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Sample records for a4 disodium phosphate

  1. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium...

  2. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of dibasic sodium phosphate, 5 milligrams of sodium chloride, 0.1 milligram of disodium EDTA, 0.5 milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.8 milligrams of methylparaben, 0.2 milligram of propylparaben, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension. 522.161 Section 522.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... milligram of polysorbate 80, 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol, 5 milligrams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose...

  5. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Trip, Mieke D.; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single dose of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 2,000 mg FM-VP4 or placebo. In phase 2, 100 men were treated with 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 or placebo for 4 weeks. Results The drug was well tolerated at each single or multiple dose level. After 4 weeks of treatment, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels changed by 2.7% in the placebo group and by 2.9%, −4.2%, and −4.6% in the 100, 200, and 800 mg/day groups, respectively, which was not statistically significant. However, 400 mg/day of FM-VP4 significantly decreased LDL-C by 6.5% (p=0.02). Phase 1 showed that DACP and DASP were absorbed into plasma with a median tmax of 12 h for both components, and clearance was slow with a mean t1/2λ of 57 h. During 4 weeks of treatment, steady state was reached by approximately 8 days. Conclusion This study demonstrated that up to 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 is safe and well tolerated for at least 4 weeks. Furthermore, the higher doses significantly reduced LDL-C by 7% compared with baseline or by 10% compared with placebo, with the maximum effect reached at 400 mg/day. PMID:18320185

  6. Creatine phosphate disodium salt protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by increasing calumenin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Guo, Xin; Fu, Yao; Long, Jie; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group. The cell viability and apoptosis were detected. grp78, grp94, and calumenin of the each group were monitored. To investigate the role of calumenin, Dox-induced ERS was compared in control and down-regulated calumenin cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that CP decreased Dox-induced apoptosis and relieved ERS. We found calumenin increased in Dox-induced apoptosis with CP. ERS effector C/EBP homologous protein was down-regulated by CP and it was influenced by calumenin. CP could protect NRC by inhibiting ERS, this mechanisms may be associated with its increasing of calumenin.

  7. Validation protocol of analytical procedures for quantification of drugs in polymeric systems for parenteral administration: dexamethasone phosphate disodium microparticles.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sabroso, Cristina; Tavares-Fernandes, Daniel Filipe; Espada-García, Juan Ignacio; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2013-12-15

    In this work a protocol to validate analytical procedures for the quantification of drug substances formulated in polymeric systems that comprise both drug entrapped into the polymeric matrix (assay:content test) and drug released from the systems (assay:dissolution test) is developed. This protocol is applied to the validation two isocratic HPLC analytical procedures for the analysis of dexamethasone phosphate disodium microparticles for parenteral administration. Preparation of authentic samples and artificially "spiked" and "unspiked" samples is described. Specificity (ability to quantify dexamethasone phosphate disodium in presence of constituents of the dissolution medium and other microparticle constituents), linearity, accuracy and precision are evaluated, in the range from 10 to 50 μg mL(-1) in the assay:content test procedure and from 0.25 to 10 μg mL(-1) in the assay:dissolution test procedure. The robustness of the analytical method to extract drug from microparticles is also assessed. The validation protocol developed allows us to conclude that both analytical methods are suitable for their intended purpose, but the lack of proportionality of the assay:dissolution analytical method should be taken into account. The validation protocol designed in this work could be applied to the validation of any analytical procedure for the quantification of drugs formulated in controlled release polymeric microparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suitability of oral administration of monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, and magnesium phosphate for the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Imke; Grünberg, Walter

