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  1. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  2. Estrellas asociadas con planetas extrasolares vs. estrellas de tipo β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavero, C.; Gómez, M.

    In this contribution we initially confront physical properties of two groups of stars: the Planet Host Stars and the Vega-like objects. The Planet Host Star group has one or more planet mass object associated and the Vega-like stars have circumstellar disks. We have compiled magnitudes, colors, parallaxes, spectral types, etc. for these objects from the literature and analyzed the distribution of both groups. We find that the samples are very similar in metallicities, ages, and spatial distributions. Our analysis suggests that the circumstellar environments are probably different while the central objects have similar physical properties. This difference may explain, at least in part, why the Planet Host Stars form extra-solar planetary objects such as those detected by the Doppler effect while the Vega-like objects are not commonly associated with these planet-mass bodies.

  3. Poblacion estelar joven embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Ricardo Retes

    2008-06-01

    En esta tesis presento una metodología de seleccion y estudio de la población estelar embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205. La fuente IRAS posee colores de region Ultra Compacta HII (UCHII) y tiene deteccióon en monosulfuro de carbono (CS), trazador molecular de alta densidad, lo cual da la posibilidad de definir la nube molecular asociada hacia esta region. Lo anterior muestra que esta es buena candidata a región de formación estelar masiva. La metodología de seleccion de la población embebida, est à basada por una parte, en la distribución del gas molecular monoxido de carbono (13CO) asociado a la fuente IRAS, nube molecular seleccionada del mapeo Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) realizado en 13CO. Otros pasos de la seleccion, se basan en los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud con datos del cercano infrarrrojo de 2MASS. Para el estudio de la componente estelar se usaron los catalogos de fuentes puntuales en el cercano, medio y lejano infrarrojo de 2MASS, SPITZER e IRAS, respectivamente. De los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud, usando datos de 2MASS, se construyo un criterio fotométrico para identificar los objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos en la region molecular. Aplicando modelos a la distribución espectral de energía (SED) de algunos ellos, se encontraron parametros estelares de objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos de masa intermedia y alta. Adicionalmente, se encontro un objeto de masa ´ intermedia no identifiado por el catalogo de 2MASS y su efecto sobre el medio interestelar, emision en la banda de [4.5] μm de IRAC-Spitzer asociado a un outflow. Dos de los objetos seleccionados por el criterio fotometrico resultaron ser objetos estelares jovenes de alta e intermedia masa (B1V/B2V y B8V/A0V respectivamente), los cuales deben estar asociados a la emision radiativa responsable de los colores de región UC HII. Otro objeto estelar joven de baja masa (F0V/F5V) fue encontrado en la region de estudio

  4. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  5. Protein Supplements: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Samal, Jay Rabindra Kumar; Samal, Indira R

    2018-05-04

    To provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature examining the pros and cons of protein supplementation, various articles on protein supplementation were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Over the past few years, protein supplementation has become commonplace for gym-goers as well as for the public. A large segment of the general population relies on protein supplementation for meal replacement, weight reduction, and purported health benefits. These protein supplements have varying pros and cons associated with them, which are often overlooked by the public. This review aims to assimilate existing studies and form a consensus regarding the benefits and disadvantages of protein supplementation. The purported health benefits of protein supplementation have led to overuse by both adults and adolescents. Although the pros and cons of protein supplementation is a widely debated topic, not many studies have been conducted regarding the same. The few studies that exist either provide insufficient evidence or have not employed proper conditions for the conduct of the tests. It should be considered that protein supplements are processed materials and often do not contain other essential nutrients required for the sustenance of a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that the required protein intake should be obtained from natural food sources and protein supplementation should be resorted to only if sufficient protein is not available in the normal diet.

  6. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  7. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  8. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  9. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  10. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  11. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  12. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  13. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  14. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  15. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  16. 12 CFR 261a.4 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge where...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  18. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  19. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  20. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  1. The Pros and Cons of Army Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-13

    The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 1 Running Head: THE PROS AND CONS OF ARMY AUTOMATION The Pros and Cons of Army Automation SGM...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 2 Outline I. Introduction (MSG (P) Dostie) II. Manual skills (MSG (P

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-1 - Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(4). 1.401(a)(4)-1 Section 1.401(a)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(a)(4)-1 Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4). (a) In general. Section 401(a)(4...). (b) Requirements a plan must satisfy—(1) In general. In order to satisfy section 401(a)(4), a plan...

  3. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  4. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  5. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  6. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  7. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  8. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  9. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be... on the life of the veteran shall remain at a constant level until the principal amount of the...

  10. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  11. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  12. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  13. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  14. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  15. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  16. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  17. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  18. Papiloma invertido sinunasal con invasión intracraneal: Reporte de caso y revisión bibliográfica

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietrantonio, Andrés; Asmus, Humberto; Ingratta, Christian; Brennan, Walter; Schulz, Javier; Carballo, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Resumen IntroducciÓn: El papiloma invertido es una neoplasia benigna de los senos paranasales localmente agresiva con alto potencial de recurrencia y de malignización. La extensión intracraneal es infrecuente y más aún, la penetración dural, asociándose a menudo a la recurrencia de la enfermedad o a su degeneración en carcinoma de células escamosas. Caso clínico: Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 32 años que consultó por lesión exofítica en fosa nasal derecha y exoftalmos, asociada a cefalea, anosmia y disgeusia. Se estudió con TC cerebro, macizo facial y RM de encéfalo que evidencian lesión en fosa nasal derecha con ocupación de senos aéreos, osteólisis de pared medial orbitaria y base de cráneo anterior e invasión intracraneal frontal derecha, con efecto de masa y compresión del parénquima encefálico adyacente. Intervención: Se realizó una nasofibroscopía en primer tiempo con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de papiloma invertido y posteriormente resección de la lesión mediante doble abordaje más reconstrucción de la fosa craneal anterior. Se obtuvo diagnóstico definitivo de papiloma invertido de tipo Schneideriano con áreas de transformación atípica in situ. La paciente evolucionó de forma favorable y sin complicaciones, con permeabilidad de vía aérea superior, sin signos de recidiva lesional luego de 4 años de seguimiento. Conclusión: La invasión intracraneal de esta patología es sumamente infrecuente. Cuando existe, es indicador de agresividad y potencial recidiva, por lo que la exéresis completa de la misma define el pronóstico de la enfermedad. PMID:29430328

  19. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  20. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Women in Combat Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    and Cons . Major Thomas H. Cecil 88-0490 "--"insights into tomorrou,"’ ..v- A A 0 PtY-i f(.> i’I,-:::x:’~ --pcr~ j.~ ~~* --. -- iiV • DISCLAIMER The...k. r- r,’ I’. REPORT NUMBER 88-0490 TITLE WOMEN IN COMBAT-PROS AND CONS AUTHOR(S) MAJOR THOMAS H. CEC-IL, USAF -% FACULTY ADVISOR CH, LT COL DAVID W...NUMBERS 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) WOMEN IN COMBAT--PROS AND CONS 12. PERSON4AL AUTHOR(S) Cecil, Thomas H1., Major, USAF 9a YýOF REPORT

  2. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  3. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  4. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  5. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  6. Lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en paciente con melanoma metastásico: un caso de paniculitis linfocítica asociado a vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Benavente-Villegas, Felipe; Ferrando-Roca, Francisco; Dolz-Gaitón, Raquel; Royo-Peiró, María

    2017-10-15

    Vemurafenib ha probado ser una herramienta útil en el tratamiento de melanoma metastásico con mutación BRAF-V600E. Los efectos adversos incluyen artralgias, fatiga y toxicidad cutánea, siendo infrecuente la paniculitis. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 43 años con melanoma metastásico que desarrolla lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en miembros inferiores y superiores, asociadas a clínica sistémica después de 2 semanas de inicio de tratamiento con Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib. La histología demostró paniculitis linfocitaria septal y lobulillar. La paciente tuvo mala tolerancia al tratamiento anti diana a dosis plenas, requiriendo su ajuste, generando una corticodependencia para controlar sintomatología, y que finalmente obligó a la descontinuación de la terapia dirigida contra melanoma.  A la fecha, se han descrito 29 casos en la literatura de paniculitis asociada a vemurafenib, siendo la mayoría paniculitis neutrofílicas con adecuado control de sintomatología asociando antiinflamatorios no esteroidales y/o corticoides orales sin requerir en su mayoría modificación de la terapia contra melanoma; sin embargo hay que tener presente que pueden haber casos con mala evolución que obligan a la reducción de dosis de vemurafenib y descontinuar el tratamiento, como ha ocurrido en nuestro reporte.Vemurafenib has proven to be a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-V600E mutation. Adverse effects include arthralgia, fatigue, and skin toxicity; panniculitis is a rare complication. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient with metastatic melanoma who developed painful subcutaneous nodules of the lower and upper limbs and associated systemic clinical symptoms after 2 weeks of treatment with vemurafenib plus cobimetinib. Histology showed a septal and lobular lymphocytic panniculitis.The patient had poor tolerance of the full-dose treatment, requiring its adjustment. Systemic corticosteroids were required to control symptomatology

  7. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  8. Conserva a Puerto Rico con bosques maderables

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    [article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos con maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...

  9. Experimental and Computational Studies of Carbonyl Diazide (CON6) as a Precursor to Diazirinone (CON2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Amberger, Brent K.; Nolan, Alex M.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    Intrigued by the reported 2005 synthesis of diazirinone (1), we carried out further experimental and theoretical studies aimed at the detailed matrix-isolation and millimeter-wave spectroscopic characterizations of 1. Diazirinone (1) is a peculiar isoconjugate of two very stable molecules and may be of astrochemical interest. Unfortunately, the original reported methods of diazirinone (1) generation did not yield this species, rather its decomposition products. Inspired by a more recent gas phase pyrolysis of CON6 (2) to yield CON2 (1), we proposed a new method of generating CON6 (2) in solution as a precursor of diazirinone (1). This new synthesis may allow us to generate larger quantities of both CON6 and CON2 for investigation by millimeter-wave spectroscopy. We are able to safely generate carbonyl diazide (2) in sufficient yield from the reaction of triphosgene (3) and tetrabutylammonium azide in diethyl ether. This has allowed us to obtain both matrix-isolation and gas phase IR spectra of carbonyl diazide (2). After purification, it has a gas-phase lifetime that allows samples to be useable for up to several weeks. However, it is a shock-sensitive material that must be handled with care to prevent violent decomposition. In order to provide better mechanistic insight into the decomposition of carbonyl diazide (2) to diazirinone (1), we have engaged in a DFT and ab initio computational study. We have found a pathway between the two species via the triplet acylnitrene, CON4, and an oxaziridine CON2 species, but not at sufficiently low energies to allow for the trapping and detection of diazirinone (1). Preliminary millimeter-wave spectra have been obtained from several synthesized and purified samples of CON6 (2). However, the assignment of the spectra lines has been unexpectedly problematic. We have placed several CON6 (2) samples, confirmed by IR spectroscopy at the time of sample loading, into our instrument and obtained two different sets of rotational lines

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  11. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of meat...

  12. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  13. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  15. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  16. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM andmore » the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.« less

  17. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a...

  18. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a...

  19. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a...

  20. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a...

  1. 8 CFR 274a.4 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good faith defense. 274a.4 Section 274a.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.4 Good faith defense. An employer or a recruiter or referrer for a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... qualified tuition and related expenses for purposes of the Lifetime Learning Credit. (d) Effective date. The... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable...

  3. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualified tuition and related expenses for purposes of the Lifetime Learning Credit. (d) Effective date. The... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other...

  5. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other...

  6. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other...

  7. 26 CFR 1.168A-4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.168A-4 Section 1.168A-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-4 Definitions. As used... authority designated by the President by Executive order. (b) “Emergency facility” means any facility, land...

  8. 42 CFR 59a.4 - How are grant applications evaluated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are grant applications evaluated? 59a.4 Section 59a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.4 How...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any other...

  11. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  12. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  13. Airway lipoxin A4 generation and lipoxin A4 receptor expression are decreased in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Planagumà, Anna; Kazani, Shamsah; Marigowda, Gautham; Haworth, Oliver; Mariani, Thomas J; Israel, Elliot; Bleecker, Eugene R; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Erzurum, Serpil C; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Gaston, Benjamin; Jarjour, Nizar N; Busse, William W; Wenzel, Sally E; Levy, Bruce D

    2008-09-15

    Airway inflammation is common in severe asthma despite antiinflammatory therapy with corticosteroids. Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) is an arachidonic acid-derived mediator that serves as an agonist for resolution of inflammation. Airway levels of LXA(4), as well as the expression of lipoxin biosynthetic genes and receptors, in severe asthma. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from subjects with asthma and levels of LXA(4) and related eicosanoids were measured. Expression of lipoxin biosynthetic genes was determined in whole blood, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and endobronchial biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and leukocyte LXA(4) receptors were monitored by flow cytometry. Individuals with severe asthma had significantly less LXA(4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (11.2 +/- 2.1 pg/ml) than did subjects with nonsevere asthma (150.1 +/- 38.5 pg/ml; P < 0.05). In contrast, levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes were increased in both asthma cohorts compared with healthy individuals. In severe asthma, 15-lipoxygenase-1 mean expression was decreased fivefold in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. In contrast, 15-lipoxgenase-1 was increased threefold in endobronchial biopsies, but expression of both 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase-2 in these samples was decreased. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was decreased in all anatomic compartments sampled in severe asthma. Moreover, LXA(4) receptor gene and protein expression were significantly decreased in severe asthma peripheral blood granulocytes. Mechanisms underlying pathological airway responses in severe asthma include lipoxin underproduction with decreased expression of lipoxin biosynthetic enzymes and receptors. Together, these results indicate that severe asthma is characterized, in part, by defective lipoxin counterregulatory signaling circuits.

  14. Pros and Cons of International Weapons Procurement Collaboration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    ad- vanced U.S. industry. Greater risk of cost growth and schedule slippage. Pro: U.S. and partners share common equip- ment. Con : U.S. require...Mark A., 1947- Pros and cons of international weapons procurement collaboration / Mark Lorell, Julia Lowell, p. cm "Prepared for the Office...one/ Cons of International Weapons Procurement Collaboration Mark Lorell Julia Lowell National Defense Research Institute Prepared for the

  15. The Procurement of Non Developmental Items: Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    commercial way of procurement will bring more advantages than disadvantages to DOD. The list of the pros greatly outweighs the cons . There is practically...AD-A285 009 MH PROCUREMENT OF NON DEVELOPMENTAL ITEMS: PROS AND CONS THES IS Giorgio Scappaticci. Lt. Col., Italian Air Force AFIT/GLMILALj94S-3 I...PROS AND CONS U;narmou,.ced 0 Justification THESIS Giorgio Scappaticci, Lt. Col., Italian Air Force Dist’ibution f Availability Codes AFIT/GLM/LAL

  16. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A-4... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1) Taxable... § 1.25A-1(c), for taxable years beginning before 2003, the Lifetime Learning Credit amount is 20...

  17. Novel mutations of CYP3A4 in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, K P; Lin, Y Y; Cheng, C L; Lai, M L; Lin, M S; Siest, J P; Huang, J D

    2001-03-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 is a major P450 enzyme in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It plays important roles in the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs, some endogenous steroids, and harmful environmental contaminants. CYP3A4 exhibits a remarkable interindividual activity variation as high as 20-fold. To investigate whether the interindividual variation in CYP3A4 levels can be partly explained by genetic polymorphism, we analyzed DNA samples from 102 Chinese subjects by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for novel point mutation in the CYP3A4 coding sequence and promoter region. Using PCR and directed sequencing method to establish the complete intron sequence of CYP3A4 from leukocytes, the complete genomic sequence from exon 1 through 13 of CYP3A4 was determined and published in the GenBank database (accession no. AF209389). CYP3A4-specific primers were designed accordingly. After PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism screening, we found three novel mutations; two are point mutations and one is insertion. The first variant allele (CYP3A4*4), an Ile118Val change, was found in 3 of 102 Chinese subjects. The next allele (CYP3A4*5), which causes a Pro218Arg amino acid change, was found in 2 of 102 subjects. We found an insertion in A(17776), designated as CYP3A4*6, which causes frame shift and an early stop codon in exon 9, in one heterozygous subject. We also investigated the CYP3A4 activity in these mutant subjects by measuring the morning spot urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol ratio with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. When compared with healthy Chinese population data, the 6beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol ratio data suggested that these alleles (CYP3A4*4, CYP3A4*5, and CYP3A4*6) may decrease the CYP3A4 activity. Incidences of these mutations in Chinese subjects are rare. The prevalence of these point mutations in other ethnic

  18. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  19. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  20. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  1. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  2. 42 CFR 68a.4 - Who is eligible to participate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to participate? 68a.4 Section 68a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUALS FROM...

  3. 26 CFR 1.475(a)-4 - Valuation safe harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(a)-4 Valuation safe harbor. (a) Overview—(1) Purpose. This... portions of the payments have been recognized for tax purposes before the valuation and appropriate...

  4. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... qualified tuition and related expenses for purposes of the Lifetime Learning Credit. (d) Effective date. The... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A... Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1...

  5. 26 CFR 1.25A-4 - Lifetime Learning Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... qualified tuition and related expenses for purposes of the Lifetime Learning Credit. (d) Effective date. The... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lifetime Learning Credit. 1.25A-4 Section 1.25A... Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25A-4 Lifetime Learning Credit. (a) Amount of the credit—(1...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... annuity means an annuity payable in equal installments for the life of the employee that terminates upon... §§ 1.401(a)(4)-1 through 1.401(a)(4)-13. Accumulation plan. Accumulation plan means a defined benefit... employees means employees of a prior employer who become employed by the employer in a transaction between...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... annuity means an annuity payable in equal installments for the life of the employee that terminates upon... §§ 1.401(a)(4)-1 through 1.401(a)(4)-13. Accumulation plan. Accumulation plan means a defined benefit... employees means employees of a prior employer who become employed by the employer in a transaction between...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... annuity means an annuity payable in equal installments for the life of the employee that terminates upon... §§ 1.401(a)(4)-1 through 1.401(a)(4)-13. Accumulation plan. Accumulation plan means a defined benefit... employees means employees of a prior employer who become employed by the employer in a transaction between...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... annuity means an annuity payable in equal installments for the life of the employee that terminates upon... §§ 1.401(a)(4)-1 through 1.401(a)(4)-13. Accumulation plan. Accumulation plan means a defined benefit... employees means employees of a prior employer who become employed by the employer in a transaction between...

  10. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... in interference with, or prevention of, the orderly accomplishment of the mission of an installation...

  11. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... in interference with, or prevention of, the orderly accomplishment of the mission of an installation...

  12. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... in interference with, or prevention of, the orderly accomplishment of the mission of an installation...

  13. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... in interference with, or prevention of, the orderly accomplishment of the mission of an installation...

  14. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... in interference with, or prevention of, the orderly accomplishment of the mission of an installation...

  15. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities...

  16. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities...

  17. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities...

  18. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-4 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or...

  20. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  1. ProCon - PROteomics CONversion tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Kohl, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-11-03

    With the growing amount of experimental data produced in proteomics experiments and the requirements/recommendations of journals in the proteomics field to publicly make available data described in papers, a need for long-term storage of proteomics data in public repositories arises. For such an upload one needs proteomics data in a standardized format. Therefore, it is desirable, that the proprietary vendor's software will integrate in the future such an export functionality using the standard formats for proteomics results defined by the HUPO-PSI group. Currently not all search engines and analysis tools support these standard formats. In the meantime there is a need to provide user-friendly free-to-use conversion tools that can convert the data into such standard formats in order to support wet-lab scientists in creating proteomics data files ready for upload into the public repositories. ProCon is such a conversion tool written in Java for conversion of proteomics identification data into standard formats mzIdentML and Pride XML. It allows the conversion of Sequest™/Comet .out files, of search results from the popular and often used ProteomeDiscoverer® 1.x (x=versions 1.1 to1.4) software and search results stored in the LIMS systems ProteinScape® 1.3 and 2.1 into mzIdentML and PRIDE XML. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J.; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A. L.; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-01-01

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  3. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  4. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  5. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of applications...

  6. 42 CFR 59a.4 - How are grant applications evaluated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.4 How... Secretary's evaluation shall consider the scope of library or related services for the population and... coordination with other libraries and related facilities, and (d) Potential for testing or demonstration of new...

  7. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  8. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and the...

  9. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  10. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  11. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  12. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  13. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1 and...

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of vinylogous combretastatin A-4 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Florent, Jean-Claude; Monneret, Claude

    2005-07-21

    Stereospecific syntheses of the Z-E and E-Z vinylogues of combretastatin A-4, and two B-ring related analogues, were achieved through a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. As compared to CA4, the derivative with a phenyl moiety has shown increased potency in its ability to inhibit tubulin polymerisation.

  15. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of applications...

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of applications...

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of applications...

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of applications...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... underrepresented in science and engineering. (3) Without regard to the geographic region in which the applicant...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... underrepresented in science and engineering. (3) Without regard to the geographic region in which the applicant...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... underrepresented in science and engineering. (3) Without regard to the geographic region in which the applicant...

  2. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... underrepresented in science and engineering. (3) Without regard to the geographic region in which the applicant...

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a....16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and... securities, except that the acquisition or disposition of any derivative security shall be separately...

  4. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... underrepresented in science and engineering. (3) Without regard to the geographic region in which the applicant...

  5. 26 CFR 1.56A-4 - Certain taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56A-4 Certain taxpayers. For application of the minimum tax in the case of estates and trusts, electing small business corporations, common....58-2 through 1.58-6. [T.D. 7564, 43 FR 40468, Sept. 12, 1978. Redesignated by T.D. 8138, 52 FR 15309...

  6. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Torres, María José; Fierro, Angélica; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Romero-Parra, Javier; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Faúndez, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Leukotriene A 4 hydrolase is a soluble enzyme with epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities catalysing the conversion of leukotriene A 4 to leukotriene B 4 and the hydrolysis of the peptide proline-glycine-proline. Imbalances in leukotriene B 4 synthesis are related to several pathologic conditions. Currently there are no available drugs capable to modulate the synthesis of leukotriene B 4 or to block its receptors. Here we show the inhibitory profile of alpha lipoic acid on the activity of leukotriene A 4 Hydrolase. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited both activities of the enzyme at concentrations lower than 10μM. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886, were unable to inhibit the activity of the enzyme. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells were differentiated to leukotriene A 4 hydrolase expressing neutrophil-like cells. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of the cytosolic fraction from neutrophil-like cells but had no effect on the cytosolic fraction from undifferentiated cells. Docking and molecular dynamic approximations revealed that alpha lipoic acid participates in electrostatic interactions with K-565 and R-563, which are key residues for the carboxylate group recognition of endogenous substrates by the enzyme. Alpha lipoic acid is a compound widely used in clinical practice, most of its therapeutic effects are associated with its antioxidants properties, however, antioxidant effect alone is unable to explain all clinical effects observed with alpha lipoic acid. Our results invite to evaluate the significance of the inhibitory effect of alpha lipoic acid on the catalytic activity of leukotriene A 4 hydrolase using in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 and lipoxin A4 up-regulate transcriptional corepressor NAB1 in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Qiu, F H; Devchand, P R; Wada, K; Serhan, C N

    2001-12-01

    Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATL) is an endogenous lipid mediator that mimics the actions of native lipoxin A4, a putative "stop signal" involved in regulating resolution of inflammation. A metabolically more stable analog of ATL, 15-epi-16-(para-fluoro)-phenoxy-lipoxin A4 analog (ATLa), inhibits neutrophil recruitment in vitro and in vivo and displays potent anti-inflammatory actions. ATLa binds with high affinity to the lipoxin A4 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor on the surface of leukocytes. In this study, we used freshly isolated human neutrophils to examine ATLa's potential for initiating rapid nuclear responses. Using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we identified a subset of genes that was selectively up-regulated upon short exposure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to ATLa but not to the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 or vehicle alone. We further investigated ATLa regulation of one of the genes, NAB1, a transcriptional corepressor identified previously as a glucocorticoid-responsive gene in hamster smooth muscle cells. Treatment of human neutrophils with pertussis toxin blocked ATLa up-regulation of NAB1. In addition, ATLa stimulated NAB1 gene expression in murine lung vascular smooth muscle in vivo. These findings provide evidence for rapid transcriptional induction of a cassette of genes via an ATLa-stimulated G protein-coupled receptor pathway that is potentially protective and overlaps with the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid regulatory circuit.

  8. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Bigmore » domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.« less

  9. Towards a complete A4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; King, Stephen F.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a renormalisable model based on A 4 family symmetry with an SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) which leads to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a ℤ9 × ℤ6 symmetry provides the fermion mass hierarchy in both the quark and lepton sectors, while ℤ {4/ R } symmetry is broken to ℤ {2/ R }, identified as usual R-parity. Proton decay is highly sup-pressed by these symmetries. The strong CP problem is solved in a similar way to the Nelson-Barr mechanism. We discuss both the A 4 and SU(5) symmetry breaking sectors, including doublet-triplet splitting, Higgs mixing and the origin of the μ term. The model provides an excellent fit (better than one sigma) to all quark and lepton (including neu-trino) masses and mixing with spontaneous CP violation. With the A 4 vacuum alignments, (0, 1, 1) and (1, 3, 1), the model predicts the entire PMNS mixing matrix with no free pa-rameters, up to a relative phase, selected to be 2π/3 from a choice of the nine complex roots of unity, which is identified as the leptogenesis phase. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with leptonic angles θ{13/ ι } ≈ 8.7∘, θ{12/ ι } ≈ 34∘, θ{23/ ι } ≈ 46∘ and an oscillation phase δ ι ≈ - 87∘.

  10. ConKit: a python interface to contact predictions.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-07-15

    Recent advances in protein residue contact prediction algorithms have led to the emergence of many new methods and a variety of file formats. We present ConKit , an open source, modular and extensible Python interface which allows facile conversion between formats and provides an interface to analyses of sequence alignments and sets of contact predictions. ConKit is available via the Python Package Index. The documentation can be found at http://www.conkit.org . ConKit is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause. hlfsimko@liverpool.ac.uk or drigden@liverpool.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity after surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Haas, Curtis E; Kaufman, David C; Jones, Carolyn E; Burstein, Aaron H; Reiss, William

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the acute inflammatory response after surgical trauma and changes in hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity, compare changes in cytochrome P450 3A4 activity after procedures with varying degrees of surgical stress, and to explore the time course of any potential drug-cytokine interaction after surgery. Prospective, open-label study with each patient serving as his or her own control. University-affiliated, acute care, general hospital. A total of 16 patients scheduled for elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 5), complete or partial colectomy (n = 6), or peripheral vascular surgery with graft (n = 5). Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity was estimated using the carbon-14 [14C]erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) before surgery and 24, 48, and 72 hrs after surgery. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and colectomy patients also had an ERMBT performed at discharge. Blood samples were obtained before surgery, immediately after surgery, and 6, 24, 32, 48, and 72 hrs after surgery for determination of plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Clinical markers of surgical stress that were collected included duration of surgery, estimated blood loss, and volume of fluids administered in the operating room. ERMBT results significantly declined in all three surgical groups, with the lowest value at the time of the 72-hr study in all three groups. There was a trend toward differences in ERMBT results among groups that did not reach statistical significance (p =.06). The nadir ERMBT result was significantly and negatively correlated with both peak interleukin-6 concentration (r(s) = -.541, p =.03) and log interleukin-6 area under the curve from 0 to 72 hrs (r(s) = -.597, p =.014). Subjects with a peak interleukin-6 of >100 pg/mL had a significantly lower nadir ERMBT compared with subjects with a peak interleukin-6 of <100 pg/mL (35.5% +/- 5.2% vs. 74.7% +/- 5.1%, p <.001). Acute inflammation after

  12. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.; Damasceno, M.; Cruz, R.; Silva-Cavalcante, M.D.; Lima-Silva, A.E.; Bishop, D.J.; Bertuzzi, R.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial. PMID:29069224

  13. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Damasceno, M; Cruz, R; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D J; Bertuzzi, R

    2017-10-19

    This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  14. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  15. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  17. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  18. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  19. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  20. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  1. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  2. A 4D Hyperspherical Interpretation of q-Space

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Wu, Yu-Chien; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    3D q-space can be viewed as the surface of a 4D hypersphere. In this paper, we seek to develop a 4D hyperspherical interpretation of q-space by projecting it onto a hypersphere and subsequently modeling the q-space signal via 4D hyperspherical harmonics (HSH). Using this orthonormal basis, we derive several well-established q-space indices and numerically estimate the diffusion orientation distribution function (dODF). We also derive the integral transform describing the relationship between the diffusion signal and propagator on a hypersphere. Most importantly, we will demonstrate that for hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) acquisitions low order linear expansion of the HSH basis is sufficient to characterize diffusion in neural tissue. In fact, the HSH basis achieves comparable signal and better dODF reconstructions than other well-established methods, such as Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), using fewer fitting parameters. All in all, this work provides a new way of looking at q-space. PMID:25624043

  3. Acute localized exanthem due to Coxsackievirus A4.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Gariazzo, Lodovica; Cioni, Margherita; Parodi, Aurora

    2017-09-01

    Enteroviruses are the leading cause of exanthems in children, especially during summer and autumn. Enterovirus infections may occur in epidemics or small outbreaks. A 30-year-old woman presented with a three-day history of an erythematous maculopapular skin rash with petechiae localized exclusively under the nipple of the right breast. The skin eruption was associated with an erythematous-petechial enanthem. The patient complained of low-grade fever, headache, asthenia, sore throat and arthromyalgias. IgM (1:128) and IgG (1:640) antibodies against Coxsackievirus A4 were detected by the virus neutralization test. Reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected enterovirus RNA in the patient's plasma and faeces. Diagnosis of an acute localized exanthem due to Coxsachievirus A4 was performed. Skin lesions improved in seven days and completely cleared in two weeks without any systemic or topical treatment. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that enteroviruses may determine localized skin eruptions in addition to hand-foot-mouth disease and atypical exanthems. Viral infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of localized dermatitis especially when the skin eruption is associated with enanthems and with systemic symptoms.

  4. A 4D hyperspherical interpretation of q-space.

    PubMed

    Pasha Hosseinbor, A; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Bendlin, Barbara B; Alexander, Andrew L

    2015-04-01

    3D q-space can be viewed as the surface of a 4D hypersphere. In this paper, we seek to develop a 4D hyperspherical interpretation of q-space by projecting it onto a hypersphere and subsequently modeling the q-space signal via 4D hyperspherical harmonics (HSH). Using this orthonormal basis, we derive several well-established q-space indices and numerically estimate the diffusion orientation distribution function (dODF). We also derive the integral transform describing the relationship between the diffusion signal and propagator on a hypersphere. Most importantly, we will demonstrate that for hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) acquisitions low order linear expansion of the HSH basis is sufficient to characterize diffusion in neural tissue. In fact, the HSH basis achieves comparable signal and better dODF reconstructions than other well-established methods, such as Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), using fewer fitting parameters. All in all, this work provides a new way of looking at q-space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.

    1986-10-24

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtainedmore » and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.« less

  6. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Female, 4 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Surgery. Congenital defects. Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse.

  7. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 4 Final Diagnosis: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects Background: Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. Case Report: We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:24644527

  8. Effects of a 4-Week Biomechanical Ankle Platform System Protocol on Balance in High School Athletes With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Cain, Mary Spencer; Garceau, Stacy Watt; Linens, Shelley W

    2017-01-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) describes the residual symptoms present after repetitive ankle sprains. Current rehabilitation programs in the high school population focus on a multistation approach or general lower-extremity injury-prevention program. Specific rehabilitation techniques for CAI have not been established. To determine the effectiveness of a 4-wk biomechanical ankle platform system (BAPS) board protocol on the balance of high school athletes with CAI. Randomized control trial. Athletic training facility. Twenty-two high school athletes with "giving way" and a history of ankle sprains (ie, CAI) were randomized into a rehabilitation (REH) (166.23 ± 0.93 cm, 67.0 ± 9.47 kg, 16.45 ± 0.93 y) or control (CON) (173.86 ± 8.88 cm, 84.51 ± 21.28 kg, 16.55 ± 1.29 y) group. After baseline measures, the REH group completed a progressive BAPS rehabilitation program (3 times/wk for 4 wk), whereas the CON group had no intervention. Each session consisted of 5 trials of clockwise/counterclockwise rotations changing direction every 10 s during each 40-s trial. After 4 wk, baseline measurements were repeated. Dependent measures included longest time (time-in-balance test), average number of errors (foot lift test), average reach distance (cm) normalized to leg length for each reach direction (Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT]), and fastest time (side hop test [SHT]). Significant group-by-time interactions were found for TIB (F 1,20 = 9.89, P = .005), FLT (F 1,20 = 41.18, P < .001), SEBT-anteromedial (F 1,20 = 5.34, P = .032), SEBT-medial (F 1,20 = 7.51, P = .013), SEBT-posteromedial (F 1,20 = 12.84, P = .002), and SHT (F 1,20 = 7.50, P = .013). Post hoc testing showed that the REH group improved performance on all measures at posttest, whereas the CON group did not. A 4-wk BAPS rehabilitation protocol improved balance in high school athletes suffering from CAI. These results can allow clinicians to rehabilitate in a focused manner by using 1 rehabilitation tool

  9. Identification of nucleotides in the 5'UTR and amino acids substitutions that are essential for the infectivity of 5'UTR-NS5A recombinant of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (strain Con1).

