, (iv) homeostasis-favoring influences, (v) the indication that, as a group, G protein-mediated signals are not concentration-dependent in their influence on target gene expression, and (vi) short-term-activating/long-term-repressing behavior of the cell-cycle system that reflects its oscillatory behavior.

  8. Cloud level winds from UV and IR images obtained by VMC onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, Igor; Patsaeva, Marina; Titov, Dmitri; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Turin, Alexander; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    , M.V. Patsaeva, N.I. Ignatiev, J.-L. Bertaux were supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation grant 14.W03.31.0017. References: [1] Markiewicz W. J. et al.: Venus Monitoring Camera for Venus Express // Planet. Space Sci., 55(12), 1701-1711. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.01.004, 2007. [2] Khatuntsev I.V. et al.: Cloud level winds from the Venus Express Monitoring Camera imaging // Icarus, 226, 140-158. 2013. [3] Patsaeva M.V. et al.: The relationship between mesoscale circulation and cloud morphology at the upper cloud level of Venus from VMC/Venus Express // Planet. Space Sci., 113(08), 100-108, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2015.01.013, 2015. [4] Bertaux J.-L. et al.: Influence of Venus topography on the zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level: The role of stationary gravity waves // J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 121, 1087-1101, doi:10.1002/2015JE004958, 2016.

  9. The level of HER2 expression is a predictor of antibody-HER2 trafficking behavior in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sripad; Kim, Dongyoung; Ober, Raimund J; Ward, E Sally

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is known to play a central role in mitogenic signaling, motivating the development of targeted, HER2-specific therapies. However, despite the longstanding use of antibodies to target HER2, controversies remain concerning antibody/HER2 trafficking behavior in cancer cells. Understanding this behavior has direct relevance to the mechanism of action and effective design of such antibodies. In the current study, we analyzed the intracellular dynamics of trastuzumab, a marketed HER2-targeting antibody, in a panel of breast and prostate cancer cell lines that have a wide range of HER2 expression levels. Our results reveal distinct post-endocytic trafficking behavior of antibody-HER2 complexes in cells with different HER2 expression levels. In particular, HER2-overexpressing cells exhibit efficient HER2 recycling and limited reductions in HER2 levels upon antibody treatment, and consequently display a high level of antibody persistence on their plasma membrane. By contrast, in cells with low HER2 expression, trastuzumab treatment results in rapid antibody clearance from the plasma membrane combined with substantial decreases in HER2 levels and undetectable levels of recycling. A cell line with intermediate levels of HER2 expression exhibits both antibody recycling and clearance from the cell surface. Significantly, these analyses demonstrate that HER2 expression levels, rather than cell origin (breast or prostate), is a determinant of subcellular trafficking properties. Such studies have relevance to optimizing the design of antibodies to target HER2. PMID:25517306

  10. Independent and high-level dual-gene expression in adult stem-progenitor cells from a single lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Andreadis, S T

    2009-07-01

    Expression of multiple genes from the same target cell is required in several technological and therapeutic applications such as quantitative measurements of promoter activity or in vivo tracking of stem cells. In spite of such need, reaching independent and high-level dual-gene expression cannot be reliably accomplished by current gene transfer vehicles. To address this issue, we designed a lentiviral vector carrying two transcriptional units separated by polyadenylation, terminator and insulator sequences. With this design, the expression level of both genes was as high as that yielded from lentiviral vectors containing only a single transcriptional unit. Similar results were observed with several promoters and cell types including epidermal keratinocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hair follicle stem cells. Notably, we demonstrated quantitative dynamic monitoring of gene expression in primary cells with no need for selection protocols suggesting that this optimized lentivirus may be useful in high-throughput gene expression profiling studies.

  11. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    PubMed

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Effects of berberine on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ and adipocytokines in insulin-resistant adipocytes].

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Luo, Xin-Xin; Li, Bing-Tao; Li, Yu; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Adipocytokines are closely associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adipose tissues, and they are more and more seriously taken in the study of the development of diabetes. This experiment was mainly to study the effect of berberine on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ and adipocytokines in insulin resistant adipocytes, and investigate the molecular mechanism of berberine in enhancing insulin sensitization and application advantages of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). ddPCR absolute quantification analysis was taken in this experiment to simply and intuitively determine the appropriate reference genes. ddPCR and quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to compare the effect of different doses of berberine (10, 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹) on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, resistin and leptin in IR 3T3-L1adipocytes. Antagonist GW9662 was added to study the inherent correlation between PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression levels. ddPCR results showed that the expression level of β-actin in adipocytes was stable, and suitable as reference gene for normalization of quantitative PCR data. Both of ddPCR and qPCR results showed that, as compared with IR models, the mRNA expression levels of adiponectin were decreased in the treatment with berberine (10, 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹) in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01); the expression of PPARγ was decreased by 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹ berberine in a dose-dependent manner in qPCR assay (P<0.01) and decreased only by 50 and 100 μmol•L⁻¹ berberine in ddPCR assay (P<0.05). PPARγ specific antagonist GW9662 intervention experiment showed that adiponectin gene expression was directly relevant with PPARγ (P<0.05). ddPCR probe assay showed that various doses of berberine could significantly reduce mRNA expression levels of resistin and leptin (P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, berberine enhanced insulin sensitization effect not by up-regulating adiponect in expression of transcriptional

  13. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Expression levels of DNA replication and repair genes predict regional somatic repeat instability in the brain but are not altered by polyglutamine disease protein expression or age.

    PubMed

    Mason, Amanda G; Tomé, Stephanie; Simard, Jodie P; Libby, Randell T; Bammler, Theodor K; Beyer, Richard P; Morton, A Jennifer; Pearson, Christopher E; La Spada, Albert R

    2014-03-15

    Expansion of CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats causes numerous inherited neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD), several spinocerebellar ataxias and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Expanded repeats are genetically unstable with a propensity to further expand when transmitted from parents to offspring. For many alleles with expanded repeats, extensive somatic mosaicism has been documented. For CAG repeat diseases, dramatic instability has been documented in the striatum, with larger expansions noted with advancing age. In contrast, only modest instability occurs in the cerebellum. Using microarray expression analysis, we sought to identify the genetic basis of these regional instability differences by comparing gene expression in the striatum and cerebellum of aged wild-type C57BL/6J mice. We identified eight candidate genes enriched in cerebellum, and validated four--Pcna, Rpa1, Msh6 and Fen1--along with a highly associated interactor, Lig1. We also explored whether expression levels of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins are altered in a line of HD transgenic mice, R6/2, that is known to show pronounced regional repeat instability. Compared with wild-type littermates, MMR expression levels were not significantly altered in R6/2 mice regardless of age. Interestingly, expression levels of these candidates were significantly increased in the cerebellum of control and HD human samples in comparison to striatum. Together, our data suggest that elevated expression levels of DNA replication and repair proteins in cerebellum may act as a safeguard against repeat instability, and may account for the dramatically reduced somatic instability present in this brain region, compared with the marked instability observed in the striatum.

  15. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; del Pozo, Angela; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved—all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago—and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles. PMID:26061177

  16. The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males’ colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  17. [The level of superoxide dismutase expression in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cells in hypoxia and tissue normoxia].

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Chrzanowska, Alicja; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide oxidase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress, which might induce cancerogenesis. In tumor cells SOD influences the level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) allowing for survival and proliferation. High rate of cells proliferation in tumor leads to their temporary hypoxia due to lower rate of angiogenesis. Therefore during tumor development, cancer cells function in conditions of hypoxia or tissue normoxia. The aim of study was to evaluate of SOD isoenzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) expression level in cell lines of primary (SW 480) and metastatic (SW 620) colorectal cancer, cultured in hypoxia (1% oxygen), tissue normoxia (10% oxygen), and atmospheric normoxia (21% oxygen). Cells were cultured in MEM medium in different oxygen concentrations (1%, 10%, 21%) in hypoxic chamber with oxygenation regulator. The number of living cells in lines SW 480 and 620 was determined by trypan blue method. Expression of SOD1 and SOD2 at the mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR and PCR. In both studied cell lines (SW 480 and SW 620), the number of living cells (viability) was increased in hypoxia and atmospheric normoxia. The expression level of SOD1 and SOD2 in studied cell lines was different. The lowest level of expression of both SOD isoenzymes was observed in hypoxia. In conditions of atmospheric normoxia the expression level of SOD1 in SW480 cell line was increased, and similar in SW620 cell line comparing to tissue normoxia. Whereas the SOD2 expression level in atmospheric normoxia conditions in both cell lines was significantly increased. Observed differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0,05). The profile of expression of SOD1 and SOD2 in cell lines SW480 and SW620 indicates differentiated response of tumor cells depending on access to oxygen. Low level of SOD isoenzymes expression in SW480 and SW620 cells in hypoxia indicates decreased production of ROS. Differences of SOD isoenzymes expression level in tissue normoxia

  18. Epigallocatechin gallate induces a hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level by altering intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Marin; Mizukami, Nanaho; Kaneko, Miho; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-30

    In previous studies, we showed that a high-dose intake of green tea polyphenol (GP) induced a hepatospecific decrease in the expression and activity of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In this study, we examined whether this decrease in CYP3A expression is induced by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the main component of GP. After a diet containing 1.5% EGCG was given to mice, the hepatic CYP3A expression was measured. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp., the concentration of lithocholic acid (LCA) in the feces, and the level of the translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) to the nucleus in the liver were examined. A decrease in the CYP3A expression level was observed beginning on the second day of the treatment with EGCG. The level of translocation of PXR to the nucleus was significantly lower in the EGCG group. The fecal level of LCA was clearly decreased by the EGCG treatment. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp. was also decreased by the EGCG treatment. It is clear that the hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level observed after a high-dose intake of GP was caused by EGCG. Because EGCG, which is not absorbed from the intestine, causes a decrease in the level of LCA-producing bacteria in the colon, the level of LCA in the liver decreases, resulting in a decrease in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which in turn leads to the observed decrease in the expression level of CYP3A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Greither, Thomas; Wach, Sven; Taubert, Helge; Söling, Ariane; Bilkenroth, Udo; Kappler, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    The roles of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the development of malignancy and tumour progression are well known. However, there are a limited number of studies analysing the impact of mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the tissues of brain tumours and glioblastoma patients. In this study, tumour tissues from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and tumour adjacent tissues were analysed. We investigated mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and osteopontin (OPN), and stem cell-associated genes survivin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), Nanog and octamer binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our data revealed higher mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in tumour tissue than levels in the tumour adjacent tissues in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. A strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of HIF-2α, CA9, VEGF, GLUT-1 and OPN suggests a specific hypoxia-associated profile of mRNA expression in glioblastoma multiforme. Additionally, the results indicate the role of stem-cell-related genes in tumour hypoxia. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that high mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced markers showed a trend towards shorter overall survival in glioblastoma patients (P=0.061). Our data suggest that mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced genes are important tumour markers in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

  20. The inhibitor of kappa B kinase-epsilon regulates MMP-3 expression levels and can promote lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Seccareccia, E; Pinard, M; Wang, N; Li, S; Burnier, J; Dankort, D; Brodt, P

    2014-08-18

    The factors that determine the ability of metastatic tumor cells to expand and grow in specific secondary site(s) are not yet fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were identified as potential regulators of the site-specificity of metastasis. We found that lung carcinoma cells ectopically expressing high levels of the receptor for the type I insulin like growth factor receptor (M27(R) cells) had a significant reduction in MMP-3 expression levels and this coincided with reduced metastasis to the lung. We used these cells to further investigate signaling pathways regulating MMP-3 expression and the role that MMP-3 plays in lung metastasis. We show that ectopic IκB kinase ɛ (IKKɛ) expression in these cells partly restored MMP-3 expression levels and also sensitized MMP-3 transcription to induction by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This increase in MMP-3 production was due to increased activation of several signal transduction mediators, including protein kinase C alpha, ERK2, Akt and the transcription factor p65. Furthermore, reconstitution of MMP-3 expression in M27(R) cells restored their ability to colonize the lung whereas silencing of MMP-3 in M27 cells reduced metastases. Collectively, our results implicate IKKɛ as a central regulator of PMA-induced cell signaling and MMP-3 expression and identify MMP-3 as an enabler of tumor cell expansion in the lung.Oncogenesis (2014) 3, e116; doi:10.1038/oncsis.2014.28; published online 18 August 2014.

  1. High-level expression of recombinant beta-galactosidases in Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei using a Sakacin P-based expression system.

    PubMed

    Halbmayr, Elisabeth; Mathiesen, Geir; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Maischberger, Thomas; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2008-06-25

    This work presents the cloning and expression of the genes encoding heterodimeric beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri L103, Lactobacillus acidophilus R22, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, and Lactobacillus sakei Lb790. These enzymes consist of two subunits of approximately 73 and 35 kDa, which are encoded by two overlapping genes, lacL and lacM, respectively. We have cloned these genes into the lactobacillal expression vectors pSIP403 and pSIP409, which are based on the sakacin P operon of L. sakei ( Sørvig et al. Microbiology 2005, 151, 2439- 2449 ), and expressed them in the host strains L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. sakei Lb790. Results varied considerably, ranging from 2.23 to 61.1 U/mg of beta-galactosidase activity, depending on the origin of the lacLM genes, the host strain, and the expression vector used. Highest expression levels were obtained in a laboratory cultivation of L. plantarum WCFS1 harboring the plasmid pEH3R containing the lacLM gene from L. reuteri L103. These cultivations yielded approximately 23 000 U of beta-galactosidase activity per liter, corresponding to the formation of roughly 100 mg of recombinant protein per liter of fermentation medium, and beta-galactosidase levels amounted to 55% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. To further verify the suitability of this expression system, recombinant beta-galactosidase from L. reuteri was purified to apparent homogeneity. The properties of the purified enzyme were essentially identical with the properties of purified native beta-galactosidase from L. reuteri L103. The presented results lead the way to efficient overproduction of beta-galactosidase in a food-grade expression system, which is of high interest for applications in food industry.

  2. The Expression of the Endogenous mTORC1 Inhibitor Sestrin 2 Is Induced by UVB and Balanced with the Expression Level of Sestrin 1.

    PubMed

    Mlitz, Veronika; Gendronneau, Gaelle; Berlin, Irina; Buchberger, Maria; Eckhart, Leopold; Tschachler, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Sestrin 2 (SESN2) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which controls central cellular processes such as protein translation and autophagy. Previous studies have suggested that SESN2 itself is subjected to regulation at multiple levels. Here, we investigated the expression of SESN2 in the skin and in isolated skin cells. SESN2 was detected by immunofluorescence analysis in fibroblasts and keratinocytes of human skin. Differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes was not associated with altered SESN2 expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SESN2 did not impair stratum corneum formation in vitro. However, SESN2 was increased in both cell types when the expression of its paralog SESN1 was blocked by siRNA-mediated knock down, indicating a compensatory mechanism for the control of expression. Irradiation with UVB but not with UVA significantly increased SESN2 expression in both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Upregulation of SESN2 expression could be completely blocked by suppression of p53. These results suggest that SESN2 is dispensable for normal epidermal keratinization but involved in the UVB stress response of skin cells.

  3. Abnormal levels of expression of plasma microRNA-33 in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M

    2014-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of microRNA-200c expression levels with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Milosz; Danielska, Justyna; Domanska-Senderowska, Daria; Dzieniecka, Monika; Szymanska, Bozena; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression, which play an important role in many critical cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, miRNAs may be potentially used as cancer biomarkers. miRNA-200c, which is a member of the miRNA-200 family, might play an essential role in tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and clinical significance of miRNA-200c in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer. Total RNA extraction from 90 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of endometri-oid endometrial cancer and 10 normal endometrium samples was performed. After cDNA synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted and relative expression of miRNA-200c was assessed. Then, miRNA-200c expression levels were evaluated with regard to clinicopathological characteristics. The expression levels of miRNA-200c were significantly increased in endometrioid endometrial cancer samples. Expression of miRNA-200c maintained at significantly higher levels in the early stage endometrioid endometrial cancer compared with more advanced stages. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, lower levels of miRNA-200c expression were associated with inferior survival. Expression levels of miRNA-200c might be associated with clinicopathological factors and survival in endometrioid endometrial cancer. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. TP53 and ATM mRNA expression in skin and skeletal muscle after low-level laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Guedes de Almeida, Luciana; Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; de Paoli, Flavia; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Low-level lasers are widespread in regenerative medicine, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects are not fully understood, particularly those on DNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate mRNA expression of genes related to DNA genomic stability in skin and skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. For this, TP53 (Tumor Protein 53) and ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene) mRNA expressions were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) technique 24 hours after low-level red and infrared laser exposure. Our data showed that relative TP53 mRNA expression was not significantly altered in both tissues exposed to lasers. For ATM, relative mRNA expression in skin tissue was not significantly altered, but in muscle tissue, laser exposure increased relative ATM mRNA expression. Low-level red and infrared laser radiations alter ATM mRNA expression related to DNA stability in skeletal muscle tissue.

  6. [Expression levels of Cdc2 and Cdc25A mRNA in cattle, yak, and cattle-yak testis].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Yan; Li, Qi-Fa; Qu, Xu-Guang; Li, Yin-Xia; Li, Xin-Fu; Hu, Hong-Tao; Xie, Zhuang

    2009-05-01

    The infertility of cattle-yak, which is the hybrid offspring of cattle and yak, is a difficult problem in crossbreeding and improvement of yak. Cdc2 and Cdc25A are the key genes of meiosis. The decline of their expression levels will cause the spermatogenesis failure and lead to infertility. Therefore, this study was conducted to study the relationship between the infertility of cattle-yak and the expression levels of Cdc2/Cdc25A genes. The expression profiles were obtained by RT-PCR. Cdc2 and Cdc25A genes were widely expressed in many tissues, which confirmed their important role in cell division and the progression of cell cycle. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of Cdc2 and Cdc25A in cattle and yak testis were higher than those in cattle-yak (P<0.05). Therefore, low expression levels of Cdc2 and Cdc25A genes may have a relationship with the infertility of cattle-yak.

  7. Venus winds at cloud level from VIRTIS during the Venus Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, Javier; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for almost four years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present our latest results on the analysis of the global atmospheric dynamics at these cloud levels using a large selection over the full VIRTIS dataset. We will show the atmospheric zonal superrotation at these levels and the mean meridional motions. The zonal winds are very stable in the lower cloud at mid-latitudes to the tropics while it shows different signatures of variability in the upper cloud where solar tide effects are manifest in the data. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present almost null global meridional motions at all latitudes but with particular features traveling both northwards and southwards in a turbulent manner depending on the cloud morphology on the observations. A particular important atmospheric feature is the South Polar vortex which might be influencing the structure of the zonal winds in the lower cloud at latitudes from the vortex location up to 55°S. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  8. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (P<0.01), whilst having no effect on BDNF exon IV. B. breve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (P<0.01), and decreased BDNF splice variant IV, in non-separated rats (P<0.01). B. breve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 8 is expressed at higher levels in lactating human breast and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zammit, C; Coope, R; Gomm, J J; Shousha, S; Johnston, C L; Coombes, R C

    2002-04-08

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 can transform NIH3T3 cells and its expression has been found to be associated with breast and prostate cancer. Following our finding that fibroblast growth factor 8 mRNA expression is increased in breast cancer, we have undertaken an immunohistochemistry study of fibroblast growth factor 8 expression in a series of human breast tissues and other normal tissues. Our findings confirm increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in malignant breast tissue but also show significant fibroblast growth factor 8 expression in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. No significant difference in fibroblast growth factor 8 expression was found between different grades of ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in-situ or cancer of different oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or nodal status. The highest levels of fibroblast growth factor 8 expression were found in lactating breast tissues and fibroblast growth factor 8 was also detected in human milk. A survey of other normal tissues showed that fibroblast growth factor 8 is expressed in the proliferative cells of the dermis and epithelial cells in colon, ovary fallopian tube and uterus. Fibroblast growth factor 8 appears to be expressed in several organs in man and appears to have an importance in lactation.

  10. Chiral expression from molecular to macroscopic level via pH modulation in terbium coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Ming; Xu, Yan; Zeng, Dai; Zhu, Hui; Zang, Dong-Mian; Bao, Song-Song; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Zheng, Li-Min

    2017-12-14

    Chiral expression from the molecular to macroscopic level is common in biological systems, but is difficult to realise for coordination polymers (CPs). The assembly of homochiral CPs in both crystalline and helical forms can provide a bridge for understanding the relationship between the molecular and macroscopic scales of chirality. Herein, we report homochiral helices of [Tb(R- or S-pempH) 3 ]∙2H 2 O (R - or S -1) (pempH 2  = (1-phenylethylamino)methylphosphonic acid) and their crystalline counterparts (R - or S -3), which are formed at different pH of the reaction mixtures under hydrothermal conditions. By combining the experiments and molecular simulations, we propose that the formation of helices of R -1 or S -1 occurs via a hierarchical self-assembly route, which involves twisted packing due to the geometric incompatibility of the different types of chains. The observed chiral transcription from molecules to morphologies is significant for understanding bio-related self-assembly processes on the nano- to macro-scale.

  11. Determination of Protein Expression Level in Cultured Cells by Immunocytochemistry on Paraffin-embedded Cell Blocks.

    PubMed

    Poojan, Shiv; Kim, Han-Seong; Yoon, Ji-Woon; Sim, Hye Won; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2018-05-20

    Immunofluorescent staining is currently the method of choice for determination of protein expression levels in cell-culture systems when morphological information is also necessary. The protocol of immunocytochemical staining on paraffin-embedded cell blocks, presented herein, is an excellent alternative to immunofluorescent staining on non-paraffin-embedded fixed cells. In this protocol, a paraffin cell block from HeLa cells was prepared using the thromboplastin-plasma method, and immunocytochemistry was performed for the evaluation of two proliferation markers, CKAP2 and Ki-67. The nuclei and cytoplasmic morphology of the HeLa cells were well preserved in the cell-block slides. At the same time, the CKAP2 and Ki-67 staining patterns in the immunocytochemistry were quite similar to those in immunohistochemical staining in paraffin cancer tissues. With modified cell-culture conditions, including pre-incubation of HeLa cells under serum-free conditions, the effect could be evaluated while preserving architectural information. In conclusion, immunocytochemistry on paraffin-embedded cell blocks is an excellent alternative to immunofluorescent staining.

  12. [Effect of acute intra-peritoneal infection on leptin expression levels in peripheral blood and vital organs of rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji; Yan, Guang-Tao; Wang, Lu-Huan

    2008-02-01

    To explore the effect of acute intra-peritoneal infection on leptin expression levels in peripheral blood and vital organs, and find out the role leptin plays in acute inflammation. A cecal ligation and perforation model of rats was established, setting groups of sham-operation, intralipid injection, injury, estradiol injection and insulin injection. A rat leptin radioimmunoassay was used to check serum leptin concentrations at 12 h after the injury, and RT-PCR was also used to detect leptin mRNA expressions in adipose tissue, lung and liver. Compared with serum leptin level of sham-operation group after injury, that of all the other four groups showed no significant difference, while the level of intralipid group was significantly higher than that of injury group and estradiol group. Compared with leptin mRNA expression level of sham-operation group after injury, that of the other four groups had different changes. Leptin mRNA expression of intralipid group was significantly increased in adipose tissue but decreased in lung and liver. Leptin expression levels may be affected by the changes of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine function after injury, which suggests a possible protective role for leptin in the recovery of body homeostasis.

  13. Influence of flanking sequences on variability in expression levels of an introduced gene in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, C; Jones, J; Favreau, M; Dunsmuir, P; Bedbrook, J

    1988-01-01

    The petunia rbcS gene SSU301 was introduced into tobacco using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The time at which rbcS expression was maximal after transfer of the tobacco plants to the greenhouse was determined. The expression level of the SSU301 gene varied up to 9 fold between individual tobacco plants which had been standardized physiologically as much as possible. The presence of adjacent pUC plasmid sequences did not affect the expression of the SSU301 gene. In an attempt to reduce the between-transformant variability in expression, the SSU301 gene was introduced into tobacco surrounded by 10kb of 5' and 13 kb of 3' DNA sequences which normally flank SSU301 in petunia. The longer flanking regions did not reduce the between-transformant variability of SSU301 gene expression. Images PMID:3174450

  14. A high-level prokaryotic expression system: synthesis of human interleukin 1 alpha and its receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Birikh, K R; Lebedenko, E N; Boni, I V; Berlin, Y A

    1995-10-27

    Synthetic intronless genes, coding for human interleukin 1 alpha (IL 1 alpha) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra), have been expressed efficiently in a specially designed prokaryotic vector, pGMCE (a pGEM1 derivative), where the target gene forms the second part of a two-cistron system. The first part of the system is a translation enhancer-containing mini-cistron, whose termination codon overlaps the start codon of the target gene. In the case of the IL1 alpha gene, the high expression level is largely due to the direct efficient translation initiation at the second cistron, whereas with the IL1ra gene in the same system, the proximal translation initiation region (TIR) provides a high level of coupled expression of the target gene. Thus, pGMCE is a potentially versatile vector for direct prokaryotic expression.

  15. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  16. Decreased expression levels of Nurr1 are associated with chronic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Wenfang; Wang, Yaping; Zeng, Qingling; He, Chunyan; Xue, Junli; Chen, Jin; Hu, Xuemei; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with insulin resistance, a characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Nuclear receptor‑related protein 1 (Nurr1) can regulate inflammation, dependent on the nature of individual diseases. However, whether Nurr1 regulates chronic inflammation during the pathogenic process of T2D in humans remains to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the potential association between the expression of Nurr1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and inflammation in patients with T2D. The levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)‑6, the relative expression levels of Nurr1, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β phosphorylation in PBMCs from 40 patients with T2D and 40 healthy controls (HC group) were examined, and their potential association with clinical measures were analyzed. The expression levels of Nurr1, induced by high glucose and palmitic acid, were assessed in the PBMCs from the HC group. Compared with the HC group, significantly higher levels of plasma TNFα and IL‑6 were correlated positively with the degree of insulin resistance in the T2D patients. However, significantly lower expression levels of Nurr1 and GSK‑3β phosphorylation in the PBMCs were correlated negatively with the levels of TNFα, IL‑6, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the T2D patients. Treatment of the PBMCs with high glucose or palmitic acid inhibited the expression of Nurr1 in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Therefore, decreased expression levels of Nurr1 were associated with chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with T2D.

  17. Dysregulation of gene expression in the striatum of BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and associated abnormalities on molecular and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bonin, Michael; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Hoa Huu Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the huntingtin protein (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) has been proposed to cause neuronal dysfunction and neuronal loss through multiple mechanisms. Transcriptional changes may be a core pathogenic feature of HD. Utilizing the Affymetrix platform we performed a genome-wide RNA expression analysis in two BACHD transgenic rat lines (TG5 and TG9) at 12 months of age, both of which carry full-length human mHTT but with different expression levels. By defining the threshold of significance at p < 0.01, we found 1608 genes and 871 genes differentially expressed in both TG5 and TG9 rats when compared to the wild type littermates, respectively. We only chose the highly up-/down-regulated genes for further analysis by setting an additional threshold of 1.5 fold change. Comparing gene expression profiles of human HD brains and BACHD rats revealed a high concordance in both functional and IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) canonical pathways relevant to HD. In addition, we investigated the causes leading to gene expression changes at molecular and protein levels in BACHD rats including the involvement of polyQ-containing transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 and CBP as well as the chromatin structure. We demonstrate that the BACHD rat model recapitulates the gene expression changes of the human disease supporting its role as a preclinical research animal model. We also show for the first time that TFIID complex formation is reduced, while soluble TBP is increased in an HD model. This finding suggests that mHTT is a competitor instead of a recruiter of polyQ-containing transcription factors in the transcription process in HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Experiences of Master's Level Counselor Trainees in Expressive Arts Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Martha Howe

    2010-01-01

    Expressive arts group supervision is the use of music, stories, movement, poetry or prose, role-play or psychodrama, art, guided imagery, or play to help trainees develop reflective skills (Wilkins, 1995), express thoughts and feelings (Knill, Levine & Levine, 2005; Lahad, 2000), develop new perspectives (Gladding, 2005), increase communication…

  19. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  20. Lipocalin-2 expression and serum levels as early predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Nearmeen M; El-Shal, Amal S; Etewa, Rasha L; Wadea, Fady M

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing in epidemic proportions globally. Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is an inflammatory adipocytokine and obesity-related marker of low-grade inflammation. We aimed to investigate, for first time, the possible role of LCN-2 expression and serum levels in prediction of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among obese Egyptian women. This study included 188 obese women and 180 controls. Obese women were subdivided into three subgroups according to their fasting blood glucose, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT and T2DM. Circulating LCN-2 expression levels were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction. Serum LCN-2 concentrations were assessed by ELISA. Our findings revealed that LCN-2 expression and serum levels were higher in obese women compared to lean controls. They were higher in IGT and T2DM obese cases than in NGT obese women. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that LCN-2 expression level was a useful biomarker discriminating IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women (AUC were 0.735 and 0.740, respectively). It was an independent predictor of IGT and T2DM among obese women. Serum LCN-2 level was a useful biomarker discriminating IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women (AUC were 0.705 and 0.728, respectively). It was independent predictor of T2DM without predicting IGT among obese women. The power of combined LCN-2 serum levels and expression in discriminating between IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women was high (AUC = 0.717 and 0.741, respectively). In conclusion, LCN-2 expression and serum levels could discriminate IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women and early predicting T2DM among obese women. While, LCN-2 expression level was the independent predictor of IGT in obese women. Combination of both LCN-2 expression and serum levels improved their diagnostic value in early detection of IGT and T2DM among obese women. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):88-97, 2017. © 2017

  1. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  2. Inverse Relationship of the CMKLR1 Relative Expression and Chemerin Serum Levels in Obesity with Dysmetabolic Phenotype and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Corona-Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Madrigal-Ruíz, Perla-Monserrat; Castro-Albarrán, Jorge; Chavarría-Ávila, Efraín; Guzmán-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Petri, Marcelo-Herón; Ramírez-Cedano, Joel-Isidro; Aguilar-Aldrete, María-Elena; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Background. In obesity there is a subclinical chronic low-grade inflammatory response where insulin resistance (IR) may develop. Chemerin is secreted in white adipose tissue and promotes low-grade inflammatory process, where it expressed CMKLR1 receptor. The role of chemerin and CMKLR1 in inflammatory process secondary to obesity is not defined yet. Methods. Cross-sectional study with 134 individuals classified as with and without obesity by body mass index (BMI) and IR. Body fat storage measurements and metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured by routine methods. Soluble chemerin and basal levels of insulin by ELISA and relative expression of CMKLR1 were evaluated with qPCR and 2−ΔΔCT method. Results. Differences (P < 0.05) were observed between obesity and lean individuals in body fat storage measurements and metabolic-inflammatory markers. Both CMKLR1 expression and chemerin levels were increased in obesity without IR. Soluble chemerin levels correlate with adiposity and metabolic markers (r = 8.8% to 38.5%), P < 0.05. Conclusion. The increment of CMKLR1 expression was associated with insulin production. Increased serum levels of chemerin in obesity were observed, favoring a dysmetabolic response. The results observed in this study suggest that both chemerin and CMKLR1 have opposite expression in the context of low-grade inflammatory response manifested in the development of IR. PMID:27239101

  3. Gli2 protein expression level is a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Sasajima, J; Mizukami, Y; Koizumi, K; Kawamoto, T; Ono, Y; Karasaki, H; Tanabe, H; Fujiya, M; Kohgo, Y

    2016-06-01

    The hedgehog pathway is known to promote proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and has been shown to restrain tumor progression. To understand how hedgehog causes these effects, we sought to carefully examine protein expression of hedgehog signaling components during different tumor stages. Genetically engineered mice, Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+, were utilized to model distinct phases of tumorigenesis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) and PDA. Human pancreatic specimens of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and PDA were also employed. PanIN and IPMN lesions highly express Sonic Hedgehog, at a level that is slightly higher than that observed in PDA. GLI2 protein is also expressed in both PanIN/IPMN and PDA. Although there was no difference in the nuclear staining, the cytoplasmic GLI2 level in PDA was modest in comparison to that in PanIN/IPMN. Hedgehog interacting protein was strongly expressed in the precursors, whereas the level in PDA was significantly attenuated. There were no differences in expression of Patched1 at early and late stages. Finally, a strong correlation between Sonic Hedgehog and GLI2 staining was found in both human and murine pancreatic tumors. The results indicate that the GLI2 protein level could serve as a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

  4. Low BRAF and NRAS expression levels are associated with clinical benefit from DTIC therapy and prognosis in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Einar; Busch, Christian; Berge, Elisabet Ognedal; Geisler, Jürgen; Jönsson, Göran; Lillehaug, Johan Richard; Knappskog, Stian; Lønning, Per Eystein

    2013-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma is characterized by a poor response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, there is a lack of established predictive and prognostic markers. In this single institution study, we correlated mutation status and expression levels of BRAF and NRAS to dacarbazine (DTIC) treatment response as well as progression-free and overall survival in a cohort of 85 patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma. Neither BRAF nor NRAS mutation status correlated to treatment response. However, patients with tumors harboring NRAS mutations had a shorter overall survival (p < 0.001) compared to patients with tumors wild-type for NRAS. Patients having a clinical benefit (objective response or stable disease at 3 months) on DTIC therapy had lower BRAF and NRAS expression levels compared to patients progressing on therapy (p = 0.037 and 0.003, respectively). For BRAF expression, this association was stronger among patients with tumors wild-type for BRAF (p = 0.005). Further, low BRAF as well as NRAS expression levels were associated with a longer progression-free survival in the total population (p = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). Contrasting low NRAS expression levels, which were associated with improved overall survival in the total population (p = 0.01), low BRAF levels were associated with improved overall survival only among patients with tumors wild-type for BRAF (p = 0.013). These findings indicate that BRAF and NRAS expression levels may influence responses to DTIC as well as prognosis in patients with advanced melanoma.