    2018-05-01

    Hypophosphatemia is commonly associated with disease and decreased productivity in dairy cows particularly in early lactation. Oral supplementation with phosphate salts is recognized as suitable for the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia. Little information is available about the differences in efficacy between salts used for oral phosphorus supplementation. Comparison of efficacy of oral administration of NaH 2 PO 4 , Na 2 HPO 4 , and MgHPO 4 in treating hypophosphatemia in cattle. 12 healthy dairy cows in the fourth week of lactation in their second to fifth lactation. Randomized clinical study. Phosphorus deficient, hypophosphatemic cows underwent a sham treatment and were afterwards assigned to 1 of 3 treatments-NaH 2 PO 4 , Na 2 HPO 4 , or MgHPO 4 (each provided the equivalent of 60 g of phosphorus). Blood samples were obtained immediately before and repeatedly after treatment. Treatment with NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 resulted in rapid and sustained increases of plasma phosphate concentrations ([Pi]). Significant effects were apparent within 1 hour (NaH 2 PO 4 : P = .0044; Na 2 HPO 4 : P = .0077). Peak increments of plasma [Pi] of 5.33 mg/dL [5.26-5.36] and 4.30 mg/dL [3.59-4.68] (median and interquartile range) were reached after 7 and 6 hours in animals treated with NaPH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 , respectively, whereas treatment with MgHPO 4 led to peak increments 14 hours after treatment (3.19 mg/dL [2.11-4.04]). NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are suitable to rapidly correct hypophosphatemia in cattle. Because of the protracted and weaker effect, MgHPO 4 cannot be recommended for this purpose. Despite important differences in solubility of NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 only small plasma [Pi] differences were observed after treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Controllable continuous sub-tenon drug delivery of dexamethasone disodium phosphate to ocular posterior segment in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuetao; Liu, Shaogang; Yang, Yezhen; Duan, Yiqin; Lin, Ding

    2017-11-01

    Corticosteroids have been used for treatment of posterior segment eye diseases, but the delivery of drug to the posterior segments is still a problem to resolve. In our study, we explore the feasibility of Sub-tenon's Controllable Continuous Drug Delivery to ocular posterior segment. Controllable continuous sub-tenon drug delivery (CCSDD) system, intravenous injections (IV) and sub-conjunctival injections (SC) were used to deliver dexamethasone disodium phosphate (DEXP) in rabbits, the dexamethasone concentration was measured in the ocular posterior segment tissue by Shimadzu LC-MS 2010 system at different time points in 24 h after first dose injection. Levels of dexamethasone were significantly higher at 12, 24 h in CCSDD than two other approaches, and at 3, 6 h in CCSDD than IV in vitreous body (p < 0.01); at 6, 12, 24 h in CCSDD than two other approaches, and at 1, 3 h in CCSDD than IV in retinal/choroidal compound (p < 0.01); at 3, 6, 12, 24 h in CCSDD than two other approaches, and at 1 h in CCSDD than IV in sclera (p < 0.05). The AUC 0-24 in CCSDD group is higher than two other groups in all ocular posterior segment tissue. Our results demonstrated that dexamethasone concentration could be sustained moderately higher in the posterior segment by CCSDD than SC and IV, indicating that CCSDD might be a therapeutic alternative to treat a variety of intractable posterior segment diseases.

  10. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  12. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  13. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  14. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  15. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  16. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2018-03-01

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m -2 . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m -2 additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m -2 , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m -2 seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m -2 , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following foods at not to exceed the levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA: Food... vitamin B 12 in liquid multivitamin preparations. Canned black-eyed peas 145 Promote color retention... sausage 36 As a cure accelerator with sodium ascorbate or ascorbic acid. Dressings, nonstandardized 75...

  18. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following foods at not to exceed the levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA: Food... vitamin B 12 in liquid multivitamin preparations. Canned black-eyed peas 145 Promote color retention... sausage 36 As a cure accelerator with sodium ascorbate or ascorbic acid. Dressings, nonstandardized 75...

  19. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA: Food Limitation (parts per million) Use Aqueous multivitamin preparations 150 With iron salts as a stabilizer for vitamin B 12 in liquid... accelerator with sodium ascorbate or ascorbic acid. Dressings, nonstandardized 75 Preservative. French...

  20. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Gefilte fish balls or patties in packing medium 1 50 Inhibit discoloration. Legumes (all cooked canned...

  1. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Gefilte fish balls or patties in packing medium 1 50 Inhibit discoloration. Legumes (all cooked canned...

  2. Aspen flakeboard treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; John Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we investigated mechanical properties and fire performance of aspen flakeboards manufactured with the fire-retardant chemical disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). Flakeboards were prepared using two levels of adhesive loading (5% and 7% methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)) and three levels of fire-retardant treatments (6%, 9%, and 12%). DOT is a...