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqian; Feng, Shengjun; Liu, Xi; Guo, Mingzhe; Chen, Mingxiao; Chen, Yiyi; Rong, Liang; Xia, Jinyu; Zhou, Yuanping; Zhong, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Genotype 1b strain Con1 represents an important reference in the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we aimed to develop an advanced infectious Con1 recombinant. We found that previously identified mutations A1226G/F1464L/A1672S/Q1773H permitted culture adaption of Con1 Core-NS5A (C-5A) recombinant containing 5'UTR and NS5B-3'UTR from JFH1 (genotype 2a), thus acquired additional mutations L725H/F886L/D2415G. C-5A containing all seven mutations (C-5A_7m) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5.1 cells and had an increased infectivity in SEC14L2-expressing Huh7.5.1 cells. Incorporation of Con1 NS5B was deleterious to C-5A_7m, however Con1 5'UTR was permissive but attenuated the virus. Nucleotides G1, A4, and G35 primarily accounted for the viral attenuation without affecting RNA translation. C-5A_7m was inhibited dose-dependently by simeprevir and daclatasvir, and substitutions at A4, A29, A34, and G35 conferred resistance to miR-122 antagonism. The novel Con1 5'UTR-NS5A recombinant, adaptive mutations, and critical nucleotides described here will facilitate future studies of HCV culture systems and virus-host interaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerodynamic analysis of Audi A4 Sedan using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birwa, S. K.; Rathi, N.; Gupta, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic influence of velocity and ground clearance for Audi A4 Sedan. The topology of the test vehicle was modeled using CATIA P3 V5 R17. ANSYS FLUENT 12 was the CFD solver employed in this study. The distribution of pressure and velocity was obtained. The velocities were 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/s and ground clearances were 76.2 mm,101.6 mm,127 mm and 152.4 mm. The simulation results were compared with the available resources. It was found that the drag coefficient decreases with the velocity increasing from 30 to 60 m/s and increases with the ground clearance from 101.6 mm to 152.4 mm. Further decrease in ground clearance showed no effect on the value of coefficient of drag. The lift coefficient was found to decrease firstly with ground clearance from 152.4 mm to 101.6 mm, and then increase from 101.6 mm to 76.2 mm. Both the lift coefficient and drag coefficient was found to be minimum for the ground clearance of 101.6 mm as designed by the company.

  11. A logarithmic detection system suitable for a 4π array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, G. D.; Yurkon, J. E.; van der Plicht, J.; Koenig, Z. M.; Jacak, B. V.; Fox, R.; Crawley, G. M.; Maier, M. R.; Hasselquist, B. E.; Tickle, R. S.; Horn, D.

    1985-08-01

    A low pressure multiwire proportional counter, a Bragg curve counter, and an array of CaF2/plastic scintillator telescopes have been developed in a geometry suitable for close packing into a 4π detector designed to study nucleus-nucleus reactions at 100-200 MeV/nucleon. The multiwire counter is hexagonal in shape and gives X-Y position information using resistive charge division from nichrome-coated stretched polypropylene foils. The Bragg curve counter is a hexagonal pyramid with the charge taken from a Frisch gridded anode. A field shaping grid gives the Bragg curve counter a radial field. The scintillator telescopes are shaped as truncated triangular pyramids such that when stacked together they form a truncated hexagonal pyramid. The light signal of the CaF2-plastic combination is read with one phototube using a phoswich technique to separate the ΔE signal from the E signal. The entire system has been tested so far for particles with 1 <= Z <= 18 and gives good position, charge, and time resolution.

  12. Tailoring a ConOps for NASA LSP Integrated Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Skip Clark V., III

    2017-01-01

    An integral part of the Systems Engineering process is the creation of a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for a given system, with the ConOps initially established early in the system design process and evolved as the system definition and design matures. As Integration Engineers in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), our job is to manage the interface requirements for all the robotic space missions that come to our Program for a Launch Service. LSP procures and manages a launch service from one of our many commercial Launch Vehicle Contractors (LVCs) and these commercial companies are then responsible for developing the Interface Control Document (ICD), the verification of the requirements in that document, and all the services pertaining to integrating the spacecraft and launching it into orbit. However, one of the systems engineering tools that have not been employed within LSP to date is a Concept of Operations. The goal of this paper is to research the format and content that goes into these various aerospace industry ConOps and tailor the format and content into template form, so the template may be used as an engineering tool for spacecraft integration with future LSP procured launch services. This tailoring effort was performed as the authors final Masters Project in the Spring of 2016 for the Stevens Institute of Technology and modified for publication with INCOSE (Owens, 2016).

  13. Working Health Services Scotland: a 4-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M; Bakhshi, A; Kennedy, M; Macdonald, E B

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Working Health Service Scotland (WHSS) supports the self-employed and employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Scotland with a health condition affecting their ability to work, who are either absent or at risk of becoming absent due to it. Aims To evaluate the impact on health and work outcomes of WHSS clients over a 4-year period. Methods Data were collected at enrolment, entry, discharge and follow-up at 3 and 6 months after discharge. Clients completed up to three validated health questionnaires at entry and discharge—EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Results A total of 13463 referrals occurred in the 4-year period; 11748 (87%) were eligible and completed entry assessment and 60% of the latter completed discharge paperwork. The majority of referrals were due to musculoskeletal conditions (84%) while 12% were referred with mental health conditions. Almost a fifth (18%) of cases were absent at entry and back at work at discharge. Work days lost while in WHSS was associated with age, length of absence prior to entering WHSS, primary health condition and time in programme. All health measures showed significant improvements from entry to discharge. Improvement in general health was sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Conclusions The WHSS evaluation findings indicate that participation was associated with positive changes to health and return-to-work. The extent of the positive change in health measures and work ability can be highly important economically for employees and employers. PMID:29390161

  14. Working Health Services Scotland: a 4-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Demou, E; Hanson, M; Bakhshi, A; Kennedy, M; Macdonald, E B

    2018-02-16

    Working Health Service Scotland (WHSS) supports the self-employed and employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Scotland with a health condition affecting their ability to work, who are either absent or at risk of becoming absent due to it. To evaluate the impact on health and work outcomes of WHSS clients over a 4-year period. Data were collected at enrolment, entry, discharge and follow-up at 3 and 6 months after discharge. Clients completed up to three validated health questionnaires at entry and discharge-EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). A total of 13463 referrals occurred in the 4-year period; 11748 (87%) were eligible and completed entry assessment and 60% of the latter completed discharge paperwork. The majority of referrals were due to musculoskeletal conditions (84%) while 12% were referred with mental health conditions. Almost a fifth (18%) of cases were absent at entry and back at work at discharge. Work days lost while in WHSS was associated with age, length of absence prior to entering WHSS, primary health condition and time in programme. All health measures showed significant improvements from entry to discharge. Improvement in general health was sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The WHSS evaluation findings indicate that participation was associated with positive changes to health and return-to-work. The extent of the positive change in health measures and work ability can be highly important economically for employees and employers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  15. A 4-meter Telescope for the US Air Force Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, D.; Andersen, G.; Wetterer, C.

    2004-05-01

    The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in Colorado Springs has obtained a 4m-diameter, lightweight telescope from the discontinued Space Based Laser project. Originally designed and constructed for space, this segmented telescope is being reconfigured for use in a ground-based facility. The current optical design is an afocal Mersenne configuration with an extremely thin (17mm) glass primary. The telescope has 312 fine figure actuators for active shaping of the primary, as well as 42 piston actuators for phasing of the segments and adaptive optics capability with a 300-actuator deformable mirror and wavefront sensor. We are recoating and redesigning the optics (with new secondary and tertiary mirrors) and constructing a new truss and an alt-az mount with two Nasmyth foci capable of both sidereal and low-Earth object tracking down to altitudes of 200km. The telescope will be located in a new facility to be built next to the current USAFA Observatory. The primary use of the telescope will be for education by involving cadets in a wide range of Air Force experiments including active ranging, communication, and imaging and characterization of satellites. We envision, however, that substantial time will also be available for astronomy. Although the Colorado Springs site is not ideal for many astronomical uses, it does lend itself to easy access by cadets, faculty, and visitors, and is appropriate for spectroscopy and bright-object work. Compared to similar facilities around the world, we expect to have a large amount of time available for outside users.

  16. Fragrance contact allergy: a 4-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Laura; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Toledo, Fernando; Lucas, Ana; Pérez-Crespo, María; Ballester, Irene

    2010-08-01

    Fragrance chemicals are the second most frequent cause of contact allergy. The mandatory labelling of 26 fragrance chemicals when present in cosmetics has facilitated management of patients allergic to fragrances. The study was aimed to define the characteristics of the population allergic to perfumes detected in our hospital district, to determine the usefulness of markers of fragrance allergy in the baseline GEIDAC series, and to describe the contribution made by the fragrance series to the data obtained with the baseline series. We performed a 4-year retrospective study of patients tested with the Spanish baseline series and/or fragrance series. There are four fragrance markers in the baseline series: fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae, fragrance mix II (FM II), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. A total of 1253 patients were patch tested, 117 (9.3%) of whom were positive to a fragrance marker. FM I and M. pereirae detected 92.5% of the cases of fragrance contact allergy. FM II and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde detected 6 additional cases and provided further information in 8, enabling improved management. A fragrance series was tested in a selected group of 86 patients and positive results were obtained in 45.3%. Geraniol was the allergen most frequently found in the group of patients tested with the fragrance series. Classic markers detect the majority of cases of fragrance contact allergy. We recommend incorporating FM II in the Spanish baseline series, as in the European baseline series, and using a specific fragrance series to study patients allergic to a fragrance marker.

  17. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) – Tampa (THEA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-01

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Tampa Hillsborough Expressway Authority (THEA) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for change, and ...

  18. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) - New York City.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-08

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for ...

  19. Public mental hospital work: pros and cons for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1984-09-01

    The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.

  20. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  1. Topical Oxygen for Chronic Wounds: A PRO/CON Debate

    PubMed Central

    Mutluoglu, Mesut; Cakkalkurt, Aslican; Uzun, Gunalp; Aktas, Samil

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxygen in wound healing is universally accepted and does not require any further evidence; however the controversy as to whether oxygen delivery systems have the potential to improve wound healing remains to be concluded. Topical oxygen treatment (TOT) involves the delivery of 100% oxygen for a mean of 90 min, once a day at an atmospheric pressure slightly above 1 atm abs. The use of TOT gained increasing interest recently. The current manuscript will summarize the pros and cons of TOT in the view of the available literature. PMID:26199891

  2. Conning the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-01-02

    This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to con the con men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.

  3. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  4. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain acrossmore » the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc« less

  5. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  6. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  7. Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Terré, Juan A.; George, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement. PMID:29062739

  8. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  9. Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Terré, Juan A; George, Isaac; Smith, Craig R

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.

  10. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in themore » tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.« less

  11. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in themore » tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.« less

  12. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  13. Expression of solute carrier 7A4 (SLC7A4) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to mediate amino acid transport activity.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sabine; Janzen, Annette; Vékony, Nicole; Martiné, Ursula; Strand, Dennis; Closs, Ellen I

    2002-06-15

    Member 4 of human solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A4) exhibits significant sequence homology with the SLC7 subfamily of human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) [Sperandeo, Borsani, Incerti, Zollo, Rossi, Zuffardi, Castaldo, Taglialatela, Andria and Sebastio (1998) Genomics 49, 230-236]. It is therefore often referred to as hCAT-4 even though no convincing transport activity has been shown for this protein. We expressed SLC7A4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but could not detect any transport activity for cationic, neutral or anionic amino acids or for the polyamine putrescine. In addition, human glioblastoma cells stably overexpressing a fusion protein between SLC7A4 and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) did not exhibit an increased transport activity for l-arginine. The lack of transport activity was not due to a lack of SLC7A4 protein expression in the plasma membrane, as in both cell types SLC7A4-EGFP exhibited a similar subcellular localization and level of protein expression as functional hCAT-EGFP proteins. The expression of SLC7A4 can be induced in NT2 teratocarcinoma cells by treatment with retinoic acid. However, also for this endogenously expressed SLC7A4, we could not detect any transport activity for l-arginine. Our data demonstrate that the expression of SLC7A4 in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to induce an amino acid transport activity in X. laevis oocytes or human cells. Therefore, SLC7A4 is either not an amino acid transporter or it needs additional (protein) factor(s) to be functional.

  14. Expression of solute carrier 7A4 (SLC7A4) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to mediate amino acid transport activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Sabine; Janzen, Annette; Vékony, Nicole; Martiné, Ursula; Strand, Dennis; Closs, Ellen I

    2002-01-01

    Member 4 of human solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A4) exhibits significant sequence homology with the SLC7 subfamily of human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) [Sperandeo, Borsani, Incerti, Zollo, Rossi, Zuffardi, Castaldo, Taglialatela, Andria and Sebastio (1998) Genomics 49, 230-236]. It is therefore often referred to as hCAT-4 even though no convincing transport activity has been shown for this protein. We expressed SLC7A4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but could not detect any transport activity for cationic, neutral or anionic amino acids or for the polyamine putrescine. In addition, human glioblastoma cells stably overexpressing a fusion protein between SLC7A4 and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) did not exhibit an increased transport activity for l-arginine. The lack of transport activity was not due to a lack of SLC7A4 protein expression in the plasma membrane, as in both cell types SLC7A4-EGFP exhibited a similar subcellular localization and level of protein expression as functional hCAT-EGFP proteins. The expression of SLC7A4 can be induced in NT2 teratocarcinoma cells by treatment with retinoic acid. However, also for this endogenously expressed SLC7A4, we could not detect any transport activity for l-arginine. Our data demonstrate that the expression of SLC7A4 in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to induce an amino acid transport activity in X. laevis oocytes or human cells. Therefore, SLC7A4 is either not an amino acid transporter or it needs additional (protein) factor(s) to be functional. PMID:12049641

  15. 26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.409A-4 Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.409A-4 Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.409A-4 Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.409A-4 Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...

  19. 42 CFR 52a.4 - What information must each application contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What information must each application contain? 52a.4 Section 52a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.4 What information must each application contain? Each...

  20. 42 CFR 52a.4 - What information must each application contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What information must each application contain? 52a.4 Section 52a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.4 What information must each application contain? Each...

  1. 42 CFR 52a.4 - What information must each application contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What information must each application contain? 52a.4 Section 52a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.4 What information must each application contain? Each...

  2. 42 CFR 52a.4 - What information must each application contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What information must each application contain? 52a.4 Section 52a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.4 What information must each application contain? Each...

  3. 42 CFR 52a.4 - What information must each application contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information must each application contain? 52a.4 Section 52a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.4 What information must each application contain? Each...

  4. 42 CFR 63a.4 - Who is eligible for a training grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who is eligible for a training grant? 63a.4 Section 63a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.4 Who is eligible for a training...

  5. 42 CFR 63a.4 - Who is eligible for a training grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible for a training grant? 63a.4 Section 63a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.4 Who is eligible for a training...

  6. 42 CFR 63a.4 - Who is eligible for a training grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible for a training grant? 63a.4 Section 63a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.4 Who is eligible for a training...

  7. 42 CFR 63a.4 - Who is eligible for a training grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who is eligible for a training grant? 63a.4 Section 63a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.4 Who is eligible for a training...

  8. 42 CFR 63a.4 - Who is eligible for a training grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who is eligible for a training grant? 63a.4 Section 63a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.4 Who is eligible for a training...

  9. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  11. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  12. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  13. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.

  14. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  15. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by Aronia melanocarpa constituents.

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, Marie; Christensen, Hege; Johannesen, Siri; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Malterud, Karl E; Barsett, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins, and two phenolic acids from aronia [Aronia melanocarpa] were investigated for their CYP3A4 inhibitory effects, using midazolam as the probe substrate and recombinant insect cell microsomes expressing CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. Procyanidin B5 was a considerably stronger CYP3A4 inhibitor in vitro than the isomeric procyanidin B2 and comparable to bergamottin, a known CYP3A4 inhibitor from grapefruit juice. The inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidin-containing fractions was correlated to the degree of polymerization. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside showed stronger CYP3A4 inhibition than cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Thus, the ability to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro seems to be influenced by the sugar unit linked to the anthocyanidin. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4)-5 Section 1.401(a)(4)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan...

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4)-5 Section 1.401(a)(4)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan...

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4)-5 Section 1.401(a)(4)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4)-5 Section 1.401(a)(4)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan terminations. ...

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plan amendments and plan terminations. 1.401(a)(4)-5 Section 1.401(a)(4)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-5 Plan amendments and plan...

  2. S100A4 interacts with p53 in the nucleus and promotes p53 degradation.

    PubMed

    Orre, L M; Panizza, E; Kaminskyy, V O; Vernet, E; Gräslund, T; Zhivotovsky, B; Lehtiö, J

    2013-12-05

    S100A4 is a small calcium-binding protein that is commonly overexpressed in a range of different tumor types, and it is widely accepted that S100A4 has an important role in the process of cancer metastasis. In vitro binding assays has shown that S100A4 interacts with the tumor suppressor protein p53, indicating that S100A4 may have additional roles in tumor development. In the present study, we show that endogenous S100A4 and p53 interact in complex samples, and that the interaction increases after inhibition of MDM2-dependent p53 degradation using Nutlin-3A. Further, using proximity ligation assay, we show that the interaction takes place in the cell nucleus. S100A4 knockdown experiments in two p53 wild-type cell lines, A549 and HeLa, resulted in stabilization of p53 protein, indicating that S100A4 is promoting p53 degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that S100A4 knockdown leads to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Thus, our data add a new layer to the oncogenic properties of S100A4 through its inhibition of p53-dependent processes.

  3. SORLA attenuates EphA4 signaling and amyloid β-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Timothy Y; Zhao, Yingjun; Jiang, Lu-Lin; Li, Xiaoguang; Liu, Yan; Sun, Yu; Piña-Crespo, Juan C; Zhu, Bing; Masliah, Eliezer; Willnow, Thomas E; Pasquale, Elena B; Xu, Huaxi

    2017-12-04

    Sortilin-related receptor with LDLR class A repeats (SORLA, SORL1, or LR11) is a genetic risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although SORLA is known to regulate trafficking of the amyloid β (Aβ) precursor protein to decrease levels of proteotoxic Aβ oligomers, whether SORLA can counteract synaptic dysfunction induced by Aβ oligomers remains unclear. Here, we show that SORLA interacts with the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase and attenuates ephrinA1 ligand-induced EphA4 clustering and activation to limit downstream effects of EphA4 signaling in neurons. Consistent with these findings, SORLA transgenic mice, compared with WT mice, exhibit decreased EphA4 activation and redistribution to postsynaptic densities, with milder deficits in long-term potentiation and memory induced by Aβ oligomers. Importantly, we detected elevated levels of active EphA4 in human AD brains, where EphA4 activation is inversely correlated with SORLA/EphA4 association. These results demonstrate a novel role for SORLA as a physiological and pathological EphA4 modulator, which attenuates synaptotoxic EphA4 activation and cognitive impairment associated with Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in AD. © 2017 Huang et al.

  4. CYP3A4*18: it is not rare allele in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takehito; Nagafuchi, Nobue; Ozeki, Takeshi; Kubota, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Hirai, Hisamaru; Iga, Tatsuji

    2003-01-01

    We sequenced all 13 exons of the CYP3A4 gene derived from 48 Japanese subjects. One subject possess the 20070 T>C mutation in the exon 10 (result in leu293Pro substitution, namely CYP3A4(*)18), as heterozygote. Thus, we investigated the frequency of CYP3A4(*)18 in 118 Japanese population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism with Msp I and determined that the frequency of the CYP3A4(*)18 allele was 1.3%.

  5. Genetic analysis of drug metabolizing phase-I enzymes CYP3A4 in Tibetan populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Chang, Yu; Du, Shuli; Shi, Xugang; Yang, Hua; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Yuan, Dongya; He, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 results in broad interindividual variability in response to certain pharmacotherapies. The present study aimed to screen Tibetan volunteers for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms. Previous research has focussed on Han Chinese patients, while little is known about the genetic variation of CYP3A4 in the Tibetan populations. Here, we adopted DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A4 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals.We identified 20 different CYP3A4 polymorphisms in the Tibetan population, including two novel variants (21824 A>G and 15580 G>C). In addition, we also determined the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1A and CYP3A4*1H were 82.29% and 28.13%, respectively. CYP3A4*1P and *1G were relatively rare with frequencies of only 1.04% and 0.52%, respectively. Our results provide information on CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Tibetan individuals which may help to optimize pharmacotherapy effectiveness by providing personalized medicine to this ethnic group.

  6. Pregnane X receptor- and CYP3A4-humanized mouse models and their applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a pivotal nuclear receptor modulating xenobiotic metabolism primarily through its regulation of CYP3A4, the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism in humans. Due to the marked species differences in ligand recognition by PXR, PXR-humanized (hPXR) mice, and mice expressing human PXR and CYP3A4 (Tg3A4/hPXR) were established. hPXR and Tg3A4/hPXR mice are valuable models for investigating the role of PXR in xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity, in lipid, bile acid and steroid hormone homeostasis, and in the control of inflammation. PMID:21091656

  7. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Observaciones de la corona solar interior con un coronógrafo de espejo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    El plasma de la corona solar es un buen indicador de las líneas de fuerza del campo magnético. Por lo tanto, el análisis de estructuras coronales cuasiestacionarias en la corona da importante información sobre el campo magnético y la actividad asociada. Se trata de poner límites a los modelos teóricos existentes mediante el estudio de distintas estructuras en la corona interior. En agosto de 1997 comenzó a operar el coronógrafo solar (MICA) en El Leoncito como parte del Observatorio Solar Alemán-Argentino. Desde su instalación obtiene imágenes de la corona solar (1.05 a 2.0 radios solares) en 2 líneas espectrales correspondientes a la emisión de Fe XIV y Fe X. El instrumento puede obtener imágenes cada minuto por lo que es ideal para estudiar procesos rápidos. Presentamos observaciones recientes que muestran la capacidad del coronógrafo así como la evolución de algunos eventos dinámicos observados por MICA.

  9. ComSciCon: The Communicating Science Workshop for Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nathan; Drout, Maria; Kohler, Susanna; Cook, Ben; ComSciCon Leadership Team

    2018-01-01

    ComSciCon (comscicon.com) is a national workshop series organized by graduate students, for graduate students, focused on leadership and training in science communication. Our goal is to empower young scientists to become leaders in their field, propagating appreciation and understanding of research results to broad and diverse audiences. ComSciCon attendees meet and interact with professional communicators, build lasting networks with graduate students in all fields of science and engineering from around the country, and write and publish original works. ComSciCon consists of both a flagship national conference series run annually for future leaders in science communication, and a series of regional and specialized workshops organized by ComSciCon alumni nationwide. We routinely receive over 1000 applications for 50 spots in our national workshop. Since its founding in 2012, over 300 STEM graduate students have participated in the national workshop, and 23 local spin-off workshops have been organized in 10 different locations throughout the country. This year, ComSciCon is working to grow as a self-sustaining organization by launching as an independent 501(c)(3) non-profit. In this poster we will discuss the ComSciCon program and methods, our results to date, potential future collaborations between ComSciCon and AAS, and how you can become involved.

  10. Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost

  11. Polymorphic Imprinting of SLC38A4 Gene in Bovine Placenta.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Zhang, Cui; Li, Junliang; Wang, Guannan; Chen, Weina; Li, Dongjie; Li, Shijie

    2018-05-21

    Imprinted genes are characterized by monoallelic expression that is dependent on parental origin. Comparative analysis of imprinted genes between species is a powerful tool for understanding the biological significance of genomic imprinting. The slc38a4 gene encodes a neutral amino acid transporter and is identified as imprinted in mice. In this study, the imprinting status of SLC38A4 was assessed in bovine adult tissues and placenta using a polymorphism-based approach. Results indicate that SLC38A4 is not imprinted in eight adult bovine tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, and brain. It was interesting to note that SLC38A4 showed polymorphic status in five heterogeneous placentas, with three exhibiting paternal monoallelic expression and two exhibiting biallelic expression. Monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is generally associated with allele-specific differentially methylation regions (DMRs) of CpG islands (CGIs)-encompassed promoter; therefore, the DNA methylation statuses of three CGIs in the SLC38A4 promoter and exon 1 region were tested in three placentas (two exhibiting paternal monoallelic and one showing biallelic expression of SLC38A4) and their corresponding paternal sperms. Unexpectedly, extreme hypomethylation (< 3%) of the DNA was observed in all the three detected placentas and their corresponding paternal sperms. The absence of DMR in bovine SLC38A4 promoter region implied that DNA methylation of these three CGIs does not directly or indirectly affect the polymorphic imprinting of SLC38A4 in bovine placenta. This suggested other epigenetic features other than DNA methylation are needed in regulating the imprinting of bovine SLC38A4, which is different from that of mouse with respect to a DMR existence at the mouse's slc38a4 promoter region. Although further work is needed, this first characterization of polymorphic imprinting status of SLC38A4 in cattle placenta provides valuable information on investigating

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-7 - Imputation of permitted disparity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... + permitted disparity rate (3) Employees whose plan year compensation exceeds taxable wage base. If an... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imputation of permitted disparity. 1.401(a)(4)-7... Imputation of permitted disparity. (a) Introduction. In determining whether a plan satisfies section 401(a)(4...

  13. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-4 - Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations. 1.512(a)-4 Section 1.512(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain...

  14. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics.

  15. A Biosensor of S100A4 Metastasis Factor Activation: Inhibitor Screening and Cellular Activation Dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Sarah C.; Hodgson, Louis; Rybin, Andrew; Toutchkine, Alexei; Hahn, Klaus M.; Lawrence, David S.; Bresnick, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    S100A4, a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, displays elevated expression in malignant human tumors compared with benign tumors, and increased expression correlates strongly with poor patient survival. S100A4 has a direct role in metastatic progression, likely due to the modulation of actomyosin cytoskeletal dynamics, which results in increased cellular motility. We developed a fluorescent biosensor (Mero-S100A4) that reports on the Ca2+-bound, activated form of S100A4. Direct attachment of a novel solvatochromatic reporter dye to S100A4 results in a sensor that, upon activation, undergoes a 3-fold enhancement in fluorescence, thus providing a sensitive assay for use in vitro and in vivo. In cells, localized activation of S100A4 at the cell periphery is observed during random migration and following stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid, a known activator of cell motility and proliferation. Additionally, a screen against a library of FDA-approved drugs with the biosensor identified an array of phenothiazines as inhibitors of myosin-II associated S100A4 function. These data demonstrate the utility of the new biosensor both for drug discovery and for probing the cellular dynamics controlled by the S100A4 metastasis factor. PMID:18154362

  16. Developmental expression of SLC26A4 (Pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, Antonius LJJ; Guo, Jing; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Bervoets, Theodore J; Lyaruu, Donacian M.; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; DenBesten, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblasts need to regulate pH during formation of enamel crystals, a process that generates protons. Solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4, or pendrin) is an anion exchanger for chloride, bicarbonate, iodine and formate. It is expressed in apical membranes of ion-transporting epithelia in kidney, inner ear and thyroid where it regulates luminal pH and fluid transport. We hypothesized that maturation ameloblasts express SLC26A4 to neutralize acidification of enamel fluid in forming enamel. In rodents, secretory and maturation ameloblasts were immunopositive for SLC26A4. Staining was particularly strong in apical membranes of maturation ameloblasts facing forming enamel. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA transcripts for Slc26a4 in enamel organs. SLC26A4 immunostaining was also found in mineralizing connective tissues including odontoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, bone lining cells, cellular cementoblasts and cementocytes. However, Slc26a4-null mutant mice had no overt dental phenotype. The presence of SLC26A4 in apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts is consistent with a potential function as pH regulator. SLC26A4 does not appear critical for ameloblast functioning and is likely compensated by other pH regulators. PMID:22243245

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)(4)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-0 Table... rate group. (4) Examples. § 1.401(a)(4)-3Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-4 - Rentals from real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rentals from real estate. 1.1402(a)-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-4 Rentals from real estate. (a) In general. Rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-4 - Rentals from real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rentals from real estate. 1.1402(a)-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-4 Rentals from real estate. (a) In general. Rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-4 - Rentals from real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rentals from real estate. 1.1402(a)-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-4 Rentals from real estate. (a) In general. Rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate...

  1. 26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.5000A-4 - Computation of shared responsibility payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computation of shared responsibility payment. 1.5000A-4 Section 1.5000A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... individual was born. For example, an individual born on March 1, 1999, attains the age of 18 on March 1, 2017...

  3. Analysis of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Xiaomin; Shu, Chang; Cai, Yimei; Gong, Wei; Wang, Xumin; Wang, Duen-mei; Hu, Songnian

    2011-06-01

    Our study aimed to comprehensively investigate the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese. We sequenced the gene regions of CYP3A4, including its promoter, exons, surrounding introns and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), from 100 unrelated-healthy Han Chinese individuals. We detected 11 SNPs, three of which are novel. According to in silico functional prediction of novel variants, 20148 A>G in exon 10, resulting in substitution of Tyr319 with Cys (CYP3A4*21), may induce dramatic alteration of protein conformation, and 26908 G>A in 3'UTR may disrupt post-transcriptional regulation. We identified five alleles in Han Chinese, the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1, *5, *6, *18 and *21 are 97, 0.5, 1, 1 and 0.5%, respectively. Haplotype inference revealed 14 haplotypes, of which the major haplotype CYP3A4*1A constitutes 59% of the total chromosomes. We also examined the possible role of natural selection in shaping the variation of CYP3A4 and confirmed a trend, consistent with the action of positive selection. We systematically screened the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese, highlighted possible functional impairment of the novel allele and summarized the distinct allele and haplotype frequency distribution, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of recent positive selection on the CYP3A4 gene in Han Chinese.

  4. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-4 - Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations. 1.512(a)-4 Section 1.512(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain...

  5. Systematic screening for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Dai, Da-Peng; Wang, Hao; Huang, Xiang-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Hao; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To systematically investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene in a Han Chinese population. The promoter and exons of CYP3A4 gene in 1114 unrelated, healthy Han Chinese subjects were amplified and genotyped by direct sequencing. In total, five previously reported alleles (*1G, *4, *5, *18B and *23) were detected, of which one allele (*23) was reported for the first time in Han Chinese population. Additionally, seven novel exonic variants were also identified and designated as new alleles CYP3A4*28-*34. This study provides the most comprehensive data of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Han Chinese population and detects the largest number of novel CYP3A4 alleles in one ethnic group.

  6. NuA4 Lysine Acetyltransferase Complex Contributes to Phospholipid Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dacquay, Louis; Flint, Annika; Butcher, James; Salem, Danny; Kennedy, Michael; Kaern, Mads; Stintzi, Alain; Baetz, Kristin

    2017-06-07

    Actively proliferating cells constantly monitor and readjust their metabolic pathways to ensure the replenishment of phospholipids necessary for membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , multiple studies have suggested that the lysine acetyltransferase complex NuA4 plays a role in phospholipid homeostasis. For one, NuA4 mutants induce the expression of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase gene, INO1 , which leads to excessive accumulation of inositol, a key metabolite used for phospholipid biosynthesis. Additionally, NuA4 mutants also display negative genetic interactions with sec14-1 ts , a mutant of a lipid-binding gene responsible for phospholipid remodeling of the Golgi. Here, using a combination of genetics and transcriptional profiling, we explore the connections between NuA4, inositol, and Sec14 Surprisingly, we found that NuA4 mutants did not suppress but rather exacerbated the growth defects of sec14-1 ts under inositol-depleted conditions. Transcriptome studies reveal that while loss of the NuA4 subunit EAF1 in sec14-1 ts does derepress INO1 expression, it does not derepress all inositol/choline-responsive phospholipid genes, suggesting that the impact of Eaf1 on phospholipid homeostasis extends beyond inositol biosynthesis. In fact, we find that NuA4 mutants have impaired lipid droplet levels and through genetic and chemical approaches, we determine that the genetic interaction between sec14-1 ts and NuA4 mutants potentially reflects a role for NuA4 in fatty acid biosynthesis. Altogether, our work identifies a new role for NuA4 in phospholipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Dacquay et al.

  7. Molecular analysis of the human SLC13A4 sulfate transporter gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferis, J.; Rakoczy, J.; School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Basal promoter activity of SLC13A4 −57 to −192 nt upstream of transcription initiation site. ► Human SLC13A4 5′-flanking region has conserved motifs with other placental species. ► Putative NFY, SP1 and KLF7 motifs in SLC13A4 5′-flanking region enhance transcription. -- Abstract: The human solute linked carrier (SLC) 13A4 gene is primarily expressed in the placenta where it is proposed to mediate the transport of nutrient sulfate from mother to fetus. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of SLC13A4 expression remain unknown. To investigate the regulation of SLC13A4 gene expression, we analysed the transcriptional activity of the humanmore » SLC13A4 5′-flanking region in the JEG-3 placental cell line using luciferase reporter assays. Basal transcriptional activity was identified in the region −57 to −192 nucleotides upstream of the SLC13A4 transcription initiation site. Mutational analysis of the minimal promoter region identified Nuclear factor Y (NFY), Specificity protein 1 (SP1) and Krüppel like factor 7 (KLF7) motifs which conferred positive transcriptional activity, as well as Zinc finger protein of the cerebellum 2 (ZIC2) and helix–loop–helix protein 1 (HEN1) motifs that repressed transcription. The conserved NFY, SP1, KLF7, ZIC2 and HEN1 motifs in the SLC13A4 promoter of placental species but not in non-placental species, suggests a potential role for these putative transcriptional factor binding motifs in the physiological control of SLC13A4 mRNA expression.« less

  8. Genetic Predictors of Interindividual Variability in Hepatic CYP3A4 ExpressionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Vishal; Panetta, John C.; Strom, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Variability in hepatic CYP3A4 cannot be explained by common CYP3A4 coding variants. We previously identified polymorphisms in pregnane X receptor (PXR) and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) associated with CYP3A4 mRNA levels in small cohorts of human livers. However, the relative contributions of these genetic variations or of polymorphisms in other CYP3A4 regulators to variable CYP3A4 expression were not known. We phenotyped livers from white donors (n = 128) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 and nine transcriptional regulators, coactivators, and corepressors. We resequenced hepatic nuclear factor-3-β (HNF3β, FoxA2), HNF4α, HNF3γ (FoxA3), nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCoR2), and regions of the CYP3A4 promoter and genotyped informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PXR and ABCB1 in the same livers. CYP3A4 mRNA was positively correlated with PXR and FoxA2 and negatively correlated with NCoR2 mRNA. A common silent polymorphism and a polymorphic trinucleotide (CCT) repeat in FoxA2 were associated with CYP3A4 expression. The transcriptional activity of the FoxA2 polymorphic CCT repeat alleles (wild-type, n = 14 and variant, n = 13, 15, and 19) when assayed by luciferase reporter transactivation assays was greatest for the wild-type repeat, with deviations from this number having decreased transcriptional activity. This corresponded with higher expression of FoxA2 mRNA and its targets PXR and CYP3A4 in human livers with (CCT) n = 14 genotypes. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the contributions of selected genetic polymorphisms to variable CYP3A4 expression. This approach identified sex and polymorphisms in FoxA2, HNF4α, FoxA3, PXR, ABCB1, and the CYP3A4 promoter that together explained as much as 24.6% of the variation in hepatic CYP3A4 expression. PMID:19934400

  9. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  10. ConSpeciFix: Classifying prokaryotic species based on gene flow.