  5. Study on relationship between expression level and molecular conformations of gene drugs targeting to hepatoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Ye; Lu, Fang-Gen; Tang, Xi-Xiang; Zhao, Shui-Ping; Ouyang, Chun-Hui; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Ying

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To increase exogenous gene expression level by modulating molecular conformations of targeting gene drugs. METHODS: The full length cDNAs of both P40 and P35 subunits of human interleukin 12 were amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into eukaryotic expressing vectors pcDNA3.1 (±) to construct plasmids of P (+)/IL-12, P (+)/P40 and P (-)/P35. These plasmids were combined with ASOR-PLL to form two targeting gene drugs [ASOR-PLL-P (+)/IL-12 and ASOR-PLL-P (+)/P40 + ASOR-PLL-P (-)/P35] in optimal ratios. The conformations of these two drugs at various concentrations adjuvant were examined under electron microscope (EM) and the drugs were transfected into HepG2 (ASGr+) cells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed with total RNA extracted from the transfected cells to determine the hIL12 mRNA transcript level. The hIL12 protein in the cultured supernatant was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 48 hours after transfection. RESULTS: Targeting gene drugs, whose structures were granular and circle-like and diameters ranged from 25 nm to 150 nm, had the highest hIL-12 expression level. The hIL-12 expression level in the group co-transfected with ASOR-PLL-P (+)/P40 and ASOR-PLL-P (-)/P35 was higher than that of ASOR-PLL-P (+)/IL-12 transfected group. CONCLUSION: The molecular conformations of targeting gene drugs play an important role in exogenous gene expression level, the best structures are granular and circle-like and their diameters range from 25 nm to 150 nm. The sizes and linking styles of exogenous genes also have some effects on their expression level. PMID:12970883

  6. Correlation between protein expression of FOXP3 and level of FOXP3 promoter methylation in recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenhui; Li, Zhuyu; Li, Yinguang; Fang, Liyuan; Li, Jie; Huang, Jia; Li, Xiaoqing; You, Zeshan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) promoter methylation and protein expression in recurrent spontaneous abortion and to elucidate the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). We assessed a total of 56 URSA patients with a normal embryo, 24 recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) patients with an abnormal embryo (as control group 1), and 39 normal pregnant women (as control group 2). The expression of FOXP3 protein in deciduas was assessed through Western blot, and the level of FOXP3 promoter methylation was detected using bisulfite-assisted genomic sequencing polymerase chain reaction. The expressing quantity of FOXP3 protein in the URSA group was significantly lower than that in control groups 1 and 2, both with a P-value < 0.05. By contrast, no statistical difference was observed in the expressing quantity of FOXP3 protein of the two control groups (P = 0.212). The FOXP3 promoter methylation level in the URSA group was significantly higher than that in the two control groups, both of which exhibited a statistical difference of P-values < 0.05. Meanwhile, no statistical difference was observed in the FOXP3 promoter methylation level of the two control groups (P = 0.141). A negative correlation was found between the FOXP3 promoter methylation level and the expressing quantity of FOXP3 protein (r = -0.861, P < 0.05). Increasing FOXP3 promoter methylation levels may cause abnormal immune tolerance through the downregulation expression of the FOXP3 protein, which in turn leads to URSA. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  8. Differential cellular responses by oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Cheng, Xiangdong; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Kung, Sam K P; Lee, Clement M; Chiu, Sung Kay

    2018-06-01

    c-Myc is a highly pleiotropic transcription factor known to control cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cellular transformation. Normally, ectopic expression of c-Myc is associated with promoting cell proliferation or triggering cell death via activating p53. However, it is not clear how the levels of c-Myc lead to different cellular responses. Here, we generated a series of stable RPE cell clones expressing c-Myc at different levels, and found that consistent low level of c-Myc induced cellular senescence by activating AP4 in post-confluent RPE cells, while the cells underwent cell death at high level of c-Myc. In addition, high level of c-Myc could override the effect of AP4 on cellular senescence. Further knockdown of AP4 abrogated senescence-like phenotype in cells expressing low level of c-Myc, and accelerated cell death in cells with medium level of c-Myc, indicating that AP4 was required for cellular senescence induced by low level of c-Myc.

  9. MGMT expression levels predict disease stabilisation, progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with DTIC.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Geisler, Jürgen; Lillehaug, Johan R; Lønning, Per Eystein

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma responds poorly to systemic treatment. We report the results of a prospective single institution study evaluating O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status as a potential predictive and/or prognostic marker among patients treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) 800-1000 mg/m(2) monotherapy administered as a 3-weekly schedule for advanced malignant melanomas. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee. Surgical biopsies from metastatic or loco-regional deposits obtained prior to DTIC treatment were snap-frozen immediately upon removal and stored in liquid nitrogen up to processing. Median time from enrolment to end of follow-up was 67 months. MGMT expression levels evaluated by qRT-PCR correlated significantly to DTIC benefit (CR/PR/SD; p=0.005), time to progression (TTP) (p=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.003). MGMT expression also correlated to Breslow thickness in the primary tumour (p=0.014). While MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlated to MGMT expression, MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate to treatment benefit, TTP or OS, suggesting that other factors may be critical in determining MGMT expression levels in melanomas. In a Cox proportional regression analysis, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, p<0.001), MGMT expression (p=0.022) and p16(INK4a) expression (p=0.037) independently predicted OS, while TTP correlated to DTIC benefit after 6 weeks only (p=0.001). Our data reveal MGMT expression levels to be associated with disease stabilisation and prognosis in patients receiving DTIC monotherapy for advanced melanoma. The role of MGMT expression as a predictor to DTIC sensitivity versus a general prognostic factor in advanced melanomas warrants further evaluation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Population Level Purifying Selection and Gene Expression Shape Subgenome Evolution in Maize.

    PubMed

    Pophaly, Saurabh D; Tellier, Aurélien

    2015-12-01

    The maize ancestor experienced a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) followed by gene erosion which generated two subgenomes, the dominant subgenome (maize1) experiencing fewer deletions than maize2. We take advantage of available extensive polymorphism and gene expression data in maize to study purifying selection and gene expression divergence between WGD retained paralog pairs. We first report a strong correlation in nucleotide diversity between duplicate pairs, except for upstream regions. We then show that maize1 genes are under stronger purifying selection than maize2. WGD retained genes have higher gene dosage and biased Gene Ontologies consistent with previous studies. The relative gene expression of paralogs across tissues demonstrates that 98% of duplicate pairs have either subfunctionalized in a tissuewise manner or have diverged consistently in their expression thereby preventing functional complementation. Tissuewise subfunctionalization seems to be a hallmark of transcription factors, whereas consistent repression occurs for macromolecular complexes. We show that dominant gene expression is a strong determinant of the strength of purifying selection, explaining the inferred stronger negative selection on maize1 genes. We propose a novel expression-based classification of duplicates which is more robust to explain observed polymorphism patterns than the subgenome location. Finally, upstream regions of repressed genes exhibit an enrichment in transposable elements which indicates a possible mechanism for expression divergence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A novel variant associated with HDL-C levels by modifying DAGLB expression levels: An annotation-based genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Xiaohui; Li, Zhiqiang; Ni, Yaqin; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Hong; Liu, Chengguo; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ruizhi; Pan, Feixia; Zhu, Yimin; Shi, Yongyong; Lai, Maode

    2018-06-01

    Although numbers of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for serum lipid levels, limited heritability has been explained. Studies showed that combining data from GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) signals can both enhance the discovery of trait-associated SNPs and gain a better understanding of the mechanism. We performed an annotation-based, multistage genome-wide screening for serum-lipid-level-associated loci in totally 6863 Han Chinese. A serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) associated variant rs1880118 (hg19 chr7:g. 6435220G>C) was replicated (P combined  = 1.4E-10). rs1880118 was associated with DAGLB (diacylglycerol lipase, beta) expression levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 5.9E-42) and explained 47.7% of the expression variance. After the replication, an active segment covering variants tagged by rs1880118 near 5' of DAGLB was annotated using histone modification and transcription factor binding signals. The luciferase report assay revealed that the segment containing the minor alleles showed increased transcriptional activity compared with segment contains the major alleles, which was consistent with the eQTL analyses. The expression-trait association tests indicated the association between the DAGLB and serum HDL-C levels using gene-based approaches called "TWAS" (P = 3.0E-8), "SMR" (P = 1.1E-4), and "Sherlock" (P = 1.6E-6). To summarize, we identified a novel HDL-C-associated variant which explained nearly half of the expression variance of DAGLB. Integrated analyses established a genotype-gene-phenotype three-way association and expanded our knowledge of DAGLB in lipid metabolism.

  12. The ESR1 and GPX1 gene expression level in human malignant and non-malignant breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Król, Magdalena B; Galicki, Michał; Grešner, Peter; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jabłońska, Ewa; Reszka, Edyta; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor. We used the quantitative real-time PCR technique to analyze differences in the expression levels of the ESR1 and GPX1 genes in paired malignant and non-malignant tissues from breast cancer patients. ESR1 and GPX1 expression levels were found to be significantly down-regulated by 14.7% and 7.4% (respectively) in the tumorous breast tissue when compared to the non-malignant one. Down-regulation of these genes was independent of the tumor histopathology classification and clinicopathological factors, while the ESR1 mRNA level was reduced with increasing tumor grade (G1: 103% vs. G2: 85.8% vs. G3: 84.5%; p<0.05). In the non-malignant and malignant breast tissues, the expression levels of ESR1 and GPX1 were significantly correlated with each other (Rs=0.450 and Rs=0.360; respectively). Our data suggest that down-regulation of ESR1 and GPX1 was independent of clinicopathological factors. Down-regulation of ESR1 gene expression was enhanced by the development of the disease. Moreover, GPX1 and ESR1 gene expression was interdependent in the malignant breast tissue and further work is needed to determine the mechanism underlying this relationship.

  13. IL-10-dependent down-regulation of MHC class II expression level on monocytes by peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Sup; Baek, Dae-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Shin, Byoung-Sub; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Ja-Woong; Hong, Young-Seoub; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Kwak, Jong-Young

    2005-11-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disorder characterized by the ectopic growth of misplaced endometrial cells. Moreover, immunological abnormalities of cell-mediated and humoral immunity may be associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The effects of peritoneal fluid (PF) from endometriosis patients on the expression levels of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules on the cell surfaces of monocytes were investigated. Compared to the PF of controls, the addition of 10% PF (n=10) from patients with endometriosis to culture medium significantly reduced the percentage of MHC class II-positive cells in cultures of a THP-1, monocytic cell line at 48 h. The effect of endometriosis patient PF (EPF) was dose-dependent, and similar effect was observed in peripheral blood monocytes. An inverse correlation was found between MHC class II expression level and IL-10 concentration in EPF (r=-0.518; p=0.019) and in the supernatant of peripheral blood monocyte cultured in EPF (r=-0.459; p=0.042) (n=20). The expression levels of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), but not of CD54 and B7-H1, were down-regulated by EPF. The mRNA level of HLA-DR was unaffected by EPF but protein level was reduced by EPF. Neutralizing IL-10 antibody abrogated MHC class II down-regulation on monocytes, which had been induced by EPF. However, in a functional assay, monocytes treated with EPF failed to stimulate T cell in mixed leukocyte reaction, although T cell proliferation was increased with EPF-treated monocytes and Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. These results suggest that MHC class II expression level on monocytes is down-regulated by EPF, but the cell stimulatory ability of monocytes does not coincide with MHC class II expression level.

  14. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Sébastien

    2006-08-25

    The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model) method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  15. Influence of haplotypes, gene expression and soluble levels of L-selectin on the risk of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Pinto, Elena; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón; Hernández-Bello, Jorge; Martínez-Fernández, Diana Emilia; Valdés-Alvarado, Emmanuel; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Salinas, H E; Valle, Yeminia

    2017-08-20

    L-selectin gene (SELL) is a candidate gene for the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that contributes to endothelial dysfunction. The -642C>T (rs2205849) and 725C>T (rs2229569) polymorphisms have been associated with changes in gene expression, ligand affinity and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the haplotypes constructed with the -642C>T and 725C>T polymorphisms of the SELL gene, the expression levels of its mRNA and the serum levels of soluble L-selectin with ACS. We recruited 615 individuals of Mexican origin matched by age, including 342 patients with ACS and 273 individuals without personal history of ischemic cardiopathy as control group (CG). Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. The qPCR technique was used to analyze the expression of mRNA using TaqMan® UPL probes. The levels of soluble L-selectin were measured with ELISA. The allele variants in both polymorphisms were over-represented in the CG compared to the ACS (OR range: 0.371-0.716, p<0.006). The CT and TT haplotypes had a protective effect against the development of ACS (OR=0.401, p<0.0001; OR=0.628, p<0.0001, respectively). SELL expression was 3.076 times higher in the ACS group compared to CG (p<0.001). The levels of soluble L-selectin were similar between ACS and CG. Both polymorphisms had no effect on mRNA expression and soluble protein levels. The polymorphisms -642C>T and 725C>T of the SELL gene are protective factors against the development of ACS. There is an increased gene expression of L-selectin in ACS compared to CG in the population of Western Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating promyelocytes and low levels of CD16 expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes accompany early-onset periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, E; Nakamura, M; Shoji, S; Horiuchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Early-onset periodontitis (EOP) is characterized by rapidly progressive alveolar bone loss, chemotactic defects of neutrophils, and significant familial aggregation. We found immature myeloid lineage cells, defined as promyelocytes, in the peripheral blood in patients with EOP. A hematological examination of peripheral blood cells showed normal reference values regarding cell proportions. Flow cytometry revealed significantly lower expression of CD16, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, on peripheral neutrophils in patients compared with those in age- and sex-matched healthy controls, whereas the levels of CD11a and CD11b expression were similar. The chemotactic response of neutrophils was lower toward not only formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine but also complement fragment C5a than that of healthy controls. The expression of another GPI-anchored protein, CD14, was equally expressed by controls and patients. Therefore, the low level of CD16 expression was not due to the incomplete synthesis of the GPI anchor. GPI anchors of CD16 on neutrophils from controls and patients were both partially resistant to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The presence of promyelocytes in peripheral blood, low expression of CD16, and low chemotactic response of neutrophils suggest that patients with EOP have an abnormal maturation system in myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow, which may be associated with the onset and course of EOP. PMID:9284170

  17. Cloning and high level expression of gene encoding ES antigen from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Xu, W; Chen, H; Ma, Z; Zhu, Y; Cai, S

    1994-01-01

    The partial structure gene encoding ES antigen derived from Trichinella spiralis (TSP) muscle larvae was cloned, characterized, and expressed in E. coli. The target DNA (0.7 kb) was directly obtained from the TSP total RNA by using RNA PCR technique. Based on the analysis with the RE digestion, the fragment was cloned into the fusion expression vector pEX31C. It was shown that a kind of 37kDa fusion protein was expressed in E. coli containing the recombinant plasmid by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The expressed protein was over 22% of the total cell protein, and it was aggregated in the form of inclusion bodies in E. coli. The purified protein could be recognized in ELISA both by sera from swine-infected with TSP and by the monoclonal antibody against TSP. These findings suggest that the recombinant protein is a potentially valuable antigen both for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development of trichinellosis.

  18. High-level expression of a synthetic gene encoding a sweet protein, monellin, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongjun; Cai, Heng; Lu, Fuping; Du, Lianxiang

    2005-11-01

    The expression of a synthetic gene encoding monellin, a sweet protein, in E. coli under the control of T7 promoter from phage is described. The single-chain monellin gene was designed based on the biased codons of E. coli so as to optimize its expression. Monellin was produced and accounted for 45% of total soluble proteins. It was purified to yield 43 mg protein per g dry cell wt. The purity of the recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE.

  19. Plasma Testosterone Levels Increase with Expression of Male Ornaments During Mating, but not Incubation, in Japanese Barn Swallows.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Sato, Megumi; Sakai, Hidetsugu

    2017-08-01

    Recent experimental studies involving the manipulation of sexual traits have demonstrated that sexual trait expression feeds back to testosterone levels, perhaps via social interactions, reinforcing the linkage between sexual trait expression and testosterone levels during the mating period. However, information on this reinforcement under the natural variation of sexual traits remains limited. Using Japanese barn swallows, Hirundo rustica gutturalis, in which extra-pair paternity is quite rare (< 3%), we studied the relationship between plasma testosterone level and a male sexual trait, throat patch size, during the mating and incubation periods. Given the importance of social interaction, we predicted that this relationship should be intense during the mating period, but not the incubation period, due to reduced social interaction during the latter. We found low plasma testosterone levels during the incubation period compared with those in the mating period, and plasma testosterone levels were significantly positively related to throat patch area during the mating period, but not the incubation period. Similar relationships were found in another sexual trait, the size of white tail spots. During the incubation period, body condition, instead of male sexual trait expression, was negatively related to plasma testosterone level, indicating that an intrinsic link, rather than reinforcement, is important during this period. These relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that social interaction reinforces the relationship between sexual traits and plasma testosterone levels. The current study provides evidence for a highly variable relationship between testosterone and ornamentation across breeding periods in the natural variation of sexual traits.

  20. Changes in c-Kit expression levels during the course of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bicheng; Xu, Jing; Shui, Yongjie; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Xiaozhong; Shen, Li; Wei, Qichun

    2016-10-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, distant metastasis is currently the main cause of treatment failure for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Additional therapeutic strategies are required to control the metastasis and improve survival. One strategy is targeted therapy, for example against c-Kit. In the current study, the frequency of c-Kit expression was determined immunohistochemically in 106 NPC patients. c-Kit expression changes during the course of radiation therapy were detected in 41 cases via weekly biopsy. Twelve cases (11.3%) had c-Kit expression scores of 3 + and 16 (15.1%) had scores of 2 + . Thus, c-Kit overexpression (2 + or 3 + ) was observed in 28 (26.4%) patients. There were 35 (33.0%) and 43 (40.6%) patients with c-Kit expression scores of 1 + and 0, respectively. Furthermore, a trend of decreased c-Kit expression was observed after commencing radiotherapy according to the 41 NPC patients who were biopsied weekly. Therefore, c-Kit overexpression was identified to be common in NPC, and evaluating c-Kit as a therapeutic target for metastatic NPC via c-Kit overexpression subsequent to first line treatment may be of interest. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate a trend of decreased c-Kit expression during the course of radiotherapy.

  1. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus replicons for high-level transgene expression in transgenic plants and cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuren; Mason, Hugh

    2006-02-05

    A novel stable transgenic plant expression system was developed using elements of the replication machinery of Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus (BeYDV). The system contains two transgenes: 1) The BeYDV replicon vector with an expression cassette flanked by cis-acting DNA elements of BeYDV, and 2) The viral replication initiator protein (Rep) controlled by an alcohol-inducible promoter. When Rep expression was triggered by treatment with ethanol, it induced release of the BeYDV replicon from stably integrated T-DNA and episomal replication to high copy number. Replicon amplification resulted in substantially increased transgene mRNA levels (up to 80-fold) and translation products (up to 10-fold) after induction of Rep expression by ethanol treatment in tobacco NT1 cells and leaves of whole potato plants. Thus, the BeYDV stable transformant replicon system is a powerful tool for plant-based production of recombinant proteins. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Role of endogenous cortistatin in the regulation of ghrelin system expression at pancreatic level under normal and obese conditions.

    PubMed

    Chanclón, Belén; Luque, Raúl M; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; Castaño, Justo P; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin-system components [native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase enzyme (GOAT) and receptors (GHS-Rs)] are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the pancreas, where they exert different biological actions including regulation of neuroendocrine secretions, food intake and pancreatic function. The expression of ghrelin system is regulated by metabolic conditions (fasting/obesity) and is associated with the progression of obesity and insulin resistance. Cortistatin (CORT), a neuropeptide able to activate GHS-R, has emerged as an additional link in gut-brain interplay. Indeed, we recently reported that male CORT deficient mice (cort-/-) are insulin-resistant and present a clear dysregulation in the stomach ghrelin-system. The present work was focused at analyzing the expression pattern of ghrelin-system components at pancreas level in cort-/- mice and their control littermates (cort +/+) under low- or high-fat diet. Our data reveal that all the ghrelin-system components are expressed at the mouse pancreatic level, where, interestingly, In1-ghrelin was expressed at higher levels than native-ghrelin. Thus, GOAT mRNA levels were significantly lower in cort-/- mice compared with controls while native ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R transcript levels remained unaltered under normal metabolic conditions. Moreover, under obese condition, a significant increase in pancreatic expression of native-ghrelin, In1-ghrelin and GHS-R was observed in obese cort+/+ but not in cort-/- mice. Interestingly, insulin expression and release was elevated in obese cort+/+, while these changes were not observed in obese cort-/- mice. Altogether, our results indicate that the ghrelin-system expression is clearly regulated in the pancreas of cort+/+ and cort -/- under normal and/or obesity conditions suggesting that this system may play relevant roles in the endocrine pancreas. Most importantly, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that endogenous CORT is essential

  4. Analysis of protein levels of 24 cytokines in scrapie agent-infected brain and glial cell cultures from mice differing in prion protein expression levels.

    PubMed

    Tribouillard-Tanvier, Déborah; Striebel, James F; Peterson, Karin E; Chesebro, Bruce

    2009-11-01

    Activation of microglia and astroglia is seen in many neurodegenerative diseases including prion diseases. Activated glial cells produce cytokines as a protective response against certain pathogens and as part of the host inflammatory response to brain damage. In addition, cytokines might also exacerbate tissue damage initiated by other processes. In the present work using multiplex assays to analyze protein levels of 24 cytokines in scrapie agent-infected C57BL/10 mouse brains, we observed elevation of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12p40. Scrapie agent-infected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing anchorless prion protein (PrP) had similar cytokine responses in spite of extensive differences in neuropathology. Therefore, these responses may be primarily a reaction to brain damage induced by prion infection rather than specific inducers of a particular type of pathology. To study the roles of astroglia and microglia in these cytokine responses, primary glial cultures were exposed to scrapie agent-infected brain homogenates. Microglia produced only IL-12p40 and CXCL10, whereas astroglia produced these cytokines plus CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1, G-CSF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-13. Glial cytokine responses from wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing anchorless PrP differed only slightly, but glia from PrP-null mice produced only IL-12p40, indicating that PrP expression was required for scrapie agent induction of other cytokines detected. The difference in cytokine response between microglia and astroglia correlated with 20-fold-higher levels of PrP expression in astroglia versus microglia, suggesting that high-level PrP expression on astroglia might be important for induction of certain cytokines.

  5. Investigation of apoptosis-related gene expression levels in preimplantation biopsies as predictors of delayed kidney graft function.

    PubMed

    Goncalves-Primo, Amador; Mourão, Tuíla B; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinícius; Campos, Erika F; Medina-Pestana, José O; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2014-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of the gene coding for the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2, the proapoptotic molecule Bax, and the apoptosis executor enzyme caspase-3 in preimplantation renal biopsies (PIB) as markers for delayed graft function. In this prospective single-center study, gene expression levels were evaluated using real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in PIB of kidneys from 72 deceased donors (DDs) and 18 living donors (LDs). CASP3 and BAX expression levels were higher, whereas those of BCL2 were lower, in DD than in LD PIB. In biopsies from DD, BCL2 levels were lower in cases with DGF, whereas no differences were observed concerning CASP3 and BAX. The BAX/BCL2 gene expression ratio greater than 2.29 associated with DGF with an odds ratio of 2.00. A multiple regression analysis including data of TLR4 expression in the first day posttransplant PB from a previous study of our group conducted in the same patients revealed a very strong association of the combination of BAX/BCL2 greater than 2.3 in PIB and TLR4 of 0.95 uRE or lesser in PB with the occurrence of DGF, with OR of 120 and positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 92%, respectively. The power to predict DGF of the combination of high BAX/BCL2 expression in PIB and low TLR4 expression in the first day posttransplant peripheral blood observed in the present study is extremely high, in comparison to any other marker or combinations of markers so far published in the literature.

  6. High-level heterologous expression and properties of a novel lipase from Ralstonia sp. M1.

    PubMed

    Quyen, Dinh Thi; Giang Le, Thi Thu; Nguyen, Thi Thao; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2005-01-01

    The mature lipase LipA and its 56aa-truncated chaperone DeltaLipBhis (with 6xhis-tag) from Ralstonia sp. M1 were over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of T7 promoter with a high level of 70 and 12mg protein per gram of wet cells, respectively. The simply purified lipase LipA was effectively refolded by Ni-NTA purified chaperone DeltaLipBhis in molar ratio 1:1 at 4 degrees C for 24 hours in H2O. The in vitro refolded lipase LipA had an optimal activity in the temperature range of 50-55 degrees C and was stable up to 45 degrees C with more than 84% activity retention. The maximal activity was observed at pH 10.75 for hydrolysis of olive oil and found to be stable over alkaline pH range 8.0-10.5 with more than 52% activity retention. The enzyme was found to be highly resistant to many organic solvents especially induced by ethanolamine (remaining activity 137-334%), but inhibited by 1-butanol and acetonitrile (40-86%). Metal ions Cu2+, Sn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ stimulated the lipase slightly with increase in activity by up to 22%, whereas Zn2+ significantly inhibited the enzyme with the residual activity of 30-65% and Fe3+ to a lesser degree (activity retention of 77-86%). Tween 80, Tween 60, and Tween 40 induced the activation of the lipase LipA (222-330%) and 0.2-1% (w/v) of Triton X-100, X-45, and SDS increased the lipase activity by up to 52%. However, 5% (w/v) of Triton X-100, X-45, and SDS inhibited strongly the activity by 31-89%. The inhibitors including DEPC, EDTA, PMSF, and 2-mercaptoethanol (0.1-10mM) inhibited moderately the lipase with remaining activity of 57-105%. The lipase LipA hydrolyzed a wide range of triglycerides, but preferentially short length acyl chains (C4 and C6). In contrast to the triglycerides, medium length acyl chains (C8 and C14) of p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters were preferential substrates of this lipase. The enzyme preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of cottonseed oil (317%), cornoil (227%), palm oil (222

  7. The relationship between insight and the level of expressed emotion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ozkiris, Ayse; Essizoglu, Altan; Gulec, Gulcan; Aksaray, Gokay

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is firstly to compare the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with good insight and OCD patients with poor insight in terms of socio-demographic and clinical features; to investigate the relation between insight and the level of the expressed emotion (EE) in the patients; and lastly to specify the factors that predict level of insight. OCD patients with good insight and patients with poor insight were compared in terms of clinical features and the perceived EE level of the patients and the individuals that they live with in order to specify the factors that predict the insight level, and to investigate the relationship between insight level and EE. It was found that the total Expressed Emotion Scale, total Level of Expressed Emotion (LEE), LEE-Emotional Response and LEE-Tolerance/Expectation subscale scores of the group comprised of patients with poor insight are higher than the other group. The results also show that the duration of illness and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score predict insight level. This study shows that the level of EE perceived by the patients with poor insight and the person that he/she lives with, is higher than the group with good insight. The studies that investigate the relationship between the factors of insight level and EE level, which are indicated to determine the level of the illness severity and its chronicity, will enable the researchers to understand the importance of the role of the family on the treatment processes of OCD.