  3. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Abigail F.; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B.; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA4P-treated tumors either by interfering pharmacologically with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis or by genetically depleting TEMs in tumor-bearing mice markedly increased the efficacy of CA4P treatment. These data suggest that TEMs limit VDA-induced tumor injury and represent a potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of VDA-based therapies. PMID:21490397

  4. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The...

  5. Water-Soluble Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Orally Delivered via Composite Nanoparticles With Improved Inhibition Effect Toward S180 Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yurun; Wu, Liping; Qiu, Liyan

    2017-10-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is a novel vascular disrupting agent for cancer therapy. However, frequent dosing and negative patient compliance have been encountered over CA4P by injection administration due to its quite short-term action and acute side effects. Therefore, it is significant to develop an oral formulation of CA4P. We established a novel method to prepare CA4P-loaded nanoparticles (CA4P-NPs) for oral administration by combining methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polylactide (PELA) and poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymers. Transport study in vitro was evaluated on Madin-Darby canine kidney cell models, and antitumor effect evaluation in vivo was performed on S180 subcutaneous xenotransplanted tumor models in mice. The highest entrapment efficiency of CA4P-NPs was achieved when the weight ratio of PELA to PLGA was optimized to 1:1. The apparent permeability coefficient of CA4P-NPs was found to be 2.08-fold higher than that of free CA4P in transport study. CA4P-NPs reached an absolute bioavailability of 77.6% with the tumor inhibition ratio of 41.2% that was significantly superior to free CA4P. These results suggest a promising application of this composite nanoparticle for the oral delivery of water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The... in the coloring of shampoos which are cosmetics. (d) Labeling requirements. The labeling of the color...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The... in the coloring of shampoos which are cosmetics. (d) Labeling requirements. The labeling of the color...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The... in the coloring of shampoos which are cosmetics. (d) Labeling requirements. The labeling of the color...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The... in the coloring of shampoos which are cosmetics. (d) Labeling requirements. The labeling of the color...

  10. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    PubMed

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose  Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods  Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results  For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1 %) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion  We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:

  11. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  16. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alex; MacDonald, Anita; Cleto, Esmeralda; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; Ramos, Paula Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César

    2017-01-01

    Pinto A, MacDonald A, Cleto E, Almeida MF, Ramos PC, Rocha JC. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 189-192. The objective was to describe the nutritional management of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. A 4-year-old male child, African descent, born from non-consanguineous parents presented with a clinical history of frequent respiratory infections, usually treated with antibiotics. At 30 months of age, G6PD diagnosis was made after eating one portion (40 - 60 g) of fava beans, resulting in severe hemolytic anemia hospitalization for 5 days. Diagnosis was confirmed by G6PD activity measurement. Nutritional counseling was given to avoid dietary oxidative stressors particularly the exclusion of fava beans and accidental ingestion of other similar beans. Dietary intake of high vitamin C containing foods was discouraged and adequate hydration advised. Nutritional management is crucial in preventing acute stress events in patients with G6PD deficiency.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Hydroquinone Derivative: Disodium p-Phenylene Diisostearyl Diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Arai, Junichi; Masui, Katsunobu; Yamamura, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic hydroquinone derivative having a C18 alkyl chain phosphate attached to the hydroquinone (HQ) moiety was chemically synthesized. The thermal stability, distribution between organic and aqueous phases, and in vitro skin permeability were evaluated. This HQ derivative was identified as disodium p-phenylene diisostearyl diphosphate (HQ-2P2IS) by UV, infrared, mass, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Product HQ-2P2IS was obtained in good yield (56%), and it exhibited satisfactory stability in neutral solution, comparable to that of HQ. Its skin permeability was also higher than that of HQ. HQ-2P2IS is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue phosphatase, which releases HQ in the skin tissues. Thus, these characteristics indicate that the novel hydroquinone derivative presented herein, i.e., HQ-2P2IS, may serve as an effective pro-hydroquinone for skin care applications.

  18. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Preservative. Fermented malt beverages 25 Antigushing agent. French dressing 75 Preservative. Legumes (all...

  19. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... malt beverages 25 Antigushing agent. French dressing 75 Preservative. Legumes (all cooked canned, other...