    PubMed

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ellis, Brian Shin-Hua; Ochman, Howard

    2018-05-16

    Classification of prokaryotic species is usually based on sequence similarity thresholds, which are easy to apply but lack a biologically-relevant foundation. Here, we present ConSpeciFix, a program that classifies prokaryotes into species using criteria set forth by the Biological Species Concept, thereby unifying species definition in all domains of life. ConSpeciFix's webserver is freely available at www.conspecifix.com. The local version of the program can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/Bobay-Ochman/ConSpeciFix. ConSpeciFix is written in Python 2.7 and requires the following dependencies: Usearch, MCL, MAFFT and RAxML. ljbobay@uncg.edu.

  11. Long noncoding RNA OR3A4 promotes metastasis and tumorigenicity in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaobo; Yang, Ziguo; Zhi, Qiaoming; Wang, Dan; Guo, Lei; Li, Guimei; Miao, Ruizhen; Shi, Yulong; Kuang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to metastasis of gastric cancer remains largely unknown. We used microarray analysis to identify lncRNAs differentially expressed between normal gastric tissues and gastric cancer tissues and validated these differences in quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR experiments. The expression levels of lncRNA olfactory receptor, family 3, subfamily A, member 4 (OR3A4) were significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis, the depth of cancer invasion, and distal metastasis in 130 paired gastric cancer tissues. The effects of OR3A4 were assessed by overexpressing and silencing OR3A4 in gastric cancer cells. OR3A4 promoted cancer cell growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Global microarray analysis combined with RT-PCR, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down analyses after OR3A4 transfection demonstrated that OR3A4 influenced biologic functions in gastric cancer cells via regulating the activation of PDLIM2, MACC1, NTN4, and GNB2L1. Our results reveal OR3A4 as an oncogenic lncRNA that promotes tumor progression, Therefore, lncRNAs might function as key regulatory hubs in gastric cancer progression. PMID:26863570

  12. Nano-sized cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors to block hepatic metabolism of docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Marion; Poul, Laurence; Berjaud, Céline; Germain, Matthieu; Darmon, Audrey; Bergère, Maxime; Pottier, Agnès; Levy, Laurent; Vibert, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Most drugs are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), resulting in their reduced bioavailability. In this study, we present the design and evaluation of bio-compatible nanocarriers trapping a natural CYP3A4-inhibiting compound. Our aim in using nanocarriers was to target the natural CYP3A4-inhibiting agent to hepatic CYP3A4 and leave drug-metabolizing enzymes in other organs undisturbed. In the design of such nanocarriers, we took advantage of the nonspecific accumulation of small nanoparticles in the liver. Specific targeting functionalization was added to direct nanocarriers toward hepatocytes. Nanocarriers were evaluated in vitro for their CYP3A4 inhibition capacity and in vivo for their biodistribution, and finally injected 24 hours prior to the drug docetaxel, for their ability to improve the efficiency of the drug docetaxel. Nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 63 nm, functionalized with galactosamine, showed efficient in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition and the highest accumulation in hepatocytes. When compared to docetaxel alone, in nude mice bearing the human breast cancer, MDA-MB-231 model, they significantly improved the delay in tumor growth (treated group versus docetaxel alone, percent treated versus control ratio [%T/C] of 32%) and demonstrated a major improvement in overall survival (survival rate of 67% versus 0% at day 55). PMID:28814868

  13. Intronic polymorphism in CYP3A4 affects hepatic expression and response to statin drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D; Guo, Y; Wrighton, SA; Cooke, GE; Sadee, W

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolizes ~50% of all clinically used drugs. Although CYP3A4 expression varies widely between individuals, the contribution of genetic factors remains uncertain. In this study, we measured allelic CYP3A4 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) and mRNA expression in 76 human liver samples heterozygous for at least one of eight marker SNPs and found marked allelic expression imbalance (1.6–6.3-fold) in 10/76 liver samples (13%). This was fully accounted for by an intron 6 SNP (rs35599367, C>T), which also affected mRNA expression in cell culture on minigene transfections. CYP3A4 mRNA level and enzyme activity in livers with CC genotype were 1.7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, greater than in CT and TT carriers. In 235 patients taking stable doses of atorvastatin, simvastatin, or lovastatin for lipid control, carriers of the T allele required significantly lower statin doses (0.2–0.6-fold, P=0.019) than non-T carriers for optimal lipid control. These results indicate that intron 6 SNP rs35599367 markedly affects expression of CYP3A4 and could serve as a biomarker for predicting response to CYP3A4-metabolized drugs. PMID:20386561

  14. SLC26A4 mutation testing for hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Taku; Muskett, Julie; Chattaraj, Parna; Choi, Byung Yoon; Lee, Kyu Yup; Zalewski, Christopher K; King, Kelly A; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; Shawker, Thomas; Brewer, Carmen C; Alper, Seth L; Griffith, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Pendred syndrome (PS) is characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance of goiter associated with a defect of iodide organification, hearing loss, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA), and mutations of the SLC26A4 gene. However, not all EVA patients have PS or SLC26A4 mutations. Two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 are detected in ¼ of North American or European EVA populations, one mutant allele is detected in another ¼ of patient populations, and no mutations are detected in the other ½. The presence of two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 is associated with abnormal iodide organification, increased thyroid gland volume, increased severity of hearing loss, and bilateral EVA. The presence of a single mutant allele of SLC26A4 is associated with normal iodide organification, normal thyroid gland volume, less severe hearing loss and either bilateral or unilateral EVA. When other underlying correlations are accounted for, the presence of a cochlear malformation or the size of EVA does not have an effect on hearing thresholds. This is consistent with observations of an Slc26a4 mutant mouse model of EVA in which hearing loss is independent of endolymphatic hydrops or inner ear malformations. Segregation analyses of EVA in families suggest that the patients carrying one mutant allele of SLC26A4 have a second, undetected mutant allele of SLC26A4, and the probability of a sibling having EVA is consistent with its segregation as an autosomal recessive trait. Patients without any mutations are an etiologically heterogeneous group in which siblings have a lower probability of having EVA. SLC26A4 mutation testing can provide prognostic information to guide clinical surveillance and management, as well as the probability of EVA affecting a sibling. PMID:25960948

  15. Existing con el Lobo, Traversing la Frontera con Mis Nepantla Coyotes, y Buscando la Vida del Zorro: An Autoethnographic Exploration of a Chicano in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ernesto Fidel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is the experience of my life, an evolution of platicas I have had con mis coyotes, my Nepantlero guides. I am one Chicano navigating through the mechanisms of a coercive and hegemonic system which limits our advancement in the academy. My ontology, epistemology, and axiology stem from my cultural and family foundations which I…

  16. Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "iCon".

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John

    2017-04-01

      Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of iCon on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as iCon to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that iCon has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in iCon.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of iCon. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.

  17. B cells as accessory cells in a Con A response of a T cell clone.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Kakiuchi, T; Taira, S; Nariuchi, H

    1987-12-01

    Accessory cell (AC) function of B cells was examined in Con A response of a cloned T cell line, 22-9D, which is Thy 1+,L3T4+,Lyt2-,H-2KbDb+ and I-Ab-.22-9D cells produced IL 2 in the presence of Con A without participation of AC. For the initiation of a proliferative response to Con A, the addition of spleen cells or spleen adherent cells was required. B cells as AC were unable to induce the proliferative response. In the presence of culture supernatant of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (CAS), 22-9D cells showed proliferative response to Con A with B cell AC. The response was inhibited by a relevant monoclonal anti-I-A antibody. Although irradiated spleen cells as AC induced IL 2 receptor expression of 22-9D cells in the presence of Con A, B cells were shown to require the addition of unknown factor(s) in CAS, which was suggested to be different from IL 1, IL 2, IL 3, or IFN-gamma, for the induction of the receptor expression on 22-9D cells.

  18. Soft A 4→Z 3 symmetry breaking and cobimaximal neutrino mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ernest

    2016-03-28

    In this study, I propose a model of radiative charged-lepton and neutrino masses with A 4 symmetry. The soft breaking of A 4 to Z 3 lepton triality is accomplished by dimension-three terms. The breaking of Z 3 by dimension-two terms allows cobimaximal neutrino mixing (θ 13 ≠ 0, θ 23 = π/4, δ cp=π/2) to be realized with only very small finite calculable deviations from the residual Z 3 lepton triality. This construction solves a long-standing technical problem inherent in renormalizable A 4 models since their inception.

  19. Influence of Hycrete DSS on Virginia Department of Transportation Class A4 concrete mix designs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Class A4 concrete mixtures containing Hycrete DSS were evaluated to determine the performance of the mixtures with respect to mechanical properties, alkali-silica reactivity, and corrosion of reinforcement...

  20. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  1. Development of the German A-4 guidance and control system, 1939 - 1945: A memoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhoff, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The development by 1943 of a fully inertial navigational system for the German A-4 (V-2) missile is detailed. This flight control system used a triple-axis stabilized platform with two longitudinal accelerometers and one lateral accelerometer.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-9 - Plan aggregation and restructuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional rules in § 1.401(a)(4)-2(c)(2)(iv) (imputation of permitted disparity) and (v) (grouping of rates... actuarial increases after normal retirement age under § 1.401(a)(4)-3(f)(3)) may not be used in testing a DB... contribution plan)(in percent) HCE A (age 55) 3.93 3.82 HCE B (age 50) 2.61 5.74 C (age 60) 5.91 .51 D (age 45...

  3. Binding Specificity Determines the Cytochrome P450 3A4 Mediated Enantioselective Metabolism of Metconazole.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Leili; Zhan, Tingjie; Lu, Liping; Zhao, Lu; Wang, Haifei; Morrone, Joseph A; Liu, Weiping; Zhou, Ruhong

    2018-01-25

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a promiscuous enzyme, mediating the biotransformations of ∼50% of clinically used drugs, many of which are chiral molecules. Probing the interactions between CYP3A4 and chiral chemicals is thus essential for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of enantioselective metabolism. We developed a stepwise-restrained-molecular-dynamics (MD) method to model human CYP3A4 in a complex with cis-metconazole (MEZ) isomers and performed conventional MD simulations with a total simulation time of 2.2 μs to probe the molecular interactions. Our current study, which employs a combined experimental and theoretical approach, reports for the first time on the distinct conformational changes of CYP3A4 that are induced by the enantioselective binding of cis-MEZ enantiomers. CYP3A4 preferably metabolizes cis-RS MEZ over the cis-SR isomer, with the resultant enantiomer fraction for cis-MEZ increasing rapidly from 0.5 to 0.82. cis-RS MEZ adopts a more extended structure in the active pocket with its Cl atom exposed to the solvent, whereas cis-SR MEZ sits within the hydrophobic core of the active pocket. Free-energy-perturbation calculations indicate that unfavorable van der Waals interactions between the cis-MEZ isomers and the CYP3A4 binding pocket predominantly contribute to their binding-affinity differences. These results demonstrate that binding specificity determines the cytochrome P450 3A4 mediated enantioselective metabolism of cis-MEZ.

  4. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, H; Molden, E; Christensen, H; Malterud, K E

    2003-02-01

    The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P(450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel. Grapefruit peel was extracted with diethyl ether, and the extract was further fractionated by normal-phase chromatography. Fractions demonstrating significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity, as measured by the relative reduction in N-demethylation of diltiazem in transfected human liver epithelial cells, were subsequently separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Constituents of the fractions and isolated compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of diltiazem and N-demethyl-diltiazem was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the identified components in grapefruit peel, only epoxybergamottin demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of diltiazem. The IC(50) value was calculated to be 4.2+/-1.1 micro M. Coumarins without the furan ring and flavonoids isolated from grapefruit peel did not interfere with the metabolism of diltiazem. The results indicated the presence of other CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel, but these agents were lost during the purification process excluding their identification. The furanocoumarin epoxybergamottin, present in grapefruit peel, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. In commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, epoxybergamottin is possibly distributed into the juice. During manufacturing, however, epoxybergamottin may be hydrolysed to 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, which has been suggested as an important CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit juice.

  5. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations.

    PubMed

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5'-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4(*)12, CYP3A4(*)15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4(*)1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  6. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genotyping by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Garsa, Adam A; McLeod, Howard L; Marsh, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Background Human cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, particularly CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, play an important role in drug metabolism. CYP3A expression exhibits substantial interindividual variation, much of which may result from genetic variation. This study describes Pyrosequencing assays for key SNPs in CYP3A4 (CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*2, and CYP3A4*3) and CYP3A5 (CYP3A5*3C and CYP3A5*6). Methods Genotyping of 95 healthy European and 95 healthy African volunteers was performed using Pyrosequencing. Linkage disequilibrium, haplotype inference, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and tag SNPs were also determined for these samples. Results CYP3A4*1B allele frequencies were 4% in Europeans and 82% in Africans. The CYP3A4*2 allele was found in neither population sample. CYP3A4*3 had an allele frequency of 2% in Europeans and 0% in Africans. The frequency of CYP3A5*3C was 94% in Europeans and 12% in Africans. No CYP3A5*6 variants were found in the European samples, but this allele had a frequency of 16% in the African samples. Allele frequencies and haplotypes show interethnic variation, highlighting the need to analyze clinically relevant SNPs and haplotypes in a variety of ethnic groups. Conclusion Pyrosequencing is a versatile technique that could improve the efficiency of SNP analysis for pharmacogenomic research with the ultimate goal of pre-screening patients for individual therapy selection. PMID:15882469

  7. Influence of different recombinant systems on the cooperativity exhibited by cytochrome P4503A4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, Y; Shou, M; Zhang, Y; Ngui, J S; Stearns, R A; Evans, D C; Baillie, T A; Tang, W

    2004-05-01

    1. The in vitro cooperativity exhibited by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is influenced by the nature of the recombinant system in which the phenomenon is studied. Diclofenac, piroxicam and R-warfarin were used as model substrates, and quinidine was the effector. 2. The 5-, 5'- and 10-hydroxylation of diclofenac, piroxicam and R-warfarin, respectively, were enhanced five- to sevenfold by quinidine in human liver microsomal incubations. Whereas these cooperative drug interactions were apparent in incubations with CYP3A4 expressed in human lymphoblast cells, similar phenomena were not observed with the enzyme expressed in insect cells. 3. Insect cell microsomes were treated with a detergent and CYP3A4 was solubilized into a buffer medium. In incubations with CYP3A4 'freed' from its host membrane, the 5-hydroxylation of diclofenac increased with increasing quinidine concentrations, reaching a maximal eightfold elevation relative to controls. The metabolism of piroxicam and warfarin was similarly enhanced by quinidine. 4. Kinetically, enhancement by quinidine of the 5-hydroxylation of diclofenac in incubations with solubilized CYP3A4 was characterized by increases in the rate of metabolism with little change in the substrate-binding affinity. Conversely, the 3-hydroxylation of quinidine was not affected by diclofenac. 5. The data suggest that certain properties of CYP3A4 are masked by expression of the protein in insect cells and reinforce the concept that the enzyme possesses multiple binding domains. The absence of cooperative drug interactions with quinidine when CYP3A4 was expressed in insect cells might be due to an absence of enzyme conformation changes on quinidine binding, or the inability of quinidine to gain access to a putative effector-binding domain. 6. Caution should be exercised when comparing models for CYP3A4 cooperativity derived from different recombinant preparations of the enzyme.

  8. Catalytic Properties of Botulinum Neurotoxins Subtypes A3 and A4

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, James S.; Jacobson, Mark; Tepp, William; Pier, Christina; Johnson, Eric A.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNT) are zinc proteases (serotypes A-G) which cause flaccid paralysis through the cleavage of SNARE proteins within motor neurons. BoNT/A was originally organized into two subtypes: BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2, which are ~ 95 % homologous and possess similar catalytic activities. Subsequently, two additional subtypes were identified; BoNT/A3 (Loch Maree), and BoNT/A4 (657Ba), which have 81 and 88% homology with BoNT/A1, respectively. Alignment studies predicted that BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 were sufficiently different to BoNT/A1 to affect SNAP25 binding and cleavage. Recombinant Light Chain (LC) of BoNT/A3 (LC/A3) and BoNT/A4 (LC/A4) were subjected to biochemical analysis. LC/A3 cleaved SNAP25 at 50% the rate of LC/A1, but cleaved SNAPtide® at a faster rate than LC/A1, while LC/A4 cleaved SNAP25 and SNAPtide® at slower rates than LC/A1. LC/A3 and LC/A4 had similar Kms for SNAP25 relative to LC/A1, while the kcat for LC/A4 was 10- fold slower than LC/A1, suggesting a defect in substrate cleavage. Neither LC/A3 nor LC/A4 possessed autocatalytic activity, a property of LC/A1 and LC/A2. Thus, the four subtypes of BoNT/A bind SNAP25 with similar affinity but have different catalytic capacities for SNAP25 cleavage, SNAPtide® cleavage, and autocatalysis. The catalytic properties identified among the subtypes of LC/A may influence strategies for the development of small molecule- or peptide- inhibitors as therapies against botulism. PMID:19256469

  9. EphrinB3/EphA4-mediated guidance of ascending and descending spinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Sónia; Balijepalli, Aarathi; Serradj, Najet; Niu, Jingwen; Luo, Wenqin; Martin, John H; Klein, Rüdiger

    2013-12-18

    The spinal cord contains many descending and ascending longitudinal tracts whose development appears to be controlled by distinct guidance systems. We identified a population of dorsal spinal neurons marked by coexpression of the transcription factor Zic2 and the guidance receptor EphA4. Zic2+;EphA4+ neurons are surrounded by mechanosensory terminals, suggesting innervation by mechanoreceptor afferents. Their axons form an ipsilateral ascending pathway that develops during embryogenesis and projects within the ventral aspect of the dorsal funiculus, the same location as the descending corticospinal tract (CST), which develops postnatally. Interestingly, the same guidance mechanism, namely, ephrinB3-induced EphA4 forward signaling, is required for the guidance of both ascending and descending axon tracts. Our analysis of conditional EphA4 mutant mice also revealed that the development of the dorsal funiculus occurs independently of EphA4 expression in descending CST axons and is linked to the distribution of Zic2+;EphA4+ spinal neurons and the formation of the ascending pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Wöhlke, Anne; Mischke, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Annalena; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Küch, Eva-Maria; Naim, Hassan Y; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57-58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future.

  11. Fluticasone Propionate Pharmacogenetics: CYP3A4*22 Polymorphism and Pediatric Asthma Control

    PubMed Central

    Stockmann, Chris; Fassl, Bernhard; Gaedigk, Roger; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A.; Monson, Steven; Reilly, Christopher A.; Leeder, J. Steven; Yost, Garold S.; Ward, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between allelic variations in genes involved in fluticasone propionate (FP) metabolism and asthma control among children with asthma managed with inhaled FP. Study design The relationship between variability in asthma control scores and genetic variation in drug metabolism was assessed by genotyping nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Genotype information was compared with asthma control scores (0 = well-controlled to 15 = poorly-controlled), determined by using a questionnaire modified from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel 3 guidelines. Results Our study cohort was comprised of 734 children with asthma (mean age 8.8 ± 4.3 years), who were predominantly male (61%) and non-Hispanic Whites (53%); 413 children (56%) were receiving inhaled glucocorticoids daily, of which FP was prescribed most frequently (65%). Among the children receiving daily FP, SNPs in the genes CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were not associated with asthma control scores. In contrast, asthma control scores were significantly improved among 20 (7%) children with the CYP3A4*22 allele (median 3, range 0-6), as compared with the 201 patients without the CYP3A4*22 allele (median 4, range 0-15) (P=0.02). The presence of CYP3A4*22 was associated with improved asthma control scores by 2.1 points (95% CI: 0.5-3.8). Conclusions The presence of CYP3A4*22, which is associated with decreased hepatic CYP3A4 expression and activity, was accompanied by improved asthma control among FP treated children. Decreased CYP3A4 activity may improve asthma control with inhaled FP. PMID:23290512

  12. Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other

  13. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  14. SeleCon: Scalable IoT Device Selection and Control Using Hand Gestures.

    PubMed

    Alanwar, Amr; Alzantot, Moustafa; Ho, Bo-Jhang; Martin, Paul; Srivastava, Mani

    2017-04-01

    Although different interaction modalities have been proposed in the field of human-computer interface (HCI), only a few of these techniques could reach the end users because of scalability and usability issues. Given the popularity and the growing number of IoT devices, selecting one out of many devices becomes a hurdle in a typical smarthome environment. Therefore, an easy-to-learn, scalable, and non-intrusive interaction modality has to be explored. In this paper, we propose a pointing approach to interact with devices, as pointing is arguably a natural way for device selection. We introduce SeleCon for device selection and control which uses an ultra-wideband (UWB) equipped smartwatch. To interact with a device in our system, people can point to the device to select it then draw a hand gesture in the air to specify a control action. To this end, SeleCon employs inertial sensors for pointing gesture detection and a UWB transceiver for identifying the selected device from ranging measurements. Furthermore, SeleCon supports an alphabet of gestures that can be used for controlling the selected devices. We performed our experiment in a 9 m -by-10 m lab space with eight deployed devices. The results demonstrate that SeleCon can achieve 84.5% accuracy for device selection and 97% accuracy for hand gesture recognition. We also show that SeleCon is power efficient to sustain daily use by turning off the UWB transceiver, when a user's wrist is stationary.

  15. Influence of protic ionic liquids on the structure and stability of succinylated Con A.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of ionic liquids (ILs) from various ions having different kosmotropicity including dihydrogen phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)), hydrogen sulfate (HSO(4)(-)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) as anions and chaotropic cation such as trialkylammonium cation. To characterize the biomolecular interactions of ILs with protein, we have explored the stability of succinylated Con A (S Con A) in the presence of these aqueous ILs, which are varied combinations of kosmotropic anion with chaotropic cation such as triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3)CH(2))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TEAP), trimethylammonium acetate [(CH(3))(3)NH][CH(3)COO] (TMAA), trimethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TMAP) and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate [(CH(3))(3)NH][HSO(4)] (TMAS). Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence experiments have been used to characterize the stability of S Con A by ILs. Our data distinctly demonstrate that the long alkyl chain IL TEAP is a strong stabilizer for S Con A. Further, our experimental results reveal that TEAP is an effective refolding enhancer for S Con A from a thermally denatured protein structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ConsPred: a rule-based (re-)annotation framework for prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Weinmaier, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Frank, Jeroen; Hellinger, Hans-Jörg; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The rapidly growing number of available prokaryotic genome sequences requires fully automated and high-quality software solutions for their initial and re-annotation. Here we present ConsPred, a prokaryotic genome annotation framework that performs intrinsic gene predictions, homology searches, predictions of non-coding genes as well as CRISPR repeats and integrates all evidence into a consensus annotation. ConsPred achieves comprehensive, high-quality annotations based on rules and priorities, similar to decision-making in manual curation and avoids conflicting predictions. Parameters controlling the annotation process are configurable by the user. ConsPred has been used in the institutions of the authors for longer than 5 years and can easily be extended and adapted to specific needs. The ConsPred algorithm for producing a consensus from the varying scores of multiple gene prediction programs approaches manual curation in accuracy. Its rule-based approach for choosing final predictions avoids overriding previous manual curations. ConsPred is implemented in Java, Perl and Shell and is freely available under the Creative Commons license as a stand-alone in-house pipeline or as an Amazon Machine Image for cloud computing, see https://sourceforge.net/projects/conspred/. thomas.rattei@univie.ac.atSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. CYP3A4 Mediates Oxidative Metabolism of the Synthetic Cannabinoid AKB-48.

    PubMed

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Nielsen, Line Marie; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs have emerged as drugs of abuse during the last decade, and acute intoxication cases are documented in the scientific literature. Synthetic cannabinoids are extensively metabolized, but our knowledge of the involved enzymes is limited. Here, we investigated the metabolism of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AKB-48), a compound identified in herbal blends from 2012 and onwards. We screened for metabolite formation using a panel of nine recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) and compared the formed metabolites to human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations with specific inhibitors against CYP2D6, 2C19, and 3A4, respectively. The data reported here demonstrate CYP3A4 to be the major CYP enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of AKB-48, preferentially performing the oxidation on the adamantyl moiety. Genetic polymorphisms are likely not important with regard to toxicity given the major involvement of CYP3A4. Adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) could potentially occur in cases with co-intake of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g., HIV antivirals and azole antifungal agents.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Self-Association and Mobility of Annexin A4 at the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Kevin C.; Postma, Marten; Hink, Mark A.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J.W.; Gadella, Theodorus W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Annexins, found in most eukaryotic species, are cytosolic proteins that are able to bind negatively-charged phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Annexin A4 (AnxA4) has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of exocytosis and ion-transport; however, its precise mechanistic role is not fully understood. AnxA4 has been shown to aggregate on lipid layers upon Ca2+ binding in vitro, a characteristic that may be critical for its function. We have utilized advanced fluorescence microscopy to discern details on the mobility and self-assembly of AnxA4 after Ca2+ influx at the plasma membrane in living cells. Total internal reflection microscopy in combination with Förster resonance energy transfer reveals that there is a delay between initial plasma membrane binding and the beginning of self-assembly and this process continues after the cytoplasmic pool has completely relocated. Number-and-brightness analysis suggests that the predominant membrane bound mobile form of the protein is trimeric. There also exists a pool of AnxA4 that forms highly immobile aggregates at the membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching suggests that the relative proportion of these two forms varies and is correlated with membrane morphology. PMID:23663830

  19. Quantitative analysis of self-association and mobility of annexin A4 at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Kevin C; Postma, Marten; Hink, Mark A; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J W; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2013-05-07

    Annexins, found in most eukaryotic species, are cytosolic proteins that are able to bind negatively-charged phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Annexin A4 (AnxA4) has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of exocytosis and ion-transport; however, its precise mechanistic role is not fully understood. AnxA4 has been shown to aggregate on lipid layers upon Ca(2+) binding in vitro, a characteristic that may be critical for its function. We have utilized advanced fluorescence microscopy to discern details on the mobility and self-assembly of AnxA4 after Ca(2+) influx at the plasma membrane in living cells. Total internal reflection microscopy in combination with Förster resonance energy transfer reveals that there is a delay between initial plasma membrane binding and the beginning of self-assembly and this process continues after the cytoplasmic pool has completely relocated. Number-and-brightness analysis suggests that the predominant membrane bound mobile form of the protein is trimeric. There also exists a pool of AnxA4 that forms highly immobile aggregates at the membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching suggests that the relative proportion of these two forms varies and is correlated with membrane morphology. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  2. The CYP3A4 *1B polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility in a Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Nogal, Ana; Coelho, Ana; Catarino, Raquel; Morais, António; Lobo, Francisco; Medeiros, Rui

    2007-09-01

    Testosterone exposure has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and genes that alter its metabolism, such as CYP3A4, have been associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the CYP3A4 *1B polymorphism and its possible role in the development of prostate cancer. DNA samples obtained from the peripheral blood cells of 414 individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer and 337 healthy male donors were used in this case-control study. The CYP3A4*1B polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. We found no statistically significant differences in the distribution of the CYP3A4*1B genotypes between cases and controls (P = 0.470; odds ratio = 1.191; 95% confidence interval=0.740-1.918), as well as after the stratification of our analysis, according to important clinicopathologic parameters of prostate cancer. Our results suggest that the CYP3A4*1B polymorphism is not associated with prostate cancer risk within the Portuguese population.

  3. Expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 in human placenta at term

    PubMed Central

    Østby, Lene; Stuen, Ina; Sundby, Eirik

    2010-01-01

    The placenta contains a large variety of metabolizing enzymes, among them UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Several UGT2B isozymes have so far been detected in human placenta, but little is known on placental expression of UGT1A isozymes. The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG) is a UGT1A4-substrate, and its serum concentration falls by over 50% during pregnancy, leading to impaired seizure control. The placenta may be involved in this. Microsomes from term placentas of 4 LTG-users and 10 healthy control subjects were prepared. Western blot analysis detected UGT1A proteins in all placentas. The presence of UGT1A4 in placenta from LTG users was confirmed with UGT1A4 commercial standard and a specific UGT1A4 primary antibody. Since LTG is primarily metabolized by UGT1A4 and this isozyme is shown to be present in placenta at term, it may be hypothesized that the placenta is involved in the fall of LTG serum concentrations during pregnancy. PMID:21302032

  4. EphA4 is a prognostic factor in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptor, consisting of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases, plays critical roles in tumour development and is considered an attractive target for cancer therapy. Methods Tumour samples were obtained from 222 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gastrectomy. The expressions of EphA2, EphA4, and ephrinA1 were evaluated immunohistochemically. Results High expressions of EphA2, EphA4, and ephrinA1 significantly correlated with variables related to tumour progression, including the depth of invasion, metastatic lymph nodes, pathological stage, and distant metastasis or recurrent disease. High expressions of EphA2, EphA4, and ephrinA1 were significantly associated with poorer disease-specific survival (DSS; p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.026). On multivariate analysis, EphA4 was an independent prognostic factor of DSS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.8; p = 0.028), and EphA2 tended to be a prognostic factor (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.8; p = 0.050). In stage II and III cancer, EphA4 and EphA2 were both significantly associated with shorter survival (p = 0.007 and 0.019), but only EphA2 was an independent prognostic factor (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3; p = 0.039). Conclusion EphA4 may play important roles in tumor progression and outcomes in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:23738943

  5. Effect of cranberry dietary supplements with different brands on human CYP3A4 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Bernichi, Bouchra

    2012-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased dramatically, making drug interactions with those supplements a major concern. Because dietary supplements are not subject to the same regulations as prescription drugs, we hypothesize that the content of their active ingredients may vary among manufacturers, potentially causing a large variation in therapeutic outcome. The current study aimed to test this hypothesis on commonly used cranberry dietary supplements. Activity of human CYP3A4 enzyme was used as a parameter to determine the effect of cranberry supplement from nine manufacturers. The content of a cranberry product, equivalent to one capsule, was extracted with methanol. Aliquots of the extract were tested for their ability to inhibit the metabolism of the human CYP3A4 substrate quinine, using an in vitro liver microsomal technique. Human liver microsomes and quinine were incubated with or without (i.e. as control) cranberry extract. Formation of quinine's metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine, generated by the CYP3A4-mediated reaction was measured by a HPLC method. Of nine cranberry products tested, eight products had little or no effect but only one brand (Nature's Herbs 600 mg) caused very strong inhibition (67.2 %) of CYP3A4. The reason for this inhibition is unknown. The effect of cranberry was varied and ranged from 4.4 % activation by Ride Aid 800 mg to 67.2 % inhibition by Nature's Herbs 600 mg. Lack of effect on human CYP3A4 activity suggests that use of cranberry dietary supplement is unlikely to cause significant interactions with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. PMID:27366135

  6. [Toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect].

    PubMed

    Liao, R Y; Liu, S

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect. The normal human liver cells (L02 cells) and liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect were exposed to trichloroethylene at different doses (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L). CCK8 assay and RT-qPCR were used to measure cell viability and changes in the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes. After being exposed to trichloroethylene at doses of 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L, the liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect showed significantly higher cell viability than L02 cells (0.91±0.06/0.89±0.05/0.85±0.07 vs 0.80±0.04/0.73±0.06/0.67±0.07, P<0.05). The L02 cells in the 0.8~3.2 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups showed significant increases in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 (P<0.05) , as well as the oncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and k-ras (P<0.05). Compared with the L02 cells, the cells with CYP3A4 gene defect showed significant reductions in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and the oncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and k-ras (P<0.05). Trichloroethylene exposure has a less effect on the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes in liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect than in normal human liver cells, suggesting that CYP3A4 gene defect reduces the inductive effect of trichloroethylene on apoptosis genes and oncogenes.