  8. Inverse correlation between HPSE gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and heparanase expression: possibility of multiple levels of heparanase regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovsky, Olga; Korostishevsky, Michael; Shafat, Itay; Mayorov, Margarita; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nagler, Arnon

    2009-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves the saccharide chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Heparanase plays important roles in processes such as angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, tissue repair and remodeling, inflammation and autoimmunity. Genetic variations of the heparanase gene (HPSE) have been associated with heparanase transcription level. The present study was undertaken to identify haplotype or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotype combinations that correlate with heparanase expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. For this purpose, 11 HPSE gene SNPs were genotyped among 108 healthy individuals. Five out of the eleven polymorphisms revealed an association between the SNPs and heparanase expression. SNP rs4693608 exhibited a strong evidence of association. Analysis of haplotypes distribution revealed that the combination of two SNPs (rs4693608 and rs4364254) disclosed the most significant result. This approach allowed segregation of possible genotype combinations to three groups that correlate with low (LR: GG-CC, GG-CT, GG-TT, GA-CC), intermediate (MR: GA-CT, GA-TT) and high (HR: AA-TT, AA-CT) heparanase expression. Unexpectedly, LR genotype combinations were associated with low mRNA expressions level and high heparanase concentration in plasma, while HR genotype combinations were associated with high expression of mRNA and low plasma protein level. Because the main site of activity of secreted active heparanase is the extracellular matrix and cell surface, the origin and functional significance of plasma heparanase remain to be investigated. The current study indicates that rs4693608 and rs4364254 SNPs are involved in the regulation of heparanase expression and provides the basis for further studies on the association between HPSE gene SNPs and disease outcome. PMID:19406828

  9. Modulation of Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1) Expression Levels Alters Mouse Mammary Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian D.; Lewis, Andrew S.; Rudolph, Michael C.; Ruehle, Marisa D.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Yun, Ui J.; Ilkun, Olesya; Pereira, Renata; Abel, E. Dale; Anderson, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by elevated aerobic glycolysis and lactate secretion which is supported by an increase in glucose transport and consumption. We hypothesized that reducing or eliminating the expression of the most prominently expressed glucose transporter(s) would decrease the amount of glucose available to breast cancer cells thereby decreasing their metabolic capacity and proliferative potential. Of the 12 GLUT family glucose transporters expressed in mice, GLUT1 was the most abundantly expressed at the RNA level in the mouse mammary tumors from MMTV-c-ErbB2 mice and cell lines examined. Reducing GLUT1 expression in mouse mammary tumor cell lines using shRNA or Cre/Lox technology reduced glucose transport, glucose consumption, lactate secretion and lipid synthesis in vitro without altering the concentration of ATP, as well as reduced growth on plastic and in soft agar. The growth of tumor cells with reduced GLUT1 expression was impaired when transplanted into the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice in vivo. Overexpression of GLUT1 in a cell line with low levels of endogenous GLUT1 increased glucose transport in vitro and enhanced growth in nude mice in vivo as compared to the control cells with very low levels of GLUT1. These studies demonstrate that GLUT1 is the major glucose transporter in mouse mammary carcinoma models overexpressing ErbB2 or PyVMT and that modulation of the level of GLUT1 has an effect upon the growth of mouse mammary tumor cell lines in vivo. PMID:21826239

  10. Using Poisson mixed-effects model to quantify transcript-level gene expression in RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhu, Yu; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Liu, Jun S; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2012-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful new technology for mapping and quantifying transcriptomes using ultra high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Using deep sequencing, gene expression levels of all transcripts including novel ones can be quantified digitally. Although extremely promising, the massive amounts of data generated by RNA-Seq, substantial biases and uncertainty in short read alignment pose challenges for data analysis. In particular, large base-specific variation and between-base dependence make simple approaches, such as those that use averaging to normalize RNA-Seq data and quantify gene expressions, ineffective. In this study, we propose a Poisson mixed-effects (POME) model to characterize base-level read coverage within each transcript. The underlying expression level is included as a key parameter in this model. Since the proposed model is capable of incorporating base-specific variation as well as between-base dependence that affect read coverage profile throughout the transcript, it can lead to improved quantification of the true underlying expression level. POME can be freely downloaded at http://www.stat.purdue.edu/~yuzhu/pome.html. yuzhu@purdue.edu; zhaohui.qin@emory.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Anderson, Christine B.; Seifried, Harold E.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Howard, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake. PMID:26258789

  12. IDP-ASE: haplotyping and quantifying allele-specific expression at the gene and gene isoform level by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Deonovic, Benjamin; Wang, Yunhao; Weirather, Jason; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Au, Kin Fai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Allele-specific expression (ASE) is a fundamental problem in studying gene regulation and diploid transcriptome profiles, with two key challenges: (i) haplotyping and (ii) estimation of ASE at the gene isoform level. Existing ASE analysis methods are limited by a dependence on haplotyping from laborious experiments or extra genome/family trio data. In addition, there is a lack of methods for gene isoform level ASE analysis. We developed a tool, IDP-ASE, for full ASE analysis. By innovative integration of Third Generation Sequencing (TGS) long reads with Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) short reads, the accuracy of haplotyping and ASE quantification at the gene and gene isoform level was greatly improved as demonstrated by the gold standard data GM12878 data and semi-simulation data. In addition to methodology development, applications of IDP-ASE to human embryonic stem cells and breast cancer cells indicate that the imbalance of ASE and non-uniformity of gene isoform ASE is widespread, including tumorigenesis relevant genes and pluripotency markers. These results show that gene isoform expression and allele-specific expression cooperate to provide high diversity and complexity of gene regulation and expression, highlighting the importance of studying ASE at the gene isoform level. Our study provides a robust bioinformatics solution to understand ASE using RNA sequencing data only. PMID:27899656

  13. Synergistic and Antagonistic Interplay between Myostatin Gene Expression and Physical Activity Levels on Gene Expression Patterns in Triceps Brachii Muscles of C57/BL6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Mishra, Sanjibita; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of myostatin expression and physical activity have both been associated with transcriptome dysregulation and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The transcriptome of triceps brachii muscles from male C57/BL6 mice corresponding to two genotypes (wild-type and myostatin-reduced) under two conditions (high and low physical activity) was characterized using RNA-Seq. Synergistic and antagonistic interaction and ortholog modes of action of myostatin genotype and activity level on genes and gene pathways in this skeletal muscle were uncovered; 1,836, 238, and 399 genes exhibited significant (FDR-adjusted P-value < 0.005) activity-by-genotype interaction, genotype and activity effects, respectively. The most common differentially expressed profiles were (i) inactive myostatin-reduced relative to active and inactive wild-type, (ii) inactive myostatin-reduced and active wild-type, and (iii) inactive myostatin-reduced and inactive wild-type. Several remarkable genes and gene pathways were identified. The expression profile of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit (Naca) supports a synergistic interaction between activity level and myostatin genotype, while Gremlin 2 (Grem2) displayed an antagonistic interaction. Comparison between activity levels revealed expression changes in genes encoding for structural proteins important for muscle function (including troponin, tropomyosin and myoglobin) and for fatty acid metabolism (some linked to diabetes and obesity, DNA-repair, stem cell renewal, and various forms of cancer). Conversely, comparison between genotype groups revealed changes in genes associated with G1-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle of myoblasts and the expression of Grem2 proteins that modulate the cleavage of the myostatin propeptide. A number of myostatin-feedback regulated gene products that are primarily regulatory were uncovered, including microRNA impacting central functions and Piezo proteins that make cationic current

  14. Expression levels of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in fat depots of vitamin A-restricted fattening cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Ihara, Tsubasa; Yoshioka, Hidetugu; Itoyama, Erina; Kitamura, Shoko; Nagase, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hiroaki; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Murakami, Masaru; Tomonaga, Shozo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2018-06-15

    Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated. The vitamin A restriction significantly increased or tended to increase expression levels of Cidea and Pgc-1α in scWAT, and Cidea, Dio2, and Nfia in mesWAT. Previous studies revealed that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway was responsible for commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to brown/beige adipocyte-lineage cells. The vitamin A restriction increased expression of Bmp7 and some Bmp receptors in WAT. The interrelationship between gene expression levels indicated that expression levels of Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α were closely related to those of genes related to function of brown/beige adipocytes in scWAT. Also, expression levels of Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α were highly correlated with those of Alk3 in scWAT. In summary, the present results suggest that the vitamin A restriction increases the number or activity of brown/beige adipocytes through regulatory expression of transcriptional regulators to induce brown/beige adipogenesis especially in scWAT of fattening cattle, which may be governed by the Bmp pathway.

  15. Olfactory discrimination varies in mice with different levels of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Jennifer L; Arevalo, Nicole L; Blatner, Megan J; Dang, An K; Clevenger, Amy C; Adams, Catherine E; Restrepo, Diego

    2010-10-28

    Previous studies have shown that schizophrenics have decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine (α7) receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, paranoid delusions, disorganized speech, deficits in auditory gating (i.e., inability to inhibit neuronal responses to repetitive auditory stimuli), and difficulties in odor discrimination and detection. Here we use mice with decreased α7 expression that also show a deficit in auditory gating to determine if these mice have similar deficits in olfaction. In the adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB), α7 expression localizes in the glomerular layer; however, the functional role of α7 is unknown. We show that inbred mouse strains (i.e., C3H and C57) with varying α7 expressions (e.g., α7 wild-type [α7+/+], α7 heterozygous knock-out [α7+/-] and α7 homozygous knock-out mice [α7-/-]) significantly differ in odor discrimination and detection of chemically-related odorant pairs. Using [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) autoradiography, α7 expression was measured in the OB. As previously demonstrated, α-BGT binding was localized to the glomerular layer. Significantly more expression of α7 was observed in C57 α7+/+ mice compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Furthermore, C57 α7+/+ mice were able to detect a significantly lower concentration of an odor in a mixture compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Both C57 and C3H α7+/+ mice discriminated between chemically-related odorants sooner than α7+/- or α7-/- mice. These data suggest that α7-nicotinic-receptors contribute strongly to olfactory discrimination and detection in mice and may be one of the mechanisms producing olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Systems-level analysis of cell-specific AQP2 gene expression in renal collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Jiun; Miller, R Lance; Uawithya, Panapat; Rinschen, Markus M; Khositseth, Sookkasem; Braucht, Drew W W; Chou, Chung-Lin; Pisitkun, Trairak; Nelson, Raoul D; Knepper, Mark A

    2009-02-17

    We used a systems biology-based approach to investigate the basis of cell-specific expression of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. Computational analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the AQP2 gene (Genomatix) revealed 2 conserved clusters of putative transcriptional regulator (TR) binding elements (BEs) centered at -513 bp (corresponding to the SF1, NFAT, and FKHD TR families) and -224 bp (corresponding to the AP2, SRF, CREB, GATA, and HOX TR families). Three other conserved motifs corresponded to the ETS, EBOX, and RXR TR families. To identify TRs that potentially bind to these BEs, we carried out mRNA profiling (Affymetrix) in mouse mpkCCDc14 collecting duct cells, revealing expression of 25 TRs that are also expressed in native inner medullary collecting duct. One showed a significant positive correlation with AQP2 mRNA abundance among mpkCCD subclones (Ets1), and 2 showed a significant negative correlation (Elf1 and an orphan nuclear receptor Nr1h2). Transcriptomic profiling in native proximal tubules (PT), medullary thick ascending limbs (MTAL), and IMCDs from kidney identified 14 TRs (including Ets1 and HoxD3) expressed in the IMCD but not PT or MTAL (candidate AQP2 enhancer roles), and 5 TRs (including HoxA5, HoxA9 and HoxA10) expressed in PT and MTAL but not in IMCD (candidate AQP2 repressor roles). In luciferase reporter assays, overexpression of 3 ETS family TRs transactivated the mouse proximal AQP2 promoter. The results implicate ETS family TRs in cell-specific expression of AQP2 and point to HOX, RXR, CREB and GATA family TRs as playing likely additional roles.

  17. Effect of cadmium on the expression levels of interleukin-1α and interleukin-10 cytokines in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Odewumi, Caroline; Latinwo, Lekan M; Sinclair, Andre; Badisa, Veera L D; Abdullah, Ahkinyala; Badisa, Ramesh B

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium is an environmentally hazardous metal, which causes toxicity in humans. Inhalation of cigarette smoke and industrial fumes containing cadmium are sources of cadmium exposure. It is responsible for the malfunction of various organs, leading to disease particularly in the lungs, liver and kidneys. In the present study, the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on cell viability, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1α and IL‑10 cytokines at various concentrations and incubation durations were assessed in MRC‑9 human normal lung and A549 human lung cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of cadmium toxicity. Cell viability was measured using a crystal violet dye binding assay. The expression levels of the cytokines were measured by cytokine specific enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. The viability assay results revealed higher sensitivity of the A549 lung cancer cells to CdCl2 compared with the normal MRC‑9 lung cells. In the normal MRC‑9 lung cells, higher expression levels of the cytokines were observed at the lowest CdCl2 concentration at a shorter exposure time compared with the lung cancer cells. Higher levels of the cytokines were observed in the A549 lung cancer cells at all other times and concentrations compared with the MRC‑9 cells, indicating higher levels of inflammation. The cytokine levels were reduced at higher CdCl2 concentrations and longer exposure durations, demonstrating the toxic effect of cadmium. The results indicated that CdCl2 affected the expression levels of the cytokines and led to cytotoxicity in human lung cells, and suggested that compounds which reduce inflammation may prevent cadmium toxicity.

  18. Differential Expression Levels of Integrin α6 Enable the Selective Identification and Isolation of Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wiencierz, Anne Maria; Kernbach, Manuel; Ecklebe, Josephine; Monnerat, Gustavo; Tomiuk, Stefan; Raulf, Alexandra; Christalla, Peter; Malan, Daniela; Hesse, Michael; Bosio, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Eckardt, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Central questions such as cardiomyocyte subtype emergence during cardiogenesis or the availability of cardiomyocyte subtypes for cell replacement therapy require selective identification and purification of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, current methodologies do not allow for a transgene-free selective isolation of atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes due to the lack of subtype specific cell surface markers. In order to develop cell surface marker-based isolation procedures for cardiomyocyte subtypes, we performed an antibody-based screening on embryonic mouse hearts. Our data indicate that atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized by differential expression of integrin α6 (ITGA6) throughout development and in the adult heart. We discovered that the expression level of this surface marker correlates with the intracellular subtype-specific expression of MLC-2a and MLC-2v on the single cell level and thereby enables the discrimination of cardiomyocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. Based on the differential expression of ITGA6 in atria and ventricles during cardiogenesis, we developed purification protocols for atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts. Atrial and ventricular identities of sorted cells were confirmed by expression profiling and patch clamp analysis. Here, we introduce a non-genetic, antibody-based approach to specifically isolate highly pure and viable atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts of various developmental stages. This will facilitate in-depth characterization of the individual cellular subsets and support translational research applications.

  19. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  20. Differential Expression Levels of Integrin α6 Enable the Selective Identification and Isolation of Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wiencierz, Anne Maria; Kernbach, Manuel; Ecklebe, Josephine; Monnerat, Gustavo; Tomiuk, Stefan; Raulf, Alexandra; Christalla, Peter; Malan, Daniela; Hesse, Michael; Bosio, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Eckardt, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Central questions such as cardiomyocyte subtype emergence during cardiogenesis or the availability of cardiomyocyte subtypes for cell replacement therapy require selective identification and purification of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, current methodologies do not allow for a transgene-free selective isolation of atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes due to the lack of subtype specific cell surface markers. Methods and Results In order to develop cell surface marker-based isolation procedures for cardiomyocyte subtypes, we performed an antibody-based screening on embryonic mouse hearts. Our data indicate that atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized by differential expression of integrin α6 (ITGA6) throughout development and in the adult heart. We discovered that the expression level of this surface marker correlates with the intracellular subtype-specific expression of MLC-2a and MLC-2v on the single cell level and thereby enables the discrimination of cardiomyocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. Based on the differential expression of ITGA6 in atria and ventricles during cardiogenesis, we developed purification protocols for atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts. Atrial and ventricular identities of sorted cells were confirmed by expression profiling and patch clamp analysis. Conclusion Here, we introduce a non-genetic, antibody-based approach to specifically isolate highly pure and viable atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts of various developmental stages. This will facilitate in-depth characterization of the individual cellular subsets and support translational research applications. PMID:26618511

  1. Serum vaspin levels and vaspin mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mm, Wei Qian; Fan, Jianxia; Khor, Shuzin; Song, Mengfan; Hong, Wei; Dai, Xiaobei

    2014-11-01

    To compare serum vaspin level and mRNA and protein levels of vaspin in adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGR), along with the correlation between serum vaspin level with fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and birth-weight. Thirty-seven women with GDM and 36 with NGR were enrolled. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), FINS and vaspin levels were measured. The mRNA and protein levels were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot. Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) was performed to reveal the correlation between serum vaspin level and FINS, HOMA-IR. Spearman correlation analysis (SCA) was conducted to examine the association between serum vaspin level and birth-weight. HDL-C level in GDM was lower than NGR group (P<0.05), and there were no statistical differences in TC, TG, LDL-C, FPG, FINS and HOMA-IR between the two groups. Serum vaspin level, mRNA and protein expression levels of vaspin in GDM were higher than NGR group (P<0.05). Serum vaspin level was not significantly correlated with FINS and HOMA-IR, but had a positive correlation with birth-weight (P=0.023). Serum vaspin level cannot serve as an independent predictor of IR. The increased serum vaspin level and increased vaspin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissues in GDM women indicate that vaspin may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM, but its exact mechanism needs further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MicroRNA-29b Regulates the Expression Level of Human Progranulin, a Secreted Glycoprotein Implicated in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian; Herl, Lauren D.; Farese, Robert V.; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2010-01-01

    Progranulin deficiency is thought to cause some forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a major early-onset age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. How progranulin (PGRN) expression is regulated is largely unknown. We identified an evolutionarily conserved binding site for microRNA-29b (miR-29b) in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the human PGRN (hPGRN) mRNA. miR-29b downregulates the expression of luciferase through hPGRN or mouse PGRN (mPGRN) 3′UTRs, and the regulation was abolished by mutations in the miR-29b binding site. To examine the direct effect of manipulating endogenous miR-29b on hPGRN expression, we established a stable NIH3T3 cell line that expresses hPGRN under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Ectopic expression of miR-29b decreased hPGRN expression at the both mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous miR-29b with locked nucleic acid increased the production and secretion of hPGRN in NIH3T3 cells. Endogenous hPGRN in HEK 293 cells was also regulated by miR-29b. These findings identify miR-29b as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of PGRN expression, raising the possibility that miR-29b or other miRNAs might be targeted therapeutically to increase hPGRN levels in some FTD patients. PMID:20479936

  3. Low Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Levels Are Associated With Heightened Conditioned Fear Expression in Rats and Humans.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Zagic, Dino; Richardson, Rick

    2017-10-15

    Hippocampal concentrations of the neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are negatively associated with the expression of fear following conditioning in rats. Heightened conditioned fear expression may be a prospective risk factor for the development of human anxiety and trauma disorders. However, the relationship between conditioned fear expression and FGF2 is yet to be established in humans. Using a cross-species approach, we first investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of FGF2 and individual differences in conditioned fear expression in rats (n = 19). We then subjected 88 human participants, who were recruited from university and community advertisements, to a differential fear conditioning procedure and assessed the relationship between salivary concentrations of FGF2 and fear expression to a conditioned stimulus (CS) (a stimulus paired with a shock) and a CS that was never paired with shock. Rats with low serum levels of FGF2 exhibited significantly more freezing than rats with high serum levels of FGF2. Similarly, relative to those with high salivary FGF2, human participants with low salivary FGF2 exhibited significantly heightened skin conductance responses to the CS without shock during fear conditioning and to both the CS with shock and CS without shock during fear recall. These studies establish that peripheral markers of FGF2 concentrations are negatively associated with fear expression in both rats and humans. To the extent that conditioned fear expression predicts anxiety and trauma disorder vulnerability, FGF2 may be a clinically useful biomarker in the prediction and eventual prevention of these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression Levels of Myostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 mRNAs in Uterine Leiomyoma are Correlated With Dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Tsigkou, Anastasia; Reis, Fernando M; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Lee, Meng H; Jiang, Bingjie; Tosti, Claudia; Shen, Fang-Rong; Shi, Zhendan; Chen, You-Guo; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign neoplasm of female reproductive system, found in about 50% of women in reproductive age. The mechanisms of leiomyoma growth include cell proliferation, which is modulated by growth factors, and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Activin A and myostatin are growth factors that play a role in proliferation of leiomyoma cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known for their ability to remodel the ECM in different biological systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of activin βA-subunit, myostatin, and MMP14 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in uterine leiomyomas and the possible correlation of these factors with clinical features of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 was highly expressed in uterine leiomyoma and correlated with myostatin and activin A mRNA expression. Moreover, MMP14 and myostatin mRNA expression correlated significantly and directly with the intensity of dysmenorrhea. Overall, the present findings showed that MMP14 mRNA is highly expressed in uterine leiomyoma, where it correlates with the molecular expression of growth factors and is further increased in cases of intense dysmenorrhea. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A structured sparse regression method for estimating isoform expression level from multi-sample RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Liu, X J

    2016-06-03

    With the rapid development of next-generation high-throughput sequencing technology, RNA-seq has become a standard and important technique for transcriptome analysis. For multi-sample RNA-seq data, the existing expression estimation methods usually deal with each single-RNA-seq sample, and ignore that the read distributions are consistent across multiple samples. In the current study, we propose a structured sparse regression method, SSRSeq, to estimate isoform expression using multi-sample RNA-seq data. SSRSeq uses a non-parameter model to capture the general tendency of non-uniformity read distribution for all genes across multiple samples. Additionally, our method adds a structured sparse regularization, which not only incorporates the sparse specificity between a gene and its corresponding isoform expression levels, but also reduces the effects of noisy reads, especially for lowly expressed genes and isoforms. Four real datasets were used to evaluate our method on isoform expression estimation. Compared with other popular methods, SSRSeq reduced the variance between multiple samples, and produced more accurate isoform expression estimations, and thus more meaningful biological interpretations.

  6. P2X7 receptor expression levels determine lethal effects of a purine based danger signal in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Aswad, Fred; Dennert, Gunther

    2006-09-01

    Contact of T lymphocytes with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or ATP causes cell death that requires expression of purinergic receptor P2X(7) (P2X(7)R). T cell subsets differ in their responses to NAD and ATP, which awaits a mechanistic explanation. Here, we show that sensitivity to ATP correlates with P2X(7)R expression levels in CD4 cells, CD8 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. But P2X(7)R ligands do not only induce cell death but also shedding of CD62L. It is shown here that in CD62L(high) T cells, CD62L shedding correlates with low expression of P2X(7)Rs and lower cell death, whereas in CD62L(low) cells P2X(7)R expression and death are higher. The possibility is therefore investigated that P2X(7)Rs induce T cell activation. Experiments show that spontaneous T cell proliferation is somewhat higher in cells expressing P2X(7)Rs, but this effect we suggest is caused by P2X(7)R expression on accessory cells.

  7. tortuga refines Notch pathway gene expression in the zebrafish presomitic mesoderm at the post-transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Dill, Kariena K; Amacher, Sharon L

    2005-11-15

    We have identified the zebrafish tortuga (tor) gene by an ENU-induced mutation that disrupts the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) expression of Notch pathway genes. In tor mutants, Notch pathway gene expression persists in regions of the PSM where expression is normally off in wild type embryos. The expression of hairy/Enhancer of split-related 1 (her1) is affected first, followed by the delta genes deltaC and deltaD, and finally, by another hairy/Enhancer of split-related gene, her7. In situ hybridization with intron-specific probes for her1 and deltaC indicates that transcriptional bursts of expression are normal in tor mutants, suggesting that tor normally functions to refine her1 and deltaC message levels downstream of transcription. Despite the striking defects in Notch pathway gene expression, somite boundaries form normally in tor mutant embryos, although somitic mesoderm defects are apparent later, when cells mature to form muscle fibers. Thus, while the function of Notch pathway genes is required for proper somite formation, the tor mutant phenotype suggests that precise oscillations of Notch pathway transcripts are not essential for establishing segmental pattern in the presomitic mesoderm.

  8. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial complex I gene expression is restored to normal levels by inhibition of unedited ATP9 transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Busi, María V; Gómez-Casati, Diego F; Perales, Mariano; Araya, Alejandro; Zabaleta, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role during sporogenesis in plants. The steady state levels of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial complex I (nCI), PSST, TYKY and NADHBP transcripts increase in flowers of male-sterile plants with impairment of mitochondrial function generated by the expression of the unedited version of ATP9 (u-ATP9). This suggests a nuclear control of nCI genes in response to the mitochondrial flaw. To evaluate this hypothesis, transgenic plants carrying the GUS reporter gene, under the control of the PSST, TYKY and NADHBP promoters, were constructed. We present evidence that suppression by antisense strategy of the expression of u-ATP9 restores the normal levels of three nCI transcripts, indicating that the increase in PSST, TYKY and NADHBP in plants with a mitochondrial flaw occurs at the transcriptional level. The data presented here support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a retrograde signaling which induce some nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Moreover, these results demonstrate that this is a valuable experimental model for studying nucleus-mitochondria cross-talk events.

  9. High Level Expression and Purification of the Clinically Active Antimicrobial Peptide P-113 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuang-Ting; Wu, Chih-Lung; Yip, Bak-Sau; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2018-03-30

    P-113, which was originally derived from the human saliva protein histatin 5, is a histidine-rich antimicrobial peptide with the sequence AKRHHGYKRKFH. P-113 is currently undergoing phase II clinical trial as a pharmaceutical agent to fight against fungal infections in HIV patients with oral candidiasis. Previously, we developed a new procedure for the high-yield expression and purification of hG31P, an analogue and antagonist of human CXCL8. Moreover, we have successfully removed lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) associated with hG31P in the expression with Escherichia coli . In this paper, we have used hG31P as a novel fusion protein for the expression and purification of P-113. The purity of the expressed P-113 is more than 95% and the yield is 4 mg P-113 per liter of E. coli cell culture in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The antimicrobial activity of the purified P-113 was tested. Furthermore, we used circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study the structural properties of P-113. Our results indicate that using hG31P as a fusion protein to obtain large quantities of P-113 is feasible and is easy to scale up for commercial production. An effective way of producing enough P-113 for future clinical studies is evident in this study.

  10. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, w...

  11. Sources of variation in baseline gene expression levels from toxicogenomics study control animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of gene expression profiling in both clinical and laboratory settings would be enhanced by better characterization ofvariance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis ofmicroarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the con...

  12. Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy on M1-Related Cytokine Expression in Monocytes via Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Chau-Zen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis and allergic rhinitis. However, the effects of LLLT on human monocyte polarization into M1 macrophages are unknown. To evaluate the effects of LLLT on M1-related cytokine and chemokine production and elucidate the mechanism, the human monocyte cell line THP-1 was treated with different doses of LLLT. The expression of M1-related cytokines and chemokines (CCL2, CXCL10, and TNF-α) was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. LLLT-associated histone modifications were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Mitochondrial involvement in the LLLT-induced M1-related cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell surface markers for monocyte polarization. The results showed that LLLT (660 nm) significantly enhanced M1-related cytokine and chemokine expression in mRNA and protein levels. Mitochondrial copy number and mRNA levels of complex I-V protein were increased by LLLT (1 J/cm2). Activation of M1 polarization was concomitant with histone modification at TNF-α gene locus and IP-10 gene promoter area. This study indicates that LLLT (660 nm) enhanced M1-related cytokine and chemokine expression via mitochondrial biogenesis and histone modification, which may be a potent immune-enhancing agent for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:24692853

  13. Exposure to arsenic at levels found inU.S. drinking water modifies expression in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Bernardo, Viviane; Warnke, Linda A; Davey, Jennifer C; Hampton, Thomas; Mason, Rebecca A; Thorpe, Jessica E; Ihnat, Michael A; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-11-01

    The mechanisms of action of drinking water arsenic in the lung and the threshold for biologic effects remain controversial. Our study utilizes Affymetrix 22,690 transcript oligonucleotide microarrays to assess the long-term effects of increasing doses of drinking water arsenic on expression levels in the mouse lung. Mice were exposed at levels commonly found in contaminated drinking water wells in the United States (0, 0.1, 1 ppb), as well as the 50 ppb former maximum contaminant level, for 5 weeks. The expression profiles revealed modification of a number of important signaling pathways, many with corroborating evidence of arsenic responsiveness. We observed statistically significant expression changes for transcripts involved in angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, oxygen transport, apoptosis, cell cycle, and immune response. Validation by reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot assays confirmed expression changes for a subset of transcripts. These data identify arsenic-modified signaling pathways that will help guide investigations into mechanisms of arsenic's health effects and clarify the threshold for biologic effects and potential disease risk.

  14. Post-harvest light treatment increases expression levels of recombinant proteins in transformed plastids of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Larraya, Luis M; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Ancín, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Veramendi, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genetic engineering represents an attractive system for the production of foreign proteins in plants. Although high expression levels can be achieved in leaf chloroplasts, the results for non-photosynthetic plastids are generally discouraging. Here, we report the expression of two thioredoxin genes (trx f and trx m) from the potato plastid genome to study transgene expression in amyloplasts. As expected, the highest transgene expression was detected in the leaf (up to 4.2% of TSP). The Trx protein content in the tuber was approximately two to three orders of magnitude lower than in the leaf. However, we demonstrate that a simple post-harvest light treatment of microtubers developed in vitro or soil-grown tubers induces up to 55 times higher accumulation of the recombinant protein in just seven to ten days. After the applied treatment, the Trx f levels in microtubers and soil-grown tubers increased to 0.14% and 0.11% of TSP, respectively. Moreover, tubers stored for eight months maintained the capacity of increasing the foreign protein levels after the light treatment. Post-harvest cold induction (up to five times) at 4°C was also detected in microtubers. We conclude that plastid transformation and post-harvest light treatment could be an interesting approach for the production of foreign proteins in potato. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Differential expression levels of collagen 1A2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4, and cathepsin B in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Paul, Pradip; Purushottam, Meera; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath; Jain, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) express a variety of differentially expressed genes when compared to the normal artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of a few genes in the aneurysm wall and to correlate them with various clinicoradiological factors. The mRNA level of collagen 1A2 (COL1A2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), and cathepsin B (CTSB) genes were studied in 23 aneurysmal walls and 19 superficial temporal arteries harvested from 23 patients undergoing clipping of IAs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The mean fold change of COL1A2 gene between the aneurysm sample and the superficial temporal artery (STA) sample was 2.46 ± 0.12, that of TIMP4 gene was 0.31 ± 0, and that of CTSB gene was 31.47 ± 39.01. There was a positive correlation of TIMP4 expression level with maximum diameter of aneurysm (P = 0.008) and fundus of aneurysm (P = 0.012). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who had preoperative hydrocephalus in the computed tomogram (CT) scan of the head at admission was 56.16 and that of the patients who did not have hydrocephalus was 13.51 (P = 0.008). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who developed fresh postoperative deficits or worsening of the preexisting deficits was 23.64 and that of the patients who did not develop was 42.22 (P = 0.039). COL1A2 gene and CTSB genes were overexpressed, and TIMP4 gene was underexpressed in the aneurysmal sac compared to STA and their expression levels were associated with a few clinicoradiological factors.

  16. Oestrogen upregulates the expression levels and functional activities of duodenal mucosal CFTR and SLC26A6.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Wen, Guorong; Deng, Shili; Wan, Shuo; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Xie, Rui; Dong, Hui; Tuo, Biguang

    2016-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Duodenal ulcer is a common disease. A sex-based difference in the incidence of duodenal ulcer has long been observed clinically, but the cause is unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is the most important protective factor in duodenal mucosa against acid-induced damage. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute-linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins that mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. We demonstrate that endogenous oestrogen upregulates the expression levels and functional activities of duodenal mucosal CFTR and SLC26A6, which contributes to the sex difference in the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The incidence of duodenal ulcer is markedly lower in women than men, but the cause of the sex difference is not clear. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute-linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins that mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, which is an important protective factor against acid-induced duodenal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oestrogen on the expressions and functional activities of CFTR and SLC26A6 in duodenal mucosa. We found that the expression levels of duodenal CFTR and SLC26A6 were markedly higher in young (20- to 30-year-old) women than in young men and old (60- to 70-year-old) women and men. The expression levels of CFTR and SLC26A6 in young women were markedly higher in preovulatory phases than in premenstrual phases, which was consistent with the changes of serum estradiol concentrations. Further results showed that duodenal CFTR and SLC26A6 expression levels in female mice were markedly decreased after ovariectomy, and supplementation with estradiol reversed the changes in CFTR and SLC26A6. 17β-Estradiol increased CFTR and SLC

  17. Chitinase Expression Due to Reduction in Fusaric Acid Level in an Antagonistic Trichoderma harzianum S17TH.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bhatacharya, Amita; Shanmugam, Veerubommu

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of reduction in phytotoxin level on fungal chitinases, antagonistic Trichoderma spp. were screened for their ability to reduce the level of fusaric acid (FA), the phytotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. A T. harzianum isolate S17TH was able to tolerate high levels of FA (up to 500 ppm) but was unable to reduce the toxin to a significant level (non-toxic) added to minimal synthetic broth (MSB). However, the isolate was able to reduce 400 ppm FA in the liquid medium after 7 days to a non-toxic level and displayed similar level of antagonism over the control (without FA). In studies of the effect of the reduction in FA (400 ppm) level on chitinase gene expression in PCR assays, nag1 was significantly repressed but ech42 expression was only slightly repressed. Chitinase activity was either reduced or absent in the extracellular proteins of MSB supplemented with 400 ppm FA, which could be attributed to the effect of residual FA or its breakdown products through unknown mechanisms. Selection of S17TH as a toxin insensitive isolate that could commensurate the negative effect on chitinase activity makes it a potential antagonist against Fusarium spp.

  18. Developmental expression of a regulatory gene is programmed at the level of splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, T B; Zachar, Z; Bingham, P M

    1987-01-01

    We report sequence and transcript structures for a 6191-base chromosomal segment containing the presumptive regulatory gene from Drosophila, suppressor-of-white-apricot [su(wa)]. Our results indicate that su(wa) expression is controlled by regulating occurrence of specific splices. Seven introns are removed from the su(wa) primary transcript during precellular blastoderm development. The sequence of this mature RNA indicates that it is a conventional messenger RNA. In contrast, after cellular blastoderm the first two of these introns cease to be efficiently removed. The mature RNAs resulting from this failure to remove the first two introns have structures quite unexpected of mRNAs. We propose that postcellular blastoderm su(wa) expression is repressed by preventing splices necessary to produce a functional mRNA. Implications and mechanisms are discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2832151

  19. Diagnostic investigations of DKK-1 and PDCD5 expression levels as independent prognostic markers of human chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zarea, Mojtaba; Mohammadian Bajgiran, Amirhossein; Sedaghati, Farnoush; Hatami, Negin; Taheriazam, Afshin; Yahaghi, Emad; Shakeri, Mohammadreza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the expression levels of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) by using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in patients with chondrosarcoma. The DKK-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in chondrosarcoma when compared with the corresponding nontumor tissues (mean ± SD: 4.23 ± 1.54; 1.54 ± 0.87; P = 0.001). PDCD5 mRNA levels were remarkably deceased in tumor tissues when compared with corresponding nontumor tissues (mean ± SD: 1.94 ± 0.73; 5.42 ± 1.73; P = 0.001). The high and moderate DKK-1 expressions were observed for 60% of chondrosarcoma samples in comparison with 27.5% of corresponding nontumor tissues (P  =  0.001). Moreover, low expression of PDCD5 was found in 67.5% of the tumor tissues when compared with the nontumor tissues (32.5%; P = 0.002). The results of this study showed that high DKK-1 expression levels were strongly related to MSTS stage (P = 0.011) and the advancement of histological grade (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PDCD5 expression levels were correlated with histological grade (P < 0.001), MSTS stage (P = 0.016), and distant metastasis (P = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and log-rank survival showed that patients with high DKK-1 levels and low PDCD5 levels were correlated with shorter overall survival (log-rank test P < 0.001). PDCD5 levels, histological grade, and tumor stage were independent predictors of overall survival. In conclusion, DKK-1 and PDCD5 can be independent predictors of overall survival in patients suffering from chondrosarcoma. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):597-601, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. High-level expression of nattokinase in Bacillus licheniformis by manipulating signal peptide and signal peptidase.