  20. Molecular studies on di-sodium tartrate molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S.; George, Preethamary; Shubashree, N. S.; Ahmed. M, Anees

    2015-06-01

    Structural characterization is important for the development of new material. The acoustical parameters such as Free Length, Internal Pressure have been measured from ultrasonic velocity, density for di sodium tartrate an optically active molecule at different temperatures using ultrasonic interferometer of frequency (2MHZ). The ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in concentration there is an increase in solute-solvent interaction. The stability constant had been calculated. SEM with EDAX studies has been done for Di-sodium tartrate an optically active molecule.

  1. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  2. [Treatment of Paget's disease with diphosphonate (disodium ethydronate)].

    PubMed

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Guideri, R; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P

    1976-01-07

    16 patients suffering from Paget's disease were studied before, during and after 3 or 6 month treatment with disodium ethydronate (EHDP) per os. An appreciable improvement in pain symptomatology was noted and at times an evident improvement in audiometry; from the metabolic viewpoint there was a fall in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary excretion of calcium and hydroxyproline. A study of radiocalcium kinetics demonstrated a reduction in the exchangeable calcium pool and the fractional turnover rate. Histological examination following needle biopsy of the iliac crest showed evident diminution in the active bone cell population (osteoclasts, osteoblasts) and, in certain cases, appearance of osteoid borders.

  3. Influence of disodium EDTA on the nucleation and growth of struvite and carbonate apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    The effect of disodium EDTA, as an additive, on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. The growth of struvite crystals and carbonate apatite occurred in the solution of artificial urine at 37 °C and at the condition emulating real urinary tract infection. The results demonstrate that the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). The struvite crystal mean and median diameters were found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA but the crystal morphology and habit remain almost unchanged. Disodium EDTA has demonstrated its potential to be further investigated in the presence of bacteria and in vivo conditions.

  4. Sequential Systemic Administrations of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate and Radioiodinated Hypericin Exert Synergistic Targeted Theranostic Effects with Prolonged Survival on SCID Mice Carrying Bifocal Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Guozhi; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Jie; Oyen, Raymond; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Based on the soil-to-seeds principle, we explored the small-molecular sequential dual-targeting theranostic strategy (SMSDTTS) for prolonged survival and imaging detectability in a xenograft tumor model. Materials and Methods: Thirty severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing bilateral radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) subcutaneously were divided into group A of SMSDTTS with sequential intravenous injections of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) and 131I-iodohypericin (131I-Hyp) at a 24 h interval; group B of single targeting control with CA4P and vehicle of 131I-Hyp; and group C of vehicle control (10 mice per group). Tumoricidal events were monitored by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planar gamma scintiscan, and validated by ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology. Besides, 9 mice received sequential intravenous injections of CA4P and 131I-Hyp were subjected to biodistribution analysis at 24, 72 and 120 h. Results: Gamma counting revealed fast clearance of 131I-Hyp from normal organs but intense accumulation in necrotic tumor over 120 h. After only one treatment, significantly prolonged survival (p<0.001) was found in group A compared to group B and C with median survival of 33, 22, and 21 days respectively. Tumor volume on day 15 was 2.0 ± 0.89, 5.66 ± 1.66, and 5.02 ± 1.0 cm3 with tumor doubling time 7.8 ± 2.8, 4.4 ± 0.67, and 4.5 ± 0.5 days respectively. SMSDTTS treated tumors were visualized as hot spots on gamma scintiscans, and necrosis over tumor ratio remained consistently high on MRI, autoradiography and histology. Conclusion: The synergistic antitumor effects, multifocal targetability, simultaneous theranostic property, and good tolerance of the SMSDTTS were evident in this experiment, which warrants further development for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:23423247

  5. A single dose of intravenous combretastatin A4-phosphate is reasonably well tolerated and significantly reduces tumour vascularization in canine spontaneous cancers.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; De Spiegelaere, W; Vanderperren, K; Stock, E; Van Brantegem, L; Cornelis, I; Daminet, S; Ni, Y; Vynck, M; Verstraete, G; Smets, P; de Rooster, H