  7. In vitro bioactivity of Bioroot™ RCS, via A4 mouse pulpal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Uzunoglu, Emel; Ardila-Osorio, Hector; Baudry, Anne; Richard, Gilles; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties of Bioroot™ RCS (BR, Septodont, France) compared to Kerr's Pulp Canal Sealer™ (PCS, Kerr, Italy) using the mouse pulp-derived stem cell line A4, which have an osteo/odontogenic potential in vitro and contribute to efficient bone repair in vivo. A4 cells were cultured at the stem cell stage in the presence of solid disks of BR or PCS, whereas untreated A4 cells were used as control. After 3, 7, 10 days of direct contact with the sealers, cell viability was quantified using Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Immunolabelings were performed to assess the expression of odontoblast markers i.e. type 1 collagen, DMP1 or BSP. Finally, sealer-treated cells were induced toward osteo/odontogenic differentiation to assess the impact of the sealers on mineralization by Von Kossa staining. Statistical significance was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and t-test (p<0.05). BR did not alter the viability and morphology of A4 pulpal cells compared to control group (p>0.05); however, living cell percentage of PCS was significantly lower compared to control and BR groups (p<0.05). BR preserved the intrinsic ability of A4 cells to express type 1 collagen, DMP1 or BSP at the stem cell stage. It did not alter the integrity of collagen fibers surrounding the cells and promoted overexpression of BSP and DMP1 at the cell surface. In contrast to PCS, BR did not compromise the mineralization potential of pulpal A4 stem cells. Bioroot™ RCS was not as cytotoxic as PCS. It did not recruit the pulpal stem cells toward differentiation but preserve their osteo-odontogenic intrinsic properties. Bioroot™ RCS might provide more suitable environment to induce stem cells for hard tissue deposition. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Inducible Cytochrome P450 3A4-Dependent Vitamin D Catabolic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhican; Lin, Yvonne S.; Zheng, Xi Emily; Senn, Tauri; Hashizume, Takanori; Scian, Michele; Dickmann, Leslie J.; Nelson, Sidney D.; Baillie, Thomas A.; Hebert, Mary F.; Blough, David; Davis, Connie L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is critical for the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In some individuals, mineral homeostasis can be disrupted by long-term therapy with certain antiepileptic drugs and the antimicrobial agent rifampin, resulting in drug-induced osteomalacia, which is attributed to vitamin D deficiency. We now report a novel CYP3A4-dependent pathway, the 4-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), the induction of which may contribute to drug-induced vitamin D deficiency. The metabolism of 25OHD3 was fully characterized in vitro. CYP3A4 was the predominant source of 25OHD3 hydroxylation by human liver microsomes, with the formation of 4β,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [4β,25(OH)2D3] dominating (Vmax/Km = 0.85 ml · min−1 · nmol enzyme−1). 4β,25(OH)2D3 was found in human plasma at concentrations comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and its formation rate in a panel of human liver microsomes was strongly correlated with CYP3A4 content and midazolam hydroxylation activity. Formation of 4β,25(OH)2D3 in primary human hepatocytes was induced by rifampin and inhibited by CYP3A4-specific inhibitors. Short-term treatment of healthy volunteers (n = 6) with rifampin selectively induced CYP3A4-dependent 4β,25(OH)2D3, but not CYP24A1-dependent 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 formation, and altered systemic mineral homeostasis. Our results suggest that CYP3A4-dependent 25OHD3 metabolism may play an important role in the regulation of vitamin D3 in vivo and in the etiology of drug-induced osteomalacia. PMID:22205755

  9. Ephrin-A1/EphA4-mediated adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jellinghaus, Stefanie; Poitz, David M; Ende, Georg; Augstein, Antje; Weinert, Sönke; Stütz, Beryl; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C; Pasquale, Elena B; Strasser, Ruth H

    2013-10-01

    The Eph receptors represent the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are cell-surface proteins, and they typically mediate cell-to-cell communication by interacting at sites of intercellular contact. The major aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of EphA4-ephrin-A1 interaction in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, as this process is a crucial step during the initiation and progression of the atherosclerotic plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed expression of EphA4 receptor and ephrin-A1 ligand in major cell types within the plaque. Short-time stimulation of endothelial cells with the soluble ligand ephrin-A1 leads to a fourfold increase in adhesion of human monocytes to endothelial cells. In addition, ephrin-A1 further increases monocyte adhesion to already inflamed endothelial cells. EphrinA1 mediates its effect on monocyte adhesion via the activated receptor EphA4. This ephrinA1/EphA4 induced process involves the activation of the Rho signaling pathway and does not require active transcription. Rho activation downstream of EphA4 leads to increased polymerization of actin filaments in endothelial cells. This process was shown to be crucial for the proadhesive effect of ephrin-A1. The results of the present study show that ephrin-A1-induced EphA4 forward signaling promotes monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via activation of RhoA and subsequent stress-fiber formation by a non-transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The spectroscopic observation of the CH radical in its a4Sigma(-) state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelis, Thomas; Brown, John M.; Evenson, Kenneth M.

    1988-01-01

    The first spectroscopic observation of CH in the a 4Sigma(0-) state are reported. The molecule was generated in a discharge-flow system in the reaction betweeen fluorine atoms and methane or between oxygen atoms and acetylene at a total pressure of about 1 Torr. Several resonances associated with the N = 1 - 0 transitions of 4Sigma(-) CH were observed at three separate laser wavelengths, while those for the N = 2 - 1 transition were observed at two wavelengths. Each observed Zeeman component consists of a well-split doublet arising from proton hyperfine structure. The reasons for assigning the observations to CH in its a 4Sigma(-) state are discussed.

  11. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  12. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to themore » basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.« less

  13. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  14. Genetic Testing for Deafness--GJB2 and SLC26A4 as Causes of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard J. H.; Robin, Nathaniel H.

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of genetic testing for deafness. Two genes that make appreciable contributions to the autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness (ARNSD) genetic load are reviewed, GJB2 and SLC26A4. In addition, the unique aspects of genetic counseling for deafness and recurrence chance estimates are explained. (Contains…

  15. 26 CFR 20.2032A-4 - Method of valuing farm real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property types. Only rentals from tracts of comparable farm property which are rented solely for an amount... affects efficient management and use of property and value per se; and (10) Availability of, and type of... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Method of valuing farm real property. 20.2032A-4...

  16. 26 CFR 1.669(a)-4 - Tax attributable to short-cut throwback method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax attributable to short-cut throwback method... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(a)-4 Tax attributable to short-cut... the tax on the amounts deemed distributed under section 666 by the short-cut throwback method provided...

  17. 17 CFR 260.10a-4 - Consent of trustee to service of process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 260.10a-4 Consent of trustee to service of process. At the time of filing an application pursuant to... such suit, action or proceeding may be commenced by the service of process upon said agent for service of process, and that such service shall be taken and held in all courts to be as valid and binding as...

  18. Teacher Candidates' Changing Perceptions of Urban Schools: Results of a 4-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conaway, Betty J.; Browning, Larry J.; Purdum-Cassidy, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teacher candidates' perceptions of teaching in urban schools as they completed a 4-year teacher education program. Candidates were asked to respond in writing to two questions: "What are your concerns about teaching in an urban school?" and "What are the advantages of teaching in an urban…

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), relating to the safe harbors and the general test, respectively. Those fresh-start options are designed to... and have at least one hour of service with the employer after that date. However, a fresh-start group... a reasonable, good faith interpretation of section 401(a)(4), taking into account pre-existing...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), relating to the safe harbors and the general test, respectively. Those fresh-start options are designed to... and have at least one hour of service with the employer after that date. However, a fresh-start group... a reasonable, good faith interpretation of section 401(a)(4), taking into account pre-existing...

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... harbors and the general test, respectively. Those fresh-start options are designed to allow a plan to be... benefits after the fresh-start date for employees in the fresh-start group are determined under one of the... reasonable, good faith interpretation of section 401(a)(4), taking into account pre-existing guidance and the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), relating to the safe harbors and the general test, respectively. Those fresh-start options are designed to... and have at least one hour of service with the employer after that date. However, a fresh-start group... a reasonable, good faith interpretation of section 401(a)(4), taking into account pre-existing...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-8 - Cross-testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under § 1.401(a)(4)-1(b)(2). Paragraphs (b)(1) and (c)(1) of this section provide general tests for... design basis. (b) Nondiscrimination in amount of benefits provided under a defined contribution plan—(1... this section, were substituted for each employee's allocation rate in the determination of rate groups...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), relating to the safe harbors and the general test, respectively. Those fresh-start options are designed to... and have at least one hour of service with the employer after that date. However, a fresh-start group... a reasonable, good faith interpretation of section 401(a)(4), taking into account pre-existing...

  5. A 4D-optimization concept for scanned ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Christian; Lüchtenborg, Robert; Eley, John Gordon; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Scanned carbon beam therapy offers advantageous dose distributions and an increased biological effect. Treating moving targets is complex due to sensitivity to range changes and interplay. We propose a 4D treatment planning concept that considers motion during particle number optimization. The target was subdivided into sectors, one for each motion phase of a 4D-CT. Each sector was non-rigidly transformed to its motion phase and there targeted by a dedicated raster field (RST). Therefore, the resulting 4D-RST compensated target motion and range changes. A 4D treatment control system (TCS) was needed for synchronized delivery to the measured patient motion. 4D-optimized plans were simulated for 9 NSCLC lung cancer patients and compared to static irradiation at end-exhale. A prototype TCS was implemented and successfully tested in a film experiment. The 4D-optimized treatment plan resulted in only slightly lower dose coverage of the target compared to static optimization, with V 95% of 97.9% (median, range 96.5-99.4%) vs. 99.3% (98.5-99.8%), with negligible overdose. The conformity number was comparable at 88.2% (85.1-92.5%) vs. 85.2% (79.9-91.2%) for 4D and static, respectively. We implemented and tested a 4D treatment plan optimization method resulting in highly conformal dose delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 26 CFR 1.669(a)-4 - Tax attributable to short-cut throwback method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax attributable to short-cut throwback method... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(a)-4 Tax attributable to short-cut throwback method... the amounts deemed distributed under section 666 by the short-cut throwback method provided in section...

  7. Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-4 - Optional forms of benefit (before 1994).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... impermissibly favor employees in the highly compensated group, such plan may fail to satisfy section 401(a)(4... availability of each optional form of benefit must not discriminate in favor of the employees described in... paragraph (b) of this Q&A-1 for a description of the employees included in such group. This is true without...

  9. 16. Photocopy of drawing enlarged from a 4x5 negative (from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of drawing enlarged from a 4x5 negative (from Cultural Resources plan files, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Designers, 1909 PLAN OF DRAINAGE AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF BATTERY - Fort Hancock, Battery George Arrowsmith, Southwest edge of Sandy Point extending to Horseshoe Cove, Fort Hancock, Monmouth County, NJ

  10. 8 CFR 213a.4 - Actions for reimbursement, public notice, and congressional reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS AFFIDAVITS OF SUPPORT ON BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.4 Actions for... immigrant wants to seek reimbursement from a sponsor, household member, or joint sponsor, the program... commenced (this is the date the sponsored immigrant became a permanent resident), the sponsored immigrant's...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-9 - Plan aggregation and restructuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc..., in the determination of rate groups. (ii) Determination of aggregate rates—(A) Aggregate allocation... actuarial increases after normal retirement age under § 1.401(a)(4)-3(f)(3)) may not be used in testing a DB...

  12. Nucleosome Recognition by the Piccolo NuA4 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex†

    PubMed Central

    Berndsen, Christopher E.; Selleck, William; McBryant, Steven J.; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Tan, Song; Demi, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms by which multisubunit histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes recognize and perform efficient acetylation on nucleosome substrates are largely unknown. Here, we use a variety of biochemical approaches and compare histone-based substrates of increasing complexity to determine the critical components of nucleosome recognition by the MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60 family HAT complex, Piccolo NuA4 (picNuA4). We find the histone tails to be dispensable for binding to both nucleosomes and free histones and that the H2A, H3, and H2B tails do not influence the ability of picNuA4 to tetra-acetylate the H4 tail within the nucleosome. Most notably, we discovered that the histone-fold domain (HFD) regions of histones, particularly residues 21–52 of H4, are critical for tight binding and efficient tail acetylation. Presented evidence suggests that picNuA4 recognizes the open surface of the nucleosome on which the HFD of H4 is located. This binding mechanism serves to direct substrate access to the tails of H4 and H2A and allows the enzyme to be “tethered”, thereby increasing the effective concentration of the histone tail and permitting successive cycles of H4 tail acetylation. PMID:17274630

  13. A homozygous mutation in SLC1A4 in siblings with severe intellectual disability and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Srour, M; Hamdan, F F; Gan-Or, Z; Labuda, D; Nassif, C; Oskoui, M; Gana-Weisz, M; Orr-Urtreger, A; Rouleau, G A; Michaud, J L

    2015-07-01

    We performed exome analysis in two affected siblings with severe intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly and spasticity from an Ashkenazi Jewish consanguineous family. We identified only one rare variant, a missense in SLC1A4 (c. 766G>A [p. E256K]), that is homozygous in both siblings but not in any of their 11 unaffected siblings or their parents (Logarithm of odds, LOD score: 2.6). This variant is predicted damaging. We genotyped 450 controls of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry and identified only 5 individuals who are heterozygous for this variant (minor allele frequency: 0.0056). SLC1A4 (ASCT1) encodes a transporter for neutral aminoacids such as alanine, serine, cysteine and threonine. L-Serine is essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. Indeed, L-serine biosynthesis disorders affect brain development and cause severe ID. In the brain, L-serine is synthesized in astrocytes but not in neurons. It has been proposed that ASCT1 mediates the uptake of L-serine into neurons and the release of glia-borne L-serine to neighboring cells. SLC1A4 disruption may thus impair brain development and function by decreasing the levels of L-serine in neurons. The identification of additional families with mutations in SLC1A4 would be necessary to confirm its involvement in ID. © 2015 John Wiley | Clinical Exome Genome Reports.

  14. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an age...

  15. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an age...

  16. 23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a drawing (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, Calfornia). JANUARY 1960 USAF PLANT 16 MASTER PLOT AND GRID PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1980 BLDG 10, BLDG 42 FLOOR PLAN, NASA MARCH 15 1980. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1976 BLDGS.25, 41 SITE PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Storage Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original photograph by original photographer located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 1935-1936 CONSOLIDATED VULTEE AIRCRAFT CORPORATION FROM WEST TO EAST - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a print. (Original print located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1954 USAF PLANT 16 AERIAL BUILDING 41 NORTH TO SOUTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Fatal Methadone Toxicity: Potential Role of CYP3A4 Genetic Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Richards-Waugh, Lauren L.; Primerano, Donald A.; Dementieva, Yulia; Kraner, James C.; Rankin, Gary O.

    2014-01-01

    Methadone is difficult to administer as a therapeutic agent because of a wide range of interindividual pharmacokinetics, likely due to genetic variability of the CYP450 enzymes responsible for metabolism to its principal metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). CYP3A4 is one of the primary CYP450 isoforms responsible for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in accidental methadone fatalities. A study cohort consisting of 136 methadone-only and 92 combined methadone/benzodiazepine fatalities was selected from cases investigated at the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within the CYP3A4 gene. Observed allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared with expected frequencies obtained from The National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database. SNPs rs2242480 and rs2740574 demonstrated an apparent enrichment within the methadone-only overdose fatalities compared with the control group and the general population. This enrichment was not apparent in the methadone/benzodiazepine cases for these two SNPs. Our findings indicate that there may be two or more SNPs on the CYP3A4 gene that cause or contribute to the methadone poor metabolizer phenotype. PMID:25217544

  2. Development of a 4.75-mm (No. 4) NMS mixture : research project capsule.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a 4.75-mm NMAS asphalt mixture for Louisiana roads, which will involve establishing target criteria for aggregate gradations, volumetric properties (e.g., air voids, VMA, VFA, and dust-to-binder ratio) and ...

  3. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  4. An Application of Con-Resistant Trust to Improve the Reliability of Special Protection Systems within the Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    in an effort to be more reliable and efficient. However, with the benefits of this new technology comes added risk . This research utilizes a con ...AN APPLICATION OF CON -RESISTANT TRUST TO IMPROVE THE RELIABILITY OF SPECIAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS WITHIN THE SMART GRID THESIS Crystal M. Shipman...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States AFIT/GCO/ENG/12-22 AN APPLICATION OF CON -RESISTANT TRUST TO IMPROVE THE

  5. Metabolism of alprazolam (a marker of CYP3A4) in hemodialysis patients with persistent inflammation.

    PubMed

    Molanaei, Hadi; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Heimbürger, Olof; Lindholm, Bengt; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Odar-Cederlöf, Ingegerd; Bertilsson, Leif

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the impact of persistent inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate, and its metabolites and the role of HD in the impact of persistent inflammation in this clinical context. The study population comprised 26 HD patients (mean age 64 years, range 27-79 years; 19 men, 7 women) who were given 1 mg of alprazolam orally in the evening before the day of HD. Unconjugated and conjugated alprazolam and its 4-hydroxy and α-hydroxy metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry at 10, 34 (start of HD) and 38 (end of HD) h after intake. C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured weekly beginning 2 months before study initiation, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and 4β-hydroxycholesterol were measured at baseline. CYP3A4 activity was estimated as the ratio of unconjugated alprazolam to 4-hydroxyalprazolam between 10 and 34 h following alprazolam intake. After a single dose of alprazolam, plasma concentrations of unconjugated alprazolam and its metabolites decreased gradually, and unconjugated 4-hydroxyalprazolam was eliminated more rapidly than unconjugated alprazolam by HD. In contrast, the plasma concentrations of conjugated alprazolam and its conjugated metabolites increased during the 34 h following drug intake and the subsequent HD decreased their levels by almost 80%. The ratio of unconjugated alprazolam to 4-hydroxyalprazolam was correlated with CRP levels (r(s) = 0.49, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between CYP3A4 activity measured by alprazolam (4-hydroxylation) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein or 4β-hydroxycholesterol. Conjugated alprazolam was also found in the plasma. The correlation between CYP3A4 activity (assessed by alprazolam 4-hydroxylation) and CRP level suggests that inflammation may downregulate CYP3A4 activity. If confirmed, this could have major implications for drug dosing in persistently inflamed patients.

  6. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Gareth K.; Ritchie, Caroline M.; Shock, Lisa S.; Lyons, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH <7.4, the spectra are definitively type I, whereas at pH ≥7.4 the spectra have split Soret bands, including a red-shifted component characteristic of a P450-carbene complex. Variable-pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. PMID:27126611

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Brøsen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6beta-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6beta-OHC/FC ratio than men (p=0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6beta-OHC/FC ratios and summation PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  8. Evidences for CYP3A4 autoactivation in the desulfuration of dimethoate by the human liver.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Franca M; Testai, Emanuela

    2007-11-20

    Dimethoate (DIM) is an organophosphorothionate (OPT) pesticide used worldwide as a systemic insecticide and acaricide. It is characterized by low-to-moderate acute mammalian toxicity; similarly to the other OPT pesticides, its mode of action is mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), exerted by its toxic metabolite dimethoate-oxon or omethoate (OME), which is also used as a direct acting pesticide. Human hepatic DIM bioactivation to the toxic metabolite OME has been characterized by using c-DNA expressed human CYPs and human liver microsomes (HLM) also in the presence of CYP-specific chemical inhibitors, with a method based on AChE inhibition. The obtained kinetic parameters and AChE IC(50) have been compared with those previously obtained with other OPTs, indicating a lower efficiency in DIM desulfuration reaction and a lower potency in inhibiting AChE. Results showed that, similarly to the other OPTs tested so far, at low DIM concentration OME formation is mainly catalysed by CYP1A2, while the role of 3A4 is relevant at high DIM levels. Differently from the other OPTs, DIM desulfuration reaction showed an atypical kinetic profile, likely due to CYP3A4 autoactivation. The sigmoidicity degree of the activity curve increased with the level of CYP3A4 in HLM or disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 chemical inhibitor. This atypical kinetic behaviour can be considered one of the possible explanations for the recent findings that among patients hospitalized following OPT intoxication, DIM ingestion gave different symptoms and more severe poisoning (23.1% of fatal cases versus total) than chlorpyrifos (8% of deaths), which has a lower LD(50) value. Since DIM-poisoned patients poorly responded to pralidoxime, the possibility to use CYP3A4 inhibitors could be considered as a complementary treatment.

  9. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  10. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  11. Pros & Cons of Using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning on Students' Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2017-01-01

    Blackboard Collaborate was introduced to King Khalid University recently in the last decade; instructors and students were trained to use it in an effective way. The objective of this study is to find pros and cons of using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning and its effect on students' learning outcomes. The researcher used the…

  12. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  13. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  14. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  15. To Bind or Not To Bind: Pros & Cons of Maintaining Paper Periodicals in the Library's Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Iris W.

    1999-01-01

    Explores controversial questions related to libraries' decision-making on paper journals and electronic journals. Notes that the critical mass of scholarly publishing is still in print. Discusses benefits and drawbacks of electronic journals and paper journals. Presents comments on the pros and cons to binding paper periodicals gathered from an…

  16. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  17. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion... scientific literature or accepted by EPA as being reliable test organisms to determine the anticipated impact... for each type they represent, and that are documented in the scientific literature and accepted by EPA...

  18. Enrichment of Glycoproteins using Nano-scale Chelating Con A Monolithic Capillary Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shun; Yang, Na; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Goodison, Steve; Lubman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Immobilized lectin chromatography can be employed for glycoprotein enrichment, but commonly used columns have limitations of yield and resolution. In order to improve efficiency and to make the technique applicable to minimal sample material, we have developed a nano-scale chelating Concanavalin A (Con A) monolithic capillary prepared using GMA-EDMA (glycidyl methacrylate–co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as polymeric support. Con A was immobilized on Cu(II)-charged iminodiacetic acid (IDA) regenerable sorbents by forming a IDA:Cu(II):Con A sandwich affinity structure that has high column capacity as well as stability. When compared with conventional Con A lectin chromatography, the monolithic capillary enabled the better reproducible detection of over double the number of unique N-glycoproteins in human urine samples. Utility for analysis of minimal biological samples was confirmed by the successful elucidation of glycoprotein profiles in mouse urine samples at the microliter scale. The improved efficiency of the nano-scale monolithic capillary will impact the analysis of glycoproteins in complex biological samples, especially where only limited material may be available. PMID:19366252

  19. Wilderness for science: pros and cons of using wilderness areas for biological research

    Treesearch

    Diana L. Six; Paul Alaback; Robert A. Winfree; Delia Snyder; Anne Hagele

    2000-01-01

    Research is one of the intended purposes of wilderness. The Wilderness Act states that “wilderness may contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.” This session specifically focuses on the pros and cons of conducting research in wilderness.

  20. NREL, NYSERDA, and Con Edison Partner on Home Energy Management Systems |

    Science.gov Websites

    at large scale, the overall impact could be a win-win for both homeowners and utilities, which could sources. Founded in 1823, Con Edison provides electric, gas, and steam service to 10 million people who

  1. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  2. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  3. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  4. U.S. Exploration EVA: ConOps, Interfaces and Test Objectives for Airlocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is moving forward on defining the xEVA System Architecture and its implications to the spacecraft that host exploration EVA systems. This presentation provides an overview of the latest information for NASA's Concept of Operations (ConOps), Interfaces and corresponding Test Objectives for Airlocks hosting the xEVA System.

  5. Advocacy in the Public Forum: The Pro/Con Program at Ohio State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegman, John D.

    The Pro/Con Campus Debate and Community Forum program at The Ohio State University serves the educational mission of the department of communication and contributes to the intellectual life of the student body and the larger community by emphasizing the needs of the audience. Eschewing jargon and rhetorical tricks, the program encourages the…

  6. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  7. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Embedding A4 into left-right flavor symmetry: Tribimaximal neutrino mixing and fermion hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzocchi, F.; Morisi, S.; Picariello, M.

    2008-01-01

    We address two fundamental aspects of flavor physics: the mass hierarchy and the large lepton mixing angles. On one side, left-right flavor symmetry realizes the democratic mass matrix patterns and explains why one family is much heavier than the others. On the other side, discrete flavor symmetry such as A4 leads to the observed tribimaximal mixing for the leptons. We show that, by explicitly breaking the left-right flavor symmetry into the diagonal A4, it is possible to explain both the observed charged fermion mass hierarchies and quark and lepton mixing angles. In particular we predict a heavy 3rd family, the tribimaximal mixing for the leptons, and we suggest a possible origin of the Cabibbo and other mixing angles for the quarks.

  9. A 4MP high-dynamic-range, low-noise CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Chang, Yuchun; Wang, Xinyang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a 4 Megapixel high dynamic range, low dark noise and dark current CMOS image sensor, which is ideal for high-end scientific and surveillance applications. The pixel design is based on a 4-T PPD structure. During the readout of the pixel array, signals are first amplified, and then feed to a low- power column-parallel ADC array which is already presented in [1]. Measurement results show that the sensor achieves a dynamic range of 96dB, a dark noise of 1.47e- at 24fps speed. The dark current is 0.15e-/pixel/s at -20oC.

  10. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  11. SeleCon: Scalable IoT Device Selection and Control Using Hand Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Alanwar, Amr; Alzantot, Moustafa; Ho, Bo-Jhang; Martin, Paul; Srivastava, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Although different interaction modalities have been proposed in the field of human-computer interface (HCI), only a few of these techniques could reach the end users because of scalability and usability issues. Given the popularity and the growing number of IoT devices, selecting one out of many devices becomes a hurdle in a typical smarthome environment. Therefore, an easy-to-learn, scalable, and non-intrusive interaction modality has to be explored. In this paper, we propose a pointing approach to interact with devices, as pointing is arguably a natural way for device selection. We introduce SeleCon for device selection and control which uses an ultra-wideband (UWB) equipped smartwatch. To interact with a device in our system, people can point to the device to select it then draw a hand gesture in the air to specify a control action. To this end, SeleCon employs inertial sensors for pointing gesture detection and a UWB transceiver for identifying the selected device from ranging measurements. Furthermore, SeleCon supports an alphabet of gestures that can be used for controlling the selected devices. We performed our experiment in a 9m-by-10m lab space with eight deployed devices. The results demonstrate that SeleCon can achieve 84.5% accuracy for device selection and 97% accuracy for hand gesture recognition. We also show that SeleCon is power efficient to sustain daily use by turning off the UWB transceiver, when a user’s wrist is stationary. PMID:29683151

  12. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  13. Compartment A4 hold at midplatform level, view from starboard to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-4 hold at mid-platform level, view from starboard to port shows protective deck framing and underside of armor plate. Open wood ceiling aids in circulating air. Note ventilation duct for fresh air at center of photograph. Open hatch penetrates protective deck and leads to bread room, compartment A-102. (012) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Sequence Analysis of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bacteriophage Φ1-A4 Isolated from an Industrial Vegetable Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z.; Altermann, E.; Breidt, F.; Kozyavkin, S.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetable fermentations rely on the proper succession of a variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiates fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, L. mesenteroides dies off and other LAB complete the fermentation. Phages infecting L. mesenteroides may significantly influence the die-off of L. mesenteroides. However, no L. mesenteroides phages have been previously genetically characterized. Knowledge of more phage genome sequences may provide new insights into phage genomics, phage evolution, and phage-host interactions. We have determined the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides phage Φ1-A4, isolated from an industrial sauerkraut fermentation. The phage possesses a linear, double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 29,508 bp with a G+C content of 36%. Fifty open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted. Putative functions were assigned to 26 ORFs (52%), including 5 ORFs of structural proteins. The phage genome was modularly organized, containing DNA replication, DNA-packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis, and DNA regulation/modification modules. In silico analyses showed that Φ1-A4 is a unique lytic phage with a large-scale genome inversion (∼30% of the genome). The genome inversion encompassed the lysis module, part of the structural protein module, and a cos site. The endolysin gene was flanked by two holin genes. The tail morphogenesis module was interspersed with cell lysis genes and other genes with unknown functions. The predicted amino acid sequences of the phage proteins showed little similarity to other phages, but functional analyses showed that Φ1-A4 clusters with several Lactococcus phages. To our knowledge, Φ1-A4 is the first genetically characterized L. mesenteroides phage. PMID:20118355

  15. A Space Imaging Concept Based on a 4-meter Spun-Cast Borosilicate Monolithic Primary Mirror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    borosilicate monolithic primary mirror 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steve West, S.H... Mirror Technology Days, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 7-9 June 2010. 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this effort is to produce the largest monolithic telescope...capable of being lifted by a Delta IV or Atlas V EELV to 500 km. A strategy using a 4 m borosilicate mirror is proposed. A preliminary architecture was

  16. Walker 256 Tumor Growth Suppression by Crotoxin Involves Formyl Peptide Receptors and Lipoxin A4

    PubMed Central

    Brigatte, Patrícia; Faiad, Odair Jorge; Ferreira Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio; Landgraf, Richardt G.; Palma, Mario Sergio; Cury, Yara; Curi, Rui; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Crotoxin (CTX), the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, on Walker 256 tumor growth, the pain symptoms associated (hyperalgesia and allodynia), and participation of endogenous lipoxin A4. Treatment with CTX (s.c.), daily, for 5 days reduced tumor growth at the 5th day after injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the plantar surface of adult rat hind paw. This observation was associated with inhibition of new blood vessel formation and decrease in blood vessel diameter. The treatment with CTX raised plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and its natural analogue 15-epi-LXA4, an effect mediated by formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). In fact, the treatment with Boc-2, an inhibitor of FPRs, abolished the increase in plasma levels of these mediators triggered by CTX. The blockage of these receptors also abolished the inhibitory action of CTX on tumor growth and blood vessel formation and the decrease in blood vessel diameter. Together, the results herein presented demonstrate that CTX increases plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-LXA4, which might inhibit both tumor growth and formation of new vessels via FPRs. PMID:27190493

  17. Fungal lactone ring opening of 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin diminishes cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) are a class of aromatic compounds in grapefruit that inhibit human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Since fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we hypothesized that certain fungi might also metabolize FCs into forms that may be inactive as CYP3A4 inhibitors...

  18. A Review of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Types in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) Species.

    PubMed

    Saber, Huda; Jasni, Azmiza Syawani; Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Ibrahim, Rosni

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCC mec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCC mec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCC mec types among CoNS species.

  19. An in vitro system for measuring genotoxicity mediated by human CYP3A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fasullo, Michael; Freedland, Julian; St John, Nicholas; Cera, Cinzia; Egner, Patricia; Hartog, Matthew; Ding, Xinxin

    2017-05-01

    P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1 ). Yeast microsomes containing human CYP3A4, but not those that do not contain CYP3A4, were active in hydroxylation of diclofenac, a known CYP3A4 substrate drug, a result confirming CYP3A4 activity in the recombinant yeast strain. In cells exposed to AFB 1 , the expression of CYP3A4 supported DNA adduct formation, chromosome rearrangements, cell death, and expression of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, Rnr3, a marker of DNA damage. Expression of CYP3A4 also conferred sensitivity in rad4 rad51 mutants exposed to colon carcinogen, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). These data confirm the ability of human CYP3A4 to mediate the genotoxicity of AFB 1 , and illustrate the usefulness of the CYP3A4-expressing, DNA-repair mutant yeast strain for screening other chemical compounds that are CYP3A4 substrates, for potential genotoxicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:217-227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of the Inhibitory Profiles of Itraconazole and Cimetidine in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Genetic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Saito, Takashi; Murase, Saori; Miyazaki, Mitsue; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F. Peter; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2011-01-01

    CYP3A4, an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, is known to have genetic variants. We have previously reported that CYP3A4 variants such as CYP3A4.2, 7, 16, and 18 show different enzymatic kinetics from CYP3A4.1 (wild type). In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibition kinetics of two typical inhibitors, itraconazole (ITCZ) and cimetidine (CMD), on CYP3A4 variants and evaluated whether the genetic variation leads to interindividual differences in the extent of CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions. The inhibitory profiles of ITCZ and CMD on the metabolism of testosterone (TST) were analyzed by using recombinant CYP3A4 variants. The genetic variation of CYP3A4 significantly affected the inhibition profiles of the two inhibitors. In CYP3A4.7, the Ki value for ITCZ was 2.4-fold higher than that for the wild-type enzyme, whereas the Ki value for CMD was 0.64-fold lower. In CYP3A4.16, the Ki value for ITCZ was 0.54-fold lower than that for wild-type CYP3A4, whereas the Ki value for CMD was 3.2-fold higher. The influence of other genetic variations also differed between the two inhibitors. Docking simulations could explain the changes in the Ki values, based on the accessibility of TST and inhibitors to the heme moiety of the CYP3A4 molecule. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of an inhibitor differ among CYP3A4 variants, suggesting that the genetic variation of CYP3A4 may contribute, at least in part, to interindividual differences in drug interactions mediated by CYP3A4 inhibition, and the pattern of the influences of genetic variation differs among inhibitors as well as substrates. PMID:21212239

  1. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In thismore » study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.« less

  2. Conformational Mobility in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Explored by Pressure-Perturbation EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Dmitri R.; Yang, Zhongyu; Davydova, Nadezhda; Halpert, James R.; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    We used high hydrostatic pressure as a tool for exploring the conformational landscape of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. Site-directed incorporation of a luminescence resonance energy transfer donor-acceptor pair allowed us to identify a pressure-dependent equilibrium between two states of the enzyme, where an increase in pressure increased the spatial separation between the two distantly located fluorophores. This transition is characterized by volume change (ΔV°) and P1/2 values of −36.8 ± 5.0 mL/mol and 1.45 ± 0.33 kbar, respectively, which corresponds to a Keq° of 0.13 ± 0.06, so that only 15% of the enzyme adopts the pressure-promoted conformation at ambient pressure. This pressure-promoted displacement of the equilibrium is eliminated by the addition of testosterone, an allosteric activator. Using site-directed spin labeling, we demonstrated that the pressure- and testosterone-sensitive transition is also revealed by pressure-induced changes in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of a nitroxide side chain placed at position 85 or 409 of the enzyme. Furthermore, we observed a pressure-induced displacement of the emission maxima of a solvatochromic fluorophore (7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)carbonyl) coumarin) placed at the same positions, which suggests a relocation to a more polar environment. Taken together, the results reveal an effector-dependent conformational equilibrium between open and closed states of CYP3A4 that involves a pronounced change at the interface between the region of α-helices A/A′ and the meander loop of the enzyme, where residues 85 and 409 are located. Our study demonstrates the high potential of pressure-perturbation strategies for studying protein conformational landscapes. PMID:27074675

  3. The cytochrome P4503A4 inhibitor clarithromycin increases the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide.

    PubMed

    Niemi, M; Neuvonen, P J; Kivistö, K T

    2001-07-01

    Our objective was to study the effects of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide, a novel short-acting antidiabetic drug. In a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase crossover study, 9 healthy volunteers were treated for 4 days with 250 mg oral clarithromycin or placebo twice daily. On day 5 they received a single dose of 250 mg clarithromycin or placebo, and 1 hour later a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide was given orally. Plasma repaglinide, serum insulin, and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 7 hours. Clarithromycin increased the mean total area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide by 40% (P <.0001) and the peak plasma concentration by 67% (P <.005) compared with placebo. The mean elimination half-life of repaglinide was prolonged from 1.4 to 1.7 hours (P <.05) by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin increased the mean incremental area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 3 hours of serum insulin by 51% (P <.05) and the maximum increase in the serum insulin concentration by 61% (P <.01) compared with placebo. No statistically significant differences were found in the blood glucose concentrations between the placebo and clarithromycin phases. Even low doses of the cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor clarithromycin increase the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide. Concomitant use of clarithromycin or other potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 with repaglinide may enhance its blood glucose-lowering effect and increase the risk of hypoglycemia.