    PubMed

    Cai, D; Wei, X; Qiu, Y; Chen, Y; Chen, J; Wen, Z; Chen, S

    2016-09-01

    Nattokinase is an enzyme produced by Bacillus licheniformis and has potential to be used as a drug for treating cardiovascular disease due to its beneficial effects of preventing fibrin clots etc. However, the low activity and titre of this protein produced by B. licheniformis often hinders its application of commercial production. The aim of this work is to improve the nattokinase production by manipulating signal peptides and signal peptidases in B. licheniformis. The P43 promoter, amyL terminator and AprN target gene were used to form the nattokinase expression vector, pHY-SP-NK, which was transformed into B. licheniformis and nattokinase was expressed successfully. A library containing 81 predicted signal peptides was constructed for nattokinase expression in B. licheniformis, with the maximum activity being obtained under the signal peptide of AprE. Among four type I signal peptidases genes (sipS, sipT, sipV, sipW) in B. licheniformis, the deletion of sipV resulted in a highest decrease in nattokinase activity. Overexpression of sipV in B. licheniformis led to a nattokinase activity of 35·60 FU ml(-1) , a 4·68-fold improvement over activity produced by the initial strain. This work demonstrates the potential of B. licheniformis for industrial production of nattokinase through manipulation of signal peptides and signal peptidases expression. This study has screened the signal peptides of extracellular proteins of B. licheniformis for nattokinase production. Four kinds of Type I signal peptidases genes have been detected respectively in B. licheniformis to identify which one played the vital role for nattokinase production. This study provided a promising strain for industry production of nattokinase. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Expression Levels of ALA Dehydratase as a Marker of ALA-PDT Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avital, Schauder; Tamar, Feuerstein; Zvi, Malik

    2010-05-01

    Accelerated synthesis of protoporphyrinIX (PpIX) following ALA pre-treatment followed by light irradiation is the principle of ALA-PDT. Several limiting enzymes were suggested to control PpIX accumulation and PDT efficacy, among them porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and ferrochelatase. Here we reveal the centrality of ALA dehydratase (ALAD) activity in predicting ALA-PDT efficacy. Silencing of ALAD expression and activity was carried out in leukemic cells using shRNA plasmid transfection or Pb2+ intoxication. ALAD activity, porphyrin synthesis and mitochondrial activity were determined versus PDT efficacy. In K562 ALAD-silenced cells, ALAD activity and expression were reduced and as a result, PpIX synthesis was almost abolished. Following ALA treatment and irradiation, ALAD-silenced cells depicted normal mitochondrial activity, in contrast to control and non-silencing transfected cells where accumulated PpIX and irradiation caused ROS formation and mitochondrial damage. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of ALA-PDT treated cells showed no morphological changes in ALAD-silenced cells, while controls exhibited cell deformations and lysis. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining as well as LDH-L leakage testing showed that membrane integrity was undamaged following ALA-PDT in ALAD silenced cells. Pb2+ treatment in MEL cells impaired ALAD activity and reduced PpIX synthesis but to a lesser extent. In conclusion, we show that a dramatic reduction in PpIX accumulation following down regulation of ALAD expression prevents an efficient PDT. Thus, ALAD has a major role in regulating PpIX synthesis and ALA-PDT therapeutic outcome. Monitoring ALAD expression or activity in various tumors may be useful as prognostic tool to predict PDT efficacy.

  2. The ICAM-1 expression level determines the susceptibility of human endothelial cells to simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Buravkova, Ludmila B; Rudimov, Eugene G; Andreeva, Elena R; Grigoriev, Anatoly I

    2018-03-01

    Microgravity is a principal risk factor hampering human cardiovascular regulation during space flights. Endothelial dysfunction associated with the impaired integrity and uniformity of the monolayer represents a potential trigger for vascular damage. We characterized the expression profile of the multi-step cascade of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, VE-cadherin) in umbilical cord endothelial cells (ECs) after 24 h of exposure to simulated microgravity (SMG), pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and the combination of the two. Random Positioning Machine (RPM)-mediated SMG was used to mimic microgravity effects. SMG stimulated the expression of E-selectin, which is known to be involved in slowing leukocyte rolling. Primary ECs displayed heterogeneity with respect to the proportion of ICAM-1-positive cells. ECs were divided into two groups: pre-activated ECs displaying high proportion of ICAM-1 + -cells (ECs-1) (greater than 50%) and non-activated ECs with low proportion of ICAM-1 + -cells (ECs-2) (less than 25%). Only non-activated ECs-2 responded to SMG by elevating gene transcription and increasing ICAM-1 and VE-cadherin expression. This effect was enhanced after cumulative SMG-TNF-α exposure. ECs-1 displayed an unexpected decrease in number of E-selectin- and ICAM-1-positive ECs and pronounced up-regulation of VCAM1 upon activation of inflammation, which was partially abolished by SMG. Thus, non-activated ECs-2 are quite resistant to the impacts of microgravity and even exhibited an elevation of the VE-cadherin gene and protein expression, thus improving the integrity of the endothelial monolayer. Pre-activation of ECs with inflammatory stimuli may disturb the EC adhesion profile, attenuating its barrier function. These alterations may be among the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular dysregulation in real microgravity conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Repeated Exposure to Neurotoxic Levels of Chlorpyriphos Alters Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophins and Neuropeptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-13

    Institute for Science and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States bUnited States Army Center for Environmental Health Research (USACEHR...online 13 January 2016 Keywords: Chlorpyrifos Cholinesterase inhibition Gene expression Microarray miRNA Organophosphorus pesticide A B S T R A C T...Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. Subchronic exposures to CPF that do not

  4. Expression of denitrification enzymes in response to the dissolved oxygen level and respiratory substrate in continuous culture of Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed Central

    Körner, H; Zumft, W G

    1989-01-01

    The onset and cessation of the synthesis of denitrification enzymes of Pseudomonas stutzeri were investigated by using continuous culture and defined dissolved oxygen levels covering the full range of transition from air saturation to complete anaerobiosis. Expression of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase (cytochrome cd1), and N2O reductase was controlled by discrete oxygen levels and by the nature of the nitrogenous oxide available for respiration. N2O reductase was synthesized constitutively at a low level; for enhanced expression, oxygen concentrations were required to decrease below 5 mg of O2 per liter. The threshold values for synthesis of nitrate reductase and cytochrome cd1 in the presence of nitrate were ca. 5 and ca. 2.5 mg of O2 per liter, respectively. With nitrous oxide as the respiratory substrate, nitrite reductase was again the most sensitive to oxygen concentration; however, thresholds for all denitrification enzymes shifted to lower oxygen levels. Whereas the presence of nitrate resulted in maximum expression and nearly uniform induction of all reductases, nitrite and nitrous oxide stimulated preferably the respective enzyme catalyzing reduction. In the absence of a nitrogenous oxide, anaerobiosis did not induce enzyme synthesis to any significant degree. The accumulation of nitrite seen during both the aerobic-anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic transition phases was caused by the differences in onset or cessation of synthesis of nitrate and nitrite reductases and an inhibitory effect of nitrate on nitrite reduction. Images PMID:2764573

  5. Plasma Triglyceride Levels May Be Modulated by Gene Expression of IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Vallée Marcotte, Bastien; Guénard, Frédéric; Cormier, Hubert; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Rudkowska, Iwona; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to ω-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation in IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB. Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes and TG levels following ω-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ω-3 FA (1.9–2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants’ blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB. Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ, 26 of NXPH1, seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ω-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS. PMID:28134766

  6. Plasma Triglyceride Levels May Be Modulated by Gene Expression of IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB in Humans.

    PubMed

    Vallée Marcotte, Bastien; Guénard, Frédéric; Cormier, Hubert; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Rudkowska, Iwona; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-01-26

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to ω-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation in IQCJ , NXPH1 , PHF17 and MYB . Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes and TG levels following ω-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ω-3 FA (1.9-2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants' blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB . Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ , 26 of NXPH1 , seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ω-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS.

  7. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers-An Explorative Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schiffer, Eric; Mannello, Ferdinando; Horn, Lars-Christian; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2017-05-04

    Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  8. Differential expression of growth factors at the cellular level in virus-infected brain

    PubMed Central

    Prosniak, Mikhail; Zborek, Anna; Scott, Gwen S.; Roy, Anirban; Phares, Timothy W.; Koprowski, Hilary; Hooper, D. Craig

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of host factors to rabies virus (RV) transcription/replication and axonal/transsynaptic spread is largely unknown. We previously identified several host genes that are up-regulated in the mouse brain during RV infection, including neuroleukin, which is involved in neuronal growth and survival, cell motility, and differentiation, and fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 4 (FHF4), which has been implicated in limb and nervous system development. In this study, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to assess the expression of mRNAs specific for neuroleukin, the two isoforms of FHF4 (FHF4-1a and -1b) encoded by the FHF4 gene, and N protein of RV in neurons and astrocytes isolated by laser capture microdissection from mouse brains infected with the laboratory-adapted RV strain CVS-N2c or with a street RV of silver-haired bat origin. Differences in the gene expression patterns suggest that the capacity of RV strains to infect nonneuronal cells and differentially modulate host gene expression may be important in virus replication and spread in the CNS. PMID:12736376

  9. The DNA damage response activates HPV16 late gene expression at the level of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kersti; Wu, Chengjun; Kajitani, Naoko; Yu, Haoran; Tsimtsirakis, Efthymios; Gong, Lijing; Winquist, Ellenor B; Glahder, Jacob; Ekblad, Lars; Wennerberg, Johan; Schwartz, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    We show that the alkylating cancer drug melphalan activated the DNA damage response and induced human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) late gene expression in an ATM- and Chk1/2-dependent manner. Activation of HPV16 late gene expression included inhibition of the HPV16 early polyadenylation signal that resulted in read-through into the late region of HPV16. This was followed by activation of the exclusively late, HPV16 splice sites SD3632 and SA5639 and production of spliced late L1 mRNAs. Altered HPV16 mRNA processing was paralleled by increased association of phosphorylated BRCA1, BARD1, BCLAF1 and TRAP150 with HPV16 DNA, and increased association of RNA processing factors U2AF65 and hnRNP C with HPV16 mRNAs. These RNA processing factors inhibited HPV16 early polyadenylation and enhanced HPV16 late mRNA splicing, thereby activating HPV16 late gene expression.

  10. Vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 expression levels control quantal size and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Moechars, Diederik; Weston, Matthew C; Leo, Sandra; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Goris, Ilse; Daneels, Guy; Buist, A; Cik, M; van der Spek, P; Kass, Stefan; Meert, Theo; D'Hooge, Rudi; Rosenmund, Christian; Hampson, R Mark

    2006-11-15

    Uptake of L-glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Three transporters (VGLUT1-VGLUT3) are expressed in the mammalian CNS, with partial overlapping expression patterns, and VGLUT2 is the most abundantly expressed paralog in the thalamus, midbrain, and brainstem. Previous studies have shown that VGLUT1 is necessary for glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, but the role of VGLUT2 in excitatory transmission is unexplored in glutamatergic neurons and in vivo. We examined the electrophysiological and behavioral consequences of loss of either one or both alleles of VGLUT2. We show that targeted deletion of VGLUT2 in mice causes perinatal lethality and a 95% reduction in evoked glutamatergic responses in thalamic neurons, although hippocampal synapses function normally. Behavioral analysis of heterozygous VGLUT2 mice showed unchanged motor function, learning and memory, acute nociception, and inflammatory pain, but acquisition of neuropathic pain, maintenance of conditioned taste aversion, and defensive marble burying were all impaired. Reduction or loss of VGLUT2 in heterozygous and homozygous VGLUT2 knock-outs led to a graded reduction in the amplitude of the postsynaptic response to single-vesicle fusion in thalamic neurons, indicating that the vesicular VGLUT content is critically important for quantal size and demonstrating that VGLUT2-mediated reduction of excitatory drive affects specific forms of sensory processing.

  11. Association of RETN and CAP1 SNPs, Expression and Serum Resistin Levels with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Palomeque, Alejandrina; Guerrero-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Rubio-Chavez, Lidia Ariadna; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Lopez-Cardona, Maria Guadalupe; Barajas-Avila, Victor Hugo; Delgadillo-Barrera, Alfredo; Canton-Romero, Juan Carlos; Montoya-Fuentes, Hector; Garcia-Cobian, Teresa Arcelia; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of female breast cancer patients have a body mass index (BMI) >25. In obesity, adipose tissue secretes additional resistin, which prompts a proinflammatory effect through its action on adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). Several studies have associated the RETN gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1862513 (-420Clevels and breast cancer. The CAP1 gene SNP rs35749351 (missense, Arg294His), located in the extracellular domain, has not previously been studied in cancer. These two SNPs, the mRNA expression levels of the two alleles for each of the cognate genes, and the serum resistin levels were compared between patients and controls to determine their association with breast cancer in Mexican women in this study. This study included 308 controls and 100 female patients with breast cancer. SNPs were detected by PCR-RFLP from DNA isolated from peripheral blood. Gene expression was performed with hydrolysis probes in tumor tissue. Resistin levels were quantified from serum samples by ELISA. The RETN rs1862513CG/GG and CAP1 rs35749351GA/AA genotypes were associated with 1.61 and 2.193-fold increased risks of breast cancer, respectively, compared with the CC and GG genotypes. Similarly, carriers of the G allele of rs1862513 and the A allele of rs35749351, had 1.51 and 2.217-fold increased risks of breast cancer compared with the C and G alleles, respectively. The rs1862513GG/rs35749351AA genotype combination increased breast cancer risk by twofold. Serum resistin levels in postmenopausal breast cancer women were higher compared with postmenopausal controls. Tissue CAP1 expression showed differences with regard to molecular subtypes and metastases. The RETN and CAP1 polymorphisms and gene expression may be potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

  12. The exposure of cancer cells to hyperthermia, iron oxide nanoparticles, and mitomycin C influences membrane multidrug resistance protein expression levels.

    PubMed

    Franke, Karolin; Kettering, Melanie; Lange, Kathleen; Kaiser, Werner A; Hilger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The presence of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) in cancer cells is known to be responsible for many therapeutic failures in current oncological treatments. Here, we show that the combination of different effectors like hyperthermia, iron oxide nanoparticles, and chemotherapeutics influences expression of MRP 1 and 3 in an adenocarcinoma cell line. BT-474 cells were treated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP; 1.5 to 150 μg Fe/cm(2)) or mitomycin C (up to 1.5 μg/cm(2), 24 hours) in the presence or absence of hyperthermia (43°C, 15 to 120 minutes). Moreover, cells were also sequentially exposed to these effectors (MNP, hyperthermia, and mitomycin C). After cell harvesting, mRNA was extracted and analyzed via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, membrane protein was isolated and analyzed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. When cells were exposed to the effectors alone or to combinations thereof, no effects on MRP 1 and 3 mRNA expression were observed. In contrast, membrane protein expression was influenced in a selective manner. The effects on MRP 3 expression were less pronounced compared with MRP 1. Treatment with mitomycin C decreased MRP expression at high concentrations and hyperthermia intensified these effects. In contrast, the presence of MNP only increased MRP 1 and 3 expression, and hyperthermia reversed these effects. When combining hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, and mitomycin C, no further suppression of MRP expression was observed in comparison with the respective dual treatment modalities. The different MRP 1 and 3 expression levels are not associated with de novo mRNA expression, but rather with an altered translocation of MRP 1 and 3 to the cell membrane as a result of reactive oxygen species production, and with shifting of intracellular MRP storage pools, changes in membrane fluidity, etc, at the protein level. Our results could be used to develop

  13. The exposure of cancer cells to hyperthermia, iron oxide nanoparticles, and mitomycin C influences membrane multidrug resistance protein expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Karolin; Kettering, Melanie; Lange, Kathleen; Kaiser, Werner A; Hilger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The presence of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) in cancer cells is known to be responsible for many therapeutic failures in current oncological treatments. Here, we show that the combination of different effectors like hyperthermia, iron oxide nanoparticles, and chemotherapeutics influences expression of MRP 1 and 3 in an adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods BT-474 cells were treated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP; 1.5 to 150 μg Fe/cm2) or mitomycin C (up to 1.5 μg/cm2, 24 hours) in the presence or absence of hyperthermia (43°C, 15 to 120 minutes). Moreover, cells were also sequentially exposed to these effectors (MNP, hyperthermia, and mitomycin C). After cell harvesting, mRNA was extracted and analyzed via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, membrane protein was isolated and analyzed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Results When cells were exposed to the effectors alone or to combinations thereof, no effects on MRP 1 and 3 mRNA expression were observed. In contrast, membrane protein expression was influenced in a selective manner. The effects on MRP 3 expression were less pronounced compared with MRP 1. Treatment with mitomycin C decreased MRP expression at high concentrations and hyperthermia intensified these effects. In contrast, the presence of MNP only increased MRP 1 and 3 expression, and hyperthermia reversed these effects. When combining hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, and mitomycin C, no further suppression of MRP expression was observed in comparison with the respective dual treatment modalities. Discussion The different MRP 1 and 3 expression levels are not associated with de novo mRNA expression, but rather with an altered translocation of MRP 1 and 3 to the cell membrane as a result of reactive oxygen species production, and with shifting of intracellular MRP storage pools, changes in membrane fluidity, etc, at the protein level. Our

  14. [The influence of porcelain-fused-to-metal on the expression level of IL-23 in gingival crevicular fluid].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Jin, Ying; Gao, Ke-bei; Wang, Yu; Lin, Xiao-ping

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the role of IL-23 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, and the influence of porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) on periodontal tissue and the expression level of IL-23. The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected in 10 periodontally healthy individuals, 14 cases with gingivitis, 14 cases with gingivitis and PFM, and 14 cases with periodontitis and PFM. The teeth were detected and recorded the clinical parameters(GI, SBI, AL, PD)by Florida probe. The concentration of IL-23 in GCF was detected by ELISA assays.SPSS13.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The expression of IL-23 in GCF of normal group (227.047±29.880) pg/mL was below inflammatory groups. A significant overexpression of IL-23 in GCF was detected in periodontitis with PFM group(511.327±138.846) pg/mL compared to gingivitis group (330.353±196.266) pg/mL (P<0.01) and gingivitis with PFM group (347.359±218.260) pg/mL (P<0.05). The expression level of IL-23 in GCF was positively correlated with clinical parameters (GI, SBI, AL, PD) (r>0.4, P<0.05). There was a high degree of periodontal destruction in gingivitis with PFM group compared to gingivitis group, and significant difference existed in AL (P<0.05) and PD (P<0.01). The change of IL-23 expression was most positively correlated with PD (r>0.5, P<0.01). IL-23 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PFM could have influence on the destruction of periodontal tissues and the expression level of IL-23.

  15. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  16. Ecdysteroids Regulate the Levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) Expression in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle. PMID:25849453

  17. GSTA1 Expression Is Correlated With Aldosterone Level in KCNJ5-Mutated Adrenal Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xintao; Wang, Baojun; Tang, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Luyao; Gu, Liangyou; Zhang, Fan; Ouyang, Jinzhi; Zhang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    KCNJ5 mutation is a major cause of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). The development of APA apart from KCNJ5 mutation is less investigated. To investigate other mechanisms affecting aldosterone secretion apart from KCNJ5. Six pairs of KCNJ5-mutated, high and low aldosterone-secreting APAs, five non-KCNJ5-mutated APAs, and four normal adrenal glands were assayed by Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0. A total of 113 APA samples were investigated to explore the expression of glutathione-S-transferase A1 (GSTA1). H295R cells were used to verify the function of GSTA1. GSTA1 was the top gene downregulated in high-aldosterone KCNJ5-mutated APAs. GSTA1 was also downregulated in KCNJ5-mutated APAs compared with wild-type KCNJ5 APAs. Accordingly, mutant KCNJ5 decreased GSTA1 messenger RNA and protein expression levels. GSTA1 overexpression suppressed aldosterone secretion whether in wild-type or mutant KCNJ5 H295R cells. Adding ethacrynic acid or silencing of GSTA1 increased aldosterone secretion by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide, H2O2 levels, and Ca2+ influx. The expression of the transcription factors NR4A1, NR4A2, and CAMK1 and intracellular Ca2+ were significantly upregulated by GSTA1 inhibition. The reduced form of NAD phosphate oxidase inhibitor or H2O2 scavenger or blocking calmodulin or calcium channels could significantly reduce aldosterone secretion in GSTA1-inhibited cells. (1) GSTA1 expression is reversely correlated with aldosterone level in KCNJ5-mutated APAs, (2) GSTA1 regulates aldosterone secretion by ROS and Ca2+ signaling, and (3) KCNJ5 mutation downregulates GSTA1 expression, and overexpression of GSTA1 reverses increased aldosterone in KCNJ5-mutated adrenal cells.

  18. beta(2)microglobulin mRNA expression levels are prognostic for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shrout, J; Yousefzadeh, M; Dodd, A; Kirven, K; Blum, C; Graham, A; Benjamin, K; Hoda, R; Krishna, M; Romano, M; Wallace, M; Garrett-Mayer, E; Mitas, M

    2008-06-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. One of the most important determinants of CRC survival is lymph node metastasis. To determine whether molecular markers might be prognostic for lymph node metastases, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 cancer-associated genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from stage I-IV CRC patients with (n=20) and without (n=18) nodal metastases. Using the mean of the 15 genes as an internal reference control, we observed that low expression of beta(2)microglobulin (B2M) was a strong prognostic indicator of lymph node metastases (area under the curve (AUC)=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69-0.94). We also observed that the expression ratio of B2M/Spint2 had the highest prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.87; 95% CI=0.71-0.96) of all potential two-gene combinations. Expression values of Spint2 correlated with the mean of the entire gene set at an R(2) value of 0.97, providing evidence that Spint2 serves not as an independent prognostic gene, but rather as a reliable reference control gene. These studies are the first to demonstrate a prognostic role of B2M at the mRNA level and suggest that low B2M expression levels might be useful for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and/or poor survival.

  19. Antigen expression level threshold tunes the fate of CD8 T cells during primary hepatic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Tay, Szun Szun; Wong, Yik Chun; McDonald, David M; Wood, Nicole A W; Roediger, Ben; Sierro, Frederic; Mcguffog, Claire; Alexander, Ian E; Bishop, G Alex; Gamble, Jennifer R; Weninger, Wolfgang; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bertolino, Patrick; Bowen, David G

    2014-06-24

    CD8 T-cell responses to liver-expressed antigens range from deletional tolerance to full effector differentiation resulting in overt hepatotoxicity. The reasons for these heterogeneous outcomes are not well understood. To identify factors that govern the fate of CD8 T cells activated by hepatocyte-expressed antigen, we exploited recombinant adenoassociated viral vectors that enabled us to vary potential parameters determining these outcomes in vivo. Our findings reveal a threshold of antigen expression within the liver as the dominant factor determining T-cell fate, irrespective of T-cell receptor affinity or antigen cross-presentation. Thus, when a low percentage of hepatocytes expressed cognate antigen, high-affinity T cells developed and maintained effector function, whereas, at a high percentage, they became functionally exhausted and silenced. Exhaustion was not irreversibly determined by initial activation, but was maintained by high intrahepatic antigen load during the early phase of the response; cytolytic function was restored when T cells primed under high antigen load conditions were transferred into an environment of low-level antigen expression. Our study reveals a hierarchy of factors dictating the fate of CD8 T cells during hepatic immune responses, and provides an explanation for the different immune outcomes observed in a variety of immune-mediated liver pathologic conditions.

  20. P-gp expression levels in the erythrocytes of brown trout: a new tool for aquatic sentinel biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Amblard, Christian; Combourieu, Bruno; Bayle, Marie-Laure; Desmolles, François; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2017-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a ubiquitous membrane detoxification pump involved in cellular defence against xenobiotics. Blood is a hub for the trade and transport of physiological molecules and xenobiotics. Our recent studies have highlighted the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in brown trout erythrocytes in primary cell culture and its dose-dependent response to Benzo[a]pyrene pollutant. The purpose of this study was focused on using P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes as a biomarker for detecting the degree of river pollution. abcb1 gene and P-gp expression level were analysed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot, in the erythrocytes of brown trouts. The latter were collected in upstream and downstream of four rivers in which 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 348 varieties of pesticides micro-residues were analysed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The abcb1 gene and the 140-kDa P-gp were not expressed in trout erythrocytes from uncontaminated river. In contrast, they are clearly expressed in contaminated rivers, in correlation with the river pollution degree and the nature of the pollutants. This biological tool may offer considerable advantages since it provides an effective response to the increasing need for an early biomarker.

  1. High-level recombinant protein expression in transgenic plants by using a double-inducible viral vector

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Stefan; Breus, Oksana; Symonenko, Yuri; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Gleba, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a unique ethanol-inducible process for expression of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. The process is based on inducible release of viral RNA replicons from stably integrated DNA proreplicons. A simple treatment with ethanol releases the replicon leading to RNA amplification and high-level protein production. To achieve tight control of replicon activation and spread in the uninduced state, the viral vector has been deconstructed, and its two components, the replicon and the cell-to-cell movement protein, have each been placed separately under the control of an inducible promoter. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants incorporating this double-inducible system demonstrate negligible background expression, high (over 0.5 × 104-fold) induction multiples, and high absolute levels of protein expression upon induction (up to 4.3 mg/g fresh biomass). The process can be easily scaled up, supports expression of practically important recombinant proteins, and thus can be directly used for industrial manufacturing. PMID:21825158

  2. Low levels of citrin (SLC25A13) expression in adult mouse brain restricted to neuronal clusters.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Laura; Urbieta, Almudena; Kobayashi, Keiko; Saheki, Takeyori; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2010-04-01

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers (AGC) aralar (SLC25A12) and citrin (SLC25A13) are components of the malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), a major intracellular pathway to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH to the mitochondrial matrix. Aralar is the main AGC isoform present in the adult brain, and it is expressed mainly in neurons. To search for the other AGC isoform, citrin, in brain glial cells, we used a citrin knockout mouse in which the lacZ gene was inserted into the citrin locus as reporter gene. In agreement with the low citrin levels known to be present in the adult mouse brain, beta-galactosidase expression was very low. Surprisingly, unlike the case with astroglial cultures that express citrin, no beta-galactosidase was found in brain glial cells. It was confined to neuronal cells within discrete neuronal clusters. Double-immunolabelling experiments showed that beta-galactosidase colocalized not with glial cell markers but with the pan-neuronal marker NeuN. The deep cerebellar nuclei and a few midbrain nuclei (reticular tegmental pontine nuclei; magnocellular red nuclei) were the regions where beta-galactosidase expression was highest, and it was up-regulated in fasted mice, as was also the case for liver beta-galactosidase. The results support the notion that glial cells have much lower AGC levels and MAS activity than neurons. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Letrozole induced low estrogen levels affected the expressions of duodenal and renal calcium-processing gene in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Zhao, Xingkai; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2018-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the calcium homeostasis in hens, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear fully. In this study, we investigated whether letrozole (LZ) induced low estrogen levels affected the calcium absorption and transport in layers. In the duodenum, we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expressions of Calbindin-28k (CaBP-28k) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA 1b) while CaBP-28k protein expression was declined in birds with LZ treatment, and the mRNA levels of duodenal transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) were not affected. Interestingly, we observed the different changes in the kidney. The renal mRNA expressions of TRPV6 and NCX1 were unregulated while the PMCA1b was down-regulated in low estrogen layers, however, the CaBP-28k gene and protein expressions were no changed in the kidney. Furthermore, it showed that the duodenal estradiol receptor 2 (ESR2) transcripts rather than parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) played key roles to down-regulate calcium transport in LZ-treated birds. In conclusion, CaBP-28k, PMCA 1b and ESR2 genes in the duodenum may be primary targets for estrogen regulation in order to control calcium homeostasis in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estradiol In Females May Negate Skeletal Muscle Myostatin Mrna Expression And Serum Myostatin Propeptide Levels After Eccentric Muscle Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Darryn S.; Wilborn, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    Eccentric contractions produce a significant degree of inflammation and muscle injury that may increase the expression of myostatin. Due to its anti- oxidant and anti-flammatory effects, circulating 17-β estradiol (E2) may attenuate myostatin expression. Eight males and eight females performed 7 sets of 10 reps of eccentric contractions of the knee extensors at 150% 1-RM. Each female performed the eccentric exercise bout on a day that fell within her mid-luteal phase (d 21-23 of her 28-d cycle). Blood and muscle samples were obtained before and 6 and 24 h after exercise, while additional blood samples were obtained at 48 and 72 h after exercise. Serum E2 and myostatin LAP/propeptide (LAP/pro) levels were determined with ELISA, and myostatin mRNA expression determined using RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and bivariate correlations (p < 0.05). Females had greater levels of serum E2 throughout the 72- h sampling period (p < 0.05). While males had greater body mass and fat-free mass, neither was correlated to the pre-exercise levels of myostatin mRNA and LAP/pro for either gender (p > 0.05). Compared to pre-exercise, males had significant increases (p < 0.05) in LAP/propetide and mRNA of 78% and 28%, respectively, at 24 h post-exercise, whereas females underwent respective decreases of 10% and 21%. E2 and LAP/propeptide were correlated at 6 h (r = -0.804, p = 0.016) and 24 h post- exercise (r = -0.841, p = 0.009) in males, whereas in females E2 levels were correlated to myostatin mRNA at 6 h (r =0.739, p = 0.036) and 24 h (r = 0.813, p = 0.014) post-exercise and LAP/propeptide at 6 h (r = 0.713, p = 0.047) and 24 h (r = 0.735, p = 0.038). In females, myostatin mRNA expression and serum LAP/propeptide levels do not appear to be significantly up-regulated following eccentric exercise, and may be due to higher levels of circulating E2. Key Points The pre-exercise levels of myostatin mRNA and propeptide were not significantly different between genders, and

  5. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level.

    PubMed

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions.