    2018-05-24

    Combretastatin A4-phosphate (CA4P) is an anti-tumour vascular targeting agent which selectively blocks tumour blood flow. Research on CA4P in rodent tumour models is extensive; however, knowledge of its effect on spontaneous cancer is scarce. This study was conducted in canine patients with spontaneous solid tumours. The goal was to assess the toxicity and efficacy of CA4P in various spontaneous tumour types. Eight dogs with spontaneous tumours were enrolled and treated with a single dose of 75 mg m -2 intravenous CA4P. The dogs were screened and monitored before and after injection. Pre- and post-treatment tumour blood flow was analysed in vivo by power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Vessel destruction and tumour necrosis were evaluated by histopathology. Clinically relevant toxicity was limited to one case of temporary tetraparesis; other adverse events were mild. Significant cardiovascular changes were mostly confined to changes in heart rate and cTnI levels. Macroscopic tumour size reduction was evident in 2 dogs. Based on PDUS and CEUS, CA4P induced a significant decrease in vascular index and tumour blood flow. Post-treatment, histopathology revealed a significant increase of necrotic tumoural tissue and a significant reduction in microvessel density in tumoural tissue. Anti-vascular and necrotizing effects of CA4P were documented in a variety of canine spontaneous cancers with only minimal side effects. This is the first study reporting the administration of CA4P to canine cancer patients with in vivo and ex vivo assessment, and a first step toward implementing CA4P in combination therapies in veterinary oncology patients. The use of CA4P in canine patients was approved and registered by the Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) (approval number 0002588, registration number 6518 ID 2F12). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic...

  12. The Hidden Side of Disodium Cromolyn: from Mast Cell Stabilizer to an Angiogenic Factor and Antitumor Agent.

    PubMed

    Cimpean, Anca Maria; Raica, Marius

    2016-12-01

    Scattered data suggested that disodium cromolyn, well known as a mast cell stabilizer shows some effects on tumor cells and tumor-associated newly formed vascular networks. Most of these studies used tumor cell lines assessed by in vitro studies. Nor disodium cromolyn effects on melanoma cell lines were studied yet, neither its influence on recruited tumor blood vessels or angiogenic growth factors expression. We designed here a study regarding disodium cromolyn effects on A375 melanoma tumor cells implanted on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and on blood vessels recruited by the experimental melanoma in the absence of mast cells, knowing that within CAM, the existence of mast cells are not certified yet. We also assessed the role of disodium cromolyn on the expression of several angiogenic growth factors. Disodium cromoglycate differentially acts on tumor cells and blood vessels. Extensive necrotic areas of experimental melanoma together with an increased number of peritumor blood vessels were observed in treated specimens as compared with untreated tumors. Disodium cromolyn inhibited VEGF and PDGF-BB expression, and had no effects on EG VEGF expression between treated and non treated specimens in a mast cells free microenvironment. Our results sustain the direct antitumor effects of sodium cromolyn and suggest the involvement of several growth factors in the recruitment of tumor vessels by A375 melanoma tumor cells. The expression of growth factors is differentially influenced by sodium cromolyn treatment.

  13. Edetate Disodium-Based Treatment for Secondary Prevention in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Issa, Omar M

    2016-02-01

    An abundance of data, known for decades, is available linking metals, such as lead and cadmium, with cardiovascular disease. However, the idea that these toxic metals could be a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis did not become apparent clinically until the completion of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy in 2012. This pivotal study was the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of its kind to demonstrate a clear improvement in cardiovascular outcomes with edetate disodium therapy in a secondary prevention, post-myocardial infarction population. This effect size was most striking in diabetic patients, where the efficacy of edetate disodium was comparable, if not superior, to that of current guideline-based therapies. Given the economic burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the potential impact of this therapy could be enormous if the results of this study are replicated.

  14. Synthesis and cytotoxic analysis of some disodium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxysterol disulfates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianguo; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yanmin; Xin, Yi; Zhou, Aimin

    2009-01-01

    Disodium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-cholestane disulfate (1) was synthesized in 4 steps with a high overall yield from cholesterol. First, cholesterol (4a) was converted to cholest-4-en-3,6-dione (5a) via oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and then 5a was reduced by NaBH(4) in the presence of NiCl(2) to produce cholest-3beta,6beta-diol (6a). The reaction of 6a with the triethylamine-sulfur trioxide complex generated diammonium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-cholestane disulfate (7a) and the treatment of 7a by cation exchange resin 732 (sodium form)(Na(+)) yielded the target steroid 1. Disodium 24-ethyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxycholest-22-ene disulfate (2) and disodium 24-ethyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxycholestane disulfate (3) were synthesized using a similar method. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against Sk-Hep-1 (human liver carcinoma cell line), H-292 (human lung carcinoma cell line), PC-3 (human prostate carcinoma cell line) and Hey-1B (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) cells was investigated. Our results indicate that presence of a cholesterol-type side chain at position 17 is necessary for their biological activity.