  4. The a(4) Scheme-A High Order Neutrally Stable CESE Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The CESE development is driven by a belief that a solver should (i) enforce conservation laws in both space and time, and (ii) be built from a nondissipative (i.e., neutrally stable) core scheme so that the numerical dissipation can be controlled effectively. To provide a solid foundation for a systematic CESE development of high order schemes, in this paper we describe a new high order (4-5th order) and neutrally stable CESE solver of a 1D advection equation with a constant advection speed a. The space-time stencil of this two-level explicit scheme is formed by one point at the upper time level and two points at the lower time level. Because it is associated with four independent mesh variables (the numerical analogues of the dependent variable and its first, second, and third-order spatial derivatives) and four equations per mesh point, the new scheme is referred to as the a(4) scheme. As in the case of other similar CESE neutrally stable solvers, the a(4) scheme enforces conservation laws in space-time locally and globally, and it has the basic, forward marching, and backward marching forms. Except for a singular case, these forms are equivalent and satisfy a space-time inversion (STI) invariant property which is shared by the advection equation. Based on the concept of STI invariance, a set of algebraic relations is developed and used to prove the a(4) scheme must be neutrally stable when it is stable. Numerically, it has been established that the scheme is stable if the value of the Courant number is less than 1/3

  5. Demonstration of a 4H SiC Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Based on Schottky Barrier Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Da-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Zheng; Gao, Peng; Yao, Xian-Wang; Zang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Jian

    2008-10-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel heterocyclic derivatives of combretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh; Lomberget, Thierry; Tran, Ngoc Chau; Colomb, Evelyne; Nachtergaele, Lore; Thoret, Sylviane; Dubois, Joëlle; Guillaume, Joren; Abdayem, Rawad; Haftek, Marek; Barret, Roland

    2012-12-01

    A novel series of combretastatin A-4 heterocyclic analogues was prepared by replacement of the B ring with indole, benzofurane or benzothiophene, attached at the C2 position. These compounds were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit tubulin assembly: derivative cis3b, having a benzothiophene, showed an activity similar to those of colchicine or deoxypodophyllotoxine. The antiproliferative and antimitotic properties of cis3b against keratinocyte cancer cell lines were also evaluated and the intracellular organization of microtubules in the cells after treatment with both stereoisomers of 3b was also determined, using confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-Ventricle Palliation in a 4-Year-Old With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    DeBoard, Zach M; Eckhauser, Aaron W; Griffiths, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old boy with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome undergoing single-ventricle palliation for an unbalanced atrioventricular canal defect. No reports of single-ventricle palliation in the setting of connective tissue disorders exist in the current literature. Unique findings on the patient's preoperative imaging included a disproportionately large neoaortic root and a regurgitant atrioventricular valve, which may foretell the need for future intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.

    Highlights: ► Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ► Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ► Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involvesmore » release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP

  9. Domino approach to 2-aroyltrimethoxyindoles as novel heterocyclic combretastatin A4 analogues.

    PubMed

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Quentin, Lionel; Scherman, Daniel; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Two series of 2-aroyltrimethoxyindoles were designed to investigate the effects of the replacement of the trimethoxyphenyl ring of phenstatin with a trimethoxyindole moiety. These compounds were efficiently prepared through a domino palladium-catalyzed sequence from 2-gem-dibromovinylanilines substituted by three methoxy groups and arylboronic acids under carbon monoxide atmosphere. These novel heterocyclic combretastatin A4 analogues were evaluated for their cell growth inhibitory properties and their ability to inhibit the tubulin polymerization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC 50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC 50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R 2 between 0.83 and 0.97, p < 0.001). Our results indicated that the risk assessment of triazole pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Absence of a growth hormone effect on rat soleus atrophy during a 4-day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Navarro, Christine; Edgerton, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a 4-day-long spaceflight on the size and the enzyme properties of soleus fibers of rats and the effects of exogenous growth hormone (GH) on the atrophic response of the soleus muscle were investigated in four groups of rats: (1) control, (2) control plus GH treatment, (3) flight, and (4) flight plus GH treatment. Results showed that the fiber size and the type of myosin heavy chain expressed fibers (but not the metabolic properties) of the soleus were affected by four days of weightlessness and that the effects were not ameliorated by the administration of growth hormone.

  12. Bilateral buphthalmia in a 4-month-old Texas longhorn steer.

    PubMed

    Jones, M L; Beck, A P; Dubielzig, R R

    2013-01-01

    Congenital ocular disease occurs uncommonly in cattle, with multiple abnormalities reported only sporadically in the literature. This report describes a case of anterior segment dysgenesis resulting in glaucoma in a 4-month-old Texas Longhorn steer. On clinical exam, bilateral buphthalmia was present and intraocular pressures exceeded 47 mm Hg in both eyes. On histopathologic examination, the iridocorneal angle and filtration apparatus were distorted due to collapse of the ciliary cleft and anterior displacement of the anterior portion of the ciliary body. No evidence of inflammation or other causes of glaucoma were recognized.

  13. Assessment of human pregnane X receptor involvement in pesticide-mediated activation of CYP3A4 gene.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Noracharttiyapot, Wachiraporn; Toriyabe, Takayoshi; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2007-05-01

    Assessment of foreign chemical inducibility on CYP3A4 is necessary to optimize drug therapies. The properties of chemicals such as pesticides, however, are not well investigated. In the present study, properties of various pesticides on human CYP3A4 induction have been tested using HepG2-derived cells stably expressing the CYP3A4 promoter/enhancer (3-1-10 cells) and the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-small interfering RNA (siRNA) system. Among the examined pesticides, 13 pesticides were observed to activate the CYP3A4 gene. Surprisingly, pyributicarb was found to increase the CYP3A4 reporter activity at 0.1 to 1 microM more strongly than typical CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin. Expression of hPXR-siRNA clearly diminished the pyributicarb-stimulated CYP3A4 reporter activity in 3-1-10 cells and decreased the endogenous CYP3A4 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. Pyributicarb caused enhancement of CYP3A4-derived reporter activity in mouse livers introduced with hPXR by adenovirus. These results indicate pyributicarb as a potent activator of CYP3A4 gene, suggesting the existence of pesticides leading to CYP3A4 induction in our environment.

  14. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  15. Catálogo de Radio-Fuentes Opticas con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Usando los datos observados en San Juan con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII desde Febrero de 1992 hasta Marzo de 1997, se ha realizado el Catálogo de Radio-Fuentes Opticas de San Juan conteniendo 69 estrellas. Las observaciones de las posiciones de las radio-fuentes están realizadas para la época y equinoccio J2000,0 y en un sistema cercano al del FK5. Las precisiones medias son ± 2,2 ms y ± 0,"035 en ascensión recta y declinación respectivamente. Las magnitudes de las estrellas son desde 0,9 a 10,7 . Las declinaciones son desde --2,5 grados a --60 grados. La época media es 1995,1. Se muestran también los resultados comparados con el Catálogo Hiparcos.

  16. Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo con ocriplasmina.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica con ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía con disección de la MLI tanto con tinción con azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron con un microscopio de fuerza atómica con imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos con o sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados con ocriplasmina en comparación con los ojos no tratados. La tinción con azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera con la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  18. Sub-molecular modulation of a 4f driven Kondo resonance by surface-induced asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Seibt, Philipp; Prüser, Henning; Caciuc, Vasile; Waters, Michael; Fisher, Andrew J.; Blügel, Stefan; van Slageren, Joris; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    2016-09-01

    Coupling between a magnetic impurity and an external bath can give rise to many-body quantum phenomena, including Kondo and Hund's impurity states in metals, and Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in superconductors. While advances have been made in probing the magnetic properties of d-shell impurities on surfaces, the confinement of f orbitals makes them difficult to access directly. Here we show that a 4f driven Kondo resonance can be modulated spatially by asymmetric coupling between a metallic surface and a molecule containing a 4f-like moment. Strong hybridization of dysprosium double-decker phthalocyanine with Cu(001) induces Kondo screening of the central magnetic moment. Misalignment between the symmetry axes of the molecule and the surface induces asymmetry in the molecule's electronic structure, spatially mediating electronic access to the magnetic moment through the Kondo resonance. This work demonstrates the important role that molecular ligands have in mediating electronic and magnetic coupling and in accessing many-body quantum states.

  19. The effects of a 4-week static stretching programme on the individual muscles comprising the hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Noriaki; Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Nakao, Sayaka; Ibuki, Satoko

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a 4-week intervention of static stretching (SS) on muscle hardness of the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Shear elastic modulus was measured by using ultrasound shear wave elastography as the index of muscle hardness. Thirty healthy men (age 22.7 ± 2.2 years) volunteered for this study and were randomly assigned to the SS intervention group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 15). Participants in the SS intervention group received a 4-week stretch intervention for the hamstrings of their dominant leg. Shear elastic moduli of the hamstrings were measured at initial evaluation and after 4 weeks in both groups at a determined angle. In all muscles, the shear elastic modulus decreased significantly after SS intervention. The percentage change in the shear elastic modulus from the value at initial evaluation to after 4 weeks intervention was greatest in the SM. These results suggest that SS intervention has chronic effects on reducing hardness of the hamstring muscle components, especially the SM muscle.

  20. Two similar but atypical strains of coryneform group A-4 isolated from patients with endophthalmitis.

    PubMed Central

    Coudron, P E; Harris, R C; Vaughan, M G; Dalton, H P

    1985-01-01

    Corynebacterium species and other coryneform organisms isolated from clinical specimens are frequently considered contaminants. We isolated two strains of a gram-positive organism from the vitreous fluid of two patients with endophthalmitis who had previously received intraocular lens transplants. The biochemical characteristics and gas chromatographic patterns of both isolates were similar to those of coryneform group A-4 strains. Major differences included esculin hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, growth pigment, and lactic acid production. These two strains along with a limited number of strains collected at the Special Bacterial Pathogens Laboratory (Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.) may represent a subgroup of coryneform group A-4. Results of in vitro susceptibility testing performed with antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat patients with bacterial endophthalmitis underscore the importance of determining MBCs for slow-growing organisms. This report cautions microbiologists not to discard organisms frequently considered contaminants when isolated from body fluids that are normally sterile and from patients receiving local steroids. PMID:3935657

  1. In vitro activity of commercial valerian root extracts against human cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Tania; Foster, Brian C; Drouin, Cathy E; Krantis, Anthony; Livesey, John F; Jordan, Scott A

    2004-08-12

    Valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L.) has been used since antiquity as a medicinal herb. Recent studies have found that certain herbal products used concomitantly with conventional therapeutic products can markedly affect drug disposition. The in vitro effect of aliquots from 14 commercially available single-entity and blended products containing valerian root on cytochrome P450 CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport has been determined with aqueous, ethanol and acetonitrile extracts. Hydroxyvalerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valerenic acid content was analyzed and wide variation was found between samples and compared to the concentrations noted on the product labels. Valerian extracts from the products tested also exhibited a marked capacity to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport based upon the ATPase assay. There is wide variation between commercially available samples of valerian root. The findings from this study suggest that valerian root may have an initial inhibitory effect when taken with therapeutic products. Further work is warranted to determine whether valerian root can affect other CYP450 isozymes and how the results of this in vitro investigation can be extrapolated to in vivo situations.

  2. Mechanical Design of a 4-Stage ADR for the PIPER mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Bryan L.; Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.; Jackson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.

  3. Ultra-small Ag clusters in zeolite A4: Antibacterial and thermochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta-Fraijo, P.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Flores-Lopez, N. S.; Britto Hurtado, R.; Vargas-Ortiz, R. A.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2018-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties of metal clusters depend on their atomic structure, therefore, it is important to determine the lowest-energy structures of the clusters in order to understand and utilize their properties. In this work, we use the Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the generalized gradient approximation level Becke's three-parameter and the gradient corrected functional of Lee, Yang and Puar (B3LYP) in combination with the basis set LANL2DZ (the effective core potentials and associated double-zeta valence) to determine some of the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of the planar silver clusters (Agn clusters n = 2-24). Additionally, the study reports the experimental synthesis of small silver clusters in synthetic zeolite A4. The synthesis was possible using the ion exchange method with some precursors like silver nitrate (AgNO3) and synthetic zeolite A4. The silver clusters in zeolite powder underwent thermal treatment at 450 °C to release the remaining water or humidity on it. The morphology of the particles was determined by Transmission Electron microscopy. The nanomaterials obtained show thermochromic properties. The structural parameters were correlated theoretically and experimentally.

  4. Trainable structure-activity relationship model for virtual screening of CYP3A4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Dapkunas, Justas; Sazonovas, Andrius; Japertas, Pranas

    2010-11-01

    A new structure-activity relationship model predicting the probability for a compound to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 has been developed using data for >800 compounds from various literature sources and tested on PubChem screening data. Novel GALAS (Global, Adjusted Locally According to Similarity) modeling methodology has been used, which is a combination of baseline global QSAR model and local similarity based corrections. GALAS modeling method allows forecasting the reliability of prediction thus defining the model applicability domain. For compounds within this domain the statistical results of the final model approach the data consistency between experimental data from literature and PubChem datasets with the overall accuracy of 89%. However, the original model is applicable only for less than a half of PubChem database. Since the similarity correction procedure of GALAS modeling method allows straightforward model training, the possibility to expand the applicability domain has been investigated. Experimental data from PubChem dataset served as an example of in-house high-throughput screening data. The model successfully adapted itself to both data classified using the same and different IC₅₀ threshold compared with the training set. In addition, adjustment of the CYP3A4 inhibition model to compounds with a novel chemical scaffold has been demonstrated. The reported GALAS model is proposed as a useful tool for virtual screening of compounds for possible drug-drug interactions even prior to the actual synthesis.

  5. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Monera, Tsitsi G.; Wolfe, Alan R.; Maponga, Charles C.; Benet, Leslie Z.; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6ß-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methods Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Results Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs. PMID:19745507

  6. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Monera, Tsitsi G; Wolfe, Alan R; Maponga, Charles C; Benet, Leslie Z; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs.

  7. EMMPRIN is associated with S100A4 and predicts patient outcome in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boye, K; Nesland, J M; Sandstad, B; Haugland Haugen, M; Mælandsmo, G M; Flatmark, K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Proteolytic enzymes and their regulators have important biological roles in colorectal cancer by stimulating invasion and metastasis, which makes these factors attractive as potential prognostic biomarkers. Methods: The expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was characterised using immunohistochemistry in primary tumours from a cohort of 277 prospectively recruited colorectal cancer patients, and associations with expression of S100A4, clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome were investigated. Results: One hundred and ninety-eight samples (72%) displayed positive membrane staining of the tumour cells, whereas 10 cases (4%) were borderline positive. EMMPRIN expression was associated with shorter metastasis-free, disease-specific and overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The prognostic impact was largely confined to TNM stage III, and EMMPRIN-negative stage III patients had an excellent prognosis. Furthermore, EMMPRIN was significantly associated with expression of S100A4, and the combined expression of these biomarkers conferred an even poorer prognosis. However, there was no evidence of direct regulation between the two proteins in the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW620 in siRNA knockdown experiments. Conclusion: EMMPRIN is a promising prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer, and our findings suggest that it could be used in the selection of stage III patients for adjuvant therapy. PMID:22782346

  8. Protective Effects of Lipoxin A4 in Testis Injury following Testicular Torsion and Detorsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xian-Long; Yang, Qi-Sheng; Ni, Shao-Zhou; Tu, Xiao-Peng; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Bing; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the protective effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in rat testis injury following testicular torsion/detorsion. Methods. A rat testicular torsion model has been established as described. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham group, torsion group, torsion/detorsion (T/D) group, and T/D plus LXA4-pretreated groups (3 subgroups). Rats in LXA4-pretreated groups received LXA4 injection (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg body weight in LXA4-pretreated subgroups 1–3, resp.) at a single dose 1 h before detorsion. Biochemical analysis, apoptosis assessment, and morphologic evaluation were carried out after orchiectomies. Results. GPx and SOD levels significantly increased and MDA levels significantly reduced in LXA4-pretreated groups compared to T/D group. LXA4 also reverted IL-2 and TNF-α to basal levels and improved the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 in LXA4-pretreated groups. Moreover, the expression of NF-κB was downregulated in LXA4-pretreated groups. LXA4 treatment also showed an improved testicular morphology and decreased apoptosis in testes. Conclusion. Lipoxin A4 protects rats against testes injury after torsion/detorsion via modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, and NF-κB activity. PMID:24904198

  9. PXR-dependent induction of human CYP3A4 gene expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Coumoul, Xavier; Diry, Monique; Barouki, Robert

    2002-11-15

    OCP are xenobiotics which display various toxic effects on animal and human health. One of their effects is to bind and activate estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). We have previously studied the down-regulation of induced CYP1A1 (cytochrome P450) expression by this class of molecules in mammary carcinoma cells and shown the importance of ERalpha in this process. However, an alternative mechanism was suggested by those experiments in hepatoma cells. In this study, we have performed Northern blot and transient transfection assays in various cell lines and shown that OCP activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequent CYP3A4 mRNA expression. This effect is mediated by the distal xenobiotic responsive element modulator of the promoter. The induction of CYP3A4 by OCP was dose-dependent within the 1-10 microM range. The data suggest that chronic exposure to OCP could alter a major metabolite pathway in human liver and putatively modify the pharmacokinetics of drugs and pollutants.

  10. The impacts of a 4 Degree C world on Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, R. M.; Schellnhuber, H.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change already poses a serious and immediate threat to development. There are many other urgent challenges, but developing countries cannot afford to ignore climate change since it interacts with many of these other challenges, such as availability of food, water, energy, and shelter, and it make protecting people from floods, droughts, and disease outbreaks more difficult. Confronting climate change requires both mitigation--to avoid the unmanageable, and adaptation--to manage the unavoidable. A 4 degree C world will tax the ability of systems to adapt. There will be significant disruption in multiple sectors, and likely, the large-scale displacement of human populations. The reduction in the resilience of natural and managed ecosystems will impact the resilience of socio-economic systems around the world. A 4 degree C world could increase vulnerability to other global non-climatic stressors and shocks, such as emerging pandemics, trade disruptions or financial market shocks. Developing countries will be the hardest hit, and their prospects for sustainable development compromised.

  11. A 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase mediates non-ribosomal peptide synthetase activation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Neville, Claire; Murphy, Alan; Kavanagh, Kevin; Doyle, Sean

    2005-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a significant human pathogen. Non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) synthesis is thought to be responsible for a significant proportion of toxin and siderophore production in the organism. Furthermore, it has been shown that 4'-phosphopantetheinylation is required for the activation of key enzymes involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis in other species. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression and functional characterisation of a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase from A. fumigatus and the identification of an atypical NRP synthetase (Afpes1), spanning 14.3 kb. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the NRP synthetase exhibits greatest identity to NRP synthetases from Metarhizium anisolpiae (PesA) and Alternaria brassicae (AbrePsy1). Northern hybridisation and RT-PCR analysis have confirmed that both genes are expressed in A. fumigatus. A 120 kDa fragment of the A. fumigatus NRP synthetase, containing a putative thiolation domain, was cloned and expressed in the baculovirus expression system. Detection of a 4'-phosphopantetheinylated peptide (SFSAMK) from this protein, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis after coincubation of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase with the recombinant NRP synthetase fragment and acetyl CoA, confirms that it is competent to play a role in NRP synthetase activation in A. fumigatus. The 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase also activates, by 4'-phosphopantetheinylation, recombinant alpha-aminoadipate reductase (Lys2p) from Candida albicans, a key enzyme involved in lysine biosynthesis.

  12. AVPR1a and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms are associated with creative dance performance.

    PubMed

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Dina, Christian; Zohar, Ada H; Constantini, Naama; Lerer, Elad; Hoch, Sarah; Sella, Sarah; Nemanov, Lubov; Gritsenko, Inga; Lichtenberg, Pesach; Granot, Roni; Ebstein, Richard P

    2005-09-01

    Dancing, which is integrally related to music, likely has its origins close to the birth of Homo sapiens, and throughout our history, dancing has been universally practiced in all societies. We hypothesized that there are differences among individuals in aptitude, propensity, and need for dancing that may partially be based on differences in common genetic polymorphisms. Identifying such differences may lead to an understanding of the neurobiological basis of one of mankind's most universal and appealing behavioral traits--dancing. In the current study, 85 current performing dancers and their parents were genotyped for the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4: promoter region HTTLPR and intron 2 VNTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a: promoter microsatellites RS1 and RS3). We also genotyped 91 competitive athletes and a group of nondancers/nonathletes (n = 872 subjects from 414 families). Dancers scored higher on the Tellegen Absorption Scale, a questionnaire that correlates positively with spirituality and altered states of consciousness, as well as the Reward Dependence factor in Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, a measure of need for social contact and openness to communication. Highly significant differences in AVPR1a haplotype frequencies (RS1 and RS3), especially when conditional on both SLC6A4 polymorphisms (HTTLPR and VNTR), were observed between dancers and athletes using the UNPHASED program package (Cocaphase: likelihood ratio test [LRS] = 89.23, p = 0.000044). Similar results were obtained when dancers were compared to nondancers/nonathletes (Cocaphase: LRS = 92.76, p = 0.000024). These results were confirmed using a robust family-based test (Tdtphase: LRS = 46.64, p = 0.010). Association was also observed between Tellegen Absorption Scale scores and AVPR1a (Qtdtphase: global chi-square = 26.53, p = 0.047), SLC6A4 haplotypes (Qtdtphase: chi-square = 2.363, p = 0.018), and AVPR1a conditional on SCL6A4 (Tdtphase: LRS = 250

  13. AVPR1a and SLC6A4 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Creative Dance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Dina, Christian; Zohar, Ada H; Constantini, Naama; Lerer, Elad; Hoch, Sarah; Sella, Sarah; Nemanov, Lubov; Gritsenko, Inga; Lichtenberg, Pesach; Granot, Roni; Ebstein, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    Dancing, which is integrally related to music, likely has its origins close to the birth of Homo sapiens, and throughout our history, dancing has been universally practiced in all societies. We hypothesized that there are differences among individuals in aptitude, propensity, and need for dancing that may partially be based on differences in common genetic polymorphisms. Identifying such differences may lead to an understanding of the neurobiological basis of one of mankind's most universal and appealing behavioral traits—dancing. In the current study, 85 current performing dancers and their parents were genotyped for the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4: promoter region HTTLPR and intron 2 VNTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a: promoter microsatellites RS1 and RS3). We also genotyped 91 competitive athletes and a group of nondancers/nonathletes (n = 872 subjects from 414 families). Dancers scored higher on the Tellegen Absorption Scale, a questionnaire that correlates positively with spirituality and altered states of consciousness, as well as the Reward Dependence factor in Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, a measure of need for social contact and openness to communication. Highly significant differences in AVPR1a haplotype frequencies (RS1 and RS3), especially when conditional on both SLC6A4 polymorphisms (HTTLPR and VNTR), were observed between dancers and athletes using the UNPHASED program package (Cocaphase: likelihood ratio test [LRS] = 89.23, p = 0.000044). Similar results were obtained when dancers were compared to nondancers/nonathletes (Cocaphase: LRS = 92.76, p = 0.000024). These results were confirmed using a robust family-based test (Tdtphase: LRS = 46.64, p = 0.010). Association was also observed between Tellegen Absorption Scale scores and AVPR1a (Qtdtphase: global chi-square = 26.53, p = 0.047), SLC6A4 haplotypes (Qtdtphase: chi-square = 2.363, p = 0.018), and AVPR1a conditional on SCL6A4 (Tdtphase: LRS = 250

  14. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  15. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  16. Con Edison power failure of July 13 and 14, 1977. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1978-06-01

    On July 13, 1977 the entire electric load of the Con Edison system was lost, plunging New York City and Westchester County into darkness. The collapse resulted from a combination of natural events, equipment malfunctions, questionable system-design features, and operating errors. An attempt is made in this report to answer the following: what were the specific causes of the failure; if equipment malfunctions and operator errors contributed, could they have been prevented; to what extent was Con Edison prepared to handle such an emergency; and did Con Edison plan prudently reserve generation, for reserve transmission capability, for automatic equipment tomore » protect its system, and for proper operator response to a critical situation. Following the introductory and summary section, additional sections include: the Consolidated Edison system; prevention of bulk power-supply interruptions; the sequence of failure and restoration; analysis of the July 1977 power failure; restoration sequence and equipment damage assessment; and other investigations of the blackout. (MCW)« less

  17. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  18. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  20. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motionsmore » have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.« less

  1. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motionsmore » have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.« less

  2. The ConSurf-DB: pre-calculated evolutionary conservation profiles of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Ofir; Erez, Elana; Nimrod, Guy; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm, implemented in the ConSurf web server. The algorithm takes into account the phylogenetic relations between the aligned proteins and the stochastic nature of the evolutionary process explicitly. Rate4Site assigns a conservation level for each position in the multiple sequence alignment using an empirical Bayesian inference. Visual inspection of the conservation patterns on the 3D structure often enables the identification of key residues that comprise the functionally important regions of the protein. The repository is updated with the latest PDB entries on a monthly basis and will be rebuilt annually. ConSurf-DB is available online at http://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/

  3. The ConSurf-DB: pre-calculated evolutionary conservation profiles of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Ofir; Erez, Elana; Nimrod, Guy; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm, implemented in the ConSurf web server. The algorithm takes into account the phylogenetic relations between the aligned proteins and the stochastic nature of the evolutionary process explicitly. Rate4Site assigns a conservation level for each position in the multiple sequence alignment using an empirical Bayesian inference. Visual inspection of the conservation patterns on the 3D structure often enables the identification of key residues that comprise the functionally important regions of the protein. The repository is updated with the latest PDB entries on a monthly basis and will be rebuilt annually. ConSurf-DB is available online at http://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/ PMID:18971256

  4. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care.

  5. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  6. Young women's perspective of the pros and cons to seeking screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Mariam R; von Sternberg, Kirk; Velasquez, Mary M; Wiemann, Constance M; Smith, Peggy B; DiClemente, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    To identify young women's pros and cons (decisional balance) to seeking chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (NGC) screening. Prospective, cross sectional study Community-based reproductive health clinic 192 young women (66% African American; mean age 18.9 years). Content analysis of responses obtained during a decisional balance exercise (pros and cons) promoting CT and NGC screening was conducted. Thematic categories were developed through a coding process, and each response was assigned to one thematic category. The frequency of pros and cons responses for each category and the frequency of participants endorsing each category were calculated. Ten thematic categories in relation to pros and cons of seeking CT and NGC screening were: being healthy; awareness of the body; systemic factors around the clinic visit and testing procedures; benefits and aversions around treatment; partner trust issues; confidentiality; prevention of long term adverse effects, protection of the body; concern for others; fear of results/aversion to testing; and logistical barriers. The three most often cited pros were awareness of the body, being healthy and treatment issues; and the three most often cited cons were logistical barriers (time/transportation), fear/aversion to testing, and systemic factors. A variety of pros and cons to seeking CT and NGC screening were identified at a community-based clinic. Providers in clinical settings can utilize this information when encouraging patients to seek regular STI screening by elucidating and emphasizing those pros and cons that have the most influence on a young woman's decision-making to seek screening.

  7. Loss of EphA4 impairs short-term spatial recognition memory performance and locomotor habituation.

    PubMed

    Willi, R; Winter, C; Wieske, F; Kempf, A; Yee, B K; Schwab, M E; Singer, P

    2012-11-01

    EphA4 receptor (EphA4) tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity in the mature brain, but its relevance to the control of normal behavior remains largely unexplored. This study is the first attempt to obtain a behavioral profile of constitutive homozygous and heterozygous EphA4 knockout mice. A deficit in locomotor habituation in the open field, impairment in spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reduced probability of spatial spontaneous alternation in the T-maze were identified in homozygous EphA4(-/-) mice, while heterozygo us EphA4(+/-) mice appeared normal on these tests in comparison with wild-type (WT) controls. The multiple phenotypes observed in EphA4(-/-) mice might stem from an underlying deficit in habituation learning, reflecting an elementary form of nonassociative learning that is in contrast to Pavlovian associative learning, which appeared unaffected by EphA4 disruption. A deficit in motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod was also demonstrated only in EphA4(-/-) mice--a finding in keeping with the presence of abnormal gait in EphA4(-/-) mice--although they were able to improve performance over training. There was no evidence for substantial changes in major neurochemical markers in various brain regions rich in EphA4 as shown by post-mortem analysis. This excludes the possibility of major neurochemical compensation in the brain of EphA4(-/-) mice. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the behavioral significance of EphA4 disruption, supporting further investigation of EphA4 as a possible target for behavioral interventions where habituation deficits are prominent. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. EphA4 is Involved in Sleep Regulation but Not in the Electrophysiological Response to Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Freyburger, Marlène; Pierre, Audrey; Paquette, Gabrielle; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Bedont, Joseph; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Drolet, Guy; Laforest, Sylvie; Blackshaw, Seth; Cermakian, Nicolas; Doucet, Guy; Mongrain, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Optimal sleep is ensured by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. Although synaptic plasticity seems to contribute to both processes, the specific players involved are not well understood. The EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor is a cell adhesion protein regulating synaptic plasticity. We investigated the role of EphA4 in sleep regulation using electrocorticography in mice lacking EphA4 and gene expression measurements. EphA4 knockout (KO) mice, Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mutant mice and littermates, C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were studied under a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle, under undisturbed conditions or 6 h sleep deprivation (SLD), and submitted to a 48 h electrophysiological recording and/or brain sampling at different time of day. EphA4 KO mice showed less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), enhanced duration of individual bouts of wakefulness and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the light period, and a blunted daily rhythm of NREMS sigma activity. The NREMS delta activity response to SLD was unchanged in EphA4 KO mice. However, SLD increased EphA4 expression in the thalamic/hypothalamic region in C57BL/6J mice. We further show the presence of E-boxes in the promoter region of EphA4, a lower expression of EphA4 in Clock mutant mice, a rhythmic expression of EphA4 ligands in several brain areas, expression of EphA4 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN), and finally an unchanged number of cells expressing Vip, Grp and Avp in the SCN of EphA4 KO mice. Our results suggest that EphA4 is involved in circadian sleep regulation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Acidosis, but Not Alkalosis, Affects Anaerobic Metabolism and Performance in a 4-km Time Trial.

    PubMed

    Correia-Oliveira, Carlos Rafaell; Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Bertuzzi, Romulo; McConell, Glenn K; Bishop, David John; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal'molin

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of preexercise metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on power output (PO) and aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). Eleven recreationally trained cyclists (V˙O2peak 54.1 ± 9.3 mL·kg·min) performed a 4-km TT 100 min after ingesting in a double-blind matter 0.15 g·kg of body mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, acidosis), 0.3 g·kg of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, alkalosis), or 0.15 g·kg of CaCO3 (placebo). A preliminary study (n = 7) was conducted to establish the optimal doses to promote the desirable preexercise blood pH alterations without gastrointestinal distress. Data for PO, aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure, and blood and respiratory parameters were averaged for each 1 km and compared between conditions using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (condition and distance factors). Gastrointestinal discomfort was analyzed qualitatively. Compared with placebo (pH 7.37 ± 0.02, [HCO3]: 27.5 ± 2.6 mmol·L), the NaHCO3 ingestion resulted in a preexercise blood alkalosis (pH +0.06 ± 0.04, [HCO3]: +4.4 ± 2.0 mmol·L, P < 0.05), whereas NH4Cl resulted in a blood acidosis (pH -0.05 ± 0.03, [HCO3]: -4.8 ± 2.1 mmol·L, P < 0.05). Anaerobic energy expenditure rate and PO were reduced throughout the trial in NH4Cl compared with placebo and NaHCO3, resulting in a lower total anaerobic work and impaired performance (P < 0.05). Plasma lactate, V˙CO2, and end-tidal CO2 partial pressure were lower and the V˙E/V˙CO2 higher throughout the trial in NH4Cl compared with placebo and NaHCO3 (P < 0.05). There was no difference between NaHCO3 and placebo for any of these variables (P > 0.05). Minimal gastrointestinal distress was noted in all conditions. Preexercise acidosis, but not alkalosis, affects anaerobic metabolism and PO during a 4-km cycling TT.

  10. A Randomized Phase 2 Study of Long-Acting TransCon GH vs Daily GH in Childhood GH Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Pierre; Malievskiy, Oleg; Radziuk, Klaudziya; Senatorova, Ganna; Abdou, Magdy O; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Skorodok, Yulia; Peterkova, Valentina; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    TransCon Growth Hormone (GH) (Ascendis Pharma) is a long-acting recombinant sustained-release human GH prodrug in development for children with GH deficiency (GHD). To compare the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and efficacy of weekly TransCon GH to that of daily GH in prepubertal children with GHD. Randomized, open-label, active-controlled study of three doses of weekly TransCon GH versus daily Genotropin (Pfizer). Thirty-eight centers in 14 European countries and Egypt. Prepubertal male and female treatment-naïve children with GHD (n = 53). Subjects received one of three TransCon GH doses (0.14, 0.21, or 0.30 mg GH/kg/wk) or Genotropin 0.03 mg GH/kg/d for 26 weeks. GH and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, growth, adverse events, and immunogenicity. Both GH maximum concentration and area under the curve were similar following TransCon GH or Genotropin administration at comparable doses. A dose response was observed, with IGF-1 standard deviation scores increasing into the normal range for all three TransCon GH doses. Annualized mean height velocity for the three TransCon GH doses ranged from 11.9 cm to 13.9 cm, which was not statistically different from 11.6 cm for Genotropin. Adverse events were mild to moderate, and most were unrelated to the study drug. Injection site tolerance was good. One TransCon GH subject developed a low-titer, nonneutralizing antibody response to GH. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH is comparable to daily Genotropin for GH (pharmacokinetics) and IGF-1 (pharmacodynamics) levels, safety, and efficacy and support advancement into phase 3 development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Thymic lymphocytes. III. Cooperative phenomenon in the proliferation of thymocytes under Con A stimulation.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, M; Jacobson, J B

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper, the response of thymocytes to Con A is analyzed in terms of a cooperative phenomenon between medullary thymocytes, cortical thymocytes, thymic accessory cells, and interleukin 2. Medullary thymocytes respond spontaneously to Con A and produce IL-2. The addition of exogenously produced IL-2 enhances their proliferation. Small numbers of cortical (PNA+) thymocytes do not respond to Con A, even in the presence of IL-2-containing supernatant. By increasing the number of PNA+ cells per well, sensitivity to Con A and IL-2 appears. This response may be linked either to the increase in a minor PNA+-responding population and/or to the enhanced contamination by medullary thymocytes and macrophages in non-responding PNA+ thymocyte population. In this hypothesis, either the contaminating cells respond by themselves and/or cooperate with PNA+ cells to induce their proliferation. Coculture of non-responding low numbers of PNA+ thymocytes with Con A- and IL-2-containing supernatant in the presence of PNA- cells containing thymic medullary thymocytes and macrophages always produces a higher response than that of each individual population. These results show that a cooperative phenomenon occurs in the cocultures of PNA+ and PNA- thymic cells. We can show using PNA+ and PNA- thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and populations participate PNA-thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and PNA- populations participate in the generation of proliferating cells. We can demonstrate, by lysis experiments with monoclonal antibodies and complement that at the end of coculture, most of the proliferating cells are Lyt 1+, and part are Lyt 2+ or L3T4+. We discuss the fact that the phenotype of the cells after activation does not allow us to deduce the phenotype of their precursors. Lysis of Ia+ cells prior to coculture, reduces the level of the proliferative response but does not modify the percentage of cooperation produced

  12. Anesthetic management of a 4-month-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos; Flouraki, Eugenia; Kostakis, Charalampos; Komnenou, Anastasia; Prassinos, Nikitas; Raptopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    A 4-mo-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found recumbent after a vehicular accident. Radiology revealed several limb fractures and the fox underwent surgery after 24 hr of initial stabilization. Premedication consisted of dexmedetomidine and morphine. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam and maintained with isoflurane. Lidocaine, bupivacaine, and morphine were administered epidurally and further analgesia was provided with meloxicam. The heart rate and respiratory rate of the fox remained stable during surgery and, except for a mild hypothermia, the recovery from anesthesia was uneventful. The postoperative pain scores were low and the animal was transported to a rehabilitation facility and eventually released to the wild. The low pain scores postoperatively should be attributed to the successful application of epidural anesthesia and analgesia.