  6. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level

    PubMed Central

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E. A.; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other’s intentions is reduced. Methods Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. Results ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. Conclusion ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions. PMID:27741285

  7. Heterologous expression of equine CYP3A94 and investigation of a tunable system to regulate co-expressed NADPH P450 oxidoreductase levels.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of "Shield-1" prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94

  8. Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L.; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of “Shield-1” prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A

  9. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exhibit Heterogeneous CD52 Expression Levels and Show Differential Sensitivity to Alemtuzumab Mediated Cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sambasiva P.; Sancho, Jose; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Boutin, Paula M.; Severy, Peter B.; Weeden, Timothy; Shankara, Srinivas; Roberts, Bruce L.; Kaplan, Johanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) display the highest number while natural killer (NK) cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC) studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs) on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact. PMID:22761788

  11. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  12. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes in expression levels of Zn2+-transporters in hypertrophic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Olgar, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Semir; Turan, Belma

    2018-03-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have shown an association between intracellular free Zn 2+ ([Zn 2+ ] i )-dyshomeostasis and cardiac dysfunction besides [Ca 2+ ] i -dyshomeostasis. Since [Zn 2+ ] i -homeostasis is regulated through Zn 2+ -transporters depending on their subcellular distributions, one can hypothesize that any imbalance in Zn 2+ -homeostasis via alteration in Zn 2+ -transporters may be associated with the induction of ER stress and apoptosis in hypertrophic heart. We used a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model to induce hypertrophy in young male rat heart. We confirmed the development of hypertrophy with a high ratio of heart to body weight and cardiomyocyte capacitance. The expression levels of ER stress markers GRP78, CHOP/Gadd153, and calnexin are significantly high in TAC-group in comparison to those of controls (SHAM-group). Additionally, we detected high expression levels of apoptotic status marker proteins such as the serine kinase GSK-3β, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, and PUMA in TAC-group in comparison to SHAM-group. The ratios of phospho-Akt to Akt and phospho-NFκB to the NFκB are significantly higher in TAC-group than in SHAM-group. Furthermore, we observed markedly increased phospho-PKCα and PKCα levels in TAC-group. We, also for the first time, determined significantly increased ZIP7, ZIP14, and ZnT8 expressions along with decreased ZIP8 and ZnT7 levels in the heart tissue from TAC-group in comparison to SHAM-group. Furthermore, a roughly calculated total expression level of ZIPs responsible for Zn 2+ -influx into the cytosol (increased about twofold) can be also responsible for the markedly increased [Zn 2+ ] i detected in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Taking into consideration the role of increased [Zn 2+ ] i via decreased ER-[Zn 2+ ] in the induction of ER stress in cardiomyocytes, our present data suggest that differential changes in the expression levels of Zn 2+ -transporters can underlie mechanical dysfunction, in part due to the

  13. The effect of low-level diode laser on COX-2 gene expression in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Pesevska, Snezana; Gjorgoski, Icko; Ivanovski, Kiro; Soldatos, Nikolaos K; Angelov, Nikola

    2017-09-01

    Adjunctive treatments to scaling and root planing (SRP) such as lasers, have been utilized in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, mainly aiming to suppress and eliminate the bacteria, as well as enhancing the healing response. Eighty gingival papilla biopsy samples were obtained from 60 patients diagnosed with chronic advanced periodontitis; randomly assigned to three treatment groups (n = 20), as well as 20 subjects with no periodontal disease [group A]. Group B received SRP on a single quadrant/day for four consecutive days. On day 5, all quadrants were rescaled. Groups C and D received the same treatment as group B plus laser application with the low-level diode laser (630-670 nm, 1.875 J/cm2) for five and ten consecutive days, respectively. Papilla biopsies were obtained from subjects and evaluated by RT-PCR for expression of COX-2. The values in the control group were 0.028 0.014 and baseline values for the examined groups were 0.16 0.18. Significantly decreased level of COX-2 expression for groups C and D was found after treatment, while lowest average expression was found in the group that had the 10 laser treatments supplemental to SRP (0,035 0,014). The results of this study show suppression of COX-2 in gingival tissue after low-level laser treatment as adjunct to SRP.

  14. Serum levels, and bone marrow immunohistochemical expression of, vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Katerina; Bai, Maria; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Zagorianakou, Nektaria; Agnantis, Niki John; Bourantas, Konstantinos

    2007-12-01

    Current data suggest that angiogenesis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic myeloproliferative diseases (cMPDs). In the present study, we evaluated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 83 patients with cMPDs [myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM, n = 25), essential thrombocythaemia (ET, n = 40), polycythaemia vera (PV, n = 8) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, n = 10)] and in 27 healthy individuals. Serum VEGF levels were significantly increased in patients with cMPDs compared to healthy individuals (all p values were < or = 0.05) and were significantly correlated with bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) (p = 0.0013). In addition, the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF protein in bone marrow biopsy specimens were analyzed in 61 patients with cMPDs, (ET, n = 36 and MMM, n = 25) and in 27 healthy individuals. The cellular distribution of VEGF expression was similar in bone marrow specimens of patients and healthy individuals. VEGF protein was detected mainly in erythroid cells, whereas myeloid cells and megakaryocytes exhibited a variable expression of the protein. The percentage of bone marrow VEGF positive cells was positively correlated with serum levels of VEGF (p = 0.001). The results of the present study suggest that, VEGF is a major angiogenetic factor in patients with cMPDs and contributes to the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  15. High level expression and immunochemical characterization of botulinum neurotoxin type F light chain.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ritika; Chauhan, Vinita; Rao, Mula Kameshwar; Chaudhary, Dilip; Bhagyawant, Sameer; Dhaked, Ram Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic biological substances known. Their potential use as biological warfare agent results in their classification as category A biowarfare agent by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Presently, there are no approved detection system and pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although a toxoid vaccine is available for immuno-prophylaxis, vaccines cannot reverse the effect of pre-translocated toxin. Direct handling of the live BoNTs for developing detection and therapeutics may pose fatal danger. This concern was addressed by purifying the recombinant catalytically active light chain of BoNT/F. BoNT/F-LC gene was amplified from the genomic DNA using specifically designed primers and expressed in Escherichia coli. Expression and purification profile were optimized under different conditions for biologically active light chain production. Specific polyclonal antibodies generated against type F illustrates in vivo neutralization in mice and rabbit. These antibodies play key role in conceiving the development of high throughput SPR based detection system which is a highly precise label free technique for protein interaction analysis. The presented work is first of its kind, signifying the production of highly stable and active rBoNT/F-LC and its immunochemical characterization. The study aids in paving the path towards developing a persistent detection system as well as in presenting comprehended scheme for in vitro small molecule therapeutics analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and modulates expression levels of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Yan, Jie; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Li, Chao; Hu, Zhian; Wang, Jiali

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning memory is sensitive to sleep deprivation (SD). Although the ionotropic glutamate receptors play a vital role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, however, whether the expression of these receptor subunits is modulated by sleep loss remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting was performed by probing with specific antibodies against the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B. In hippocampus, down regulation of surface GluA1 and GluN2A surface expression were observed in both SD groups. However, surface expression level of GluA2, GluA3, GluN1 and GluN2B was significantly up-regulated in 8h-SD rats when compared to the 4h-SD rats. In parallel with the complex changes in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit expressions, we found the 8h-SD impaired rat spatial working memory in 30-s-delay T-maze task, whereas no impairment of spatial learning was observed in 4h-SD rats. These results indicate that sleep loss alters the relative expression levels of the AMPA and NMDA receptors, thus affects the synaptic strength and capacity for plasticity and partially contributes to spatial memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Characteristics of carboxylesterase genes and their expression-level between acaricide-susceptible and resistant Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Shi, Li; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Jialu; Pan, Yu; He, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play important roles in metabolism and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects and mites. On the basis of the Tetranychuscinnabarinus transcriptome dataset, 23 CarE genes (6 genes are full sequence and 17 genes are partial sequence) were identified. Synergist bioassay showed that CarEs were involved in acaricide detoxification and resistance in fenpropathrin- (FeR) and cyflumetofen-resistant (CyR) strains. In order to further reveal the relationship between CarE gene's expression and acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus, we profiled their expression in susceptible (SS) and resistant strains (FeR, and CyR). There were 8 and 4 over-expressed carboxylesterase genes in FeR and CyR, respectively, from which the over-expressions were detected at mRNA level, but not DNA level. Pesticide induction experiment elucidated that 4 of 8 and 2 of 4 up-regulated genes were inducible with significance in FeR and CyR strains, respectively, but they could not be induced in SS strain, which indicated that these genes became more enhanced and effective to withstand the pesticides' stress in resistant T. cinnabarinus. Most expression-changed and all inducible genes possess the Abhydrolase_3 motif, which is a catalytic domain for hydrolyzing. As a whole, these findings in current study provide clues for further elucidating the function and regulation mechanism of these carboxylesterase genes in T. cinnabarinus' resistance formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNAmore » was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.« less

  19. Increased Calcium Levels and Prolonged Shelf Life in Tomatoes Expressing Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ Transporters1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunghun; Cheng, Ning Hui; Pittman, Jon K.; Yoo, Kil Sun; Park, Jungeun; Smith, Roberta H.; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2005-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that fruit from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) H+/cation exchangers (CAX) have more calcium (Ca2+) and prolonged shelf life when compared to controls. Previously, using the prototypical CAX1, it has been demonstrated that, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, CAX transporters are activated when the N-terminal autoinhibitory region is deleted, to give an N-terminally truncated CAX (sCAX), or altered through specific manipulations. To continue to understand the diversity of CAX function, we used yeast assays to characterize the putative transport properties of CAX4 and N-terminal variants of CAX4. CAX4 variants can suppress the Ca2+ hypersensitive yeast phenotypes and also appear to be more specific Ca2+ transporters than sCAX1. We then compared the phenotypes of sCAX1- and CAX4-expressing tomato lines. The sCAX1-expressing tomato lines demonstrate increased vacuolar H+/Ca2+ transport, when measured in root tissue, elevated fruit Ca2+ level, and prolonged shelf life but have severe alterations in plant development and morphology, including increased incidence of blossom-end rot. The CAX4-expressing plants demonstrate more modest increases in Ca2+ levels and shelf life but no deleterious effects on plant growth. These findings suggest that CAX expression may fortify plants with Ca2+ and may serve as an alternative to the application of CaCl2 used to extend the shelf life of numerous agriculturally important commodities. However, judicious regulation of CAX transport is required to assure optimal plant growth. PMID:16244156

  20. Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal.

    PubMed

    Torres-Farfan, C; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Valenzuela, F J; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2009-06-01

    Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response to ACTH. Circadian clock gene expression has been reported in the adrenal cortex of several species. However, there are no reports accounting for potential involvement of adrenal clock proteins on cortisol response to ACTH. Here we explored whether the clock protein cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) knockdown modifies the adrenal response to ACTH in a primate. Adrenal gland explants from adult capuchin monkey (n = 5) were preincubated for 6 h with transfection vehicle (control) or with two different Cry2 antisense and sense probes followed by 48 h incubation in medium alone (no ACTH) or with 100 nm ACTH. Under control and sense conditions, ACTH increased cortisol production, whereas CRY2 suppression inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. Expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 48 h of incubation was increased by ACTH in control explants and suppressed by Cry2 knockdown. Additionally, we found that Cry2 knockdown decreased the expression of the clock gene brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal1) at the mRNA and protein levels. Altogether these results strongly support that the clock protein CRY2 is involved in the mechanism by which ACTH increases the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH.

  1. Dynamic DNA cytosine methylation in the Populus trichocarpa genome: tissue-level variation and relationship to gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been implicated in many biological processes. However, large-scale epigenomic studies have been applied to very few plant species, and variability in methylation among specialized tissues and its relationship to gene expression is poorly understood. Results We surveyed DNA methylation from seven distinct tissue types (vegetative bud, male inflorescence [catkin], female catkin, leaf, root, xylem, phloem) in the reference tree species black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Using 5-methyl-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (MeDIP-seq), we mapped a total of 129,360,151 36- or 32-mer reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome. We validated MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing, and compared methylation and gene expression using published microarray data. Qualitative DNA methylation differences among tissues were obvious on a chromosome scale. Methylated genes had lower expression than unmethylated genes, but genes with methylation in transcribed regions ("gene body methylation") had even lower expression than genes with promoter methylation. Promoter methylation was more frequent than gene body methylation in all tissues except male catkins. Male catkins differed in demethylation of particular transposable element categories, in level of gene body methylation, and in expression range of genes with methylated transcribed regions. Tissue-specific gene expression patterns were correlated with both gene body and promoter methylation. Conclusions We found striking differences among tissues in methylation, which were apparent at the chromosomal scale and when genes and transposable elements were examined. In contrast to other studies in plants, gene body methylation had a more repressive effect on transcription than promoter methylation. PMID:22251412

  2. Tightly regulated, high-level expression from controlled copy number vectors based on the replicon of temperate phage N15.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Strakhova, Taisia S; Smagin, Vladimir A; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2007-06-15

    A new Escherichia coli host/vector system has been developed to allow a dual regulation of both the plasmid copy number and gene expression. The new pN15E vectors are low copy number plasmids based on the replicon of temperate phage N15, comprising the repA replicase gene and cB repressor gene, controlling the plasmid copy number. Regulation of pN15E copy number is achieved through arabinose-inducible expression of phage N15 antirepressor protein, AntA, whose gene was integrated into the chromosome of the host strain under control of the PBAD promoter. The host strain also carried phage N15 partition operon, sop, allowing stable inheritance of pN15E vectors in the absence of selection pressure. In the first vector, pN15E4, the same PBAD promoter controls expression of a cloned gene. The second vector, pN15E6, carries the phage T5 promoter with a double lac operator repression module thus allowing independent regulation of promoter activity and copy number. Using the lacZ gene to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be about 7600-fold for pN15E4 and more than 15,000-fold for pN15E6. The low copy number of these vectors ensures very low basal level of expression allowing cloning genes encoding toxic products that was demonstrated by the stable maintenance of a gene encoding a restriction endonuclease in pN15E4. The tight control of transcription and the potential to regulate gene activities quantitatively over wide ranges will open up new approaches in the study of gene function in vivo and controlled expression of heterologous genes.

  3. dParFit: A computer program for fitting diatomic molecule spectral data to parameterized level energy expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes FORTRAN program dParFit, which performs least-squares fits of diatomic molecule spectroscopic data involving one or more electronic states and one or more isotopologues, to parameterized expressions for the level energies. The data may consist of any combination of microwave, infrared or electronic vibrotational bands, fluorescence series or binding energies (from photo-association spectroscopy). The level energies for each electronic state may be described by one of: (i) band constants {Gv ,Bv ,Dv , … } for each vibrational level, (ii) generalized Dunham expansions, (iii) pure near-dissociation expansions (NDEs), (iv) mixed Dunham/NDE expressions, or (v) individual term values for each distinct level of each isotopologue. Different representations may be used for different electronic states and/or for different types of constants in a given fit (e.g., Gv and Bv may be represented one way and centrifugal distortion constants another). The effect of Λ-doubling or 2Σ splittings may be represented either by band constants (qvB or γvB, qvD or γvD, etc.) for each vibrational level of each isotopologue, or by using power series expansions in (v + 1/2) to represent those constants. Fits to Dunham or NDE expressions automatically incorporate normal first-order semiclassical mass scaling to allow combined analyses of multi-isotopologue data. In addition, dParFit may fit to determine atomic-mass-dependent terms required to account for breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer and first-order semiclassical approximations. In any of these types of fits, one or more subsets of these parameters for one or more of the electronic states may be held fixed, while a limited parameter set is varied. The program can also use a set of read-in constants to make predictions and calculate deviations [ycalc -yobs ] for any chosen input data set, or to generate predictions of arbitrary data sets.

  4. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hao; Song, Congfeng; Borth, Wayne; Sether, Diane; Melzer, Michael; Hu, John

    2011-10-20

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  5. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance. PMID:22014312

  6. Effect of ammonia on the gene expression levels of the freshwater cyclopoid Eucyclops serrulatus.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Melita, Marco; Cifoni, Marco; Galassi, Diana M P; Iannucci, Alessio; Biricolti, Stefano; Gori, Massimo; Baratti, Mariella

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia pollution is a critical issue in Europe, since more than half of the European freshwater bodies actually fail to meet EU quality standards for this chemical. In this study, the response of stress-related genes to a sublethal ammonia concentration has been investigated in the adults of the freshwater cyclopoid Eucyclops serrulatus. Two short-term exposures (12h and 24h) at 12mg/L NH 4 + have been tested. Results indicate that 12mg/L NH 4 + causes a significant increase in the expression of some proteins, namely CAT, HSP90 and HSP40, suggesting an activation of the protecting antioxidant system after both 12h and 24h. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Increasing CACNA1C expression in placenta containing high Cd level: an implication of Cd toxicity.

    PubMed

    Phuapittayalert, Laorrat; Saenganantakarn, Phisid; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Cheunchoojit, Supaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Sakulsak, Natthiya

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has known to produce many adverse effects on organs including placenta. Many essential transporters are involved in Cd transport pathways such as DMT-1, ZIP as well as L-VDCC. Fourteen pregnant women participated and were divided into two groups: high and low Cd-exposed (H-Cd, L-Cd) groups on the basis of their residential areas, Cd concentrations in the blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd), and placenta (P-Cd). The results showed that the B-Cd and U-Cd were significantly increased in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the P-Cd in H-Cd group was elevated (p < 0.05) and positively related to their B-Cd and U-Cd values (p < 0.05). However, the mean cord blood Cd (C-Cd) concentration in H-Cd group was not significantly increased about 2.5-fold when comparing to L-Cd group. To determine the Cd accumulation in placental tissues, metallothionein-1A (MT-1A) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) expressions were used as biomarkers. The results revealed that mean MT-1A and MT-2A mRNAs and MT-1/2 proteins were up-regulated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). In addition, the Ca channel alpha 1C (CACNA1C) mRNA and protein expressions were noticeably elevated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). From these findings, we suggested that CACNA1C might be implicated in Cd transport in human placenta.

  8. The prescriptions from Shenghui soup enhanced neurite growth and GAP-43 expression level in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zi-Jian; Wang, Xing-Hua; Ma, Jie; Song, Yue-Han; Liang, Mi; Lin, Sen-Xiang; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Ao-Zhe; Li, Feng; Hua, Qian

    2016-09-20

    Shenghui soup is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used in clinic for the treatment of forgetfulness. In order to understanding the prescription principle, the effects of "tonifying qi and strengthening spleen" group (TQSS) including Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. and Panax ginseng C.A.Mey and "eliminating phlegm and strengthening intelligence" group (EPSI) composed of Polygala tenuifolia Willd., Acorus calamus L. and Sinapis alba L from the herb complex on neurite growth in PC12 cells, two disassembled prescriptions derived from Shenghui soup and their molecular mechanisms were investigated. Firstly, CCK-8 kit was used to detect the impact of the two prescriptions on PC12 cell viability; and Flow cytometry was performed to measure the cell apoptosis when PC12 cells were treated with these drugs. Secondly, the effect of the two prescriptions on the differentiation of PC12 cells was observed. Finally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of GAP-43 were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. "Tonifying qi and strengthening spleen" prescription decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, it could improve neurite growth and elevate the mRNA and protein expression level of GAP-43. "Eliminating phlegm and strengthening intelligence" prescription also exerted the similar effects on cell viability and apoptosis. Furthermore, it could also enhance cell neurite growth, with a higher expression level of GAP-43 mRNA and protein. "Tonifying qi and strengthening spleen" and "eliminating phlegm and strengthening intelligence" prescriptions from Shenghui soup have a positive effect on neurite growth. Their effects are related to the up-regulating expression of GAP-43.

  9. Global miRNA expression and correlation with mRNA levels in primary human bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Laxman, Navya; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Mallmin, Hans; Nilsson, Olle; Pastinen, Tomi; Grundberg, Elin; Kindmark, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators that have recently introduced an additional level of intricacy to our understanding of gene regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA–mRNA interactions that may be relevant for bone metabolism by assessing correlations and interindividual variability in miRNA levels as well as global correlations between miRNA and mRNA levels in a large cohort of primary human osteoblasts (HOBs) obtained during orthopedic surgery in otherwise healthy individuals. We identified differential expression (DE) of 24 miRNAs, and found 9 miRNAs exhibiting DE between males and females. We identified hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b and their target genes as important modulators of bone metabolism. Further, we used an integrated analysis of global miRNA–mRNA correlations, mRNA-expression profiling, DE, bioinformatics analysis, and functional studies to identify novel target genes for miRNAs with the potential to regulate osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Functional studies by overexpression and knockdown of miRNAs showed that, the differentially expressed miRNAs hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b target genes highly relevant to bone metabolism, e.g., collagen, type I, α1 (COL1A1), osteonectin (SPARC), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and frizzled-related protein (FRZB). These miRNAs orchestrate the activities of key regulators of osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix proteins by their convergent action on target genes and pathways to control the skeletal gene expression. PMID:26078267

  10. Expression levels of antimicrobial peptide tachyplesin I in transgenic Ornithogalum lines affect the resistance to Pectobacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Alexander; Joshi, Janak Raj; Carmi, Nir; Yedidia, Iris

    2016-11-20

    The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide. Disease resistance was evaluated in six lines of each species by measuring bacterial proliferation in the plant tissue. Three transgenic lines of each species were subjected to further analysis in which the expression level of the transgene was evaluated using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. The development of disease symptoms and bacterial colonization of the plant tissue were also examined using GFP-expressing strain of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Pcb3. Confocal-microscopy imaging revealed significantly reduced quantities of bacterial cells in the transgenic plant lines that had been challenged with the bacterium. The results clearly demonstrate that tpnI expression reduces bacterial proliferation, colonization and disease symptom (reduced by 95-100%) in the transgenic plant tissues. The quantity of tpnI transcripts, as measured by qRT-PCR, was negatively correlated with the protection afforded to the plants, as measured by the reduced severity of disease symptoms in the tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression levels of seven candidate genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and their association with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Veloz, I.; Carrillo-Sanchez, K.; Martinez-Gaytan, V.; Cortes-Flores, R.; Ochoa-Torres, M. A.; Guerrero, G. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, I. P.; Cancela-Murrieta, C. O.; Zamudio-Osuna, M.; Badillo-Almaraz, J. I.; Castruita-De la Rosa, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) expression levels of hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15 and AdipoQ genes to study their association with preeclampsia (PE). Methods A total of 177 pregnant women were recruited: 108 cases and 69 controls. Quantification of gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan probes. Results Underexpression of VEGF-A and TGF-β1 was a constant in most of the cases (80.91% and 76.36%, respectively) and their expression was associated with onset and/or severity of disease (p values < 0.05). IL-6, IL-15 and AdipoQ, showed low or no expression in PBMC samples evaluated. Conclusion PBMC underexpression of VEGF-A and TGF-β1 is a hallmark of PE in the study population. PMID:24295154

  12. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  13. Oleic acid levels regulated by glycerolipid metabolism modulate defense gene expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kachroo, Aardra; Venugopal, Srivathsa C.; Lapchyk, Ludmila; Falcone, Deane; Hildebrand, David; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2004-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase-mediated conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1) is a key step, which regulates levels of unsaturated fatty acids in cells. We previously showed that stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase mutants ssi2/fab2 carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the plastidial glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) acyltransferase (act1) have elevated 18:1 levels and are restored in their altered defense signaling. Because G3P is required for the acylation of 18:1 by G3P acyltransferase, it was predicted that reduction of G3P levels should increase 18:1 levels and thereby revert ssi2-triggered phenotypes. Here we show that a mutation in G3P dehydrogenase restores both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated phenotypes of ssi2 plants. The G3P dehydrogenase gene was identified by map-based cloning of the ssi2 suppressor mutant rdc8 (gly1-3) and confirmed by epistatic analysis of ssi2 with gly1-1. Restoration of ssi2-triggered phenotypes by the gly1-3 mutation was age-dependent and correlated with the levels of 18:1. Regeneration of G3P pools by glycerol application in ssi2 and ssi2 gly1-3 plants caused a marked reduction in the 18:1 levels, which rendered these plants hypersensitive to glycerol. This hypersensitivity in ssi2 was rescued by the act1 mutation. Furthermore, overexpression of the ACT1 gene resulted in enhanced sensitivity to glycerol. Glycerol application also lowered the 18:1 content in SSI2 plants and converted these into ssi2-mimics. Our results show that 18:1 levels in plastids are regulated by means of acylation with G3P, and a balance between G3P and 18:1 is critical for the regulation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:15044700

  14. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O 2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO 2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abnormal expression and mutation of p53 in cervical cancer--a study at protein, RNA and DNA levels.

    PubMed

    Ngan, H Y; Tsao, S W; Liu, S S; Stanley, M

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to document the status of p53 expression and mutation in cervical cancer at protein, RNA and DNA levels and to relate this to the presence of HPV. Biopsy specimens from one hundred and three squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and histologically normal ectocervix were analysed. Fresh tissues were extracted for protein, RNA and DNA and flash frozen tissue cryostat sectioned for immunohistochemical staining. HPV DNA status was determined by PCR using L1 consensus primers and typed for HPV 16 and 18 with E6 specific primers. p53 expression was determined at the protein level by Western blotting on protein extracts and at RNA level by Northern blotting. There was no p53 overexpression or mutation detectable in the protein extracts. Three of 65 (4.6%) of the carcinomas were positive for p53 by immunostaining with the polyclonal antibody CM1. Overexpression at the RNA level was detected in 2 of 32 (6.3%) carcinomas. p53 mutation was screened for by PCR/SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) followed by sequencing to define the site of mutation. Two of the cervical cancers (2.0%) showed mutation in p53 in exons 7 or 8. The mutation rate in HPV positive tumours was 1.2% (1/81) and in HPV negative tumours was 5.2% (1/19). p53 overexpression or mutation does not seem to play a significant role in cervical carcinomas.

  16. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coffee Polyphenols Change the Expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 Modifying Cyclin D1 Levels in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2. PMID:22919439

  18. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH; Junnila, Riia K.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includesmore » 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation

  19. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Anamika; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078; Liu Jing

    2010-10-15

    /migration, synapse/synaptic transmission and transcription/translation. Nine genes were differentially affected in all four CPF dosing groups. We conclude that the most robust, consistent changes in differential gene expression in neonatal forebrain across a range of acute CPF dosages occurred at an exposure level associated with the classical marker of OP toxicity, AChE inhibition. Disruption of multiple cellular pathways, in particular cell adhesion, may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity potential of this pesticide.« less

  20. Comparative analysis of gene expression level by quantitative real-time PCR has limited application in objects with different morphology.

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Penin, Aleksey A

    2012-01-01

    qRT-PCR is a generally acknowledged method for gene expression analysis due to its precision and reproducibility. However, it is well known that the accuracy of qRT-PCR data varies greatly depending on the experimental design and data analysis. Recently, a set of guidelines has been proposed that aims to improve the reliability of qRT-PCR. However, there are additional factors that have not been taken into consideration in these guidelines that can seriously affect the data obtained using this method. In this study, we report the influence that object morphology can have on qRT-PCR data. We have used a number of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered floral morphology as models for this study. These mutants have been well characterised (including in terms of gene expression levels and patterns) by other techniques. This allows us to compare the results from the qRT-PCR with the results inferred from other methods. We demonstrate that the comparison of gene expression levels in objects that differ greatly in their morphology can lead to erroneous results.

  1. Identification and Expression Analysis of Cytokinin Metabolic Genes in Soybean under Normal and Drought Conditions in Relation to Cytokinin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung Tien; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Vankova, Radomira; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Ham, Le Huy; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) mediate cellular responses to drought stress and targeted control of CK metabolism can be used to develop drought-tolerant plants. Aiming to manipulate CK levels to improve drought tolerance of soybean cultivars through genetic engineering of CK metabolic genes, we surveyed the soybean genome and identified 14 CK biosynthetic (isopentenyltransferase, GmIPT) and 17 CK degradative (CK dehydrogenase, GmCKX) genes. Comparative analyses of GmIPTs and GmCKXs with Arabidopsis counterparts revealed their similar architecture. The average numbers of abiotic stress-inducible cis-elements per promoter were 0.4 and 1.2 for GmIPT and GmCKX genes, respectively, suggesting that upregulation of GmCKXs, thereby reduction of CK levels, maybe the major events under abiotic stresses. Indeed, the expression of 12 GmCKX genes was upregulated by dehydration in R2 roots. Overall, the expressions of soybean CK metabolic genes in various tissues at various stages were highly responsive to drought. CK contents in various organs at the reproductive (R2) stage were also determined under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Although tRNA-type GmIPT genes were highly expressed in soybean, cis-zeatin and its derivatives were found at low concentrations. Moreover, reduction of total CK content in R2 leaves under drought was attributable to the decrease in dihydrozeatin levels, suggesting a role of this molecule in regulating soybean's responses to drought stress. Our systematic analysis of the GmIPT and GmCKX families has provided an insight into CK metabolism in soybean under drought stress and a solid foundation for in-depth characterization and future development of improved drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by manipulation of CK levels via biotechnological approach. PMID:22900018

  2. Predicting gene expression levels from codon biases in alpha-proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Samuel; Barnett, Melanie J; Campbell, Allan M; Fisher, Robert F; Mrazek, Jan

    2003-06-10

    Predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in five currently available high G+C complete alpha-proteobacterial genomes are analyzed. These include: the nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti (SINME) and Mesorhizobium loti (MESLO), the nonpathogenic aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (CAUCR), the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AGRTU), and the mammalian pathogen Brucella melitensis (BRUME). Three of these genomes, SINME, AGRTU, and BRUME, contain multiple chromosomes or megaplasmids (>1 Mb length). PHX genes in these genomes are concentrated mainly in the major (largest) chromosome with few PHX genes found in the secondary chromosomes and megaplasmids. Tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiration genes are strongly PHX in all five genomes, whereas anaerobic pathways of glycolysis and fermentation are mostly not PHX. Only in MESLO (but not SINME) and BRUME are most glycolysis genes PHX. Many flagellar genes are PHX in MESLO and CAUCR, but mostly are not PHX in SINME and AGRTU. The nonmotile BRUME also carries many flagellar genes but these are generally not PHX and all but one are located in the second chromosome. CAUCR stands out among available prokaryotic genomes with 25 PHX TonB-dependent receptors. These are putatively involved in uptake of iron ions and other nonsoluble compounds.

  3. BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels.

    PubMed

    Freire, Patrick; Moreira, Ricardo Neves; Arraiano, Cecília Maria

    2009-02-06

    The morphogene bolA is a general stress response gene in Escherichia coli that induces a round morphology when overexpressed. Results presented in this report show that increased BolA levels can inhibit cell elongation mechanisms. MreB polymerization is crucial for the bacterial cell cytoskeleton, and this protein is essential for the maintenance of a cellular rod shape. In this report, we demonstrate that bolA overexpression affects the architecture of MreB filaments. An increase in BolA leads to a significant reduction in MreB protein levels and mreB transcripts. BolA affects the mreBCD operon in vivo at the level of transcription. Furthermore, our results show that BolA is a new transcriptional repressor of MreB. The alterations in cell morphology induced by bolA seem to be mediated by a complex pathway that integrates PBP5, PBP6, MreB, and probably other regulators of cell morphology/elongation.

  4. High-level expression of the Penicillium notatum glucose oxidase gene in Pichia pastoris using codon optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaowei; Li, Zhuofu; Zhang, Yuhong; Huang, Huoqing; Li, Mu; Zhou, Liwei; Tang, Yunming; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) gene from Penicillium notatum was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,815 bp gene, god-w, encodes 604 amino acids. Recombinant GOD-w had optimal activity at 35-40°C and pH 6.2 and was stable, from pH 3 to 7 maintaining >75% maximum activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h. GOD-w worked as well as commercial GODs to improve bread making. To achieve high-level expression of recombinant GOD in P. pastoris, 272 nucleotides involving 228 residues were mutated, consistent with the codon bias of P. pastoris. The optimized recombinant GOD-m yielded 615 U ml(-1) (2.5 g protein l(-1)) in a 3 l fermentor--410% higher than GOD-w (148 U ml(-1)), and thus is a low-cost alternative for the bread baking industry.