  15. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3129 Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1...

  16. Effects of wet cleaning with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate on dust mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in carpet.

    PubMed

    Vyszenski-Moher, Diann L; Arlian, Larry G

    2003-07-01

    In a controlled laboratory study, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) applied to carpets with a carpet-cleaning machine at a rate of 509 ml DOT/8.15 liter H2O/100 m2 (two cups DOT/2 gal H2O/100 feet2) reduced survival and population growth of live Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by > or = 98% compared with water-cleaned and uncleaned carpets at 8 wk postcleaning. Cleaning with DOT was more effective against D. pteronyssinus than D. farinae.

  17. Taurine suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells induced by beta-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid via the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiang; Li, Jian-ming; Liao, Xiao-bo; Hu, Ye-rong; Shang, Bao-peng; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Ling-qing; Xie, Hui; Sheng, Zhi-feng; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lu; Zhou, Xin-min

    2012-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.

  18. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride), sodium borate and sodium metaborate; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1121 Section 180.1121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. Efficacy of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), and chlorothalonil (CTL) against common mold fungi

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Micales-Glaeser; Jeffrey D. Lloyd; Thomas L. Woods

    2004-01-01

    The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in...

  20. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Risk After Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gadoxetate Disodium in Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lauenstein, Thomas; Ramirez-Garrido, Francisco; Kim, Young Hoon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ricke, Jens; Phongkitkarun, Sith; Boettcher, Joachim; Gupta, Rajan T.; Korpraphong, Pornpim; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Furtner, Julia; Liu, Peter S.; Henry, Maren; Endrikat, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed. PMID:25756684

  1. [Effects of pamidronate disodium (Bonin) combined with chemotherapy on bone pain in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Leng, Yun; Chen, Shi-lun; Shi, Hong-zhi

    2002-10-01

    Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of Disodium Pamidronate (Bonin) on bone pain in multiple myeloma. Method. 18 patients received only chemotherapy and 16 patients with addition of Bonin were compared. Result. The bone pain was significantly relieved both in chemotherapy alone group and in the combination group of Bonin with chemotherapy after treatment (P<0.01, as compared with before therapy). However, the effects of combination group were more dramatical than that of the other group (P<0.05). No obvious side-effects were observed except mild fever in one patient in the combination group. Conclusion. Bonin, as a safe and effective Bisphosphonates preparation, could relieve bone pain in multiple myeloma more effectively when combined with chemotherapy.

  2. Chiral lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals composed of disodium cromoglycate doped with water-soluble chiral additives.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tatsuya; Shuai, Min; Nakamura, Keita; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Naka, Yumiko; Sasaki, Takeo; Clark, Noel A; Le, Khoa V

    2018-02-28

    We investigated the pitches of cholesteric liquid crystals prepared by mixing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) in water with 5 different water-soluble chiral additives. The measurements are based on the Grandjean-Cano wedge cell method. Overall, the twisting effect is weak, and the shortest pitch of 2.9 ± 0.2 μm is obtained using trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline, by which the cholesteric sample is iridescent at certain viewing angles. Freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FFTEM) was also performed for the first time on both the nematic and cholesteric phases, revealing that stacked chromonic aggregates are very long, up to a few hundred nm, which explains why cholesteric chromonic liquid crystals hardly have pitches in the visible wavelength region.

  3. Hydrogen bonding in the neutron structure of the mononucleotide 5'-UMP disodium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, R.; Ranjan-Choudhury, R.; Ramanadham, M.

    Disodium uridine 5'-monophosphate heptahydrate (5'-UMPNa2), Na2[C9H11N2O9P].7H2O, crystallises in space group C2221 with a=22.985, b=8.911 and c=19.494Å. A neutron beam of λ=1.216Å was used; Z=8 and V=3992.75Å3. Data consisted of 1785 unique reflections. Na ions were connected to the main molecule through water molecules and sugar oxygens. One of the Na ions occupied a special position, and the other at a general position was partially disordered. The uracil base was planar, and had anti conformation about the glycosidic bond. The sugar had C(2') endo conformation and was gauche-gauche.