  13. Epicardial cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in a 4-month-old infant bridged to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carro, Cristina; Cereda, Alberto Francesco; Annoni, Giuseppe; Marianeschi, Stefano Maria

    2017-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Nevertheless, ICD placement in the paediatric population is still limited because of several technical difficulties. Several implantation techniques have been proposed but experience in infants with very low weight and less than 6 months is very limited. We herein describe a case of a minimally invasive ICD epicardial implantation in a 4-month-old infant weighing 5 kg. A diagnosis of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction disease with ventricular tachycardia storms, QT prolongation and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern was made. Antiarrhythmic drugs, radiofrequency ablation and sympathetic denervation were not effective. ICD implantation was successful allowing the infant to survive and bridging to heart transplantation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A4 flavour model for Dirac neutrinos: Type I and inverse seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Karmakar, Biswajit

    2018-05-01

    We propose two different seesaw models namely, type I and inverse seesaw to realise light Dirac neutrinos within the framework of A4 discrete flavour symmetry. The additional fields and their transformations under the flavour symmetries are chosen in such a way that naturally predicts the hierarchies of different elements of the seesaw mass matrices in these two types of seesaw mechanisms. For generic choices of flavon alignments, both the models predict normal hierarchical light neutrino masses with the atmospheric mixing angle in the lower octant. Apart from predicting interesting correlations between different neutrino parameters as well as between neutrino and model parameters, the model also predicts the leptonic Dirac CP phase to lie in a specific range - π / 3 to π / 3. While the type I seesaw model predicts smaller values of absolute neutrino mass, the inverse seesaw predictions for the absolute neutrino masses can saturate the cosmological upper bound on sum of absolute neutrino masses for certain choices of model parameters.

  16. Case Study of a Spinal Epidural Capillary Hemangioma: A 4-Year Postoperative Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Vyshka, Gentian; Bushati, Teona; Petrela, Mentor

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case study. Objectives We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man, who presented with a 4-month history of increasing low back pain and gait difficulty. Objective neurologic examination revealed a severe paraparetic symptomatology without any sphincter involvement. Methods Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extradural mass formation situated dorsally at the level of thoracic vertebrae T2 to T4. Results A laminectomy was performed with total removal of the mass; histology suggested a highly vascularized lesion with lobular architecture, which seems a very rare case, compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Conclusions A careful follow-up for the next 4 years, including control MRIs every postoperative year, showed a very good neurologic condition of the patient and no recurrence on imaging findings. PMID:24494182

  17. Using implants for prosthodontic rehabilitation of a 4-year-old with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Toomarian, Lida; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Talebi; Ramezani, Jamileh; Adli, Amin Rezaei; Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder that affects ectodermally derived organs, such as teeth. Pathogenesis is thought to involve an altered epithelium-mesenchymal interaction. ED patients have oligodontia (or sometimes anodontia) in addition to other abnormalities involving the skin, sweat glands, or hair. Many different subtypes have been introduced in the literature. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old patient who, after being diagnosed with ED, was put on a treatment plan that involved mandibular implants, reshaping of the maxillary primary central incisors, and prosthetic dental rehabilitation. Due to the child's rapid growth, both dentures were changed 9 months post-treatment. Two years post-treatment, the maxillary denture was changed again and the child was placed under close supervision.

  18. Inoue Balloon Mitral Valvotomy in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aditya; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Kumar, Sudeep

    2012-01-01

    Mitral stenosis in children often has a fulminant and rapid course. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy is accepted as the treatment of choice for mitral stenosis not only in adults, but also in younger patients who have pliable valves. Balloon mitral valvotomy has yielded good immediate and long-term results. Herein, we report successful Inoue balloon mitral valvotomy in a 4-year-old boy who had severe, symptomatic rheumatic mitral stenosis. To our knowledge, our patient is the youngest to have undergone this procedure. In addition to the case description, we discuss the features of juvenile rheumatic mitral stenosis and several technical aspects of performing the Inoue balloon mitral valvotomy procedure in children. PMID:22412242

  19. Urethral Caruncle Presented as Premature Menarche in a 4-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Manori; Beneragama, D

    2018-01-01

    Urethral caruncle (UC) is a benign fleshy outgrowth at the urethral meatus. It was first described by Samuel Sharp in 1750 and occurs mainly at the posterior lip of the urethra, and the exact aetiology is still uncertain. More often it was seen in the postmenopausal women, and only few cases are reported in young girls. Patients may be asymptomatic and could find this as an incidental finding or they may present with symptoms such as dysuria, bleeding per vagina, haematuria, a mass protruding through vagina, and acute retention of urine. Here, we report the case history of a 4-year-old girl presented with vaginal bleeding which was taken as she has attended menarche and found to have urethral caruncle which was the cause for bleeding. Histology confirmed the diagnosis, and girl was completely cured following surgical excision.

  20. Identification of variants of CYP3A4 and characterization of their abilities to metabolize testosterone and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Dai, D; Tang, J; Rose, R; Hodgson, E; Bienstock, R J; Mohrenweiser, H W; Goldstein, J A

    2001-12-01

    CYP3A4 is the most abundant isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in adult human liver. It metabolizes numerous clinically, physiologically, and toxicologically important compounds. The expression of CYP3A4 varies 40-fold in individual human livers, and metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates varies at least 10-fold in vivo. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A4 were identified by direct sequencing of genomic DNA in 72 individuals from three different ethnic groups, including Caucasians, Blacks (African-Americans and African pygmies), and Asians. A total of 28 SNPs were identified, including five which produced coding changes M445T (CYP3A4*3), R162Q (CYP3A4*15), F189S (CYP3A4*17), L293P (CYP3A4*18), and P467S (CYP3A4*19). The latter four represent new alleic variants. Racial variability was observed for the frequency of individual SNPs. CYP3A R162Q was identified only in Black populations with an allelic frequency of 4%. CYP3A4 F189S and CYP3A4 M445T were identified in Caucasians with allelic frequencies 2% and 4%, respectively. L293P and P467S were only observed in Asians at allelic frequencies of 2%. The cDNAs for the F189S, L293P, M445T, and P467S mutant alleles were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Testosterone and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were used to assess the catalytic activities of the most common CYP3A4 allele (CYP3A4*1) and its allelic variants. CYP3A4 F189S exhibited lower turnover numbers for testosterone and chlorpyrifos, while CYP3A4 L293P had higher turnover numbers for both substrates. The turnover numbers of the CYP3A4 M445T and P467S alleles to metabolize these compounds were not significantly different from those of wild-type CYP3A4.

  1. Involvement of heat shock protein a4/apg-2 in refractory inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Teppei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Kashida, Hiroshi; Mine, Hiromasa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Matsui, Shigenaga; Yoshida, Koji; Nishida, Naoshi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Jun; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Expression of heat shock protein A4 (HSPA4, also called Apg-2), a member of the HSP110 family, is induced by several forms of stress. The physiological and pathological functions of HSPA4 in the intestine remain to be elucidated. We assessed HSPA4 expression and function by generating HSPA4-deficient mice and using 214 human intestinal mucosa samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the colonic mucosa of patients with IBD, a significant correlation was observed between the expression of HSPA4 and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, a T-cell-derived cytokine IL-17 or stem cell markers, such as Sox2. In refractory ulcerative colitis, a condition associated with increased cancer risk, expression of HSPA4 and Bcl-2 was increased in inflammatory cells of colonic mucosae. HSPA4 was overexpressed both in cancer cells and immune cells of human colorectal cancers. Patients with high expression of HSPA4 or Bmi1 showed significantly lower response rates upon subsequent steroid therapy as compared with patients with low expression of each gene. HSPA4-deficient mice exhibit more apoptosis and less expression of IL-17/IL-23 in inflammatory cells and less number of Sox2 cells after administration of dextran sodium sulfate than control mice. Transduction of HspaA4 bone marrow into wild-type mice reduced the immune response. Upregulation of Bcl-2 and IL-17 by HSPA4 would control apoptosis of inflammatory cells and immune response in the gut, which might develop treatment resistance in IBD. HSPA4 and Bmi1 would be a useful biomarker for refractory clinical course and a promising approach for a therapeutic strategy in patients with IBD.

  2. Parental Perspectives of a 4-Week Family-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Erin S.; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Burke, Shauna M.; Shapiro, Sheree

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The childhood obesity epidemic is now recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Community-based behaviour modification treatment programs involving both children and their families are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents whose children participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): a 4-week lifestyle program delivered as a day-camp for obese children at risk for type II diabetes and their families. Parents were required to attend four half-day education sessions during the intervention period. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted immediately following the 4-week interventions offered in August 2008 and 2009. The perspectives of 38 parents representing 32 children aged 8-14 with obesity (i.e., body mass index > the 95th percentile) were shared. Results: Overall, parents were pleased with the impact of the program and proud of their children's accomplishments (e.g., increased physical activity levels, enhanced self-esteem, weight loss). Several facilitators to success (e.g., social support; a positive environment) and barriers to its maintenance (e.g., time management; unsupportive family members) were identified, and recommendations were made for future programs. Although parents found the half-day sessions valuable, post-programmatic bi-monthly booster session adherence declined over the one-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Delivered as a 4-week day-camp, C.H.A.M.P. represents a unique approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Future family-based interventions should consider avenues for intensifying the parental program component whilst employing strategies to promote parental adherence in service of enhancing long-term sustainability of health behaviour changes. PMID:23445699

  3. A highly predictive A 4 flavor 3-3-1 model with radiative inverse seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Long, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    We build a highly predictive 3-3-1 model, where the field content is extended by including several SU(3) L scalar singlets and six right handed Majorana neutrinos. In our model the {SU}{(3)}C× {SU}{(3)}L× U{(1)}X gauge symmetry is supplemented by the {A}4× {Z}4× {Z}6× {Z}16× {Z}16{\\prime } discrete group, which allows to get a very good description of the low energy fermion flavor data. In the model under consideration, the {A}4× {Z}4× {Z}6× {Z}16× {Z}16{\\prime } discrete group is broken at very high energy scale down to the preserved Z 2 discrete symmetry, thus generating the observed pattern of SM fermion masses and mixing angles and allowing the implementation of the loop level inverse seesaw mechanism for the generation of the light active neutrino masses, respectively. The obtained values for the physical observables in the quark sector agree with the experimental data, whereas those ones for the lepton sector also do, only for the case of inverted neutrino mass spectrum. The normal neutrino mass hierarchy scenario of the model is ruled out by the neutrino oscillation experimental data. We find an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay of m ee = 46.9 meV, a leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of -81.37° and a Jarlskog invariant of about 10-2 for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. The preserved Z 2 symmetry allows for a stable scalar dark matter candidate.

  4. A 4-Week Neuromuscular Training Program and Gait Patterns at the Ankle Joint

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Garrett; Caulfield, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Context: Previous research into the rehabilitation of ankle sprains has primarily focused on outcome measures that do not replicate functional activities, thus making it difficult to extrapolate the results relative to the weight-bearing conditions under which most ankle sprains occur. Objective: To measure the effects of a training program on gait during walking and running in an active athletic population. Design: Matched-pairs, controlled trial. Setting: University motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten subjects from an athletic population (7 healthy, 3 with functional ankle instability: age = 25.8 ± 3.9 years, height = 177.6 ± 6.1 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 7.4 kg) and 10 controls matched for age, sex, activity, and ankle instability (7 healthy, 3 with functional ankle instability: age = 27.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 178.7 ± 10.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 10.0 kg). Intervention(s): A 4-week neuromuscular training program undertaken by the treatment group. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured ankle position and velocity in the frontal (x) and sagittal (y) planes in all subjects during treadmill walking and running for the periods 100 milliseconds before heel strike, at heel strike, and 100 milliseconds after heel strike. Results: A 4-week neuromuscular training program resulted in no significant changes in ankle position or velocity during treadmill walking and running. Conclusions: The mechanisms by which neuromuscular training improves function in normal subjects and those with functional ankle instability do not appear to result in measurable changes in gait kinematics. Our findings raise issues regarding methods of ankle sprain rehabilitation and the measurement of their effectiveness in improving functional activities. Further research in a larger population with functional ankle instability is necessary. PMID:17597944

  5. A 4-week neuromuscular training program and gait patterns at the ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Garrett; Caulfield, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Previous research into the rehabilitation of ankle sprains has primarily focused on outcome measures that do not replicate functional activities, thus making it difficult to extrapolate the results relative to the weight-bearing conditions under which most ankle sprains occur. To measure the effects of a training program on gait during walking and running in an active athletic population. Matched-pairs, controlled trial. University motion analysis laboratory. Ten subjects from an athletic population (7 healthy, 3 with functional ankle instability: age = 25.8 +/- 3.9 years, height = 177.6 +/- 6.1 cm, mass = 66.8 +/- 7.4 kg) and 10 controls matched for age, sex, activity, and ankle instability (7 healthy, 3 with functional ankle instability: age = 27.4 +/- 5.8 years, height = 178.7 +/- 10.8 cm, mass = 71.6 +/- 10.0 kg). A 4-week neuromuscular training program undertaken by the treatment group. We measured ankle position and velocity in the frontal (x) and sagittal (y) planes in all subjects during treadmill walking and running for the periods 100 milliseconds before heel strike, at heel strike, and 100 milliseconds after heel strike. A 4-week neuromuscular training program resulted in no significant changes in ankle position or velocity during treadmill walking and running. The mechanisms by which neuromuscular training improves function in normal subjects and those with functional ankle instability do not appear to result in measurable changes in gait kinematics. Our findings raise issues regarding methods of ankle sprain rehabilitation and the measurement of their effectiveness in improving functional activities. Further research in a larger population with functional ankle instability is necessary.

  6. Transpopliteal stenting of femoral occlusions in patients with critical limb ischemia using a 4-French system.

    PubMed

    Spreen, Marlon; Vink, Ted; Knippenberg, Bob; Reekers, Jim; van Dijk, Lukas; Wever, Jan; van Eps, Randolph; van Overhagen, Hans

    2014-08-01

    In many patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI), transfemoral endovascular recanalization is the preferred treatment. Transpopliteal treatment may be used in patients with inaccessible groins. This retrospective study regards transpopliteal stenting of superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions using a 4F system. Eleven patients (4 male and 7 female [mean age 77 years]) underwent 12 attempts of transpopliteal recanalization of long SFA occlusions (Trans-Atlantic InterSociety Consensus B through D). All patients had CLI (Rutherford 4 to 6) and were nonoperable due to poor general condition. Indications for transpopliteal access were proximal/flush SFA occlusions (n = 5), failure of antegrade recanalization (n = 4), infected femoral-femoral crossover bypass (n = 2), and occlusion of both the native SFA and the femoral-popliteal bypass (n = 1). The popliteal artery was punctured under ultrasound guidance. Occlusions were recanalized subintimally, and 4F compatible stents were implanted. Technical success rate (<30 % residual stenosis) was achieved in 83 % of cases. In two patients, stent dislocation occurred while the sheath was removed. One arteriovenous fistula was successfully treated with additional stenting. During 6-month follow-up, there were no major amputations, and three patients died from nonrelated causes. Fifty percent of patients alive after 6 months improved to Rutherford score ≤3. The duplex restenosis (>50 %) rate at 6 months was 50 %. Transpopliteal primary stenting of complex SFA lesions in CLI for a temporary bypass is now technically feasible using a 4F system. Technical results are promising. Clinical results after 6 months are acceptable when taking into consideration that this approach may be the last option for limb salvage.

  7. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of themore » contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m 2 to 0.146 kg/m 2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m 2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a 91 second long

  8. Combination therapy of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 with antibiotics protects mice from Escherichia coli-induced sepsis*.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomomi; Fukunaga, Koichi; Seki, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto; Miyasho, Taku; Obata, Toru; Asano, Koichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Takeda, Junzo

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation occurs along with infection during sepsis. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 has protective and resolving effects in experimental models of infection. In this study, we examined the effects of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics on Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis. Prospective experimental study. University research laboratory. Male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were injected with E. coli to induce peritonitis and were given either 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (1 μg/mouse) or placebo (saline) with antibiotics (ceftazidime). The effects of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 on peritoneal cell populations, bacterial burden, and cytokine production were assessed. Survival rates were observed for up to 7 days. In addition, we examined the effects of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 on peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, CpG DNA, or live E. coli. Treatment with 15-epi-lipoxin A4 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the peritoneum, inhibited production of cytokines and chemokines, and decreased bacterial load in the serum. Combined treatment of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 with antibiotics significantly improved survival in E. coli-infected mice. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 also attenuated the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by lipopolysaccharide- or CpG DNA-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, 15-epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics synergistically reduced the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with live E. coli. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics attenuated systemic inflammation, inhibited bacteria dissemination, and improved survival in E. coli-infected mice. The reduced production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by peritoneal macrophages suggested that 15-epi-lipoxin A4 blocked the initial proinflammatory response. Taken together, these data suggested that 15-epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics was beneficial in regulating the proinflammatory response in sepsis without

  9. Sensitization of interferon-γ induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells by extracellular S100A4

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kjetil Boye; Andersen, Kristin; Fodstad, Øystein; Mælandsmo, Gunhild Mari

    2004-01-01

    Background S100A4 is a small Ca2+-binding protein of the S100 family with metastasis-promoting properties. Recently, secreted S100A4 protein has been shown to possess a number of functions, including induction of angiogenesis, stimulation of cell motility and neurite extension. Methods Cell cultures from two human osteosarcoma cell lines, OHS and its anti-S100A4 ribozyme transfected counterpart II-11b, was treated with IFN-γ and recombinant S100A4 in order to study the sensitizing effects of extracellular S100A4 on IFN-γ mediated apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and Lamin B. Results In the present work, we found that the S100A4-expressing human osteosarcoma cell line OHS was more sensitive to IFN-γ-mediated apoptosis than the II-11b cells. S100A4 protein was detected in conditioned medium from OHS cells, but not from II-11b cells, and addition of recombinant S100A4 to the cell medium sensitized II-11b cells to apoptosis induced by IFN-γ. The S100A4/IFN-γ-mediated induction of apoptosis was shown to be independent of caspase activation, but dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, addition of extracellular S100A4 was demonstrated to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that S100A4 sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to IFN-γ-mediated induction of apoptosis. Additionally, extracellular S100A4 activates NF-κB, but whether these events are causally related remains unknown. PMID:15318945

  10. A double transgenic mouse model expressing human pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaochao; Cheung, Connie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Shah, Yatrik M.; Wang, Ting; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the most abundant human P450 in liver, participates in the metabolism of ∼50% of clinically used drugs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is the major activator of CYP3A4 transcription. However, due to species differences in response to PXR ligands, it is problematic to use rodents to assess CYP3A4 regulation and function. The generation of double transgenic mice expressing human PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) would provide a means to this problem. In the current study, a TgCYP3A4/hPXR mouse model was generated by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in Pxr-null mice. In TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice, CYP3A4 was strongly induced by rifampicin, a human-specific PXR ligand, but not by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile, a rodent-specific PXR ligand. Consistent with CYP3A expression, hepatic CYP3A activity increased ∼five-fold in TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice pretreated with rifampicin. Most anti-human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors are CYP3A substrates and their interactions with rifamycins are a source of major concern in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By using TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice, human PXR-CYP3A4 mediated rifampicin-protease inhibitor interactions were recapitulated, as the metabolic stability of amprenavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir decreased 52%, 53%, and 99% respectively in the liver microsomes of TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice pretreated with rifampicin. In vivo, rifampicin pretreatment resulted in ∼80% decrease in the area under serum amprenavir concentration-time curve in TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice. These results suggest that the TgCYP3A4/hPXR mouse model could serve as a useful tool for studies on CYP3A4 transcription and function in vivo. PMID:18799805

  11. Human papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins bind the A4 endoplasmic reticulum protein to regulate proliferative ability upon differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotnik Halavaty, Katarina; Regan, Jennifer; Mehta, Kavi

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect stratified epithelia and link their life cycles to epithelial differentiation. The HPV E5 protein plays a role in the productive phase of the HPV life cycle but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We identify a new binding partner of E5, A4, using a membrane-associated yeast-two hybrid system. The A4 protein co-localizes with HPV 31 E5 in perinuclear regions and forms complexes with E5 and Bap31. In normal keratinocytes, A4 is found primarily in basal cells while in HPV positive cells high levels of A4 are seen in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Reduction ofmore » A4 expression by shRNAs, enhanced HPV genome amplification and increased cell proliferation ability following differentiation but this was not seen in cells lacking E5. Our studies suggest that the A4 protein is an important E5 binding partner that plays a role in regulating cell proliferation ability upon differentiation. - Highlights: • A4 associates with HPV 31 E5 proteins. • A4 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum. • HPV proteins induce A4 expression in suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium. • E5 is important for proliferation ability of differentiating HPV positive cells.« less

  12. El efecto de la panfotocoagulación con láser en edema macular diabético con el fotocoagulador Pascal® versus el láser de argón convencional.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Mohamed M; Macky, Tamer A

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto de la panfotocoagulación (PFC) en el edema macular diabético (EMD) en pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa (RDP) con el fotocoagulador Pascal® (FP) vs. un fotocoagulador con láser de argón convencional (FLAC). Métodos: Se aleatorizó el uso de FP o FLAC en ochenta ojos con RDP y EMD con afectación central de la mácula. Ambos grupos tuvieron una evaluación de base de mejor agudeza visual corregida y fueron examinados con tomografía de coherencia óptica y angiografía con fluoresceína. Resultados: El número medio de disparos de láser en los grupos de FP y FLAC fue 1.726,10 y 752,00 en la sesión 1 y 1.589,00 y 830,00 (p < 0,001) en la sesión 2, respectivamente. El grosor foveal central (GFC) medio antes de comenzar el estudio fue 306 ± 100 y 314 ± 98 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente. A las 8 semanas, el GFC medio fue 332 ± 116 y 347 ± 111 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente (p > 0,05). La MAVC media fue similar durante el periodo de estudio y no hubo ninguna diferencia significativa entre los grupos (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: El FP y el FLAC mostraron efectos similares en el EMD en ojos con RDP y fueron igualmente seguros sin un aumento significativo del GFC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ovarian cortex from high A4 cows secretes excess A4, and exhibits increased oxidative stress, macrophage markers and arrested follicle development which can be partially rescued by angiogenic VEGFA Is

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have identified a population of cows within the UNL physiology herd with excess androstenedione (A4) in follicular fluid and 17% reduction in calving rate. Because excess androgens can cause follicle arrest we hypothesized that 1) folliculogenesis would be disrupted in High A4 cows; and 2) vascul...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08...

  16. A method for deriving a 4D-interpolated balanced planning target for mobile tumor radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roland, Teboh; Hales, Russell; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Simari, Patricio; Tryggestad, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tumor control and normal tissue toxicity are strongly correlated to the tumor and normal tissue volumes receiving high prescribed dose levels in the course of radiotherapy. Planning target definition is, therefore, crucial to ensure favorable clinical outcomes. This is especially important for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancers, characterized by high fractional doses and steep dose gradients. The shift in recent years from population-based to patient-specific treatment margins, as facilitated by the emergence of 4D medical imaging capabilities, is a major improvement. The commonly used motion-encompassing, or internal-target volume (ITV), target definition approach provides a high likelihood of coverage for the mobile tumor but inevitably exposes healthy tissue to high prescribed dose levels. The goal of this work was to generate an interpolated balanced planning target that takes into account both tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing from high prescribed dose levels, thereby improving on the ITV approach. For each 4DCT dataset, 4D deformable image registration was used to derive two bounding targets, namely, a 4D-intersection and a 4D-composite target which minimized normal tissue exposure to high prescribed dose levels and maximized tumor coverage, respectively. Through definition of an "effective overlap volume histogram" the authors derived an "interpolated balanced planning target" intended to balance normal tissue sparing from prescribed doses with tumor coverage. To demonstrate the dosimetric efficacy of the interpolated balanced planning target, the authors performed 4D treatment planning based on deformable image registration of 4D-CT data for five previously treated lung cancer patients. Two 4D plans were generated per patient, one based on the interpolated balanced planning target and the other based on the conventional ITV target. Plans were compared for tumor coverage and the degree of normal tissue sparing resulting from the new

  17. Introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment into durum wheat confers aluminium tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang; Ryan, Peter R.; Yan, ZeHong; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Aluminium (Al3+) inhibits root growth of sensitive plant species and is a key factor that limits durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) production on acid soils. The aim of this study was to enhance the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum cultivar by introgression of a chromosomal fragment from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) that possesses an Al3+ tolerance gene. Methods A 4D(4B) substitution line of durum wheat ‘Langdon’ was backcrossed to ‘Jandaroi’, a current semi-dwarf Australian durum. In the second backcross, using ‘Jandaroi’ as the recurrent parent, a seedling was identified where TaALMT1 on chromosome 4D was recombined with the Rht-B1b locus on chromosome 4B to yield an Al3+-tolerant seedling with a semi-dwarf habit. This seedling was used in a third backcross to generate homozygous sister lines with contrasting Al3+ tolerances. The backcrossed lines were characterized and compared with selected cultivars of hexaploid wheat for their Al3+ and Na+ tolerances in hydroponic culture as well as in short-term experiments to assess their growth on acid soil. Key Results Analysis of sister lines derived from the third backcross showed that the 4D chromosomal fragment substantially enhanced Al3+ tolerance. The ability to exclude Na+ from leaves was also enhanced, indicating that the chromosomal fragment possessed the Kna1 salt tolerance locus. Although Al3+ tolerance of seminal roots was enhanced in acid soil, the development of fine roots was not as robust as found in Al3+-tolerant lines of hexaploid wheat. Analysis of plant characteristics in the absence of Al3+ toxicity showed that the introgressed fragment did not affect total grain yield but reduced the weight of individual grains. Conclusions The results show that it is possible to increase substantially the Al3+ tolerance of an elite durum wheat cultivar by introgression of a 4D chromosomal fragment. Further improvements are possible, such as introducing additional genes to enhance

  18. Fairfax County and the Commonwealth of Virginia Public Safety and Transportation Operations Center : concept of cooperation (ConCoop)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The Public Safety and Transportation Operations Centers (PSTOCs) Concept of Cooperation (ConCoop) enables partner agencies to lay out and reach consensus on: : their intentions in co-locating; : joint functions and systems needed to mee...

  19. Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR

    PubMed Central

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Flannery, Patrick C.; Abbott, Kodye L.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Mani, Sridhar; Samuel, Temesgen; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively. PMID:25542144

  20. S100A4 amplifies TGF-β-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in a pleural mesothelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Qian; Li, Feiyan; Wang, Lei; Li, Hong; Yao, Yan; Hu, Tinghua; Sun, Zhongmin

    2018-01-01

    Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis. In this study, we determined the expression of S100A4 and EMT-related markers in Met-5A cells (pleural mesothelial cells) treated with TGF-β or TGF-β inhibitor by real-time PCR and western blot. In order to explore the role of S100A4, we used siRNA to knock down the expression of S100A4 in cell model. We found that the expression of epithelial cell marker was decreased and the mesenchymal cell marker increased with S100A4 upregulation after treatment with TGF-β. Moreover, the changes of EMT-related event were restricted when the expression of S100A4 was knocked down. Conversely, S100A4 can partially rescue the EMT-related expression changes induced by TGF-β inhibitor. These findings suggest that S100A4 expression is induced by the TGF-β pathway, and silencing S100A4 expression can inhibit the process of TGF-β-induced EMT. PMID:29141874

  1. S100A4 amplifies TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a pleural mesothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Ning, Qian; Li, Feiyan; Wang, Lei; Li, Hong; Yao, Yan; Hu, Tinghua; Sun, Zhongmin

    2018-02-01

    Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis. In this study, we determined the expression of S100A4 and EMT-related markers in Met-5A cells (pleural mesothelial cells) treated with TGF-β or TGF-β inhibitor by real-time PCR and western blot. In order to explore the role of S100A4, we used siRNA to knock down the expression of S100A4 in cell model. We found that the expression of epithelial cell marker was decreased and the mesenchymal cell marker increased with S100A4 upregulation after treatment with TGF-β. Moreover, the changes of EMT-related event were restricted when the expression of S100A4 was knocked down. Conversely, S100A4 can partially rescue the EMT-related expression changes induced by TGF-β inhibitor. These findings suggest that S100A4 expression is induced by the TGF-β pathway, and silencing S100A4 expression can inhibit the process of TGF-β-induced EMT. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. S100A4 Mediates Endometrial Cancer Invasion and is a Target of TGF-β1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ran; Schlumbrecht, Matthew; Shipley, Gregory L.; Xie, Susu; Bassett, Roland L.; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of endometrial cancer invasion are poorly understood. S100A4, also known as FSP1 (fibroblast specific protein 1), has long been known to be a molecular marker of fibrosis in a variety of different fibrotic diseases of the lungs, liver, kidney, and heart. We demonstrate here that increased expression of S100A4 is associated with advanced stage endometrial cancer and decreased recurrence free survival. To verify the essential role of S100A4 in invasiveness of endometrial cancer, S100A4 expression was down-regulated by RNAi in HEC-1A cells, which resulted in undetectable S100A4 protein and significantly decreased migration and invasion. Due to the established connection between TGF-β1 and S100A4 induction in experimental models of kidney and liver fibrosis, we next examined whether TGF-β1 could also regulate S100A4 in endometrial cancer cells. TGF-β1 stimulated endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion with a concomitant increase in S100A4 protein. Induction of S100A4 was associated with the activation of Smads. TGF -β1 mediated endometrial cancer cell motility was inhibited by S100A4 siRNA. In aggregate, these results suggest that S100A4 is a critical mediator of invasion in endometrial cancer and is upregulated by the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. These results also suggest that endometrial cancer cell invasion and fibrosis share common molecular mechanisms. PMID:19506550

  3. CYP3A4-dependent cellular response does not relate to CYP3A4-catalysed metabolites of C-1748 and C-1305 acridine antitumor agents in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Ewa; Niemira, Magdalena; Hołownia, Adam; Mazerska, Zofia

    2014-11-01

    High CYP3A4 expression sensitizes tumor cells to certain antitumor agents while for others it can lower their therapeutic efficacy. We have elucidated the influence of CYP3A4 overexpression on the cellular response induced by antitumor acridine derivatives, C-1305 and C-1748, in two hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines, Hep3A4 stably transfected with CYP3A4 isoenzyme, and HepC34 expressing empty vector. The compounds were selected considering their different chemical structures and different metabolic pathways seen earlier in human and rat liver microsomes C-1748 was transformed to several metabolites at a higher rate in Hep3A4 than in HepC34 cells. In contrast, C-1305 metabolism in Hep3A4 cells was unchanged compared to HepC34 cells, with each cell line producing a single metabolite of comparable concentration. C-1748 resulted in a progressive appearance of sub-G1 population to its high level in both cell lines. In turn, the sub-G1 fraction was dominated in CYP3A4-overexpressing cells following C-1305 exposure. Both compounds induced necrosis and to a lesser extent apoptosis, which were more pronounced in Hep3A4 than in wild-type cells. In conclusion, CYP3A4-overexpressing cells produce higher levels of C-1748 metabolites, but they do not affect the cellular responses to the drug. Conversely, cellular response was modulated following C-1305 treatment in CYP3A4-overexpressing cells, although metabolism of this drug was unaltered. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: A 4-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases. PMID:26566236

  5. Crowley Alden A-4 oil skimmer operational test report. Final report, 1 May-30 June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, M.

    1986-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tested the Crowley Alden A-4 Oil Skimming System at its Oil and Hazardous Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) facility in Leonardo, N.J. This testing was sponsored by the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL). The tests were required as part of a Navy purchase to assure that the product met or exceeded specifications in an RFP issued in 1985. During these tests the skimmer recovered 2 to 3 gallons per minute (gpm) (7.5 to 11.4 liters per minute (1pm) ) of oil. There was little or no variation in oil recovery rate introduced by altering testmore » conditions. In calm water, the skimmer recovery efficiency was minimally 85 to 95 %. Under wave conditions, the recovery efficiency was 65 to 75 %. The test program included measurement of the maximum pump rate of an ancillary double diaphragm pump. The greatest pump rate that should be expected is 70 to 80 18pm (18 to 21gpm). Lower capacities were measured with added head, but the pump performed equally well with DFM as with water. Overall, the skimmer met or exceeded the performance characteristics required for inner harbor use.« less

  6. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, C; Haddad, S; Brown, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 4-year program of bicycle helmet promotion that targeted elementary school children in one region of Quebec. The program revolved primarily around persuasive communication and community organization, combining standard educational activities and activities to facilitate helmet acquisition and use. METHODS. Helmet use was compared between more than 8000 young cyclists in municipalities exposed or not exposed to the program. Factors influencing helmet use were controlled through the use of multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Helmet use increased from 1.3% before program implementation to 33% in 1993. The program was clearly effective in most cycling circumstances and for various groups of children. However, the benefits of the program were unequally distributed; the program was one third as effective in poorer municipalities as in "average-rich" ones. CONCLUSIONS. This community-based program that combined various types of activities appeared to be effective. New intervention models are needed to ensure an equitable distribution of benefits. PMID:8561241

  7. A 4-Week Model of House Dust Mite (HDM) Induced Allergic Airways Inflammation with Airway Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Woo, L N; Guo, W Y; Wang, X; Young, A; Salehi, S; Hin, A; Zhang, Y; Scott, J A; Chow, C W

    2018-05-02

    Animal models of allergic airways inflammation are useful tools in studying the pathogenesis of asthma and potential therapeutic interventions. The different allergic airways inflammation models available to date employ varying doses, frequency, duration and types of allergen, which lead to the development of different features of asthma; showing varying degrees of airways inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airways remodeling. Models that also exhibit airway remodeling, a key feature of asthma, in addition to AHR and airway inflammation typically require 5-12 weeks to develop. In this report, we describe a 4-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation, and compare the phenotypic features of two different doses of HDM exposures (10 µg and 25 µg) for 5 days/week with a well-characterized 8-week chronic HDM model. We found that 4 weeks of intranasal HDM (25 µg in 35 µl saline; 5 days/week) resulted in AHR, airway inflammation and airway remodeling that were comparable to the 8-week model. We conclude that this new 4-week HDM model is another useful tool in studies of human asthma that offers advantages of shorter duration for development and decreased costs when compared to other models that require longer durations of exposure (5-12 weeks) to develop.