  5. Fluorescent Affibody Molecule Administered In Vivo at a Microdose Level Labels EGFR Expressing Glioma Tumor Regions.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Hoopes, P Jack; Feldwisch, Joachim; Paulsen, Keith D; Pogue, Brian W

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence guidance in surgical oncology provides the potential to realize enhanced molecular tumor contrast with dedicated targeted tracers, potentially with a microdose injection level. For most glioma tumors, the blood brain barrier is compromised allowing some exogenous drug/molecule delivery and accumulation for imaging. The aberrant overexpression and/or activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with many types of cancers, including glioblastoma, and so the use of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecule targeted to the EGFR receptor provides the potential for improving tumor contrast during surgery. Fluorescently labeled affibody molecule (ABY-029) has high EGFR affinity and high potential specificity with reasonably fast plasma clearance. In this study, ABY-29 was evaluated in glioma versus normal brain uptake from intravenous injection at a range of doses, down to a microdose injection level. Nude rats were inoculated with the U251 human glioma cell line in the brain. Tumors were allowed to grow for 3-4 weeks. ABY-029 fluorescence ex vivo imaging of brain slices was acquired at different time points (1-48 h) and varying injection doses from 25 to 122 μg/kg (from human protein microdose equivalent to five times microdose levels). The tumor was most clearly visualized at 1-h post-injection with 8- to 16-fold average contrast relative to normal brain. However, the tumor still could be identified after 48 h. In all cases, the ABY-029 fluorescence appeared to localize preferentially in EGFR-positive regions. Increasing the injected dose from a microdose level to five times, a microdose level increased the signal by 10-fold, and the contrast was from 8 to 16, showing that there was value in doses slightly higher than the microdose restriction. Normal tissue uptake was found to be affected by the tumor size, indicating that edema was a likely factor affecting the expected tumor to normal tissue contrast. These results suggest

  6. Expression of Cyanobacterial Acyl-ACP Reductase Elevates the Triacylglycerol Level in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Kawase, Yasuko; Hayakawa, Jumpei; Matsuda, Mami; Nakamura, Mami; Era, Atsuko; Tanaka, Kan; Kondo, Akihiko; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Imamura, Sousuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen starvation is known to induce the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in many microalgae, and potential use of microalgae as a source of biofuel has been explored. However, nitrogen starvation also stops cellular growth. The expression of cyanobacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae chloroplasts resulted in an accumulation of TAG, which led to an increase in the number and size of lipid droplets while maintaining cellular growth. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses showed that the expression of acyl-ACP reductase altered the activities of several metabolic pathways. The activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in chloroplasts, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, were up-regulated, while pyruvate decarboxylation in mitochondria and the subsequent consumption of acetyl-CoA by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were down-regulated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, which oxidizes fatty aldehydes to fatty acids, was also up-regulated in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. This activation was required for the lipid droplet accumulation and metabolic changes observed in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. Nitrogen starvation also resulted in lipid droplet accumulation in C. merolae, while cell growth ceased as in the case of other algal species. The metabolic changes that occur upon the expression of acyl-ACP reductase are quite different from those caused by nitrogen starvation. Therefore, there should be a method for further increasing the storage lipid level while still maintaining cell growth that is different from the metabolic response to nitrogen starvation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. High NUCB2 expression level is associated with metastasis and may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Lina; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei and has a proven role in energy homeostasis. It has also been recently reported to have a key role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of NUCB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. In the present study, the level of NUCB2 mRNA was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 34 paired fresh tissues from patients with CRC. RT-qPCR was followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of NUCB2 protein in tissue microarrays of 251 samples to evaluate the clinical significance of NUCB2 in CRC. The RT-qPCR indicated an upregulation of NUCB2 mRNA in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues (P=0.027). IHC staining indicated a positive association between elevated NUCB2 expression and lymph node metastasis or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Patients with CRC and lymph node metastasis demonstrated a higher expression of NUCB2 (49.5%, 50/101) compared with those without lymph node metastasis (36.7%, 55/150; P=0.043). Furthermore, NUCB2 expression was also higher in patients with CRC and TNM stage III-IV compared with those with TNM stage I-II (50.9% vs. 35.0%; P=0.011). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no significant association between NUCB2 expression and disease-free survival of patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis did not identify the upregulation of NUCB2 as an independent prognostic predictor in patients with CRC (P=0.755). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that upregulation of NUCB2 is significantly associated with CRC metastasis, indicating that NUCB2 may be a cancer-associated oncogene associated with the aggressive progression of CRC.

  8. Aberrant protein expression and frequent allelic loss of MSH3 in colorectal cancer with low-level microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, Jens; Preußler, Mark; Ziegler, Andreas; Schackert, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    High level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is caused by the inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; however, it is unknown for tumors with low level MSI (MSI-L). The protein complex involving MSH3 preferentially recognizes insertion/deletion loops (IDLs) of two to eight bases and di- and tetranucleotide repeats are affected in the majority of MSI-L CRC. We selected 10 and eight MSI-L CRCs from 228 and 204 patients with sporadic and hereditary disease, respectively. The tumors were analyzed for protein expression of MSH3, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2, and for mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in MSH3. Four tumors showed a markedly reduced MSH3 expression, whereas all 18 tumors had normal expression of the remaining MMR proteins. Twenty-five different sequence variants were identified. None of these results in a truncated protein, though L902W represents the first constitutional missense mutation in MSH3 predicted to be functional based on conservation among mutS homologues. All variants have also been found in normal DNA of the patients and in controls. LOH intragenic to MSH3 was evident for 12 of 16 (75%) informative tumors. Occurrence of sequence variants in normal DNA of the patients and in controls excludes somatic mutations and mutations specific to the CRC patient population, respectively. In contrast, the high frequency of LOH as well as the aberrant protein expression in some tumors indicates an involvement of MSH3 impairment in MSI-L CRC.

  9. Expression of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Relation to Anthocyanin, Proanthocyanidin, and Flavonol Levels during Bilberry Fruit Development1

    PubMed Central

    Jaakola, Laura; Määttä, Kaisu; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-01-01

    The production of anthocyanins in fruit tissues is highly controlled at the developmental level. We have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during the development of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit in relation to the accumulation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in wild berries and in color mutants of bilberry. The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label. These homologous probes were used for determining the expression of the flavonoid pathway genes in bilberries. The contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in ripening bilberries were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and were identified using a mass spectrometry interface. Our results demonstrate a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the flavonoid pathway genes during the ripening of berries. At the early stages of berry development, procyanidins and quercetin were the major flavonoids, but the levels decreased dramatically during the progress of ripening. During the later stages of ripening, the content of anthocyanins increased strongly and they were the major flavonoids in the ripe berry. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced. A connection between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis in bilberry was detected in this study and also in previous data collected from flavonol and anthocyanin analyses from other fruits. In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented. PMID:12376640

  10. Tissue Phthalate Levels Correlate With Changes in Immune Gene Expression in a Population of Juvenile Wild Salmon.

    PubMed

    Martins, Kelly; Hagedorn, Birgit; Ali, Shareen; Kennish, John; Applegate, Ben; Leu, Matthias; Epp, Lidia; Pallister, Chris; Zwollo, Patty

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have detrimental effects on health and have been shown to dysregulate the immune system of mammals, birds, and fish. We recently reported that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure reduces the abundance and inhibits the proliferation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) IgM(+) B lymphocytes and expression of secreted immunoglobulin heavy-chain mu transcripts in an in vitro culture system. We proposed that phthalates act as immunomodulators by modifying the normal B cell-activation pathways by accelerating B cell differentiation while suppressing plasmablast expansion, thus resulting in fewer IgM-secreting plasma cells. This hypothesis was tested here in an in vivo field study of juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) from a plastic-polluted lake in the Gulf of Alaska. Fish tissues were analyzed for both phthalate levels using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry and for changes in immune gene expression using reverse transcriptase-real time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that fish with higher tissue levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di(n-butyl) phthalate, and/or dimethyl phthalate expressed significantly fewer secreted and membrane-bound immunoglobulin heavy-chain mu and Blimp1 transcripts in their hematopoietic tissue. This suggests that in vivo uptake of phthalates in fish changes the expression of B cell-specific genes. Chronic exposure to phthalates likely dysregulates normal B-lymphoid development and antibody responses in salmonids and may increase susceptibility to infection. Given the conserved nature of B-lineage cells in vertebrate animals, other marine species may be similarly affected by chronic phthalate exposure.

  11. Enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activation by Hexachlorobenzene in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Florencia; Bastón, Juan Ignacio; Vaccarezza, Agustina; Singla, José Javier; Pontillo, Carolina; Miret, Noelia; Farina, Mariana; Meresman, Gabriela; Randi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that induces toxic reproductive effects in laboratory animals. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Experimental studies indicate that exposure to organochlorines can interfere with both hormonal regulation and immune function to promote endometriosis. Altered expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with endometriosis, suggests that MMPs may play a critical role. In the endometriotic lesions, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), binds to its EP4 receptor (EP4), and via c-Src kinase induces MMPs activation, promoting endometriosis. We examined the HCB action on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expression, COX-2 levels, PGE2 signaling, and the AhR involvement in HCB-induced effects. We have used different in vitro models: (1) human endometrial stromal cell line T-HESC, (2) primary cultures of Human Uterine Fibroblast (HUF), and (3) primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells from eutopic endometrium of control (CESC) and subjects with endometriosis (EESC). Our results show that HCB enhances MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in T-HESC, HUF and ESC cells. The MMP-9 levels were elevated in all models, while the MMP-2 expression only increased in ESC cells. HCB enhanced COX-2 and EP4 expression, PGE2 secretion and the c-Src kinase activation in T-HESC. Besides, we observed that AhR is implicated in these HCB-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show that HCB exposure could contribute to endometriosis development, affecting inflammation and invasion parameters of human endometrial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effect of SiO2 nanoparticles exposure on microRNA expression level in human bronchial epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yarui; He, Yun; Gong, Chunmei; Zhou, Jichang; Zhu, Yumei; Mo, Junluan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of short and long term exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles on microRNA expression level in human bronchial epithelial cells(16HBE cells). The 16HBE cells were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μg/ml SiO2 nanoparticles for 24 h to detect the cell viability by using CCK-8 assay. The inhibition rate of proliferation activity and half inhibitory concentration (IC50) were calculated. The 16HBE cells were exposed to 10 μg/ml SiO2 nanoparticles for 10 and 30 generations, named P10 and P30, and the control P0 was set. The cells were treated with SiO2 nanoparticles at 0, 1/4 IC50, 1/2 IC50 and IC50 concentration and μm-SiO2 at IC50 concentration for 24 h, and the control serum-free culture medium was set. Agilent miRNAs microarray chip was used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in P10, P30 and P0 groups. The expression level of miRNA was detected by reverse transcription fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The inhibition rate of proliferation activity of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25,30,40 μg/ml group were (-3.33 ± 3.80)%, (20.40 ± 11.73)%, (39.08 ± 5.53)%, (55.10 ± 5.78)%, (66.42 ± 9.60)%, (71.67 ± 7.34)%, (81.43 ± 5.37)%, respectively; F=129.11, P<0.001. The IC50 (95%CI) was 18.35 (15.82-20.72) μg/ml. The expression level of miRNA-494-3p in P0, P10 and P30 were 1.00, 0.45 ± 0.08, 0.28 ± 0.07, respectively; F=60.77, P<0.001. miRNA-19a-3p were 1.00, 2.27 ± 0.45, 1.06 ± 0.19, respectively; F=30.05, P<0.001. miRNA-148b-3p were 1.00, 1.78 ± 0.29, 0.88 ± 0.19, respectively; F=30.23, P<0.001. Compared to control group, the expression level of miRNA-494-3p in 5, 10, 20 μg/ml SiO2 nanoparticles groups and 20 μg/ml μm-SiO2 group were 0.99 ± 0.04, 1.38 ± 0.19, 2.13 ± 0.14, 0.81 ± 0.25, respectively; F=57.03, P<0.001. miRNA-19a-3p were 0.91 ± 0.03, 1.12 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.01, 0.86 ± 0.01, respectively; F=408.78, P<0.001. miRNA-148b-3p were 0.95 ± 0.02, 1.22 ± 0.00, 0.54 ± 0.02, 1.15 ± 0.04 respectively

  13. A single cell level measurement of StAR expression and activity in adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Dong, Hui; Jefcoate, Colin

    2017-02-05

    The Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) directs mitochondrial cholesterol uptake through a C-terminal cholesterol binding domain (CBD) and a 62 amino acid N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) that contains an import sequence and conserved sites for inner membrane metalloproteases. Deletion of the NTD prevents mitochondrial import while maintaining steroidogenesis but with compromised cholesterol homeostasis. The rapid StAR-mediated cholesterol transfer in adrenal cells depends on concerted mRNA translation, p37 StAR phosphorylation and controlled NTD cleavage. The NTD controls this process with two cAMP-inducible modulators of, respectively, transcription and translation SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA resolves slow RNA splicing at the gene loci in cAMP-induced Y-1 cells and transfer of individual 3.5 kB mRNA molecules to mitochondria. StAR transcription depends on the CREB coactivator CRTC2 and PKA inhibition of the highly inducible suppressor kinase SIK1 and a basal counterpart SIK2. PKA-inducible TIS11b/Znf36l1 binds specifically to highly conserved elements in exon 7 thereby suppressing formation of mRNA and subsequent translation. Co-expression of SIK1, Znf36l1 with 3.5 kB StAR mRNA may limit responses to pulsatile signaling by ACTH while regulating the transition to more prolonged stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A single cell level measurement of StAR expression and activity in adrenal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Dong, Hui; Jefcoate, Colin

    2018-01-01

    The Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) directs mitochondrial cholesterol uptake through a C-terminal cholesterol binding domain (CBD) and a 62 amino acid N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) that contains an import sequence and conserved sites for inner membrane metalloproteases. Deletion of the NTD prevents mitochondrial import while maintaining steroidogenesis but with compromised cholesterol homeostasis. The rapid StAR-mediated cholesterol transfer in adrenal cells depends on concerted mRNA translation, p37 StAR phosphorylation and controlled NTD cleavage. The NTD controls this process with two cAMP-inducible modulators of, respectively, transcription and translation SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA resolves slow RNA splicing at the gene loci in cAMP-induced Y-1 cells and transfer of individual 3.5 kb mRNA molecules to mitochondria. StAR transcription depends on the CREB coactivator CRTC2 and PKA inhibition of the highly inducible suppressor kinase SIK1 and a basal counterpart SIK2. PKA-inducible TIS11b/Znf36l1 binds specifically to highly conserved elements in exon 7 thereby suppressing formation of mRNA and subsequent translation. Co-expression of SIK1, Znf36l1 with 3.5 kb StAR mRNA may limit responses to pulsatile signaling by ACTH while regulating the transition to more prolonged stress PMID:27521960

  15. High levels of circulating extracellular vesicles with altered expression and function during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Fabiola da Silva; Michelon, Tatiana Ferreira; Neumann, Jorge; Manvailer, Luis Felipe Santos; Wagner, Bettina; Horn, Peter A; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Rebmann, Vera

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are widely considered important modulators of cell-cell communication and may interact with target cells locally and on a systemic level. Several studies had shown that circulating EVs' levels are increased during pregnancy. However, EVs characteristics, composition and biological functions in pregnancy still need to be clarified. This study aims to determine if circulating EVs during pregnancy are modified regarding levels, markers and cytokine profile as well as their reactivity towards peripheral blood cells. 26 pregnant women (PW) being in the second gestational trimester and 59 non-pregnant women (NPW) were investigated. EVs enrichment was performed by ExoQuick™ or ultracentrifugation; nanoparticle tracking analysis, SDS-PAGE followed by Western Blotting and densitometry, and IFN-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β1 ELISA for EVs characterization; imaging flow cytometry to analyze EVs' uptake by peripheral blood cells and flow cytometry were performed to analyze EVs function regarding induction of caspase-3 activity. Circulating EVs' levels were increased during pregnancy [26.9×10(6)EVs/ml (range: 6.4-46.3); p=0.003] vs NPW [18.9×10(6)EVs/ml (range: 2.5-61.3)]. Importantly, the immunosuppressive TGF-β1 and IL-10 cytokine cargo were increased in EVs of PW even after normalization to 1 million EVs [TGF-β1: 0.25pg/10(6)EVs (range: 0.0-2.0); p<0.0001] and [IL-10: 0.21pg/10(6)EVs (range: 0.0-16.8); p=0.006] vs NPW. Although EVs derived from non-pregnant and pregnant women were taken up by NK cells, the latter exclusively enhanced the caspase-3 activity in CD56(dim) NK cells (8.2±0.9; p=0.02). The qualitative and quantitative pregnancy-related alterations of circulating EVs provide first hints for an immune modulating role of circulating EVs during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of Chitinase mRNA Levels in Human and Mouse Tissues by Real-Time PCR: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Stomach Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Misa; Togashi, Yuto; Tsuda, Kyoko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Kamaya, Minori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes chitin, which is an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer that is present in a wide range of organisms, including insects, parasites and fungi. Although mammals do not contain any endogenous chitin, humans and mice express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Because the level of expression of these chitinases is increased in many inflammatory conditions, including Gaucher disease and mouse models of asthma, both chitinases may play important roles in the pathophysiologies of these and other diseases. We recently established a quantitative PCR system using a single standard DNA and showed that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in mouse stomach tissues. In this study, we applied this methodology to the quantification of chitinase mRNAs in human tissues and found that both chitinase mRNAs were widely expressed in normal human tissues. Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in the human lung, whereas AMCase mRNA was not overexpressed in normal human stomach tissues. The levels of these mRNAs in human tissues were significantly lower than the levels of housekeeping genes. Because the AMCase expression levels were quite different between the human and mouse stomach tissues, we developed a quantitative PCR system to compare the mRNA levels between human and mouse tissues using a human-mouse hybrid standard DNA. Our analysis showed that Chit1 mRNA is expressed at similar levels in normal human and mouse lung. In contrast, the AMCase expression level in human stomach was significantly lower than that expression level observed in mouse stomach. These mRNA differences between human and mouse stomach tissues were reflecting differences in the chitinolytic activities and levels of protein expression. Thus, the expression level of the AMCase in the stomach is species-specific. PMID:23826286

  17. Osteopontin and splice variant expression level in human malignant glioma: radiobiologic effects and prognosis after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Güttler, Antje; Giebler, Maria; Cuno, Peter; Wichmann, Henri; Keßler, Jacqueline; Ostheimer, Christian; Söling, Ariane; Strauss, Christian; Illert, Jörg; Kappler, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk; Bache, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of the hypoxia-associated secreted glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) in the response of malignant glioma to radiotherapy by characterizing OPN and its splice variants in vitro and in patient material. The effect of siRNA knockdown of OPN splice variants on cellular and radiobiologic behavior was analyzed in U251MG cells using OpnS siRNA (inhibition of all OPN splice variants) and OpnAC siRNA (knockdown only of OPNa and OPNc). OPN and splice variant mRNA levels were quantified in archival material of 41 glioblastoma tumor samples. Plasma OPN was prospectively measured in 33 malignant glioma patients. Inhibition of OPNa and OPNc (OpnAC) reduced clonogenic survival in U251MG cells but did not affect proliferation, migration or apoptosis. Knockdown of all OPN splice variants (OpnS) resulted in an even stronger inhibition of clonogenic survival, while cell proliferation and migration were reduced and rate of apoptosis was increased. Additional irradiation had additive effects with both siRNAs. Plasma OPN increased continuously in malignant glioma patients and was associated with poor survival. OPNb is partially able to compensate the effects of OPNa and OPNc knockdown in U251MG cells. High OPN plasma levels at the end of radiotherapy are associated with poor survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Precise let-7 expression levels balance organ regeneration against tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linwei; Nguyen, Liem H; Zhou, Kejin; de Soysa, T Yvanka; Li, Lin; Miller, Jason B; Tian, Jianmin; Locker, Joseph; Zhang, Shuyuan; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Zeitels, Lauren R; Acharya, Asha; Wang, Sam C; Mendell, Joshua T; He, Xiaoshun; Nishino, Jinsuke; Morrison, Sean J; Siegwart, Daniel J; Daley, George Q; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo roles for even the most intensely studied microRNAs remain poorly defined. Here, analysis of mouse models revealed that let-7, a large and ancient microRNA family, performs tumor suppressive roles at the expense of regeneration. Too little or too much let-7 resulted in compromised protection against cancer or tissue damage, respectively. Modest let-7 overexpression abrogated MYC-driven liver cancer by antagonizing multiple let-7 sensitive oncogenes. However, the same level of overexpression blocked liver regeneration, while let-7 deletion enhanced it, demonstrating that distinct let-7 levels can mediate desirable phenotypes. let-7 dependent regeneration phenotypes resulted from influences on the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway. We found that chronic high-dose let-7 overexpression caused liver damage and degeneration, paradoxically leading to tumorigenesis. These dose-dependent roles for let-7 in tissue repair and tumorigenesis rationalize the tight regulation of this microRNA in development, and have important implications for let-7 based therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09431.001 PMID:26445246

  19. Low oxygen affects photophysiology and the level of expression of two-carbon metabolism genes in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mikael; Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Szabó, Milán; Larkum, Anthony W D; Raven, John A; Ralph, Peter J; Pernice, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Seagrasses are a diverse group of angiosperms that evolved to live in shallow coastal waters, an environment regularly subjected to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and irradiance. Zostera muelleri is the dominant species in south-eastern Australia, and is critical for healthy coastal ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the pathways of carbon fixation in Z. muelleri and their regulation in response to environmental changes. In this study, the response of Z. muelleri exposed to control and very low oxygen conditions was investigated by using (i) oxygen microsensors combined with a custom-made flow chamber to measure changes in photosynthesis and respiration, and (ii) reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR to measure changes in expression levels of key genes involved in C 4 metabolism. We found that very low levels of oxygen (i) altered the photophysiology of Z. muelleri, a characteristic of C 3 mechanism of carbon assimilation, and (ii) decreased the expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. These molecular-physiological results suggest that regulation of the photophysiology of Z. muelleri might involve a close integration between the C 3 and C 4 , or other CO 2 concentrating mechanisms metabolic pathways. Overall, this study highlights that the photophysiological response of Z. muelleri to changing oxygen in water is capable of rapid acclimation and the dynamic modulation of pathways should be considered when assessing seagrass primary production.

  20. Change in pharmacological effect of endothelin receptor antagonists in rats with pulmonary hypertension: Role of ETB-receptor expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageau, Stéphanie; Thorin, Eric; Villeneuve, Louis; Dupuis, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The endothelin (ET) system is activated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The therapeutic value of pharmacological blockade of ET receptors has been demonstrated in various animal models and led to the current approval and continued development of these drugs for the therapy of human PAH. However, we currently incompletely comprehend what local modifications of this system occur as a consequence of PAH, particularly in small resistance arteries, and how this could affect the pharmacological response to ET receptor antagonists with various selectivities for the receptor subtypes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate potential modifications of the pharmacology of the ET system in rat pulmonary resistance arteries from monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Experimental approach ET-1 levels were quantified by ELISA. PreproET-1, ETA and ETB receptor mRNA expressions were quantified in pulmonary resistance arteries using Q-PCR, while protein expression was evaluated by Western blots. Reactivity to ET-1 of isolated pulmonary resistance arteries was measured in the presence of ETA (A-147627), ETB (A-192621) and dual ETA/B (bosentan) receptor antagonists. Key results In rats with PAH, plasma ET-1 increased (p < 0.001) while pulmonary levels were reduced (p < 0.05). In PAH arteries, preproET-1 (p < 0.05) and ETB receptor (p < 0.001) gene expressions were reduced, as were ETB receptor protein levels (p < 0.05). ET-1 induced similar vasoconstrictions in both groups. In arteries from sham animals, neither bosentan nor the ETA or the ETB receptor antagonists modified the response. In arteries from PAH rats, however, bosentan and the ETA receptor antagonist potently reduced the maximal contraction, while bosentan also reduced sensitivity (p < 0.01). Conclusions and implications The effectiveness of both selective ETA and dual ETA/B receptor antagonists is markedly increased in PAH. Down-regulation of

  1. Hydrostatic Pressure Regulates MicroRNA Expression Levels in Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Cultures via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheleschi, Sara; De Palma, Anna; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Carta, Serafino; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2017-01-12

    Mechanical loading and hydrostatic pressure (HP) regulate chondrocytes' metabolism; however, how mechanical stimulation acts remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cartilage homeostasis, mechanotransduction, and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the effects of a cyclic HP (1-5 MPa), in both normal and OA human chondrocytes, on the expression of miR-27a/b , miR-140 , miR-146a/b , and miR-365 , and of their target genes ( MMP-13 , ADAMTS-5 , IGFBP-5 , and HDAC-4 ). Furthermore, we assessed the possible involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to HP. Chondrocytes were exposed to HP for 3h and the evaluations were performed immediately after pressurization, and following 12, 24, and 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR. β-catenin was detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence. In OA chondrocytes, HP induced a significant increase ( p < 0.01) of the expression levels of miR-27a/b , miR-140 , and miR-146a , and a significant reduction ( p < 0.01) of miR-365 at all analyzed time points. MMP-13 , ADAMTS-5 , and HDAC-4 were significantly downregulated following HP, while no significant modification was found for IGFBP-5 . β-catenin levels were significantly increased ( p < 0.001) in OA chondrocytes at basal conditions and significantly reduced ( p < 0.01) by HP. Pressurization did not cause any significant modification in normal cells. In conclusion, in OA chondrocytes, HP restores the expression levels of some miRNAs, downregulates MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation.

  2. Hydrostatic Pressure Regulates MicroRNA Expression Levels in Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Cultures via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheleschi, Sara; De Palma, Anna; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Carta, Serafino; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical loading and hydrostatic pressure (HP) regulate chondrocytes’ metabolism; however, how mechanical stimulation acts remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cartilage homeostasis, mechanotransduction, and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the effects of a cyclic HP (1–5 MPa), in both normal and OA human chondrocytes, on the expression of miR-27a/b, miR-140, miR-146a/b, and miR-365, and of their target genes (MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, IGFBP-5, and HDAC-4). Furthermore, we assessed the possible involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to HP. Chondrocytes were exposed to HP for 3h and the evaluations were performed immediately after pressurization, and following 12, 24, and 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR. β-catenin was detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence. In OA chondrocytes, HP induced a significant increase (p < 0.01) of the expression levels of miR-27a/b, miR-140, and miR-146a, and a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of miR-365 at all analyzed time points. MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4 were significantly downregulated following HP, while no significant modification was found for IGFBP-5. β-catenin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in OA chondrocytes at basal conditions and significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by HP. Pressurization did not cause any significant modification in normal cells. In conclusion, in OA chondrocytes, HP restores the expression levels of some miRNAs, downregulates MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. PMID:28085114

  3. Resveratrol attenuates bone cancer pain through regulating the expression levels of ASIC3 and activating cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haili; Ding, Jieqiong; Wu, Ji; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Jiao, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Bone cancer pain (BCP) is one of the most common pains in patients with malignant cancers. The mechanism underlying BCP is largely unknown. Our previous studies and the increasing evidence both have shown that acid-sensing ion channels 3 (ASIC3) is an important protein in the pathological pain state in some pain models. We hypothesized that the expression change of ASIC3 might be one of the factors related to BCP. In this study, we established the BCP model through intrathecally injecting rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (MRMT-1) into the left tibia of Sprague-Dawley female rats, and found that the BCP rats showed bone destruction, increased mechanical pain sensitivities and up-regulated ASIC3 protein expression levels in L4-L6 dorsal root ganglion. Then, resveratrol, which was intraperitoneally injected into the BCP rats on post-operative Day 21, dose-dependently increased the paw withdrawal threshold of BCP rats, reversed the pain behavior, and had an antinociceptive effect on BCP rats. In ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells, the ASIC3 protein expression levels were regulated by resveratrol in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, resveratrol also had an antinociceptive effect in ASIC3-mediated pain rat model. Furthermore, resveratrol also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK, SIRT1, and LC3-II levels in ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells, indicating that resveratrol could activate the AMPK-SIRT1-autophagy signal pathway in ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells. In BCP rats, SIRT1 and LC3-II were also down-regulated. These findings provide new evidence for the use of resveratrol as a therapeutic treatment during BCP states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Cerebro-cortex Caspase-3 Expression and Blood Lipid Levels in Hyperlipemia Rats with Cerebral Ischemia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo-Yu; Ma, Jia-Jia; Guan, Han-Yu; Tian, Yao; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Ma, Hui-Fang

    2017-04-25

    as Caspase-3 immunoactivity level were significantly increased in the model group( P <0.05), while serum HDL-C level was obviously decreased( P <0.05). After the treatment,the increased neurological score, CHO, TG and LDL-C contents, and the number of Caspase-3 positive cells and Caspase-3 immunoactivity level were considerably decreased in the EA group I and Ⅱ( P <0.05)while the decreased HDL-C level was notably increased relevant to the model group( P <0.05). The effects of the EA group I were notably superior to those of EA group Ⅱ in down-regulating the neurological score,CHO, TG and LDL-C levels and the expression of Caspase-3 protein( P <0.05). No significant differences were found between the normal control and sham operation groups in the neurological scores 20 min and 7 days after modeling and Caspase-3 expression levels ( P >0.05). H.E. staining showed a reduction of the apoptotic cells and inflammatory cells in both EA group I and Ⅱ. Both EA and EA+MA interventions can improve neurological function in HL-CI rats,which may be related to their effects in adjusting the levels of serum lipids and down-regulating the expression of cell apoptosis-related Caspase-3 protein in the ischemic cortex. Moreover, the cerebral ischemia injury may be lightened by EA-lowering hyperlipemia first.

  5. Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2013-01-01

    Applications of laser therapy, including low-level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have been proven to be beneficial and relatively less invasive therapeutic modalities for numerous diseases and disease conditions. Using specific types of laser irradiation, specific cellular activities can be induced. Because multiple cellular signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in cells exposed to lasers, understanding the molecular responses within cells will aid in the development of laser therapies. In order to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of LLLT and PDT-related responses, it will be useful to characterize the specific expression of miRNAs and proteins. Such analyses will provide an important source for new applications of laser therapy, as well as for the development of individualized treatments. Although several miRNAs should be up- or down-regulated upon stimulation by LLLT, phototherapy and PDT, very few published studies address the effect of laser therapy on miRNA expression. In this review, we focus on LLLT, phototherapy and PDT as representative laser therapies and discuss the effects of these therapies on miRNA expression. PMID:23807510

  6. Regulation of miRNA expression by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2013-06-27

    Applications of laser therapy, including low-level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have been proven to be beneficial and relatively less invasive therapeutic modalities for numerous diseases and disease conditions. Using specific types of laser irradiation, specific cellular activities can be induced. Because multiple cellular signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in cells exposed to lasers, understanding the molecular responses within cells will aid in the development of laser therapies. In order to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of LLLT and PDT-related responses, it will be useful to characterize the specific expression of miRNAs and proteins. Such analyses will provide an important source for new applications of laser therapy, as well as for the development of individualized treatments. Although several miRNAs should be up- or down-regulated upon stimulation by LLLT, phototherapy and PDT, very few published studies address the effect of laser therapy on miRNA expression. In this review, we focus on LLLT, phototherapy and PDT as representative laser therapies and discuss the effects of these therapies on miRNA expression.

  7. Heroin use is associated with lower levels of restriction factors and type I interferon expression and facilitates HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Wu; Liu, Feng-Liang; Mu, Dan; Deng, De-Yao; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs. We included those IDUs and non-IDUs without HIV-1 infection, and found IDUs had significantly lower levels of TRIM5α, TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β expression than did non-IDUs. We also directly examined plasma viral load in HIV-1 mono-infected IDUs and non-IDUs and found HIV-1 mono-infected IDUs had significantly higher plasma viral load than did non-IDUs. Moreover, intrinsically positive correlation between type I interferon and TRIM5α or TRIM22 was observed, however, which was dysregulated following heroin use. Collectively, heroin use benefits HIV-1 replication that may be partly due to suppression of host restriction factors and type I interferon expression. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. QPROT: Statistical method for testing differential expression using protein-level intensity data in label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungwon; Kim, Sinae; Fermin, Damian; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2015-11-03

    We introduce QPROT, a statistical framework and computational tool for differential protein expression analysis using protein intensity data. QPROT is an extension of the QSPEC suite, originally developed for spectral count data, adapted for the analysis using continuously measured protein-level intensity data. QPROT offers a new intensity normalization procedure and model-based differential expression analysis, both of which account for missing data. Determination of differential expression of each protein is based on the standardized Z-statistic based on the posterior distribution of the log fold change parameter, guided by the false discovery rate estimated by a well-known Empirical Bayes method. We evaluated the classification performance of QPROT using the quantification calibration data from the clinical proteomic technology assessment for cancer (CPTAC) study and a recently published Escherichia coli benchmark dataset, with evaluation of FDR accuracy in the latter. QPROT is a statistical framework with computational software tool for comparative quantitative proteomics analysis. It features various extensions of QSPEC method originally built for spectral count data analysis, including probabilistic treatment of missing values in protein intensity data. With the increasing popularity of label-free quantitative proteomics data, the proposed method and accompanying software suite will be immediately useful for many proteomics laboratories. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes reveals the molecular response to elevated CO2 levels in two sea buckthorn cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jianguo; He, Caiyun

    2018-06-20

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration increases every year. It is critical to understand the elevated CO 2 response molecular mechanisms of plants using genomic techniques. Hippophae rhamnoides L. is a high stress resistance plant species widely distributed in Europe and Asia. However, the molecular mechanism of elevated CO 2 response in H. rhamnoides has been limited. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of two sea buckthorn cultivars under different CO 2 concentrations was performed, based on the next-generation illumina sequencing platform and de novo assembly. We identified 4740 differentially expressed genes in sea buckthorn response to elevated CO 2 concentrations. According to the gene ontology (GO) results, photosystem I, photosynthesis and chloroplast thylakoid membrane were the main enriched terms in 'xiangyang' sea buckthorn. In 'zhongguo' sea buckthorn, photosynthesis was also the main significantly enriched term. However, the number of photosynthesis related differentially expressed genes were different between two sea buckthorn cultivars. Our GO and pathway analyses indicated that the expression levels of the transcription factors WRKY, MYB and NAC were significantly different between the two sea buckthorn cultivars. This study provides a reliable transcriptome sequence resource and is a valuable resource for genetic and genomic researches for plants under high CO 2 concentration in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  11. Genotyping, levels of expression and physical status of human papilloma virus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among Colombian patients.