  4. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  5. Graphene oxide wrapped croconic acid disodium salt for sodium ion battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao; Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Gao, Tao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-03-01

    Croconic acid disodium salt (CADS), a renewable or recyclable organic compound, is investigated as an anode material in sodium ion battery for the first time. The pristine micro-sized CADS delivers a high capacity of 246.7 mAh g-1, but it suffers from fast capacity decay during charge/discharge cycles. The detailed investigation reveals that the severe capacity loss is mainly attributed to the pulverization of CADS particles induced by the large volume change during sodiation/desodiation rather than the generally believed dissolution of CADS in the organic electrolyte. Minimizing the particle size can effectively suppress the pulverization, thus improving the cycling stability. Wrapping CADS with graphene oxide by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can enhance the integration and conductivity of CADS electrodes, thus providing a high capacity of 293 mAh g-1.

  6. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Edetate Disodium Chelation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. PMID:27199065

  7. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N), and columnar (also called M) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  8. Functional gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Heiko; Hinrichs, Jan B; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lenzen, Henrike; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen; Wacker, Frank; Ringe, Kristina I

    2016-04-01

    To assess the value of variable flip angle-based T1 liver mapping on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) for evaluation of global and segmental liver function, and determine a possible correlation with disease severity. Sixty-one patients (19 female, 42 male; mean age 41 years) with PSC were included in this prospective study. T1 mapping was performed using a 3D-spoiled GRE sequence (flip angles 5°, 15°, 20°, 30°) before, 16 (HP1) and 132 min (HP2) after contrast injection. T1 values were measured and compared (Wilcoxon-Test) by placing ROIs in each liver segment. The mean reduction of T1 relaxation time at HP1 and HP2 was calculated and correlated with liver function tests (LFTs), MELD, Mayo Risk and Amsterdam Scores (Spearman correlation). Significant changes of T1 relaxation times between non-enhanced and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI at HP1 and HP2 could be observed in all liver segments (p < 0.0001). A significant correlation of T1 reduction could be observed with LFTs, MELD and Mayo Risk Score (p < 0.05). T1 mapping of the liver using a variable flip angle-based sequence is a feasible technique to evaluate liver function on a global level, and may be extrapolated on a segmental level in patients with PSC. • T1 mapping enables evaluation of global liver function in PSC. • T1 relaxation time reduction correlates with the MELD and MayoRisk Score. • Extrapolated, T1 mapping may allow for segmental evaluation of liver function.

  9. Natural-abundance 17O NMR spectra of some inorganic and biologically important phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Sheppard, Norman

    A number of optimization techniques were employed to obtain 17O NMR spectra at natural abundance for a variety of inorganic and orgnic phosphates and polyphosphates. 17O chemical shifts and some JPO coupling constants are reported for the orthophosphate series of ions from H 3PO 4 to PO 43-, the pyrophosphate ion, P 2O 74-, the linear tripolyphosphate ion, P 3O 105-, and the cyclic trimetaphosphate ion, P 3O 93-; and for disodium DL-α-glycerophosphate and monosodium adenosine monophosphate. 17O- depleted water enables much improved results to be obtained in acqueous solutions.

  10. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  11. High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Minah; Hong, Jihyun; Lopez, Jeffrey; ...

    2017-10-09

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g -1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na 2C 6O 6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. In this paper, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na 2C 6O 6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na 2C 6O 6. The active-particlemore » size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. Finally, on the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na 2C 6O 6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g -1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg -1 cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.« less

  12. High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Minah; Hong, Jihyun; Lopez, Jeffrey

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g -1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na 2C 6O 6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. In this paper, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na 2C 6O 6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na 2C 6O 6. The active-particlemore » size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. Finally, on the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na 2C 6O 6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g -1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg -1 cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.« less

  13. Evaluation of liver function using gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Hara, Takeshi; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio

    2010-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used for its clearance test in the evaluation of liver function. Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a targeted MR contrast agent partially taken up by hepatocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an estimation of the liver function corresponding to plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG-PDR) by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging (EOB-MRI). We evaluated fourteen patients who had EOB-MRI and ICG clearance test within 1 month. 2D-GRE T1 weighted images were obtained at pre contrast, 3 min (equilibrium phase) and 20 min (hepatobiliary phase) after the intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA, and the mean signal intensity of the liver was measured. The correlation between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOB-MRI was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOBMRI was low and not significant. The estimation of the liver function corresponding to ICG-PDR by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in EOB-MRI would not be reliable.