  8. Lead poisoning from an unexpected source in a 4-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Shannon, M

    1998-06-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is characteristically a disease that occurs between the second and third years of life, generally resulting from the child's ingestion of lead-based paint or dust. However, lead poisoning may also appear in the first year of life. The case of a 4-month-old infant is reported in which the preparation of infant formula in a lead-soldered samovar (urn) resulted in venous blood lead levels as high as 46 microg/dl. The samovar had been brought into the United States by the parents while on a visit to Iran. The infant was placed on chelation therapy with parenteral CaNa2EDTA followed by oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and d-penicillamine. This resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in the blood lead level. Lead poisoning in infancy may have unusual etiologies such as in utero transmission of lead by lead-poisoned women. Because sources of lead poisoning in infancy may be unusual, a detailed environmental investigation may be necessary to identify the exact source. Children exposed to lead in the first 2 years of life have a special vulnerability to the neurotoxicity of lead, with the risk of enduring developmental handicaps. Continued public health initiatives to remove lead from the environment, in conjunction with routine lead screening of young children, will be key in meeting the goal of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to eliminate childhood lead poisoning by the year 2011.

  9. Neutron interrogation of high-enriched uranium by a 4 MeV linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakosi, László; Nguyen, Cong Tam

    2008-07-01

    For revealing unauthorized transport (illicit trafficking) of nuclear materials, a non-destructive method reported earlier, utilizing a 4 MeV linear accelerator for photoneutron interrogation, was further developed. The linac served as a pulsed neutron source for assay of highly enriched uranium. Produced in beryllium or heavy water by bremsstrahlung, neutrons subsequently induced fission in the samples. Delayed neutrons were detected by a newly designed neutron collar built up of 14 3He counters embedded in a polyethylene moderator. A PC controlled multiscaler served as a time analyzer, triggering the detector startup by the beam pulse. Significant progress was achieved in enhancing the detector response, hence the sensitivity for revealing illicit material. A lower sensitivity limit of the order of 10 mg 235U was determined in a 20 s measurement time with a reasonable amount of beryllium (170 g) or of heavy water (100 g) and a mean electron current of 10 μA. Sensitivity can be further enhanced by increasing the measurement time.

  10. Treating epidermal melasma with a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025%.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Pearl; Watson, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of treating melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system, including a proprietary cleanser, toner, 4% hydroquinone, exfoliation enhancer, and sunscreen, plus tretinoin cream 0.025%. Together these products offer not only treatment of melasma but also a complete skin care regimen. Twenty participants with mild or moderate epidermal melasma with Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI were instructed to use the hydroquinone skin care system and tretinoin cream for 12 weeks. Melasma severity, melasma pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score were significantly reduced from week 4 onward relative to baseline (P < or = .01). The proportion of participants who felt embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin very much or a lot declined from 80% (16/20) to 20% (4/20) between baseline and week 12. Similarly, the proportion of those who made very much or a lot of effort to hide their skin discoloration declined from 90% (18/20) to 37% (7/19). In total, 85% (17/20) of participants were satisfied with the overall effectiveness of the study treatment. Three participants had adverse events probably related to treatment (dryness, erythema, peeling, and stinging sensation). The 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025% is effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of melasma.

  11. Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Obesity-Induced Adipose Inflammation and Associated Liver and Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Börgeson, Emma; Johnson, Andrew M F; Lee, Yun Sok; Till, Andreas; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Ali-Shah, Syed Tasadaque; Guiry, Patrick J; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A; Serhan, Charles N; Sharma, Kumar; Godson, Catherine

    2015-07-07

    The role of inflammation in obesity-related pathologies is well established. We investigated the therapeutic potential of LipoxinA4 (LXA4:5(S),6(R),15(S)-trihydroxy-7E,9E,11Z,13E,-eicosatetraenoic acid) and a synthetic 15(R)-Benzo-LXA4-analog as interventions in a 3-month high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat)-induced obesity model. Obesity caused distinct pathologies, including impaired glucose tolerance, adipose inflammation, fatty liver, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lipoxins (LXs) attenuated obesity-induced CKD, reducing glomerular expansion, mesangial matrix, and urinary H2O2. Furthermore, LXA4 reduced liver weight, serum alanine-aminotransferase, and hepatic triglycerides. LXA4 decreased obesity-induced adipose inflammation, attenuating TNF-α and CD11c(+) M1-macrophages (MΦs), while restoring CD206(+) M2-MΦs and increasing Annexin-A1. LXs did not affect renal or hepatic MΦs, suggesting protection occurred via attenuation of adipose inflammation. LXs restored adipose expression of autophagy markers LC3-II and p62. LX-mediated protection was demonstrable in adiponectin(-/-) mice, suggesting that the mechanism was adiponectin independent. In conclusion, LXs protect against obesity-induced systemic disease, and these data support a novel therapeutic paradigm for treating obesity and associated pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of ion beam space charge compensation with a 4-grid analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, C., E-mail: c.ullmann@gsi.de; Adonin, A.; Berezov, R.

    2016-02-15

    Experiments to investigate the space charge compensation of pulsed high-current heavy ion beams are performed at the GSI ion source text benches with a 4-grid analyzer provided by CEA/Saclay. The technical design of the 4-grid analyzer is revised to verify its functionality for measurements at pulsed high-current heavy ion beams. The experimental investigation of space charge compensation processes is needed to increase the performance and quality of current and future accelerator facilities. Measurements are performed directly downstream a triode extraction system mounted to a multi-cusp ion source at a high-current test bench as well as downstream the post-acceleration system ofmore » the high-current test injector (HOSTI) with ion energies up to 120 keV/u for helium and argon. At HOSTI, a cold or hot reflex discharge ion source is used to change the conditions for the measurements. The measurements were performed with helium, argon, and xenon and are presented. Results from measurements with single aperture extraction systems are shown.« less

  13. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    PubMed

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  14. Epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system placed in a 4.9-kg infant.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Roosevelt; Aboutalebi, Amir; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kertesz, Naomi; Morales, David L S

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have aided the prevention of sudden cardiac death in adults. The hope is to provide similar benefits to the pediatric population as the devices become smaller. Herein, we present the case of a 4.9-kg, 5-week-old infant boy who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. After emergency defibrillation, conventional treatment options included long-term hospitalization for later cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, or installation of an external defibrillator with subsequent home telemetry. On the basis of the infant's body dimensions, we decided that an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was feasible and the best option. We performed a median sternotomy and placed a Vitality® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a 25-cm defibrillator coil and a 35-cm bipolar ventricular lead. The patient experienced no postoperative morbidity or rhythm disturbances and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. He was placed on β-blocker therapy and has remained well for 3 years.Although external devices can be placed in a small patient, we believe that they are too susceptible to lead damage and lead migration, and that the defibrillator thresholds are less reliable. We think that dysrhythmias even in very small children can be treated effectively and safely with use of an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. To our knowledge, this 4.9-kg infant is the smallest patient to have undergone a successful implantation of this kind.

  15. Water tunnel flow visualization study of a 4.4 percent scale X-31 forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.; Delfrate, John

    1994-01-01

    A water-tunnel test of a 4.4 percent-scale, forebody-only model of the X-31 aircraft with different forebody strakes and nosebooms has been performed in the Flow Visualization Facility at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The focus of the study was to determine the relative effects of the different configurations on the stability and symmetry of the high-angle-of-attack forebody vortex flow field. The clean, noseboom-off configuration resisted the development of asymmetries in the primary vortices through 70 deg angle of attack. The wake of the X-31 flight test noseboom configuration significantly degraded the steadiness of the primary vortex cores and promoted asymmetries. An alternate L-shaped noseboom mounted underneath the forebody had results similar to those seen with the configuration, enabling stable, symmetrical vortices up to 70 deg angle of attack. The addition of strakes near the radome tip along the waterline increased the primary vortex strength while it simultaneously caused the vortex breakdown location co move forward. Forebody strakes did not appear to significantly reduce the asymmetries in the forebody vortex field in the presence of the flight test noseboom.

  16. Using a Retreat to Develop a 4-Year Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sitkin, Nicole; Henderson, Shelly; Callahan, Edward J

    2016-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations experience significant health disparities, yet medical schools report devoting little educational time to the care of this population. In light of this, one School of Medicine utilized a daylong retreat to design a 4-year sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) curriculum. The participants completed pre-and post-surveys on their perspectives and knowledge towards SOGI learning, and the school's curriculum database was reviewed 2 years later to ascertain the degree of implementation of the proposed curriculum. Significant improvements were observed in participants' confidence in creating an SOGI curriculum, knowledge of SOGI teaching resources, and where in the curriculum SOGI competencies are and should be taught. A 6-month follow-up survey yielded a lower response rate, but suggested strong ongoing support for the new curriculum and some continuing challenges to implementing the proposed curriculum. A review of the school's curriculum database 2 years later showed an implementation rate of 76 %. A focused and systematic retreat can be an effective tool for curriculum design and implementation.

  17. Development of a 4 K Separate Two-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator with High Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. M.; He, Y. L.; Gan, Z. H.; Chen, G. B.

    2006-04-01

    Compared to the traditional 4 K cryocoolers, the separate 4 K pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) consists of two independent PTRs, which are thermally connected between the cold end of the first stage and some middle position of the second stage regenerator. It is possible to use different frequency, valve timing, phase shifter and even compressor for each stage for better cooling performance. A 4 K separate two-stage PTR was designed and manufactured. The first stage was separately optimized. A minimum temperature of 12.6 K and cooling capacity of 59.0 W at 40 K was achieved for the first stage by adding some Er3Ni at the cold part of the regenerator. An experimental investigation of valve timing effects on the cooling performance of the 4 K separate two-stage PTR is reported. The experiments show that the optimization of valve timing can considerably improve the cooling performance of the PTR. Cooling capacity of 0.59 W at 4.2 K and 15.4 W at 37.0 K were achieved with an actual input power of 6.6 kW. Effect of frequency on the performance of the separate two-stage PTR is also presented.

  18. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2018-03-01

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m -2 . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m -2 additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m -2 , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m -2 seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m -2 , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lead poisoning from an unexpected source in a 4-month-old infant.

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, M

    1998-01-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is characteristically a disease that occurs between the second and third years of life, generally resulting from the child's ingestion of lead-based paint or dust. However, lead poisoning may also appear in the first year of life. The case of a 4-month-old infant is reported in which the preparation of infant formula in a lead-soldered samovar (urn) resulted in venous blood lead levels as high as 46 microg/dl. The samovar had been brought into the United States by the parents while on a visit to Iran. The infant was placed on chelation therapy with parenteral CaNa2EDTA followed by oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and d-penicillamine. This resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in the blood lead level. Lead poisoning in infancy may have unusual etiologies such as in utero transmission of lead by lead-poisoned women. Because sources of lead poisoning in infancy may be unusual, a detailed environmental investigation may be necessary to identify the exact source. Children exposed to lead in the first 2 years of life have a special vulnerability to the neurotoxicity of lead, with the risk of enduring developmental handicaps. Continued public health initiatives to remove lead from the environment, in conjunction with routine lead screening of young children, will be key in meeting the goal of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to eliminate childhood lead poisoning by the year 2011. Images Figure 1 PMID:9618346

  20. A 4.8 kbps code-excited linear predictive coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremain, Thomas E.; Campbell, Joseph P., Jr.; Welch, Vanoy C.

    1988-01-01

    A secure voice system STU-3 capable of providing end-to-end secure voice communications (1984) was developed. The terminal for the new system will be built around the standard LPC-10 voice processor algorithm. The performance of the present STU-3 processor is considered to be good, its response to nonspeech sounds such as whistles, coughs and impulse-like noises may not be completely acceptable. Speech in noisy environments also causes problems with the LPC-10 voice algorithm. In addition, there is always a demand for something better. It is hoped that LPC-10's 2.4 kbps voice performance will be complemented with a very high quality speech coder operating at a higher data rate. This new coder is one of a number of candidate algorithms being considered for an upgraded version of the STU-3 in late 1989. The problems of designing a code-excited linear predictive (CELP) coder to provide very high quality speech at a 4.8 kbps data rate that can be implemented on today's hardware are considered.

  1. Structural characterization and cytotoxicity studies of different forms of a combretastatin A4 analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Figueiredo, Laysa P.; Ibiapino, Amanda L.; do Amaral, Daniel N.; Ferraz, Letícia S.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Lima, Lídia M.; Ferreira, Fabio F.

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that combretastatin A4 (CA-4), which is a natural stilbene isolated from Combretum caffrum, is used to inhibit angiogenesis. However, depending on the dose administered to the patient, it can cause some side-effects. Herein, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of a novel N-acylhydrazone derivative - LASSBio-1735 - a CA-4 analogue. LASSBio-1735 has displayed in vitro antiproliferative activity against HL-60 (human leukemia), SF-295 (human glioblastoma), MDA-MB435 (melanoma) and HCT-8 (ileocecal adenocarcinoma) tumor cells. We found different hydration levels in two batches of the as-synthesized compound. As a consequence, we could successfully determine the crystal structures - by using X-ray powder diffraction data and a simulated annealing procedure - of the anhydrous and hydrated forms. The effects on cell viability of anhydrous and hydrated forms of LASSBio-1735 were comparatively evaluated in different tumor cell lines, and the hydrated form exhibited higher cytotoxicity in human leukemia K562 cells. These findings lead us to perform a quantitative phase analysis on one of the samples and may shed some light on the search for possible new solvates and/or hydrates.

  2. Lipoxin A4 activates ALX/FPR2 receptor to regulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Hodges, R R; Li, D; Shatos, M A; Bair, J A; Lippestad, M; Serhan, C N; Dartt, D A

    2017-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cells play a major role in maintaining the mucus layer of the tear film under physiological conditions as well as in inflammatory diseases like dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated by proresolution agonists such as lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) that can also function under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA 4 on cultured rat conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion, intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and identify signaling pathways activated by LXA 4 . ALX/FPR2 (formyl peptide receptor2) was localized to goblet cells in rat conjunctiva and in cultured goblet cells. LXA 4 significantly increased mucin secretion, [Ca 2+ ] i , and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activation. These functions were inhibited by ALX/FPR2 inhibitors. Stable analogs of LXA 4 increased [Ca 2+ ] i to the same extent as LXA 4 . Sequential addition of either LXA 4 or resolvin D1 followed by the second compound decreased [Ca 2+ ] i of the second compound compared with its initial response. LXA 4 activated phospholipases C, D, and A 2 and downstream molecules protein kinase C, ERK 1/2, and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase to increase mucin secretion and [Ca 2+ ] i . We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA 4 to maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface and could be a novel treatment for dry eye diseases.

  3. Lipoxin A4 activates ALX/FPR2 Receptor to Regulate Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.; Li, Dayu; Shatos, Marie A.; Bair, Jeffrey A.; Lippestad, Marit; Serhan, Charles N.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2016-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cells play a major role in maintaining the mucous layer of the tear film under physiological conditions as well as in inflammatory diseases like dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis.. Resolution of inflammation is mediated by pro-resolution agonists such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4) that can also function under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA4 on cultured rat conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion, intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and identify signaling pathways activated by LXA4. ALX/FPR was localized to goblet cells in rat conjunctiva and in cultured goblet cells. LXA4 significantly increased mucin secretion, [Ca2+]i, and ERK 1/2 activation. These functions were inhibited by ALX/FPR2 inhibitors. Stable analogs of LXA4 increased [Ca2+]i to the same extent as LXA4. Sequential addition of either LXA4 or resolvin D1 followed by the second compound decreased [Ca2+]i of the second compound compared to its initial response. LXA4 activated phospholipase C, -D, and A2 and downstream molecules protein kinase C, ERK 1/2, and Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase to increase mucin secretion and [Ca2+]i. We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA4 to maintain the homeostasis of the ocular surface and could be a novel treatment for dry eye diseases. PMID:27072607

  4. Lipoxin A4 Counter-regulates Histamine-stimulated Glycoconjugate Secretion in Conjunctival Goblet Cells.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Robin R; Li, Dayu; Shatos, Marie A; Serhan, Charles N; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-11-08

    Conjunctival goblet cells synthesize and secrete mucins which play an important role in protecting the ocular surface. Pro-resolution mediators, such as lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ), are produced during inflammation returning the tissue to homeostasis and are also produced in non-inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA 4 on cultured human conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion and increase in intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and on histamine-stimulated responses. LXA 4 increased mucin secretion and [Ca 2+ ] i , and activated ERK1/2 in human goblet cells. Addition of LXA 4 before resolvin D1 (RvD1) decreased RvD1 responses though RvD1 did not block LXA 4 responses. LXA 4 inhibited histamine-stimulated increases in mucin secretion, [Ca 2+ ] i , and ERK1/2 activation through activation of β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1. We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA 4 through the ALX/FPR2 receptor to maintain homeostasis of the ocular surface and regulate histamine responses and could provide a new therapeutic approach for allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye diseases.

  5. Lipoxin A4 Counter-regulates Histamine-stimulated Glycoconjugate Secretion in Conjunctival Goblet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.; Li, Dayu; Shatos, Marie A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2016-01-01

    Conjunctival goblet cells synthesize and secrete mucins which play an important role in protecting the ocular surface. Pro-resolution mediators, such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4), are produced during inflammation returning the tissue to homeostasis and are also produced in non-inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA4 on cultured human conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion and increase in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and on histamine-stimulated responses. LXA4 increased mucin secretion and [Ca2+]i, and activated ERK1/2 in human goblet cells. Addition of LXA4 before resolvin D1 (RvD1) decreased RvD1 responses though RvD1 did not block LXA4 responses. LXA4 inhibited histamine-stimulated increases in mucin secretion, [Ca2+]i, and ERK1/2 activation through activation of β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1. We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA4 through the ALX/FPR2 receptor to maintain homeostasis of the ocular surface and regulate histamine responses and could provide a new therapeutic approach for allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye diseases. PMID:27824117

  6. A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole: Microwave assisted synthesis, spectral, thermal, XRD and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajmane, S. V.; Ubale, V. P.; Lawand, A. S.; Nalawade, A. M.; Karale, N. N.; More, P. G.

    2013-11-01

    A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole (CPAT) has been synthesized by reacting o-chloroacetophenone, iodine and thiourea under microwave irradiation as a green chemistry approach. The reactions proceed selectively and within a couple of minutes giving high yields of the products. The compound was characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-visible, IR, NMR and GC-MS), XRD and thermal analyses. The TG curve of the compound was analyzed to calculate various kinetic parameters (n, E, Z, ΔS and ΔG) by using Coats-Redfern (C.R.), MacCallum-Tanner (M.T.) and Horowitz-Metzger (H.M.) method. The compound was tested for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. The compound was evaluated for their in vitro nematicidal activity on plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and molluscicidal activity on fresh water helminthiasis vector snail Lymnea auricularia. The compound is biologically active in very low concentration. X-ray diffraction study suggests a triclinic crystal system for the compound.

  7. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  8. Study of the IMRT interplay effect using a 4DCT Monte Carlo dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael D; Abdellatif, Ady; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene

    2012-04-21

    Respiratory motion may lead to dose errors when treating thoracic and abdominal tumours with radiotherapy. The interplay between complex multileaf collimator patterns and patient respiratory motion could result in unintuitive dose changes. We have developed a treatment reconstruction simulation computer code that accounts for interplay effects by combining multileaf collimator controller log files, respiratory trace log files, 4DCT images and a Monte Carlo dose calculator. Two three-dimensional (3D) IMRT step-and-shoot plans, a concave target and integrated boost were delivered to a 1D rigid motion phantom. Three sets of experiments were performed with 100%, 50% and 25% duty cycle gating. The log files were collected, and five simulation types were performed on each data set: continuous isocentre shift, discrete isocentre shift, 4DCT, 4DCT delivery average and 4DCT plan average. Analysis was performed using 3D gamma analysis with passing criteria of 2%, 2 mm. The simulation framework was able to demonstrate that a single fraction of the integrated boost plan was more sensitive to interplay effects than the concave target. Gating was shown to reduce the interplay effects. We have developed a 4DCT Monte Carlo simulation method that accounts for IMRT interplay effects with respiratory motion by utilizing delivery log files.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of enantiomerically pure cyclopropyl analogues of combretastatin A4.

    PubMed

    Ty, Nancy; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Devillers, Emmanuelle; Quentin, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of stereochemistry on biological activities of cis-cyclopropyl combretastatin A4 (CA4) analogues, we have prepared several cyclopropyl compounds in their pure enantiomeric forms. The key reactions in our synthesis are the cyclopropanation of a (Z)-alkenylboron compound bearing a chiral auxiliary, and the cross-coupling of both enantiomeric cyclopropyl trifluoroborate salts with aryl and olefinic halides. Three pairs of cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues were evaluated for their potential antivascular activities. The diarylcyclopropyl compounds with SR-configuration (-)-1b, (-)-2b and the cyclopropylvinyl enantiomer (+)-3a with RR-configuration were the most potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors. A correlation was noted between anti-tubulin activity and rounding up activity of endothelial cells. The cytotoxic activity on B16 melanoma cells was in the submicromolar range for most compounds, but unlike the anti-tubulin activity, there was no difference in cytotoxic activity between racemic and enantiomerically pure forms for the three series of compounds. Molecular docking studies within the colchicine binding site of tubulin were in good agreement with the tubulin polymerization inhibitory data and confirmed the importance of the configuration of the synthesized cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues for potential antivascular activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of constrained heterocyclic analogues of combretastatin A4.

    PubMed

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Seguin, Johanne; Quentin, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Morin-Allory, Luc; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2011-09-05

    A series of combretastatin A4 (CA4) analogues with a lactam or lactone ring fused to the trimethoxyphenyl or the B-phenyl moiety were synthesized in an efficient and stereoselective manner by using a domino Heck-Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The vascular-disrupting potential of these conformationally restricted CA4 analogues was assessed by various in vitro assays: inhibition of tubulin polymerization, modification of endothelial cell morphology, and disruption of endothelial cell cords. Compounds were also evaluated for their growth inhibitory effects against murine and human tumor cells. B-ring-constrained derivatives that contain an oxindole ring (in contrast to compounds with a benzofuranone ring) as well as analogues bearing a six-membered lactone core fused to the trimethoxyphenyl ring are endowed with significant biological activity. The most potent compound of this series (oxindole 9 b) is of particular interest, as it combines chemical stability and a biological activity profile characteristic of a vascular-disrupting agent. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Mutual Relationship Between Men's Drinking and Depression: A 4-Year Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Bi; Chung, Sulki; Lee, HaeKook; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K < 12) and 320 subjects were categorized as the problem drinking group (AUDIT-K ≥ 12). An autoregressive cross-lagged modelling analysis was performed to investigate the mutual relationship between problem drinking and depression measured consecutively over time. The results indicated that alcohol drinking and depression were stable over time. In the control group, there was no significant causal relationship between problem drinking and depression while in the problem drinking group, drinking in the previous year significantly influenced depression in the following second, third and fourth years. This study compared normal versus problem drinkers and showed a 4-year mutual causal relationship between depression and drinking. No longitudinal interaction between drinking and depression occurred in normal drinkers, while drinking intensified depression over time in problem drinkers. This study found that problem drinking was a risk factor for development of depression. Therefore, more attention should be given to problem alcohol use in the general population and evaluation of past alcohol use history in patients with depressive disorders.

  12. Design and Operation of a 4kW Linear Motor Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, J. H.

    2004-06-01

    A 4 kW electrical input Linear Motor driven pulse tube cryocooler has successfully been designed, built and tested. The optimum operation frequency is 60 Hz with a design refrigeration of >200 W at 80 K. The design exercise involved modeling and optimization in DeltaE software. Load matching between the cold head and linear motor was achieved by careful sizing of the transfer tube. The cryocooler makes use of a dual orifice inertance network and a single compliance tank for phase optimization and streaming suppression in the pulse tube. The in-line cold head design is modular in structure for convenient change-out and re-assembly of various components. The Regenerator consists of layers of two different grades of wire-mesh. The Linear motor is a clearance seal, dual opposed piston design from CFIC Inc. Initial results have demonstrated the refrigeration target of 200 W by liquefying Nitrogen from an ambient temperature and pressure. Overall Carnot efficiencies of 13% have been achieved and efforts to further improve efficiencies are underway. Linear motor efficiencies up to 84% have been observed. Experimental results have shown satisfactory compliance with model predictions, although the effects of streaming were not part of the model. Refrigeration loss due to streaming was minimal at the design operating conditions of 80 K.

  13. H∞ controller design for a 4-meter direct-drive azimuth axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Song, Xiao-Li; Wang, Da-Xing

    2015-11-01

    To pursue a higher imaging resolution for exploring more details in the information conveyed by the Universe, the next generation of optical telescopes based on a direct drive widely employ the extremely large aperture structure, which also introduces more disturbances and uncertain factors to the control system. Facing this new challenge, the PID control method in main-axis control systems of traditional astronomical telescopes cannot suffice for the requirement of the tracking precision and disturbance sensitivity in angular velocity. To overcome this shortcoming, we establish a dynamic model and propose an H∞ controller for a 4-meter azimuth direct drive control system that consists of a revolving platform (azimuth axis), a three-phase torque motor, a motor drive, an encoder, a data acquisition card and a small computers. Simulations are carried out to analyze the model and guide the real experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed H∞ controller reduces the tracking error by a maximum of 80.69% (average 57.8%) and the disturbance sensitivity by a maximum of 82.3% (average 50.96%) compared with the traditional tuned PI controller; furthermore, the order of the model describing the proposed controller can be reduced to three, thus its feasibility in real systems is guaranteed.

  14. Identification of Annexin A4 as a hepatopancreas factor involved in liver cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danhua; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Han, Wenlong; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zhou, Ying; Lee, Sunyoung; Strongin, Alex Y.; Dong, P. Duc Si

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into liver and pancreas development, we investigated the target of 2F11, a monoclonal antibody of unknown antigen, widely used in zebrafish studies for labeling hepatopancreatic ducts. Utilizing mass spectrometry and in vivo assays, we determined the molecular target of 2F11 to be Annexin A4 (Anxa4), a calcium binding protein. We further found that in both zebrafish and mouse endoderm, Anxa4 is broadly expressed in the developing liver and pancreas, and later becomes more restricted to the hepatopancreatic ducts and pancreatic islets, including the insulin producing β-cells. Although Anxa4 is a known target of several monogenic diabetes genes and its elevated expression is associated with chemoresistance in malignancy, its in vivo role is largely unexplored. Knockdown of Anxa4 in zebrafish leads to elevated expression of caspase 8 and Δ113p53, and liver bud specific activation of Caspase 3 and apoptosis. Mosaic knockdown reveal that Anxa4 is required cell-autonomously in the liver bud for cell survival. This finding is further corroborated with mosaic anxa4 knockout studies using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Collectively, we identify Anxa4 as a new, evolutionarily conserved hepatopancreatic factor that is required in zebrafish for liver progenitor viability, through inhibition of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. A role for Anxa4 in cell survival may have implications for the mechanism of diabetic β-cell apoptosis and cancer cell chemoresistance. PMID:25176043

  15. Antibiotic Consumption During a 4-year Period in a Community Hospital with an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Fernandez, Eliezer Alemán; Guerrero, Yaquelín Batista; Serrano, Ramon N. Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. Methods This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012–2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD). Results The consumption of antimicrobials in 2012 was 171.3 DBD, and increased to 252.7 DBD in 2013, 229.1 DBD in 2014, and 184.7 DBD in 2015. Cephalosporins use reduced from 98.2 DBD in 2013 to 51.5 DBD in 2015 while the consumption of penicillins increased during the beginning of 2014 with a slight decrease in 2015. Carbapenems consumption during 2014–2015 was lower than previous years, and vice-versa for aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones had a sustained increase with 37.1% increased consumption in 2015 compared to the two previous years. There was an increase in the use of intravenous (IV) (108.5%) and oral azithromycin (55.1%) and the use of oral (152.8%) and IV moxifloxacin (22.9%). Conclusions We observed a decrease in antibiotic use in patients admitted to a community hospital with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but the increase in fluoroquinolones consumption is a concern that requires focused strategies. PMID:27602189

  16. A 4-gene panel as a marker at chromosome 8q in Asian gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Hengjun; Deng, Xiaxing; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-10-01

    A widely held viewpoint is that the use of multiple markers, combined in some type of algorithm, will be necessary to provide high enough discrimination between diseased cases and non-diseased. We applied stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify the best combination of the 32 biomarkers at chromosome 8q on an independent public microarray test set of 80 paired gastric samples. A combination of SULF1, INTS8, ATP6V1C1, and GPR172A was identified with a prediction accuracy of 98.0% for discriminating carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues in our previous 25 paired samples. Interestingly, the overexpression of SULF1 was associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Function prediction analysis revealed that the 4-marker panel was mainly associated with acidification of intracellular compartments. Taken together, we found a 4-gene panel that accurately discriminated gastric carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues and these results had potential clinical significance in the early diagnosis and targeted treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECRmore » ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.« less

  18. Direct formulation of a 4-node hybrid shell element with rotational degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple 4-node assumed-stress hybrid quadrilateral shell element with rotational or drilling degrees of freedom is formulated. The element formulation is based directly on a 4-node element. This direct formulation requires fewer computations than a similar element that is derived from an internal 8-node isoparametric element in which the midside degrees of freedom are eliminated in favor of rotational degree of freedom at the corner nodes. The formulation is based on the principle of minimum complementary energy. The membrane part of the element has 12 degrees of freedom including rotational degrees of freedom. The bending part of the element also has 12 degrees of freedom. The bending part of the quadratic variations for both in-plane and out-of-plane displacement fields and linear variations for both in-plane and out-of-plane rotation fields are assumed along the edges of the element. The element Cartesian-coordinate system is chosen such as to make the stress field invariant with respect to node numbering. The membrane part of the stress field is based on a 9-parameter equilibrating stress field, while the bending part is based on a 13-parameter equilibrating stress field. The element passes the patch test, is nearly insensitive to mesh distortion, does not lock, possesses the desirable invariance properties, has no spurious modes, and produces accurate and reliable results.

  19. Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4°C+ world.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Jones, Peter G; Ericksen, Polly J; Challinor, Andrew J

    2011-01-13

    Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock varieties and agricultural practices will often be inadequate, and food security will be more difficult to achieve because of commodity price increases and local production shortfalls. While adaptation strategies exist, considerable institutional and policy support will be needed to implement them successfully on the scale required. Even in the 2°C+ world that appears inevitable, planning for and implementing successful adaptation strategies are critical if agricultural growth in the region is to occur, food security be achieved and household livelihoods be enhanced. As part of this effort, better understanding of the critical thresholds in global and African food systems requires urgent research.

  20. The Impact of Different Degrees of Feedback on Physical Activity Levels: A 4-Week Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoye, Karen; Boen, Filip; Lefevre, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Assessing levels of physical activity (PA) and providing feedback about these levels might have an effect on participant’s PA behavior. This study discusses the effect of different levels of feedback—from minimal to use of a feedback display and coach—on PA over a 4-week intervention period. PA was measured at baseline, during and immediately after the intervention. Participants (n = 227) were randomly assigned to a Minimal Intervention Group (MIG-no feedback), Pedometer Group (PG-feedback on steps taken), Display Group (DG-feedback on steps, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and energy expenditure) or Coaching Group (CoachG-same as DG with need-supportive coaching). Two-way ANCOVA showed no significant Group × Time interaction effect for the different PA variables between the MIG and PG. Also no differences emerged between PG and DG. As hypothesized, CoachG had higher PA values throughout the intervention compared with DG. Self-monitoring using a pedometer resulted in more steps compared with a no-feedback condition at the start of the intervention. However, adding individualized coaching seems necessary to increase the PA level until the end of the intervention. PMID:26067990

  1. ConsDock: A new program for the consensus analysis of protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nicodème; Rognan, Didier

    2002-06-01

    Protein-based virtual screening of chemical libraries is a powerful technique for identifying new molecules that may interact with a macromolecular target of interest. Because of docking and scoring limitations, it is more difficult to apply as a lead optimization method because it requires that the docking/scoring tool is able to propose as few solutions as possible and all of them with a very good accuracy for both the protein-bound orientation and the conformation of the ligand. In the present study, we present a consensus docking approach (ConsDock) that takes advantage of three widely used docking tools (Dock, FlexX, and Gold). The consensus analysis of all possible poses generated by several docking tools is performed sequentially in four steps: (i) hierarchical clustering of all poses generated by a docking tool into families represented by a leader; (ii) definition of all consensus pairs from leaders generated by different docking programs; (iii) clustering of consensus pairs into classes, represented by a mean structure; and (iv) ranking the different means starting from the most populated class of consensus pairs. When applied to a test set of 100 protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank, ConsDock significantly outperforms single docking with respect to the docking accuracy of the top-ranked pose. In 60% of the cases investigated here, ConsDock was able to rank as top solution a pose within 2 A RMSD of the X-ray structure. It can be applied as a postprocessing filter to either single- or multiple-docking programs to prioritize three-dimensional guided lead optimization from the most likely docking solution. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of a new automated microscopy urine sediment analyser - sediMAX conTRUST®.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Laura; Peeters, Bart; Billen, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the stand-alone sediMAX conTRUST (77Elektronika, Budapest, Hungary) analyser as an alternative to microscopic analysis of urine. The validation included a precision, carry-over, categorical correlation and diagnostic performance study with manual phase-contrast microscopy as reference method. A total of 260 routine urine samples were assessed. The within-run precision was much better at higher concentrations than at very low concentrations. The precision met our predefined limits for all the elements at the different concentrations, with the exception of the lowest RBC, the WBC, pathological casts and crystals count. There was no sample carry-over. The analyser showed good categorical agreement with manual microscopy for RBC and WBC counts, moderate agreement for yeast cells, crystals and squamous epithelial cells and bad agreement for non-squamous epithelial cells, bacteria and casts. Diagnostic performance was satisfying only for RBC, WBC and yeast cells. The number of false negative results was acceptable (≤4%) for all elements after connecting the sediMAX conTRUST with an automatic strip reader (AutionMAX) and after implementation of review rules. We conclude that the sediMAX conTRUST should be used as a screening tool in combination with an automatic strip reader, for the identification of normal samples. Therefore, adequate review rules should be defined. Manual microscopy is still required in 'flagged' pathological samples. Despite the poor analytical performance on pathological samples, the images on the screen can be used for interpretation without the microscope and can be stored as PDF-documents for archiving the results.