    PubMed

    Erira, Alveiro; Motta, Leidy Angélica; Chala, Andrés; Moreno, Andrey; Gamboa, Fredy; García, Dabeiba Adriana

    2015-10-23

    One of the risk factors for squamous cell oropharyngeal carcinoma is infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV), with prevalences that vary depending on the geographical region.  To identify the most frequent HPV viral types in oropharyngeal cancer, the levels of expression and the physical condition of the viral genome.  Forty-six patients were included in the study from among those attending head and neck surgical services in the cities of Bogotá, Manizales and Bucaramanga. In the histopathological report all study samples were characterized as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DNA extraction was subsequently performed for HPV genotyping and to determine the physical state of the viral genome, as well as RNA to determine viral transcripts using real-time PCR.  HPV prevalence in tumors was 21.74% (n=10) and the most common viral type was HPV-16 (nine cases). Viral expression for HPV-16 was low (one of 11 copies) and the predominant physical state of the virus was mixed (eight cases), with disruption observed at the E1 - E2 binding site (2525 - 3720 nucleotides).  The prevalence of HPV associated with oropharyngeal carcinoma among the Colombian study population was 21.7%, which is relatively low. The most frequent viral type was HPV-16, found in a mixed form and with low expression of E7, possibly indicating a poor prognosis for these patients.

  12. Predicting multi-level drug response with gene expression profile in multiple myeloma using hierarchical ordinal regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

    2018-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.

  13. Time-related dynamics of variation in core clock gene expression levels in tissues relevant to the immune system.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Sothern, R B; Greco, A; Pazienza, V; Vinciguerra, M; Liu, S; Cai, Y

    2011-01-01

    Immune parameters show rhythmic changes with a 24-h periodicity driven by an internal circadian timing system that relies on clock genes (CGs). CGs form interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops to generate and maintain 24-h mRNA and protein oscillations. In this study we evaluate and compare the profiles and the dynamics of variation of CG expression in peripheral blood, and two lymphoid tissues of mice. Expression levels of seven recognized key CGs (mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1, mCry2, and Rev-erbalpha) were evaluated by quantitative RT- PCR in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood of C57BL/6 male mice housed on a 12-h light (L)-dark (D) cycle and sacrificed every 4 h for 24 h (3-4 mice/time point). We found a statistically significant time-effect in spleen (S), thymus (T) and blood (B) for the original values of expression level of mBmal1 (S), mClock (T, B), mPer1 (S, B), mPer2 (S), mCry1 (S), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S, T, B) and for the fractional variation calculated between single time-point expression value of mBmal1 (B), mPer2 (T), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S). A significant 24-h rhythm was validated for five CGs in blood (mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry2, mRev-Erbalpha), for four CGs in the spleen (mBmal1, mPer1, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha), and for three CGs in the thymus (mClock, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha). The original values of acrophases for mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1 and mCry2 were very similar for spleen and thymus and advanced by several hours for peripheral blood compared to the lymphoid tissues, whereas the phases of mRev-Erbalpha were coincident for all three tissues. In conclusion, central and peripheral lymphoid tissues in the mouse show different sequences of activation of clock gene expression compared to peripheral blood. These differences may underlie the compartmental pattern of web functioning in the immune system.

  14. Expression of the human blood coagulation protein factor XIIIa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence of the expression levels from host-vector systems and medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Bröker, M; Bäuml, O; Göttig, A; Ochs, J; Bodenbenner, M; Amann, E

    1991-03-01

    The human blood coagulation protein Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vectors based on a 2-mu plasmid. Several factors affecting high production yield of recombinant FXIIIa were analysed. The use of the regulatable GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter resulted in higher FXIIIa expression when compared with the constitutive ADCI promoter. Screening for suitable yeast strains for expression of FXIIIa under the transcriptional control of the GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter revealed a broad spectrum of productivity. No obvious correlation between the expression rate and the genetic markers of the strains could be identified. The medium composition markedly influenced the FXIIIa expression rates. The expression of FXIIIa was strictly regulated by the carbon source. Glucose as the only sugar and energy source repressed the synthesis of FXIIIa, whereas addition of galactose induced FXIIIa expression. Special feeding schemes resulted in a productivity of up to 100 mg FXIIIa/l in shake flasks.

  15. [Relationship between the expression levels of PAPP-A metalloproteinase and growth and transcriptional factors in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Iunusova, N V; Spirina, L V; Kondakova, L A; Kolomiets, A L; Chernyshova, A L; Koval', V D; Nedosekov, V V; Savenkova, O V

    2013-01-01

    We have examined for the first time the relationship between the expression of PAPP-A metalloproteinase and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I, IGF-II, VEGF) and transcription factors (NF-kappaB, HIF-1) playing an important role in pathogenesis of cancer. We also demonstrated a positive association between the level of PAPP-A metalloproteinase and the level of growth (VEGF and IGF-I) and transcription factors (NF-kappaB p50, NF-kappaB p65, HIF-1alpha). The current findings suggest an important role of PAPP-A in regulation of bioavailability of IGF-I, VEGF, activated forms of NF-kappaB, and alpha-subunits of HIF-1 in endometrial tumors.

  16. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response. PMID:26442059

  17. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response.

  18. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-08-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. © 2015 American Society of

  19. Identifying EGFR-Expressed Cells and Detecting EGFR Multi-Mutations at Single-Cell Level by Microfluidic Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren; Zhou, Mingxing; Li, Jine; Wang, Zihua; Zhang, Weikai; Yue, Chunyan; Ma, Yan; Peng, Hailin; Wei, Zewen; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    EGFR mutations companion diagnostics have been proved to be crucial for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted cancer therapies. To uncover multiple mutations occurred in minority of EGFR-mutated cells, which may be covered by the noises from majority of un-mutated cells, is currently becoming an urgent clinical requirement. Here we present the validation of a microfluidic-chip-based method for detecting EGFR multi-mutations at single-cell level. By trapping and immunofluorescently imaging single cells in specifically designed silicon microwells, the EGFR-expressed cells were easily identified. By in situ lysing single cells, the cell lysates of EGFR-expressed cells were retrieved without cross-contamination. Benefited from excluding the noise from cells without EGFR expression, the simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing, but not the expensive deep sequencing of the whole cell population, was used to discover multi-mutations. We verified the new method with precisely discovering three most important EGFR drug-related mutations from a sample in which EGFR-mutated cells only account for a small percentage of whole cell population. The microfluidic chip is capable of discovering not only the existence of specific EGFR multi-mutations, but also other valuable single-cell-level information: on which specific cells the mutations occurred, or whether different mutations coexist on the same cells. This microfluidic chip constitutes a promising method to promote simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing to be a routine test before performing targeted cancer therapy.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and gram-negative bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Geraldine M; El-Baz, Alaa A; Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Shalaan, Abeer K

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is significantly elevated in patients with symptomatic apical periodontitis and to correlate this with the detected amount of gram-negative bacteria. Twenty-six patients with periapical lesions involving at least 2 teeth were included in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the symptomatic (SYM) group included 13 patients expressing pain with periapical lesions, and the asymptomatic (ASYM) group included 13 patients expressing no pain. Root canal treatment was performed followed by endodontic surgery and periapical lesion collection. Periapical lesions were serially cut into 4-μ sections. Some sections were processed for histologic examination using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Other sections were processed for immunohistochemical examination. For MMP-9, the area fraction of the positive cells was measured, and the percentage of the MMP-9-immunopositive area to the total area of the microscopic field was calculated. For gram-negative stain cells, the number of cells showing the pink-red color was counted per microscopic field. The Student's t test was used to compare the SYM and ASYM groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine a significant correlation between the number of cells and the MMP-9 level. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The SYM group showed a statistically significantly higher mean number of gram-negative cells (P = .001) and MMP-9 area percent (P < .001) than the ASYM group. There was a statistically significant positive (r = .927) correlation between the number of gram-negative cells and the MMP-9 area percent (P< .001). There is good evidence to suspect a significant role of gram-negative bacteria and MMP-9 in symptomatic periapical lesions. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Altered expression levels of the protein phosphatase 2A ABalphaC enzyme are associated with Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Estelle; Luangpirom, Ampa; Hladik, Christa; Mudrak, Ingrid; Ogris, Egon; Speciale, Samuel; White, Charles L

    2004-04-01

    The formation of amyloid-containing senile plaques and tau-rich neurofibrillary tangles are central events in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Significantly, ABalphaC, a major protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme, specifically binds to and dephosphorylates tau. Deregulation of PP2A results in tau hyperphosphorylation in vivo. Here, we compared the expression levels and distribution of PP2A subunits in various brain regions from autopsy cases of AD and aged controls with or without histological evidence of age-related neurofibrillary degeneration. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that there was a significant reduction in the total amounts of ABalphaC in AD frontal and temporal cortices that matched the decrease in PP2A activity measured in the same brain homogenates. Immunohistochemical studies showed that neuronal ABalphaC expression levels were significantly and selectively decreased in AD-affected regions and in tangle-bearing neurons, but not in AD cerebellum and in non-AD dementias. Reduced neuronal ABalphaC immunoreactivity closely correlated with tangle load, but not plaque burden, suggesting that ABalphaC dysfunction contributes to AD tau pathology. Glial cells within senile plaques were also positive for ABalphaC. Increased glial PP2A immunoreactivity was observed in both AD and non-AD cases and may play a role in the brain's response to general inflammatory processes and amyloidogenesis.

  3. ribB and ribBA genes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: expression levels under different growth conditions and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knegt, Fábio H P; Mello, Luciane V; Reis, Fernanda C; Santos, Marcos T; Vicentini, Renato; Ferraz, Lúcio F C; Ottoboni, Laura M M

    2008-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium involved in metal bioleaching. Using the RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR), we have identified several cDNAs that were differentially expressed when A. ferrooxidans LR was submitted to potassium- and phosphate-limiting conditions. One of these cDNAs showed similarity with ribB. An analysis of the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome, made available by The Institute for Genomic Research, showed that the ribB gene was not located in the rib operon, but a ribBA gene was present in this operon instead. The ribBA gene was isolated from A. ferrooxidans LR and expression of both ribB and ribBA was investigated. Transcript levels of both genes were enhanced in cells grown in the absence of K2HPO4, in the presence of zinc and copper sulfate and in different pHs. Transcript levels decreased upon exposure to a temperature higher than the ideal 30 degrees C and at pH 1.2. A comparative genomic analysis using the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome revealed similar putative regulatory elements for both genes. Moreover, an RFN element was identified upstream from the ribB gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of RibB and RibBA in bacteria showed six different combinations. We suggest that the presence of duplicated riboflavin synthesis genes in bacteria must provide their host with some benefit in certain stressful situations.

  4. Sequence variations and two levels of MCT1 and CD147 expression in red blood cells and gluteus muscle of horses.

    PubMed

    Koho, N M; Mykkänen, A K; Reeben, M; Raekallio, M R; Ilves, M; Pösö, A R

    2012-01-01

    MCT1-CD147 complex is the prime lactate transporter in mammalian plasma membranes. In equine red blood cells (RBCs), activity of the complex and expression of MCT1 and CD147 is bimodal; high in 70% and low in 30%. We studied whether sequence variations contribute to the bimodal expression of MCT1 and CD147. Samples of blood and cremaster muscle were collected in connection of castration from 24 horses. Additional gluteus muscle samples were collected from 15 Standardbreds of which seven were known to express low amounts of CD147 in RBCs. The cDNA of MCT1 and CD147 together with a promoter region of CD147 was sequenced. The amounts of MCT1 and CD147 expressed in RBC and muscle membranes were measured by Western blot and mRNA levels in muscles by qPCR. MCT1 and CD147 were expressed in 20 castrates, and in four only were traces found. Sequence variations found in MCT1 were not linked to MCT1 expression. In CD147 linked heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 389A>G (Met(125)Val) and 990C>T (3'-UTR) were associated to low expression of CD147. Also a mutation 168A>G (Ile(51)Val) in CD147 was associated to low MCT1 and CD147 expression. Low MCT1 and CD147 mRNA levels in gluteus were found in Standardbreds with low CD147 expression in RBCs. The results suggest that sequence variations affect the expression level of CD147, but do not explain its bimodality. The levels of MCT1 and CD147 mRNA correlated with the expression of CD147 and suggest that bimodality of their expression is regulated at transcriptional level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation Analysis Between Expression Levels of Hepatic Growth Hormone Receptor, Janus Kinase 2, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Genes and Dwarfism Phenotype in Bama Minipig.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haowen; Jiang, Qinyang; Wu, Dan; Lan, Ganqiu; Fan, Jing; Guo, Yafen; Chen, Baojian; Yang, Xiurong; Jiang, Hesheng

    2015-02-01

    Animal growth and development are complex and sophisticated biological metabolic processes, in which genes plays an important role. In this paper, we employed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze the expression levels of hepatic GHR, JAK2 and IGF-I genes in 1, 30, 180 day of Bama minipig and Landrace with attempt to verify the correlation between the expression of these growth-associated genes and the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. The results showed that the expression levels of these 3 genes in Bama minipigs were down-regulated expressed from 1 day to 30 day, and which was up-regulated expressed in Landrace. The expression levels of the 3 genes on 1, 30, 180 day were prominently higher in Landrace than in Bama minipigs. The significant differences of the 3 genes expression levels on 1 day between this two breeds indicate that different expressions of these genes might occur before birth. It is speculated that the down-regulated expression of the 3 genes may have a close correlation with the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. More investigations in depth of this study is under progress with the help of biochip nanotechnology.

  6. High-level extracellular protein production in Bacillus subtilis using an optimized dual-promoter expression system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Su, Lingqia; Duan, Xuguo; Liu, Lina; Wu, Jing

    2017-02-20

    We recently constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain (CCTCC M 2016536) from which we had deleted the srfC, spoIIAC, nprE, aprE and amyE genes. This strain is capable of robust recombinant protein production and amenable to high-cell-density fermentation. Because the promoter is among the factors that influence the production of target proteins, optimization of the initial promoter, P amyQ from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, should improve protein expression using this strain. This study was undertaken to develop a new, high-level expression system in B. subtilis CCTCC M 2016536. Using the enzyme β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (β-CGTase) as a reporter protein and B. subtilis CCTCC M 2016536 as the host, nine plasmids equipped with single promoters were screened using shake-flask cultivation. The plasmid containing the P amyQ' promoter produced the greatest extracellular β-CGTase activity; 24.1 U/mL. Subsequently, six plasmids equipped with dual promoters were constructed and evaluated using this same method. The plasmid containing the dual promoter P HpaII -P amyQ' produced the highest extracellular β-CGTase activity (30.5 U/mL) and was relatively glucose repressed. The dual promoter P HpaII -P amyQ' also mediated substantial extracellular pullulanase (90.7 U/mL) and α-CGTase expression (9.5 U/mL) during shake-flask cultivation, demonstrating the general applicability of this system. Finally, the production of β-CGTase using the dual-promoter P HpaII -P amyQ' system was investigated in a 3-L fermenter. Extracellular expression of β-CGTase reached 571.2 U/mL (2.5 mg/mL), demonstrating the potential of this system for use in industrial applications. The dual-promoter P HpaII -P amyQ' system was found to support superior expression of extracellular proteins in B. subtilis CCTCC M 2016536. This system appears generally applicable and is amenable to scale-up.

  7. Can balneotherapy modify microRNA expression levels in osteoarthritis? A comparative study in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannitti, C.; De Palma, A.; Pascarelli, N. A.; Cheleschi, S.; Giordano, N.; Galeazzi, M.; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the whole-blood levels of miR-155, miR-223, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-let-7e in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) after a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT). Thirty-two patients with knee OA defined by the ACR criteria were included. Twenty-one patients (MBT group) were daily treated with a combination of local mud-packs at 42 °C and baths in mineral water, at 37 °C for 15 min, for 12 applications over a period of 2 weeks, in addition to standard therapy; 11 patients (control group) continued their conventional treatment alone. Global pain score evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), WOMAC subscores, and microRNA expression were evaluated at baseline and after 2 weeks. Peripheral whole blood was collected into PAXgene™ Blood RNA tubes, stored at - 80 °C, and total RNA was extracted. The expression of miR-155, miR-223, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-let-7e was determined by qRT-PCR. After MBT, we observed a statistically significant improvement of clinical parameters and a significant decrease of miR-155, miR-181a, miR-146a ( p < 0.001), and miR-223 ( p < 0.01) expression levels. No clinical and biochemical modifications were detected in the control group. No significant variations of miR-let-7e were shown in both groups after 2 weeks. In conclusion, MBT can modify the expression of miR-155, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-223, which are upregulated in OA. It could be due to the heat stress and the hydrostatic pressure, since some miRNAs were found to be temperature- and mechano-responsive. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanism of action of MBT and the role of miRNAs in OA.

  8. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  9. 3'UTR Polymorphism in ACSL1 Gene Correlates with Expression Levels and Poor Clinical Outcome in Colon Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Teodoro; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Herranz, Jesús; Cejas, Paloma; Molina, Susana; Mendiola, Marta; Burgos, Emilio; Custodio, Ana B; De Miguel, María; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Reglero, Guillermo; Feliu, Jaime; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that lipid metabolism (LM) has an essential role in tumor growth to support special energetic and structural requirements of tumor cells. Recently, overexpression of LM-related genes, apolipoproteins related to metabolic syndrome, and ACSL/SCD network involved in fatty acid activation have been proposed as prognostic markers of colon cancer (CC). Furthermore, activation of this latter lipid network has been recently demonstrated to confer invasive and stem cell properties to tumor cells promoting tumor aggressiveness and patient relapse. With the aim of elucidating whether any genetic variation within these genes could influence basal expression levels and consequent susceptibility to relapse, we genotype, in 284 CC patients, 57 polymorphisms located in the 7 genes of these lipid networks previously associated with worse clinical outcome of CC patients (ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1, APOA2, APOC1, APOC2 and SCD), some of them related to CC aggressiveness. After adjusting with clinical confounding factors and multiple comparisons, an association between genotype and disease-free survival (DFS) was shown for rs8086 in 3'-UTR of ACSL1 gene (HR 3.08; 95% CI 1.69-5.63; adjusted p = 0.046). Furthermore, the risk T/T genotype had significantly higher ACSL1 gene expression levels than patients carrying C/T or C/C genotype (means = 5.34; 3.73; 2.37 respectively; p-value (ANOVA) = 0.019), suggesting a functional role of this variant. Thus, we have identified a "risk genotype" of ACSL1 gene that confers constitutive high levels of the enzyme, which is involved in the activation of fatty acids through conversion to acyl-CoA and has been recently related to increased invasiveness of tumor cells. These results suggest that rs8086 of ACSL1 could be a promising prognostic marker in CC patients, reinforcing the relevance of LM in the progression of CC.

  10. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats. PMID:27076782

  11. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of interleukin-21 in the pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome: increased serum levels of interleukin-21 and its expression in the labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin (IL)-21 is a cytokine that controls the functional activity of effector T helper cells and the differentiation of Th17 cells, and promotes B-cell differentiation. To test whether IL-21 participates in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), serum IL-21 level was measured and IL-21 expression in the labial salivary glands (LSG) was examined. Methods Serum IL-21 levels in 40 primary SS, 40 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 38 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 20 healthy controls were measured. Serum IL-21 levels of SS patients were assessed for correlations with laboratory data, including anti-nuclear antibody, anti-Ro/La antibodies, globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig) class, and IgG subclass. LSGs from 16 primary SS and 4 controls with sicca symptoms were evaluated for IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) expression by immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy was performed to further characterize the IL-21 positive cells. Results Primary SS patients had significantly higher serum IL-21 levels than controls, and these increments correlated positively with levels of IgG, IgG1. Serum IgG1 levels correlated with anti-Ro antibody titers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that lymphocytic foci and the periductal area of the LSGs from SS patients expressed high levels of IL-21 and lower levels of IL-21R, whereas the control LSGs showed minimal expression of both antigens. The more the lymphocyte infiltrated, IL-21expression in LSGs showed a tendency to increase. Confocal microscopic analyses revealed that IL-21 expressing infiltrating lymphocytes in the LSGs of SS patients also expressed CXCR5. Conclusions Primary SS is associated with high serum IL-21 levels that correlate positively with serum IgG, especially IgG1, levels. The expression of IL-21 is increased as more lymphocytes infiltrated in LSGs. These observations suggest that IL-21 may play an important role in primary SS pathogenesis. PMID:22030011

  13. Striking Similarity in the Gene Expression Levels of Individual Myc Module Members among ESCs, EpiSCs, and Partial iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Hirasaki, Masataka; Hiraki-Kamon, Keiko; Kamon, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Ayumu; Katano, Miyuki; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Okuda, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Predominant transcriptional subnetworks called Core, Myc, and PRC modules have been shown to participate in preservation of the pluripotency and self-renewality of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are another cell type that possesses pluripotency and self-renewality. However, the roles of these modules in EpiSCs have not been systematically examined to date. Here, we compared the average expression levels of Core, Myc, and PRC module genes between ESCs and EpiSCs. EpiSCs showed substantially higher and lower expression levels of PRC and Core module genes, respectively, compared with those in ESCs, while Myc module members showed almost equivalent levels of average gene expression. Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expression levels of the Myc module between these two cell types was not just overall, but striking similarities were evident even when comparing the expression of individual genes. We also observed equivalent levels of similarity in the expression of individual Myc module genes between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and partial iPSCs that are an unwanted byproduct generated during iPSC induction. Moreover, our data demonstrate that partial iPSCs depend on a high level of c-Myc expression for their self-renewal properties. PMID:24386274

  14. [Relationship between expression of microRNA and inflammatory cytokines plasma level in pediatric patients with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhui; Li, Chengrong; He, Yanxia; Li, Qiu; Wang, Guobing; Wen, Pengqiang; Yang, Weiguo; Yang, Yanlan

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is the major cause of death in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The clinical manifestations of early sepsis is very similar to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious reason. This study aimed to investigate the expression of miRNA and inflammatory cytokines in plasma in pediatric sepsis patients and its clinical significance. Forty children with sepsis seen in Shenzhen children's hospital PICU from April 2012 to March 2013 were enrolled in this study, the median age was 0.75 (0.52, 1.90) years; 27 were males and 13 females, of whom 16 had severe sepsis. We selected 20 postsurgical patients with SIRS and 15 healthy children as a control group. The expression levels of plasma miR-21, miR-125b, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-223 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The predictive value of miRNA, PCT and CRP for sepsis were evaluated by Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). TNF-α and IL-10 levels in plasma detected by Cytometric Beads Array (CBA). Quantitative data of normal distribution was compared with ANOVA among the three groups and LSD-t test between two groups. To non-normal distribution of data, multiple comparisons among three groups were conducted by Kruskal-Wallis H test and differences between two groups were assessed by Mann-Whitney U test for post hoc analysis. There were no significant differences between the age and gender of each group. Expression of miR-21, miR-125b, miR-132 and miR-155 in plasma had no significant difference in each group (all P > 0.05). MiR-146a and miR-223 levels in sepsis were upregulated compared with SIRS group and control group [(5.7 ± 3.5)×10(-5) vs. (2.4 ± 1.6)×10(-5) and (2.6 ± 1.2)×10(-5), (12.5 ± 7.7)×10(-4) vs. (8.3 ± 3.4)×10(-4) and (5.3 ± 2.2)×10(-4), all P < 0.01], expression levels of miR-223 in SIRS increased as compared to control group (P < 0.01). MiR-146a levels in severe sepsis were higher than those of the general sepsis [ (7

  15. Tauopathy induced by low level expression of a human brain-derived tau fragment in mice is rescued by phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Bondulich, Marie K; Guo, Tong; Meehan, Christopher; Manion, John; Rodriguez Martin, Teresa; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Yankova, Natalia; Stygelbout, Virginie; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Noble, Wendy; Hanger, Diane P

    2016-08-01

    Human neurodegenerative tauopathies exhibit pathological tau aggregates in the brain along with diverse clinical features including cognitive and motor dysfunction. Post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and truncation, are characteristic features of tau present in the brain in human tauopathy. We have previously reported an N-terminally truncated form of tau in human brain that is associated with the development of tauopathy and is highly phosphorylated. We have generated a new mouse model of tauopathy in which this human brain-derived, 35 kDa tau fragment (Tau35) is expressed in the absence of any mutation and under the control of the human tau promoter. Most existing mouse models of tauopathy overexpress mutant tau at levels that do not occur in human neurodegenerative disease, whereas Tau35 transgene expression is equivalent to less than 10% of that of endogenous mouse tau. Tau35 mice recapitulate key features of human tauopathies, including aggregated and abnormally phosphorylated tau, progressive cognitive and motor deficits, autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction, loss of synaptic protein, and reduced life-span. Importantly, we found that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl®), a drug used to treat urea cycle disorders and currently in clinical trials for a range of neurodegenerative diseases, reverses the observed abnormalities in tau and autophagy, behavioural deficits, and loss of synapsin 1 in Tau35 mice. Our results show for the first time that, unlike other tau transgenic mouse models, minimal expression of a human disease-associated tau fragment in Tau35 mice causes a profound and progressive tauopathy and cognitive changes, which are rescued by pharmacological intervention using a clinically approved drug. These novel Tau35 mice therefore represent a highly disease-relevant animal model in which to investigate molecular mechanisms and to develop novel treatments for human tauopathies. © The Author (2016). Published by

  16. Tauopathy induced by low level expression of a human brain-derived tau fragment in mice is rescued by phenylbutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Bondulich, Marie K.; Guo, Tong; Meehan, Christopher; Manion, John; Rodriguez Martin, Teresa; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Yankova, Natalia; Stygelbout, Virginie; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Noble, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human neurodegenerative tauopathies exhibit pathological tau aggregates in the brain along with diverse clinical features including cognitive and motor dysfunction. Post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and truncation, are characteristic features of tau present in the brain in human tauopathy. We have previously reported an N-terminally truncated form of tau in human brain that is associated with the development of tauopathy and is highly phosphorylated. We have generated a new mouse model of tauopathy in which this human brain-derived, 35 kDa tau fragment (Tau35) is expressed in the absence of any mutation and under the control of the human tau promoter. Most existing mouse models of tauopathy overexpress mutant tau at levels that do not occur in human neurodegenerative disease, whereas Tau35 transgene expression is equivalent to less than 10% of that of endogenous mouse tau. Tau35 mice recapitulate key features of human tauopathies, including aggregated and abnormally phosphorylated tau, progressive cognitive and motor deficits, autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction, loss of synaptic protein, and reduced life-span. Importantly, we found that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl®), a drug used to treat urea cycle disorders and currently in clinical trials for a range of neurodegenerative diseases, reverses the observed abnormalities in tau and autophagy, behavioural deficits, and loss of synapsin 1 in Tau35 mice. Our results show for the first time that, unlike other tau transgenic mouse models, minimal expression of a human disease-associated tau fragment in Tau35 mice causes a profound and progressive tauopathy and cognitive changes, which are rescued by pharmacological intervention using a clinically approved drug. These novel Tau35 mice therefore represent a highly disease-relevant animal model in which to investigate molecular mechanisms and to develop novel treatments for human tauopathies. PMID:27297240

  17. High-level expression in Escherichia coli, purification and kinetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum M1-aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    González-Bacerio, Jorge; Osuna, Joel; Ponce, Amaia; Fando, Rafael; Figarella, Katherine; Méndez, Yanira; Charli, Jean-Louis; Chávez, María de Los Á

    2014-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum neutral metallo-aminopeptidase (PfAM1), a member of the M1 family of metallo proteases, is a promising target for malaria, a devastating human parasitic disease. We report the high-level expression of PfAM1 in Escherichia coli BL21. An optimized gene, with a codon adaptation index and an average G/C content higher than the native gene, was synthesized and cloned in the pTrcHis2B vector. Optimal expression was achieved by induction with 1mM IPTG at 37°C for 18h. This allowed obtaining 100mg of recombinant PfAM1 (rPfAM1) per L of culture medium; 19% of the E. coli soluble protein mass was from rPFAM1. rPfAM1, fused to an amino-terminal 6×His tag, was purified in a single step by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The protein showed only limited signs of proteolytic degradation, and this step increased purity 27-fold. The kinetic characteristics of rPfAM1, such as a neutral optimal pH, a preference for substrates with basic or hydrophobic amino acids at the P1 position, an inhibition profile typical of metallo-aminopeptidases, and inhibition from Zn(2+) excess, were similar to those of the native PfAM1. We have thus optimized an expression system that should be useful for identifying new PfAM1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TNFα Levels and Macrophages Expression Reflect an Inflammatory Potential of Trigeminal Ganglia in a Mouse Model of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Alessia; Vilotti, Sandra; Ferrari, Michel D.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Nistri, Andrea; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Latent changes in trigeminal ganglion structure and function resembling inflammatory conditions may predispose to acute attacks of migraine pain. Here, we investigated whether, in trigeminal sensory ganglia, cytokines such as TNFα might contribute to a local inflammatory phenotype of a transgenic knock-in (KI) mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1). To this end, macrophage occurrence and cytokine expression in trigeminal ganglia were compared between wild type (WT) and R192Q mutant CaV2.1 Ca2+ channel (R192Q KI) mice, a genetic model of FHM-1. Cellular and molecular characterization was performed using a combination of confocal immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays. With respect to WT, R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia were enriched in activated macrophages as suggested by their morphology and immunoreactivity to the markers Iba1, CD11b, and ED1. R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia constitutively expressed higher mRNA levels of IL1β, IL6, IL10 and TNFα cytokines and the MCP-1 chemokine. Consistent with the report that TNFα is a major factor to sensitize trigeminal ganglia, we observed that, following an inflammatory reaction evoked by LPS injection, TNFα expression and macrophage occurrence were significantly higher in R192Q KI ganglia with respect to WT ganglia. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglia, the complex cellular and molecular environment could support a new tissue phenotype compatible with a neuroinflammatory profile. We propose that, in FHM patients, this condition might contribute to trigeminal pain pathophysiology through release of soluble mediators, including TNFα, that may modulate the crosstalk between sensory neurons and resident glia, underlying the process of neuronal sensitisation. PMID:23326332

  19. Influence of high glucose and advanced glycation end-products (ages) levels in human osteoblast-like cells gene expression.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Cristina; Giner, Mercè; Montoya, M José; Vázquez, M Angeles; Miranda, M José; Pérez-Cano, Ramón

    2016-08-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Several factors have been identified as being potentially responsible for this risk, such as alterations in bone remodelling that may have been induced by changes in circulating glucose or/and by the presence of non-oxidative end products of glycosylation (AGEs). The aim of this study is to assess whether such variations generate a change in the gene expression related to the differentiation and osteoblast activity (OPG, RANKL, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and AGE receptor) in primary cultures of human osteoblast-like cells (hOB). We recruited 32 patients; 10 patients had osteoporotic hip fractures (OP group), 12 patients had osteoporotic hip fractures with T2DM (T2DM group), and 10 patients had hip osteoarthritis (OA group) with no osteoporotic fractures and no T2DM. The gene expression was analyzed in hOB cultures treated with physiological glucose concentration (4.5 mM) as control, high glucose (25 mM), and high glucose plus AGEs (2 μg/ml) for 24 h. The hOB cultures from patients with hip fractures presented slower proliferation. Additionally, the hOB cultures from the T2DM group were the most negatively affected with respect to RUNX2 and OSX gene expression when treated solely with high glucose or with high glucose plus AGEs. Moreover, high levels of glucose induced a major decrease in the RANKL/OPG ratio when comparing the OP and the T2DM groups to the OA group. Our data indicates an altered bone remodelling rate in the T2DM group, which may, at least partially, explain the reduced bone strength and increased incidence of non-traumatic fractures in diabetic patients.

  20. Effect of Dietary Protein Level on the Expression of Proteins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Tian, Zhimei; Deng, Dun; Cui, Yiyan; Qiu, Yueqin

    2018-05-02

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of protein level on proteins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Eighteen piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 28 days of age and randomly assigned to three diets with 20%, 17%, and 14% CP level, and four essential amino acids, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, in three diets met the requirements of weaned piglets. The experimental period lasted 45 days. Compared with the control (20% CP level), the average daily feed intake, the average daily gain, and gain feed ratio of the 17% CP group did not decrease ( P > 0.05), but those of 14% CP group decreased ( P < 0.05). The proteomics profiles result of three tissues (gastric antrum, duodenum, and jejunum) showed that, compared with the control, the immune system, protein digestion and absorption, lipid or carbon digestion and absorption, etc. were up-regulated in 17% CP group, while most of them were down-regulated in 14% CP group. Amino acids metabolism of gastric, pancreatic secretion of duodenum or steroid hormone biosynthesis of jejunum was down-regulated in the 17% CP group, but the lipid metabolism was up-regulated in the 14% CP group. Six proteins were selected for identification by Western-blot, and their changes had the same trend as the proteomics results. The protein level decreased from 20% to 17%, the growth performance was not affected, while the nutrient digestion and absorption or the immune function were improved, which implied that 17% protein level maybe benefit for nutrients absorption of pigs.

  1. Delayed Expression of Circulating TGF-β1 and BMP-2 Levels in Human Nonunion Long Bone Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshiaki; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad; Shimizu, Hajime; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Saito, Nobuyuki; Yagi, Takanori; Mashiko, Kazuki; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The healing process of bone fracture requires a well-controlled multistage and sequential order beginning immediately after the injury. However, complications leading to nonunion exist, creating serious problems and costs for patients. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) are two major growth factors involved in human bone fracture healing by promoting various stages of bone ossification. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of these factors during the fracture healing of human long bones and assess their impacts on nonunion condition. We performed a comprehensive analysis of plasma TGF-β1 and BMP-2 levels in blood samples from 10 patients with proved nonunion and 10 matched patients with normal union following a predetermined time schedule. The concentrations of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 were measured at each time point using a solid-phase ELISA. TGF-β1 and BMP-2 levels were detectable in all patients. For all patients, a maximal peak for TGF-β1 was found at 3-week. In normal union group, TGF-β1 showed a maximal peak at 2-week while nonunion group had a delayed maximal peak at 3-week. Plasma levels of BMP-2 for all patients and for normal union group reached a maximal peak at 1-week, but nonunion group showed a delayed maximal peak at 2-week. In general, plasma TGF-β1 or BMP-2 level was not significantly different between normal union and nonunion groups. The expression levels of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 appeared to be delayed in nonunion patients which could play an important role in developing an early marker of fracture union condition and facilitate improved patient's management.

  2. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues.

    PubMed

    Viana, Antonio A B; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Guimarães, Luciane M; Pontes, Naiara; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Artico, Sinara; Nardeli, Sarah M; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Batista, João A N; Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2011-11-24

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family member with no previous characterization. Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2) and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2) and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues.

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family member with no previous characterization. Results Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2) and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. Conclusions uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2) and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues. PMID:22115195

  4. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  5. Glypican-3 mRNA expression level in Wilms tumor: correlation with histological type, stage, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Wari, Md Nahidul; Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Ahmed, Aijaz; Saxena, Deepali; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Mathur, Sandeep R; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bakhshi, Sameer; Srinivas, V; Chattopadhyaya, P; Sharma, Arundhati; Gupta, S Datta; Dinda, Amit

    2017-06-01

    To correlate expression of Glypican-3 in Wilms tumor with histopathology, stage, and outcome. Glypican-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR on tumor and normal germline samples from 75 fresh nephrectomies for Wilms tumor with fold change after normalization against GAPDH was compared. Survival analysis for event-free and overall survival (EFS, OS) with 2-year follow-up for Glypican-3 overexpression (>1.5 times) and clinicopathological parameters was performed. Glypican-3 was overexpressed in 37/75 (49.3%). It was overexpressed in 77% (10/13) cases with blastema predominance or anaplastic histology, as compared to 44% of other histologies (27/62) (p = 0.03). OS was 73 and 93%, respectively (p = 0.016), for those with and without GPC-3 overexpression. EFS was not significantly different with Glypican-3 overexpression (p = 0.11). All 5 deaths among blastema predominant tumors and 4/5 deaths among triphasic tumors had overexpressed Glypican-3. Most deaths in Stage IV, Stage III, and Stage I + II (5/7, 3/3, 1/1) had GPC-3 overexpression. On multivariate analysis, only histology and stage were found to have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 overexpression in Wilms tumor correlates with poor OS on univariate analysis. However, only histology and stage have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 levels may help to stratify intermediate outcome histology (triphasic) and Stage III Wilms tumors.

  6. High-level expression of human stem cell factor fused with erythropoietin mimetic peptide in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin; Chen, Song-Sen; Yang, Ke-Gong; Liu, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Yan-Li; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2006-06-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are essential for normal erythropoiesis and induce proliferation and differentiation synergistically for erythroid progenitor cells. Here, we report our work on construction of SCF/erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP) fusion protein gene, in which human SCF cDNA (1-165aa) and EMP sequence (20aa) were connected using a short (GGGGS) or long (GGGGSGGGGGS) linker sequence. The SCF/EMP gene was cloned into the pBV220 vector and expressed in the Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain. The expression level of the fusion protein was about 30% of total cell protein. The resulting inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 M urea, followed by dilution refolding. The renatured protein was subsequently purified by Q-Sepharose FF column. The final product was >95% pure by SDS-PAGE and the yield of fusion protein was about 40 mg/L of culture. UT-7 cell proliferation and human cord blood cell colony-forming assays showed that the fusion proteins exhibited more potent activity than recombinant human SCF, suggesting a new strategy to enhance biological activities of growth factors.

  7. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  8. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids) have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists.

  9. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids) have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists. PMID:24324520

  10. Chitooligosaccharides suppress the level of protein expression and acetylcholinesterase activity induced by Abeta25-35 in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Sook; Kim, Se-Kwon; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2009-02-01

    Clinical applications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widespread in Alzheimer's sufferers in order to activate central cholinergic system and alleviate cognitive deficits by inhibiting the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. In this study, six kinds of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation were examined for their inhibitory effects against AChE. The 90-COSs exhibited potent AChE inhibitory activities compared to 50-COSs, while 90-MMWCOS (1000-5000 Da) in the 90-COSs showed the highest activity. Cell culture experiment revealed that 90-MMWCOS suppressed the level of AChE protein expression and AChE activity induced by Abeta(25-35) in PC12 cell lines.

  11. Comparative transcriptional profiling of two wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains, shows expression differences during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir P; Jeet, Raja; Kumar, Jitendra; Shukla, Vishnu; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mantri, Shrikant S; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. To identify the candidate genes for mineral accumulation, it is important to examine differential transcriptome between wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains. A transcriptional comparison of developing grains was carried out between two wheat genotypes- Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711 (low grain mineral), and T. aestivum L. IITR26 (high grain mineral), using Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. The study identified a total of 580 probe sets as differentially expressed (with log2 fold change of ≥2 at p≤0.01) between the two genotypes, during grain filling. Transcripts with significant differences in induction or repression between the two genotypes included genes related to metal homeostasis, metal tolerance, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid and protein transport, vacuolar-sorting receptor, aquaporins, and stress responses. Meta-analysis revealed spatial and temporal signatures of a majority of the differentially regulated transcripts.

  12. High level expression of bioactive recombinant human growth hormone in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Daniel; Barañao, Lino; Santos, Claudio; Bussmann, Leonardo; Artuso, Jorge; Werning, Carlos; Prync, Aida; Carbonetto, Cesar; Dabsys, Susana; Munar, Carlos; Salaberry, Roberto; Berra, Guillermo; Berra, Ignacio; Fernández, Nahuel; Papouchado, Mariana; Foti, Marcelo; Judewicz, Norberto; Mujica, Ignacio; Muñoz, Luciana; Alvarez, Silvina Fenández; González, Eliseo; Zimmermann, Juan; Criscuolo, Marcelo; Melo, Carlos

    2006-07-13

    Transgenic farm animals have been proposed as an alternative to current bioreactors for large scale production of biopharmaceuticals. However, the efficiency of both methods in the production of the same protein has not yet been established. Here we report the production of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow at levels of up to 5 g l(-1). The hormone is identical to that currently produced by expression in E. coli. In addition, the hematological and somatometric parameters of the cloned transgenic cow are within the normal range for the breed and it is fertile and capable of producing normal offspring. These results demonstrate that transgenic cattle can be used as a cost-effective alternative for the production of this hormone.

  13. Molecular Dissection of a Major Gene Effect on a Quantitative Trait: The Level of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Expression in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stam, L. F.; Laurie, C. C.

    1996-01-01

    A molecular mapping experiment shows that a major gene effect on a quantitative trait, the level of alcohol dehydrogenase expression in Drosophila melanogaster, is due to multiple polymorphisms within the Adh gene. These polymorphisms are located in an intron, the coding sequence, and the 3' untranslated region. Because of nonrandom associations among polymorphisms at different sites, the individual effects combine (in some cases epistatically) to produce ``superalleles'' with large effect. These results have implications for the interpretation of major gene effects detected by quantitative trait locus mapping methods. They show that large effects due to a single locus may be due to multiple associated polymorphisms (or sequential fixations in isolated populations) rather than individual mutations of large effect. PMID:8978044

  14. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Wheat Genotypes, with Contrasting Levels of Minerals in Grains, Shows Expression Differences during Grain Filling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir P.; Jeet, Raja; Kumar, Jitendra; Shukla, Vishnu; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. To identify the candidate genes for mineral accumulation, it is important to examine differential transcriptome between wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains. A transcriptional comparison of developing grains was carried out between two wheat genotypes- Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711 (low grain mineral), and T. aestivum L. IITR26 (high grain mineral), using Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. The study identified a total of 580 probe sets as differentially expressed (with log2 fold change of ≥2 at p≤0.01) between the two genotypes, during grain filling. Transcripts with significant differences in induction or repression between the two genotypes included genes related to metal homeostasis, metal tolerance, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid and protein transport, vacuolar-sorting receptor, aquaporins, and stress responses. Meta-analysis revealed spatial and temporal signatures of a majority of the differentially regulated transcripts. PMID:25364903

  15. Ghrelin Increases Beta-Catenin Level through Protein Kinase A Activation and Regulates OPG Expression in Rat Primary Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Emanuela; Casati, Lavinia; Pagani, Francesca; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Zarattini, Guido; Sibilia, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, by binding growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), promotes osteoblast proliferation but the signaling mechanism of GHS-R on these cells remains unclear. Since canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critically associated with bone homeostasis, we investigated its involvement in mediating ghrelin effects in osteoblasts and in osteoblast-osteoclast cross talk. Ghrelin (10−10M) significantly increased β-catenin levels in rat osteoblasts (rOB). This stimulatory action on β-catenin involves a specific interaction with GHS-R1a, as it is prevented by the selective GHS-R1a antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (10−7M). The effect of ghrelin on β-catenin involves the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β via protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PKA activity reduces the facilitatory action of ghrelin on β-catenin stabilization. Ghrelin treatment of rOB significantly increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and this effect is blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6. Furthermore, ghrelin reduced RANKL/OPG ratio thus contrasting osteoclastogenesis. Accordingly, conditioned media from rOB treated with ghrelin decreased the number of multinucleated TRAcP+ cells as compared with the conditioned media from untreated-control rOB. Our data suggest new roles for ghrelin in modulating bone homeostasis via a specific interaction with GHSR-1a in osteoblasts with subsequent enhancement of both β-catenin levels and OPG expression. PMID:25866509

  16. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  17. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Michelle A.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Britton, Zachary T.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of membrane proteins that trigger cellular responses to external stimuli, and are believed to be targets for nearly half of all pharmaceutical drugs on the market. However, little is known regarding their folding and cellular interactions, as well as what factors are crucial for their activity. Further structural characterization of GPCRs has largely been complicated by problems with expression, purification, and preservation of activity in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated high-level expression (~4 mg/L of culture) of functional human adenosine A2a receptor fused to a green fluorescent protein (A2aR-GFP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we re-engineered A2aR with a purification tag, developed an adequate purification scheme, and performed biophysical characterization on purified receptors. Milligram amounts per liter of culture of A2aR and A2aR-GFP were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, with a C-terminal deca-histidine tag. Lysis procedures were developed for optimal membrane protein solubilization and recovery through monitoring fluorescence of A2aR-GFP-His10. One-step purification of the protein was achieved through immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After initial solubilization in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), a combination of added cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHS) in 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS) was required to stabilize the functional state of the protein. Isolated A2aR under these conditions was found to be largely alpha-helical, and properly incorporated into a mixed-micelle environment. The A2a-His10 receptor was purified in quantities of 6 +/− 2 mg/L of culture, with ligand-binding yields of 1 mg/L, although all protein bound to xanthine affinity resin. This represents the highest purified total and functional yields for A2aR yet achieved from any heterologous expression system. PMID:17591446

  18. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    PubMed Central

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high

  19. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-10-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which approximately 21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic

  20. ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT LUNG IS NOT RELATED TO LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE LAVAGE FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Ozone causes oxidative stress and lung inflammation. We hypothesized that rat strains with or without genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular disease will have different antioxidant levels in alveolar lining, and that ozone induced inflammatory gene expression wil...

  1. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing

    2017-08-02

    As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  2. Associations between expression levels of nucleotide excision repair proteins in lymphoblastoid cells and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Liu, Hongliang; Shi, Qiong; Liu, Zhensheng; Troy, Jesse D; Lee, Walter T; Zevallos, Jose P; Li, Guojun; Sturgis, Erich M; Wei, Qingyi

    2018-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in SCCHN susceptibility. In this analysis of 349 newly diagnosed SCCHN patients and 295 cancer-free controls, we investigated whether expression levels of eight core NER proteins were associated with risk of SCCHN. We quantified NER protein expression levels in cultured peripheral lymphocytes using a reverse-phase protein microarray. Compared with the controls, SCCHN patients had statistically significantly lower expression levels of ERCC3 and XPA (P = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). After dividing the subjects by controls' median values of expression levels, we found a dose-dependent association between an increased risk of SCCHN and low expression levels of ERCC3 (adjusted OR, 1.75, and 95% CI: 1.26-2.42; P trend  = 0.008) and XPA (adjusted OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.35-2.60; P trend  = 0.001). We also identified a significant multiplicative interaction between smoking status and ERCC3 expression levels (P = 0.014). Finally, after integrating demographic and clinical variables, we found that the addition of ERCC3 and XPA expression levels to the model significantly improved the sensitivity of the expanded model on SCCHN risk. In conclusion, reduced protein expression levels of ERCC3 and XPA were associated with an increased risk of SCCHN. However, these results need to be confirmed in additional large studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. LIN28 expression in malignant germ cell tumors down-regulates let-7 and increases oncogene levels

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Matthew J.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Siegler, Charlotte A.; Hanning, Jennifer E.; Barker, Emily M.; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn M.; Raby, Katie L.; Groves, Ian J.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Pett, Mark R.; Thornton, Claire M.; Enright, Anton J.; Nicholson, James C.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Despite their clinico-pathologic heterogeneity, malignant germ-cell-tumors (GCTs) share molecular abnormalities that are likely to be functionally important. In this study, we investigated the potential significance of down-regulation of the let-7 family of tumor-suppressor microRNAs in malignant-GCTs. Microarray results from pediatric and adult samples (n=45) showed that LIN28, the negative-regulator of let-7 biogenesis, was abundant in malignant-GCTs, regardless of patient age, tumor site or histologic subtype. Indeed, a strong negative-correlation existed between LIN28 and let-7 levels in specimens with matched datasets. Low let-7 levels were biologically significant, since the sequence complementary to the 2-7nt common let-7 seed ‘GAGGUA’ was enriched in the 3′untranslated regions of mRNAs up-regulated in pediatric and adult malignant-GCTs, compared with normal gonads (a mixture of germ cells and somatic cells). We identified 27 mRNA targets of let-7 that were up-regulated in malignant-GCT cells, confirming significant negative-correlations with let-7 levels. Among 16 mRNAs examined in a largely independent set of specimens by qRT-PCR, we defined negative-associations with let-7e levels for six oncogenes, including MYCN, AURKB, CCNF, RRM2, MKI67 and C12orf5 (when including normal control tissues). Importantly, LIN28 depletion in malignant-GCT cells restored let-7 levels and repressed all of these oncogenic let-7 mRNA targets, with LIN28 levels correlating with cell proliferation and MYCN levels. Conversely, ectopic expression of let-7e was sufficient to reduce proliferation and down-regulate MYCN, AURKB and LIN28, the latter via a double-negative feedback loop. We concluded that the LIN28/let-7 pathway has a critical pathobiological role in malignant-GCTs and therefore offers a promising target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23774216

  4. Inhibition effect of isopropanol on acetyl-CoA synthetase expression level of acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta concilii.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bahar; Koksel, Gozde; Cetecioglu, Zeynep; Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Coban, Halil; Ince, Orhan

    2011-11-10

    Isopropanol is a widely found solvent in industrial wastewaters, which have commonly been treated using anaerobic systems. In this study, inhibitory effect of isopropanol on the key microbial group in anaerobic bioreactors, acetoclastic methanogens, was investigated. Anaerobic sludges in serum bottles were repeatedly fed with acetate and isopropanol; and quantitative real-time PCR was used for determining effect of isopropanol on the expression level of a key enzyme in acetoclastic methane production, acetyl-CoA synthetase of Methanosaeta concilii. Active Methanosaeta spp. cells were also quantified using Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Transcript abundance of acetyl-CoA synthetase was 1.23±0.62×10(6) mRNAs/mL in the uninhibited reactors with 222 mL cumulative methane production. First exposure to isopropanol resulted in 71.2%, 84.7%, 89.2% and 94.6% decrease in mRNA level and 35.0%, 65.0%, 91.5% and 100.0% reduction in methane production for isopropanol concentrations of 0.1 M, 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M, respectively. Repeated exposures resulted in higher inhibitions; and at the end of test, fluorescent intensities of active Methanosaeta cells were significantly decreased due to isopropanol. The overall results indicated that isopropanol has an inhibitory effect on acetoclastic methanogenesis; and the inhibition can be detected by monitoring level of acetyl-CoA transcripts and rRNA level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparable contributions of structural-functional constraints and expression level to the rate of protein sequence evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Maxim Y; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteins show a broad range of evolutionary rates. Understanding the factors that are responsible for the characteristic rate of evolution of a given protein arguably is one of the major goals of evolutionary biology. A long-standing general assumption used to be that the evolution rate is, primarily, determined by the specific functional constraints that affect the given protein. These constrains were traditionally thought to depend both on the specific features of the protein's structure and its biological role. The advent of systems biology brought about new types of data, such as expression level and protein-protein interactions, and unexpectedly, a variety of correlations between protein evolution rate and these variables have been observed. The strongest connections by far were repeatedly seen between protein sequence evolution rate and the expression level of the respective gene. It has been hypothesized that this link is due to the selection for the robustness of the protein structure to mistranslation-induced misfolding that is particularly important for highly expressed proteins and is the dominant determinant of the sequence evolution rate. Results This work is an attempt to assess the relative contributions of protein domain structure and function, on the one hand, and expression level on the other hand, to the rate of sequence evolution. To this end, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the effect of the fusion of a pair of domains in multidomain proteins on the difference in the domain-specific evolutionary rates. The mistranslation-induced misfolding hypothesis would predict that, within multidomain proteins, fused domains, on average, should evolve at substantially closer rates than the same domains in different proteins because, within a mutlidomain protein, all domains are translated at the same rate. We performed a comprehensive comparison of the evolutionary rates of mammalian and plant protein domains that are either joined in

  6. Decreased miR-17-92 cluster expression level in serum and granulocytes preceding onset of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Lv, Yuncheng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiaoyang; Chen, Yajun; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Jing; Xiao, Xinhua; Liu, Jianghua; Wen, Gebo

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine changes in miR-17-92 cluster expression in serum and granulocytes from patients with antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis. In this study, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect serum miR-17-92 expression levels in 20 ATD-induced agranulocytosis and 16 control patients. Importantly, dynamic changes in neutrophil counts from granulocytopenia to agranulocytosis were observed in 6 of the 20 patients. miR-17-92 expression levels in granulocytes of those six patients under the granulocytopenia condition were measured and compared with corresponding granulocyte samples after recovery. Additionally, the expression levels of these miRNAs in patients with type I or type II bone marrow characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation between miR-17-92 and serum free thyroxine level was analyzed. We found that levels of miR-17-92 expression decreased in both serum and pre-agranulocytosis granulocytes from patients with ATD-induced agranulocytosis compared with those in serum and granulocytes from both recovered patients and control patients. However, no difference among patients with either type of bone marrow characteristics was observed, and no correlation between serum miR-17-92 and free thyroxine levels was found. In ATD-induced agranulocytosis, expression of the miR-17-92 cluster is reduced in both serum and granulocytes, though this alteration does not correlate with bone marrow characteristics or thyroid function.

  7. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Miyashita, Minoru; Watanabe, Mika

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature andmore » substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues

  8. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Shahla; Ghavami, Saeid; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza; Owji, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth) alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv) on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW)/day) dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day) dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats. PMID:26703578

  9. Diverse expression levels of two codon-optimized genes that encode human papilloma virus type 16 major protein L1 in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cunbao; Yang, Xu; Yao, Yufeng; Huang, Weiwei; Sun, Wenjia; Ma, Yanbing

    2014-05-01

    Two versions of an optimized gene that encodes human papilloma virus type 16 major protein L1 were designed according to the codon usage frequency of Pichia pastoris. Y16 was highly expressed in both P. pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha. M16 expression was as efficient as that of Y16 in P. pastoris, but merely detectable in H. polymorpha even though transcription levels of M16 and Y16 were similar. H. polymorpha had a unique codon usage frequency that contains many more rare codons than Saccharomyces cerevisiae or P. pastoris. These findings indicate that even codon-optimized genes that are expressed well in S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris may be inefficiently expressed in H. polymorpha; thus rare codons must be avoided when universal optimized gene versions are designed to facilitate expression in a variety of yeast expression systems, especially H. polymorpha is involved.

  10. Expression levels of the innate response gene RIG-I and its regulators RNF125 and TRIM25 in HIV-1-infected adult and pediatric individuals.

    PubMed

    Britto, Alan M A; Amoedo, Nívea D; Pezzuto, Paula; Afonso, Adriana O; Martínez, Ana M B; Silveira, Jussara; Sion, Fernando S; Machado, Elizabeth S; Soares, Marcelo A; Giannini, Ana L M

    2013-07-31

    TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and RLRs (RIG-I-like receptors) mediate innate immune responses by detecting microorganism invasion. RIG-I activation results in the production of interferon (IFN) type 1 and IFN responsive genes (ISGs). As the ubiquitin ligases RNF125 and TRIM25 are involved in regulating RIG-I function, our aim was to assess whether the levels of these three genes vary between healthy and HIV-infected individuals and whether these levels are related to disease progression. Gene expression analyses for RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 were performed for HIV-infected adults and the children's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) were performed in order to quantify the expression levels of RIG-I, RNF125 and TRIM25 from PBMCs purified from control or HIV-infected individuals. Controls express higher levels of the three genes when compared to HIV-infected patients. These expressions are clearly distinct between healthy and progressors, and are reproduced in adults and children. In controls, RNF125 is the highest expressed gene, whereas in progressors, RIG-I is either the highest expressed gene or is expressed similarly to RNF125 and TRIM25. A pattern of expression of RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 genes in HIV patients is evident. The high expression of RNF125 in healthy individuals reflects the importance of keeping RIG-I function off, inhibiting unnecessary IFN production. Consistent with this assumption, RNF125 levels are lower in HIV patients and importantly, the RNF125/RIG-I ratio is lower in patients who progress to AIDS. Our results might help to predict disease progression and unveil the role of poorly characterized host genes during HIV infection.

  11. Methotrexate, combined with cyclophosphamide attenuates murine collagen induced arthritis by modulating the expression level of Breg and DCs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinnan; Luo, Jing; Yan, Caiping; Hao, Runxi; Zhao, Xiangcong; Jia, Ruihuan; He, Jiaojiao; Xu, Dan; Miao, Miao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    To explore the mechanism of methotrexate (MTX) and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we investigated the levels of several immune cells and cytokines in mice with different treatments. CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice at the age of 7 weeks by primary immunization with 100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen which was mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The booster immunization was performed with 50-100μl emulsion containing 2mg/ml bovine type II collagen (CII) mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). MTX, CTX or both were administrated after the booster immunization. Therapeutic effect was evaluated by arthritic scores, X-rays and assessment of histopathological joint destruction. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23, IL-10 were also measured. The frequencies of different immune cell subsets in the lymph node, spleen and bone marrow were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Our results showed that CTX and MTX treatment attenuated the severity of arthritis of CIA mice and reduced the levels of several cytokines. CTX and MTX treated mice showed a lower frequency of B cells in bone marrow. Also, when treated the CIA mice with MTX, alone or together with CTX, the lymph nodes and spleen exhibited a decrease in regulatory B cells (Breg) and dendritic cells (DCs). Notably, the combination of MTX and CTX had a more pronounced effect. By measuring the levels of different immune cells those participated in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), our experiment may help to evaluate the therapeutic effects and prognosis of arthritic diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [Exploration of relationship between the expression level of DNA polymerase beta and 60Co gamma-ray radiosensitivity].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Xu, Xin; Yang, Mo; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Zun-zhen

    2011-11-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression level of DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) and 60Co gamma-ray radiosensitivity and provide a basis on improving the efficiency of radiotherapy theoretically. pol beta wild-type cells (pol beta +/+), pol beta null cells (pol beta -/-) and pol beta overexpressed cells (polp beta oe) were applied as a model system. The radiosensitivity of 60Co gamma-ray on the cell was detected by MTT assay and clone formation assay. The DCFH-DA fluorescent probe was used to examine the cellular ROS after 60Co gamma-rays radiation. MTT assay showed that after radiation by 60Co gamma-rays followed with 72 h incubation, the cell viabilities in the three kinds of cells decreased significantly with a dose-response relationship (r-/+ = -0.976, r-/- = -0.977, r(oe) = -0.982, P<0.05). In addition, the viability of pol beta -/- cell was lower than those of other two kinds of cells at the same dose (P<0.05). Likewise, the colony number and colony formation rate in all tested cells also decreased after exposure to 60Co gamma-rays. The ROS level in the three kinds of cells was enhanced after treatment with 60Co gamma-ray, and the ROS level in pol beta -/- cells was much higher than that in the other two kinds of cells (P<0.05). Cell death caused by 60Co gamma-ray may associated with the DNA oxidative damage mediated by ROS; Overexpression of pol beta could protect against oxidative DNA damage, thus the cell apoptosis/death, thereby leading to reducing the radiosensitivity of 60Co gamma-rays, while null of DNA pol beta could increase radiosensitivity of 60Co gamma-rays by compromising the DNA repair.

  13. Effects of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on gene expression levels of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Vitiello, Valentina; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Ianora, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are eukaryotic unicellular plants that constitute one of the major components of marine phytoplankton, comprising up to 40% of annual productivity at sea and representing 25% of global carbon-fixation. Diatoms have traditionally been considered a preferential food for zooplankton grazers such as copepods, but, in the last two decades, this beneficial role has been challenged after the discovery that many species of diatoms produce toxic metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that induce reproductive failure in zooplankton grazers. Diatoms are the dominant natural diet of Calanus sinicus, a cold-temperate calanoid copepod that supports secondary production of important fisheries in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan and South China Sea. In this study, the effect of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on C. sinicus has been evaluated by analyzing expression level changes of genes involved in defense and detoxification systems. Results show that C. sinicus is more resistant to a diet of this diatom species in terms of gene expression patterns, compared to the congeneric species Calanus helgolandicus which is an important constituent of the temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean and northern Mediterranean Sea. These findings contribute to the better understanding of genetic and/or phenotypic flexibility of copepod species and their capabilities to cope with stress by identifying molecular markers (such as stress and detoxification genes) as biosensors for environmental perturbations (e.g. toxins and contaminants) affecting marine copepods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of cell salvage on erythrocyte 2,3-disphosphoglycerate and G-6-PD levels and phosphatidylserine expression.

    PubMed

    Che, J; Tian, M; Ding, G; Huai, Q; Dong, P; Li, Y; Li, S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the perioperative cell salvage process to the changes in erythrocyte 2,3-disphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) levels and phosphatidylserine (PS) expression using a self-control study comparing washed blood with venous blood. Thirty patients undergoing elective heart and blood vessel surgery were enrolled. Blood was collected and processed using a Fresenius continuous autotransfusion system device. 2,3-DPG and G-6-PD activities, as well as PS expression, from both venous and washed red blood cells (RBC) were measured. We also compared these indicators among washed RBC at 6 h, washed RBC at 0 h, and venous RBC. 2,3-DPG and G-6-PD activities in washed blood at 0 h were significantly higher than in venous RBC (2,3-DPG, venous vs. washed blood P < 0.05; G-6-PD, venous vs. washed blood P < 0.05). Flow cytometry results showed no differences between venous blood and washed RBC at 0 h (n = 23, P > 0.05). 2,3-DPG activity in washed RBC that were allowed to stand for 6 h decreased compared with that in venous blood (venous vs. washed blood at 6 h P < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was observed in G-6-PD activity (venous. vs. washed blood at 6 h P > 0.05). Compared with venous RBC, washed RBC from intraoperative cell salvage exhibited good oxygen-carrying and antioxidant capacities. However, the oxygen-carrying capacity of washed RBC that were allowed to stand for 6 h was not as good as that of venous RBC. Thus, we suggest that washed RBC that were left to stand for more than 6 h should not be reinfused. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical exercise in aging human skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial calcium uniporter expression levels and affects mitochondria dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mammucari, Cristina; Romanello, Vanina; Barberi, Laura; Pietrangelo, Laura; Fusella, Aurora; Mosole, Simone; Gherardi, Gaia; Höfer, Christian; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Cvecka, Jan; Krenn, Matthias; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice. To understand the relevance of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in aging and to investigate the effect of physical exercise on MCU expression and mitochondria dynamics, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from 70-year-old subjects 9 weeks trained with either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) or leg press. Here, we demonstrate that improved muscle function and structure induced by both trainings are linked to increased protein levels of MCU Ultrastructural analyses by electron microscopy showed remodeling of mitochondrial apparatus in ES-trained muscles that is consistent with an adaptation to physical exercise, a response likely mediated by an increased expression of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. Altogether these results indicate that the ES-dependent physiological effects on skeletal muscle size and force are associated with changes in mitochondrial-related proteins involved in Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape. These original findings in aging human skeletal muscle confirm the data obtained in mice and propose MCU and mitochondria-related proteins as potential pharmacological targets to counteract age-related muscle loss. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  17. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Laura E; True, Lawrence D; Campbell, David S; Deutsch, Eric W; Risk, Michael; Coleman, Ilsa M; Eichner, Lillian J; Nelson, Peter S; Liu, Alvin Y

    2008-01-01

    Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD) genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63). Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50) but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers. PMID:18501003

  18. Solanum paniculatum L. decreases levels of inflammatory cytokines by reducing NFKB, TBET and GATA3 gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rios, Raimon; Silva, Hu