  3. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax attaches... parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body, or...

  5. Calcium-binding protein S100A4 confers mesenchymal progenitor cell fibrogenicity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Gilbertsen, Adam; Herrera, Jeremy; Racila, Emilian; Peterson, Mark; Griffin, Timothy; Benyumov, Alexey; Yang, Libang; Bitterman, Peter B.; Henke, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a prevalence of 1 million persons worldwide. The fibrosis spreads from affected alveoli into contiguous alveoli and leads to death by asphyxiation. We previously discovered that the IPF lung harbors fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) that serve as a cell of origin for disease-mediating myofibroblasts. In a prior genomewide transcriptional analysis, we found that IPF MPCs displayed increased expression of S100 calcium-binding A4 (S100A4), a protein linked to cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. Here, we have examined whether S100A4 mediates MPC fibrogenicity. Ex vivo analysis revealed that IPF MPCs had increased levels of nuclear S100A4, which interacts with L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase to promote p53 degradation and MPC self-renewal. In vivo, injection of human IPF MPCs converted a self-limited bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung fibrosis to a model of persistent fibrosis in an S100A4-dependent manner. S100A4 gain of function was sufficient to confer fibrotic properties to non-IPF MPCs. In IPF tissue, fibroblastic foci contained cells expressing Ki67 and the MPC markers SSEA4 and S100A4. The expression colocalized in an interface region between myofibroblasts in the focus core and normal alveolar structures, defining this region as an active fibrotic front. Our findings indicate that IPF MPCs are intrinsically fibrogenic and that S100A4 confers MPCs with fibrogenicity. PMID:28530639

  6. Downregulation of S100A4 Alleviates Cardiac Fibrosis via Wnt/β -Catenin Pathway in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, LiJun; Hong, Jian; Zhang, YanMei; Zhu, MengLin; Wang, XinChun; Zhang, YanJuan; Chu, Ming; Yao, Jing; Xu, Di

    2018-05-07

    Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological change leading to cardiac remodeling during the progression of myocardial ischemic diseases, and its therapeutic strategy remains to be explored. S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, participates in fibrotic diseases with an unclear mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the role of S100A4 in cardiac fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal C57BL/6 mouse hearts were isolated and cultured. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The ligation was not performed in the sham group. A volume of 5×105pfu/g adenovirus or 5 µM/g ICG-001 was intramyocardially injected into five parts bordering the infarction zone or normal region. We used Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Masson's trichrome staining to explore the function of S100A4. We found significant increases of S100A4 level and cardiac fibrosis markers, and β-catenin signaling activation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of S100A4 significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and β-catenin levels. Moreover, the expression of S100A4 decreased after ICG-001 inhibited β-catenin signal pathway. Downregulation of S100A4 alleviates cardiac fibrosis via Wnt/β -catenin pathway in mice. S100A4 may be a therapeutic target of cardiac fibrosis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 3 CFR - Delegation of Waiver Authority Under Section 1022(a)(4) of the National Defense Authorization Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegation of Waiver Authority Under Section 1022(a)(4) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of February 28, 2012 Delegation of Waiver Authority Under Section 1022(a)(4) of the National Defense Authorization Act...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax attaches... parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body, or...

  9. Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P < 0.001) and at 12 months after risk disclosure (3.33 vs. 1.88, P < 0.001). Ratings of pros decreased during the 12-month period (3.33 vs. 3.53, P < 0.001). Ratings of cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

  10. EphA4 is Involved in Sleep Regulation but Not in the Electrophysiological Response to Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Freyburger, Marlène; Pierre, Audrey; Paquette, Gabrielle; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Bedont, Joseph; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Drolet, Guy; Laforest, Sylvie; Blackshaw, Seth; Cermakian, Nicolas; Doucet, Guy; Mongrain, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Optimal sleep is ensured by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. Although synaptic plasticity seems to contribute to both processes, the specific players involved are not well understood. The EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor is a cell adhesion protein regulating synaptic plasticity. We investigated the role of EphA4 in sleep regulation using electrocorticography in mice lacking EphA4 and gene expression measurements. Methods: EphA4 knockout (KO) mice, ClockΔ19/Δ19 mutant mice and littermates, C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were studied under a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle, under undisturbed conditions or 6 h sleep deprivation (SLD), and submitted to a 48 h electrophysiological recording and/or brain sampling at different time of day. Results: EphA4 KO mice showed less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), enhanced duration of individual bouts of wakefulness and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the light period, and a blunted daily rhythm of NREMS sigma activity. The NREMS delta activity response to SLD was unchanged in EphA4 KO mice. However, SLD increased EphA4 expression in the thalamic/hypothalamic region in C57BL/6J mice. We further show the presence of E-boxes in the promoter region of EphA4, a lower expression of EphA4 in Clock mutant mice, a rhythmic expression of EphA4 ligands in several brain areas, expression of EphA4 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN), and finally an unchanged number of cells expressing Vip, Grp and Avp in the SCN of EphA4 KO mice. Conclusions: Our results suggest that EphA4 is involved in circadian sleep regulation. Citation: Freyburger M, Pierre A, Paquette G, Bélanger-Nelson E, Bedont J, Gaudreault PO, Drolet G, Laforest S, Blackshaw S, Cermakian N, Doucet G, Mongrain V. EphA4 is involved in sleep regulation but not in the electrophysiological response to sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2016;39(3):613–624. PMID:26612390

  11. Moderator's view: High-volume plasma exchange: pro, con and consensus.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andre A

    2017-09-01

    I have been asked to comment on the pro and con opinions regarding high-volume plasma exchange. The authors of both positions have provided cogent arguments and a reasonable approach to choosing the exchange volume for any given therapeutic plasma exchange. The major issue of relevance in this discussion is the nature of the toxins targeted for removal. These parameters include molecular weight, the apparent volume of distribution, the degree of protein binding, the biologic and chemical half-life, and the severity and rapidity of its toxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  13. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  14. Hable con Ella (Talk to Her) through the lens of gender.

    PubMed

    Yanof, Judith A

    2008-04-01

    In the 2002 film Hable con Ella (Talk to Her), Spanish writer-director Pedro Almodóvar plays with the ambiguity of gender, transcending conventional assumptions about "masculinity" and "femininity." Each of the four main characters holds complex, varied, and, in some cases, gender-bending gender identifications. The theme of gender plasticity is a prominent motif in this film. However, underlying the narrative, there is also a perverse subtext that relies on rigidly binary gender stereotypes to define relationships between men and women. Both these views of gender which operate dialectically, create a complex tapestry through which Almodóvar explores his characters' problems in attaining intimacy.

  15. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  16. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  17. Lesbian (in)visibility in Italian Renaissance culture: Diana and other cases of donna con donna.

    PubMed

    Simons, P

    1994-01-01

    Current conceptualizations of sexual identity in the West are not necessarily useful to an historian investigating "lesbianism" in the social history and visual representations of different periods. After an overview of Renaissance documents treating donna con donna relations which examines the potentially positive effects of condemnation and silence, the paper focuses on Diana, the goddess of chastity, who bathed with her nymphs as an exemplar of female bodies preserved for heterosexual, reproductive pleasures. Yet the self-sufficiency and bodily contact sometimes represented in images of this secluded all-female gathering might suggest "deviant" responses from their viewers.

  18. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  19. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  20. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and T^*(D6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling T^*(D6), CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  1. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by gallic acid in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems.

    PubMed

    Pu, Qiang-Hong; Shi, Liang; Yu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    1.Gallic acid is a main polyphenol in various fruits and plants. Inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 were still unclear. The objective of this work is hence to investigate inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 using testosterone as the probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP3A4 (rCYP3A4) systems. 2.Gallic acid caused concentration-dependent loss of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 615.2 μM and 669.5 μM in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively. IC50-shift experiments showed that pre-incubation with gallic acid in the absence of NADPH contributed to 12- or 14-fold reduction of IC50 in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively, supporting a time-dependent inhibition. In HLM, time-dependent inactivation variables KI and Kinact were 485.8 μM and 0.05 min(-1), respectively. 3.Compared with the presence of NADPH, pre-incubation of gallic acid in the absence of NADPH markedly increased its inhibitory effects in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems. Those results indicate that CYP3A4 inactivation by gallic acid was independent on NADPH and was mainly mediated its oxidative products. 4.In conclusion, we showed that gallic acid weakly and time-dependently inactivated CYP3A4 via its oxidative products.

  2. Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Flow Field in a 4:1 Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, G. J.; Prahst, P. S.; Wernet, M. P.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    A laser-doppler anemometer was used to obtain flow-field velocity measurements in a 4:1 pressure ratio, 4.54 kg/s (10 lbm/s), centrifugal impeller, with splitter blades and backsweep, which was configured with a vaneless diffuser. Measured through-flow velocities are reported for ten quasi-orthogonal survey planes at locations ranging from 1% to 99% of main blade chord. Measured through-flow velocities are compared to those predicted by a 3-D viscous steady flow analysis (Dawes) code. The measurements show the development and progression through the impeller and vaneless diffuser of a through-flow velocity deficit which results from the tip clearance flow and accumulation of low momentum fluid centrifuged from the blade and hub surfaces. Flow traces from the CFD analysis show the origin of this deficit which begins to grow in the inlet region of the impeller where it is first detected near the suction surface side of the passage. It then moves toward the pressure side of the channel, due to the movement of tip clearance flow across the impeller passage, where it is cut by the splitter blade leading edge. As blade loading increases toward the rear of the channel the deficit region is driven back toward the suction surface by the cross-passage pressure gradient. There is no evidence of a large wake region that might result from flow separation and the impeller efficiency is relatively high. The flow field in this impeller is quite similar to that documented previously by NASA Lewis in a large low-speed backswept impeller.

  3. Edoxaban effects on bleeding following punch biopsy and reversal by a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Hamim; Brown, Karen S; Vandell, Alexander G; Desai, Madhuri; Maa, Jen-Fue; Dishy, Victor; Lomeli, Barbara; Feussner, Annette; Feng, Wenqin; He, Ling; Grosso, Michael A; Lanz, Hans J; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-01-06

    The oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban has demonstrated safety and efficacy in stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. This study investigated the reversal of edoxaban's effects on bleeding measures and biomarkers by using a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC). This was a phase 1 study conducted at a single site. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study to determine the reversal effect of descending doses of 4F-PCC on bleeding duration and bleeding volume following edoxaban treatment. A total of 110 subjects (17 in part 1, 93 in part 2) were treated. Intravenous administration of 4F-PCC 50, 25, or 10 IU/kg following administration of edoxaban (60 mg) dose-dependently reversed edoxaban's effects on bleeding duration and endogenous thrombin potential, with complete reversal at 50 IU/kg. Effects on prothrombin time were partially reversed at 50 IU/kg. A similar trend was seen for bleeding volume. The 4F-PCC dose-dependently reversed the effects of edoxaban (60 mg), with complete reversal of bleeding duration and endogenous thrombin potential and partial reversal of prothrombin time following 50 IU/kg. Edoxaban alone and in combination with 4F-PCC was safe and well tolerated in these healthy subjects. A dose of 50 IU/kg 4F-PCC may be suitable for reversing edoxaban anticoagulation. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02047565. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Lipoxin A4 inhibits UV radiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R M; Fattori, V; Saito, P; Melo, C B P; Borghi, S M; Pinto, I C; Bussmann, A J C; Baracat, M M; Georgetti, S R; Verri, W A; Casagrande, R

    2018-04-27

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA 4 ) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid. Despite potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution activities, it remains to be determined if LXA 4 has effect on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin inflammation. To investigate the effects of systemic administration with LXA 4 on UV radiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of mice. Varied parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress in the skin of mice were evaluated after UV radiation (4.14 J/cm 2 ). Pretreatment with LXA 4 significantly inhibited UV radiation-induced skin edema and myeloperoxidase activity. LXA 4 efficacy was enhanced by increasing the time of pre-treatment to up to 72 h. LXA 4 reduced UV radiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity and LysM-eGFP + cells), MMP-9 activity, deposition of collagen fibers, epidermal thickness, sunburn cell counts, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-33). Depending on the time point, LXA 4 increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10). LXA 4 significantly attenuated UV radiation-induced oxidative damage returning the oxidative status to baseline levels in parameters such as ferric reducing ability, scavenging of free radicals, GSH levels, catalase activity and superoxide anion production. LXA 4 also reduced UV radiation-induced gp91 phox [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) subunit] mRNA expression and enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) mRNA expression. LXA 4 inhibited UV radiation-induced skin inflammation by diminishing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and oxidative stress as well as inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Systematic analysis of inelastic α scattering off self-conjugate A =4 n nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Kawabata, T.; Minomo, K.; Kadoya, T.; Yokota, N.; Akimune, H.; Baba, T.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Funaki, Y.; Furuno, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Inaba, K.; Ishii, Y.; Itoh, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Kawase, K.; Maeda, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuno, H.; Morimoto, T.; Morita, H.; Murata, M.; Nanamura, T.; Ou, I.; Sakaguchi, S.; Sasamoto, Y.; Sawada, R.; Shimizu, Y.; Suda, K.; Tamii, A.; Tameshige, Y.; Tsumura, M.; Uchida, M.; Uesaka, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshida, S.

    2018-01-01

    We systematically measured the differential cross sections of inelastic α scattering off self-conjugate A =4 n nuclei at two incident energies Eα=130 MeV and 386 MeV at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. The measured cross sections were analyzed by the distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) calculation using the single-folding potentials, which are obtained by folding macroscopic transition densities with the phenomenological α N interaction. The DWBA calculation with the density-dependent α N interaction systematically overestimates the cross sections for the Δ L =0 transitions. However, the DWBA calculation using the density-independent α N interaction reasonably well describes all the transitions with Δ L =0 -4. We examined uncertainties in the present DWBA calculation stemming from the macroscopic transition densities, distorting potentials, phenomenological α N interaction, and coupled channel effects in 12C. It was found that the DWBA calculation is not sensitive to details of the transition densities nor the distorting potentials, and the phenomenological density-independent α N interaction gives reasonable results. The coupled-channel effects are negligibly small for the 21+ and 31- states in 12C, but not for the 02+ state. However, the DWBA calculation using the density-independent interaction at Eα=386 MeV is still reasonable even for the 02+ state. We concluded that the macroscopic DWBA calculations using the density-independent interaction are reliably applicable to the analysis of inelastic α scattering at Eα˜100 MeV /u .

  6. Implementation of a 4x8 NIR and CCD Mosaic Focal Plane Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinsky, Patrick; Bebek, C. J.; Besuner, R. W.; Haller, G. M.; Harris, S. E.; Hart, P. A.; Heetderks, H. D.; Levi, M. E.; Maldonado, S. E.; Roe, N. A.; Roodman, A. J.; Sapozhnikov, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mission concepts for NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), ESA's EUCLID mission, as well as for ground based observations, have requirements for large mosaic focal planes to image visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We have developed detectors, readout electronics and focal plane design techniques that can be used to create very large scalable focal plane mosaic cameras. In our technology, CCDs and HgCdTe detectors can be intermingled on a single, silicon carbide (SiC) cold plate. This enables optimized, wideband observing strategies. The CCDs, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, are fully-depleted, p-channel devices that are backside illuminated capable of operating at temperatures as low as 110K and have been optimized for the weak lensing dark energy technique. The NIR detectors are 1.7µm and 2.0µm wavelength cutoff H2RG® HgCdTe, manufactured by Teledyne Imaging Sensors under contract to LBL. Both the CCDs and NIR detectors are packaged on 4-side abuttable SiC pedestals with a common mounting footprint supporting a 44.16mm mosaic pitch and are coplanar. Both types of detectors have direct-attached, readout electronics that convert the detector signal directly to serial, digital data streams and allow a flexible, low cost data acquisition strategy, despite the large data volume. A mosaic of these detectors can be operated at a common temperature that achieves the required dark current and read noise performance in both types of detectors necessary for dark energy observations. We report here the design and integration for a focal plane designed to accommodate a 4x8 heterogeneous array of CCDs and HgCdTe detectors. Our current implementation contains over 1/4-billion pixels.

  7. Formula one night race in Singapore: a 4-year analysis of a planned mass gathering.

    PubMed

    Ho, Weng Hoe; Koenig, Kristi L; Quek, Lit Sin

    2014-10-01

    Every mass gathering presents its unique characteristics that influence medical resource utilization. Medical planning for mass gatherings involves both use of predictive models and analysis of data from similar past events. This study aimed to describe the medical presentations and the unique challenges influencing medical planning at the Formula One Singtel Singapore Grand Prix, the inaugural Formula One night race. Patient presentation characteristics, rates of patient presentation, and transportation to hospitals in association with attendance and heat index were evaluated over a 4-year period from 2009 through 2012. This will facilitate medical planning for similar events. A database containing patient presentations from the 3-day Singapore Grand Prix in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 was analyzed. Patient presentations were categorized by time of day and presenting complaints. Patient presentation rates (PPRs) were analyzed to determine correlation with attendance numbers and heat index. The average annual attendance at the Singapore Grand Prix was 81,992 from 2009 through 2012. The average PPR was 2.17 (SD=0.63)/1,000 attendees. The average transport to hospital rate (TTHR) was 0.033 (SD=0.026)/1,000 attendees. While medical coverage was provided at the circuit park between 2:00 pm to 1:00 am daily, most attendees presented from 5:00 pm to 10:00 pm. The most common presenting complaints included: musculoskeletal conditions (59%) and heat related illnesses (19%). There was no correlation between attendance numbers and PPR and the heat index and PPR. Musculoskeletal conditions and heat-related illnesses were the most common presenting complaints at the Singapore Grand Prix from 2009-2012. The lack of correlation between heat index and PPR is a new finding compared with prior studies. This could be due to the minimal heat variation that occurred during the night event. Further study is required to refine models that can be used in specialized events.

  8. Covalent functionalization of SWCNT with combretastatin A4 for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Kittana, Naim; Hamad, Deema; Amer, Johnny

    2018-06-15

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are currently under intensive investigation by many labs all over the world for being promising candidates for cancer chemotherapy delivery. On the other hand, combretastatin A4 (CA4) is an anticancer drug that induces cell apoptosis by inhibiting tubulin polymerization. However, it has the disadvantage of low water solubility and the non-selective targeting. Therefore, we aim to create nano-drug from the functionalization of SWCNT covalently with CA4 through click reaction in the presence of tetraethylene glycol linker in order to improve its dispersibility. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed good dispersibility of the functionalized SWCNT with diameters of 5-15 nm. Moreover, thermogravometric analysis showed that the efficiency of SWCNT functionalization was around 45%. The in vitro release profile of CA4 at physiological conditions showed that approximately 90% of the loaded drug was released over 50 h. After that MTS test was used to determine the suitable concentration range for the in vitro investigation of the SWCNT-CA4. After that the cytotoxic activity of the SWCNT-CA4 was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) test. In comparison with free CA4, SWCNT-CA4 treatment demonstrated a significant increase in necrotic cells (around 50%) at the expense of the proportion of the apoptotic cells. Moreover, cell cycle PI test demonstrated that free CA4 and SWCNT-CA4 caused G2/M arrest. However with CA4 treatment higher proportion of cells were in the S-phase while with SWCNT-CA4 treatment greater proportion of cells appeared to be in the G1-phase. Taken together, the provided data suggest that the novel SWCNT-CA4 has a significant anticancer activity that might be superior to that of free CA4.

  9. Lipoxin A4, a 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, modulates immune response during acute respiratory tularemia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anju; Rahman, Tabassum; Bartiss, Rose; Arabshahi, Alireza; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Musteata, Florin Marcel; Sellati, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection. The addition of exogenous LXA 4 inhibits PGE 2 release by Ft-infected murine monocytes in vitro and diminishes apoptotic cell death. Tularemia pathogenesis was characterized in 5‑lipoxygenase-deficient (Alox5 -/- ) mice that are incapable of generating LXA 4 Increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased apoptosis, was observed in Alox5 -/- mice as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Alox5 -/- mice also exhibited elevated recruitment of neutrophils during the early phase of infection and increased resistance to lethal challenge. Conversely, administration of exogenous LXA 4 to Alox5 -/- mice made them more susceptible to infection thus mimicking wild-type animals. Taken together, our results suggest that 5-LO activity is a critical regulator of immunopathology observed during the acute phase of respiratory tularemia, regulating bacterial burden and neutrophil recruitment and production of proinflammatory modulators and increasing morbidity and mortality. These studies identify a detrimental role for the 5-LO-derived lipid mediator LXA 4 in Ft-induced immunopathology. Targeting this pathway may have therapeutic benefit as an adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and conventional antimicrobial peptides, which often have limited efficacy against intracellular bacteria. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Dental anxiety among Israeli dental students: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Peretz, B; Mann, J

    2000-08-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate students' estimation of their parents' dental anxiety; (b) to measure students' dental anxiety and to study their ranking of the most fear provoking stimuli in the dental situation during their pre-clinical and clinical years; (c) to investigate gender differences among students with regard to dental anxiety. 30 3rd-year students (15 male and 15 female) who completed a 4-section questionnaire which requested sociodemographic information, evaluation of parents' dental anxiety, dental anxiety scale (DAS) and dental fear scale (DFS), completed the DAS and DFS in their 5th and 6th years. Both male and female students estimated their mothers' dental anxiety as significantly higher than their fathers'. Female students ranked their parents higher than males. DAS scores were significantly higher among female students than among males in the 3rd year. However, DAS scores were reduced from the 3rd to the 6th year among the total class and significantly among females, while males' levels of anxiety remained within close range throughout the years. The dental anxiety scores of all students who experienced a dental procedure in the past were higher than the scores of the students who did not. The most fearful stimulus was 'feeling the needle'. Our findings may suggest that the change in the reported dental anxiety of the students during the years of dental studies in the present study may be explained by the increased professional education and clinical experience that the students acquire throughout their studies in the dental school. Being exposed to basic trivial dental procedures (such as local anaesthetic injection) may help students either to be habituated or to use rational coping strategies when dealing with personal dental experience.

  11. Bio-optical data integration based on a 4 D database system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, N. N.; Shimabukuro, M. H.; Carmo, A. F. C.; Alcantara, E. H.; Rodrigues, T. W. P.; Watanabe, F. S. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Bio-optical characterization of water bodies requires spatio-temporal data about Inherent Optical Properties and Apparent Optical Properties which allow the comprehension of underwater light field aiming at the development of models for monitoring water quality. Measurements are taken to represent optical properties along a column of water, and then the spectral data must be related to depth. However, the spatial positions of measurement may differ since collecting instruments vary. In addition, the records should not refer to the same wavelengths. Additional difficulty is that distinct instruments store data in different formats. A data integration approach is needed to make these large and multi source data sets suitable for analysis. Thus, it becomes possible, even automatically, semi-empirical models evaluation, preceded by preliminary tasks of quality control. In this work it is presented a solution, in the stated scenario, based on spatial - geographic - database approach with the adoption of an object relational Database Management System - DBMS - due to the possibilities to represent all data collected in the field, in conjunction with data obtained by laboratory analysis and Remote Sensing images that have been taken at the time of field data collection. This data integration approach leads to a 4D representation since that its coordinate system includes 3D spatial coordinates - planimetric and depth - and the time when each data was taken. It was adopted PostgreSQL DBMS extended by PostGIS module to provide abilities to manage spatial/geospatial data. It was developed a prototype which has the mainly tools an analyst needs to prepare the data sets for analysis.

  12. A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence: Questions.

    PubMed

    Keenswijk, Werner; Walle, Johan Vande

    2017-05-01

    A 4-year-old boy was referred to the nephrologist with daytime urinary incontinence and suspicion of an overactive bladder. At the age of 17 months he had been referred to the pediatric endocrinologist because of polyuria and polydipsia in order to exclude diabetes insipidus. Repeated water deprivation tests and a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain were normal. Diabetes insipidus was excluded, and primary polydipsia was thought to be most likely since diabetes mellitus also had been excluded. At the current presentation, he drank up to 3 L a day and quite often had wet diapers. He also seemed to pass stools infrequently and with difficulty. Curiously his grandmother had similar symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia since childhood and had been diagnosed with primary polydipsia. The physical examination of our pediatric patient was normal. In the differential diagnosis we included diabetes insipidus but also contemplated other possibilities, such as nephronophthisis, tubulopathies and hypercalciuria. Laboratory results including urinalysis and an ultrasound of the kidney did not show any abnormalities, making a tubulopathy or hypercalciuria unlikely. A desmopressin test by the intravenous route came back completely normal, pointing to another cause than diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing for the nephronophthisis came back negative but was positive for a missense mutation in the AVPR2 gene (p.Arg104Cys) associated with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. He was started on daily desmopressin. Within 3 days the urinary incontinence resolved as did the polyuria and faecal incontinence. His grandmother was referred to the geneticist and eventually the adult nephrologist. This case highlights the importance of being thorough when confronted with a difficult diagnosis. It also emphasizes that a test result does not necessarily equate to the presence or absence of a condition since the test with 100 % sensitivity and specificity has yet to be discovered.

  13. Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Nguyen T T; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Tram, Trinh T B; Thao, Le T P; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Ha, Vu T N; Bang, Nguyen D; Chau, Tran T H; Lan, Nguyen H; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen V V; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen T H; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Identification of plexin A4 as a novel clusterin receptor links two Alzheimer's disease risk genes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Silvia S; Kurti, Aishe; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Baker, Kelsey E; Liu, Chia-Chen; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Deming, Yuetiva; Cruchaga, Carlos; Estus, Steven; Bu, Guojun; Fryer, John D

    2016-08-15

    Although abundant genetic and biochemical evidence strongly links Clusterin (CLU) to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, the receptor for CLU within the adult brain is currently unknown. Using unbiased approaches, we identified Plexin A4 (PLXNA4) as a novel, high-affinity receptor for CLU in the adult brain. PLXNA4 protein expression was high in brain with much lower levels in peripheral organs. CLU protein levels were significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Plxna4 -/- mice and, in humans, CSF levels of CLU were also associated with PLXNA4 genotype. Human AD brains had significantly increased the levels of CLU protein but decreased levels of PLXNA4 by ∼50%. To determine whether PLXNA4 levels influenced cognition, we analyzed the behaviour of Plxna4 +/+ , Plxna4 +/- , and Plxna4 -/- mice. In comparison to WT controls, both Plxna4 +/- and Plxna4 -/- mice were hyperactive in the open field assay while Plxna4 -/- mice displayed a hyper-exploratory (low-anxiety phenotype) in the elevated plus maze. Importantly, both Plxna4 +/- and Plxna4 -/- mice displayed prominent deficits in learning and memory in the contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. Thus, even a 50% reduction in the level of PLXNA4 is sufficient to cause memory impairments, raising the possibility that memory problems seen in AD patients could be due to reductions in the level of PLXNA4. Both CLU and PLXNA4 have been genetically associated with AD risk and our data thus provide a direct relationship between two AD risk genes. Our data suggest that increasing the levels of PLXNA4 or targeting CLU-PLXNA4 interactions may have therapeutic value in AD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Covalent functionalization of SWCNT with combretastatin A4 for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Naser Zaid, Abdel; Kittana, Naim; Hamad, Deema; Amer, Johnny

    2018-06-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are currently under intensive investigation by many labs all over the world for being promising candidates for cancer chemotherapy delivery. On the other hand, combretastatin A4 (CA4) is an anticancer drug that induces cell apoptosis by inhibiting tubulin polymerization. However, it has the disadvantage of low water solubility and the non-selective targeting. Therefore, we aim to create nano-drug from the functionalization of SWCNT covalently with CA4 through click reaction in the presence of tetraethylene glycol linker in order to improve its dispersibility. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed good dispersibility of the functionalized SWCNT with diameters of 5–15 nm. Moreover, thermogravometric analysis showed that the efficiency of SWCNT functionalization was around 45%. The in vitro release profile of CA4 at physiological conditions showed that approximately 90% of the loaded drug was released over 50 h. After that MTS test was used to determine the suitable concentration range for the in vitro investigation of the SWCNT-CA4. After that the cytotoxic activity of the SWCNT-CA4 was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) test. In comparison with free CA4, SWCNT-CA4 treatment demonstrated a significant increase in necrotic cells (around 50%) at the expense of the proportion of the apoptotic cells. Moreover, cell cycle PI test demonstrated that free CA4 and SWCNT-CA4 caused G2/M arrest. However with CA4 treatment higher proportion of cells were in the S-phase while with SWCNT-CA4 treatment greater proportion of cells appeared to be in the G1-phase. Taken together, the provided data suggest that the novel SWCNT-CA4 has a significant anticancer activity that might be superior to that of free CA4.

  16. Fertility in Adult Bitches Previously Treated with a 4.7 mg Subcutaneous Deslorelin Implant.

    PubMed

    Borges, P; Fontaine, E; Maenhoudt, C; Payan-Carreira, R; Santos, N; Leblond, E; Fontaine, C; Fontbonne, A

    2015-12-01

    The absence of fertility problems in male dogs after a single treatment with deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin(®)) is well acknowledged. However, reports on the application of deslorelin in the bitch and information concerning fertility after implant treatment are still limited. In this retrospective study, data concerning induced and spontaneous oestruses of 39 bitches from 17 breeds, treated with deslorelin acetate implants (4.7 mg Suprelorin(®), Virbac, France), were retrieved to assess post-treatment fertility (ovulation rate, pregnancy rate and litter size). Animals were grouped according to treatment characteristics: group 1 (Gr1) - females submitted to oestrus induction, showing natural oestruses afterwards (n = 19); group 2 (Gr2) - females re-implanted with 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate to re-induce oestrus, showing subsequent spontaneous post-implant oestruses (n = 7); and group 3 (Gr3) - females submitted to a 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate implant for oestrus suppression, evaluated at subsequent spontaneous post-implant oestruses (n = 13). Comparison of fertility traits between induced and post-treatment spontaneous oestruses in Gr1 and Gr2 (short treatments), or between spontaneous oestruses after long-treatment schedules (Gr 3) revealed a slightly better performance in spontaneous cycles compared with induced cycles: ovulation rate post-treatment was 97.1%, 94.1% and 94.4% and the pregnancy rate post-treatment was 91.2%, 88.9% and 84.6% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nevertheless, fertility in induced and post-treatment oestruses was considered normal. Moreover, the individual litter size did not differ within groups between induced and spontaneous cycles. From these findings, we concluded that treatment with 4.7 mg deslorelin implants did not compromise the bitches' fertility in subsequent oestruses. © 2015 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. To share or not to share? Expected pros and cons of data sharing in radiological research.

    PubMed

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Alì, Marco; Hunink, Myriam G; Houssami, Nehmat; Sconfienza, Luca M; Di Leo, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this paper are to illustrate the trend towards data sharing, i.e. the regulated availability of the original patient-level data obtained during a study, and to discuss the expected advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of data sharing in radiological research. Expected pros include the potential for verification of original results with alternative or supplementary analyses (including estimation of reproducibility), advancement of knowledge by providing new results by testing new hypotheses (not explored by the original authors) on pre-existing databases, larger scale analyses based on individual-patient data, enhanced multidisciplinary cooperation, reduced publication of false studies, improved clinical practice, and reduced cost and time for clinical research. Expected cons are outlined as the risk that the original authors could not exploit the entire potential of the data they obtained, possible failures in patients' privacy protection, technical barriers such as the lack of standard formats, and possible data misinterpretation. Finally, open issues regarding data ownership, the role of individual patients, advocacy groups and funding institutions in decision making about sharing of data and images are discussed. • Regulated availability of patient-level data of published clinical studies (data-sharing) is expected. • Expected benefits include verification/advancement of knowledge, reduced cost/time of research, clinical improvement. • Potential drawbacks include faults in patients' identity protection and data misinterpretation.

  18. Preparation of stimulus responsive multiple emulsions by membrane emulsification using con a as biochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Emma; Drioli, Enrico; Giorno, Lidietta

    2011-04-01

    In this work, a novel strategy for the controlled fabrication of biomolecular stimulus responsive water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion using the membrane emulsification process was investigated. The emulsions interface was functionalized with a biomolecule able to function as a receptor for a target compound. The interaction between the biomolecular receptor and target stimulus activated the release of bioactive molecules contained within the structured emulsion. A glucose sensitive emulsion was investigated as a model study case. Concanavalin A (Con A) was used as the biomolecular glucose sensor. Various physicochemical strategies for stimulus responsive materials formulation are available in literature, but the preparation of biomolecule-responsive emulsions has been explored for the first time in this paper. The development of novel drug delivery systems requires advanced and highly precise techniques to obtain their particular properties and targeting requirements. The present study has proven the flexibility and suitability of membrane emulsification for the preparation of stable and functional multiple emulsions containing Con A as interfacial biomolecular receptor able to activate the release of a bioactive molecule as a consequence of interaction with the glucose target molecule. The influence of emulsion interfacial composition and membrane emulsification operating conditions on droplets stability and functional properties have been investigated. The release of the bioactive molecule as a function of glucose stimulus and its concentration has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  20. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380