  14. High-performance sodium-organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minah; Hong, Jihyun; Lopez, Jeffrey; Sun, Yongming; Feng, Dawei; Lim, Kipil; Chueh, William C.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g-1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na2C6O6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. Here, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na2C6O6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na2C6O6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. On the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na2C6O6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g-1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg-1cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.

  15. Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuji; Hine, Kyoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Uetake, Tatsuo; Nakano, Masahiko; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound first identified in 1979. It has been reported that rats fed a PQQ-supplemented diet showed better learning ability than controls, suggesting that PQQ may be useful for improving memory in humans. In the present study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study to examine the effect of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on cognitive functions was conducted with 41 elderly healthy subjects. Subjects were orally given 20 mg of BioPQQ™ per day or placebo, for 12 weeks. For cognitive functions, selective attention by the Stroop and reverse Stroop test, and visual-spatial cognitive function by the laptop tablet Touch M, were evaluated. In the Stroop test, the change of Stroop interference ratios (SIs) for the PQQ group was significantly smaller than for the placebo group. In the Touch M test, the stratification analyses dividing each group into two groups showed that only in the lower group of the PQQ group (initial score<70), did the score significantly increase. Measurements of physiological parameters indicated no abnormal blood or urinary adverse events, nor adverse internal or physical examination findings at any point in the study. The preliminary experiment using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) suggests that cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was increased by the administration of PQQ. The results suggest that PQQ can prevent reduction of brain function in aged persons, especially in attention and working memory.

  16. Effects of phosphates on microstructure and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Zhao, T G

    2013-09-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O) and different phosphates (i.e. disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·H2O) and sodium hexametaphosphate((NaPO3)6)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. Systemic toxicity test was used to evaluate the coating biocompatibility. Fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure F(-) ions concentration during 30 days SBF immersion. The CaP coatings effectively reduced the corrosion rate and the surfaces of CaP coatings were covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like and scale-like apatites. The formation of these calcium phosphate apatites indicates that the coatings have excellent bioactivity. The coatings formed in (NaPO3)6-containging electrolyte exhibit thicker thickness, higher adhesive strength, slower degradation rate, better apatite-inducing ability and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of glycine on pH changes and protein stability during freeze-thawing in phosphate buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Pikal-Cleland, Katherine A; Cleland, Jeffrey L; Anchordoquy, Thomas J; Carpenter, John F

    2002-09-01

    Previous studies have established that the selective precipitation of a less soluble buffer component during freezing can induce a significant pH shift in the freeze concentrate. During freezing of sodium phosphate solutions, crystallization of the disodium salt can produce a pH decrease as great as 3 pH units which can dramatically affect protein stability. The objective of our study was to determine how the presence of glycine (0-500 mM), a commonly used bulking agent in pharmaceutical protein formulations, affects the pH changes normally observed during freezing in sodium phosphate buffer solutions and to determine whether these pH changes contribute to instability of model proteins in glycine/phosphate formulations. During freezing in sodium phosphate buffers, the presence of glycine significantly influenced the pH. Glycine at the lower concentrations (< or = 50 mM) suppressed the pH decrease normally observed during freezing in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, possibly by reducing the nucleation rate of salt and thereby decreasing the extent of buffer salt crystallization. The presence of glycine at higher concentration (> 100 mM) in the sodium phosphate buffer resulted in a more complete crystallization of the disodium salt as indicated by the frozen pH values closer to the equilibrium value (pH 3.6). Although high concentrations of glycine can facilitate more buffer salt crystallization and these pH shifts may prove to be potentially damaging to the protein, glycine, in its amorphous state, can also act to stabilize a protein via the preferential exclusion mechanism. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss Inc.

  18. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  19. Validity of fluorexon disodium versus sodium fluorescein for use in Goldmann tonometry.

    PubMed

    Ng, Loretta T; Tong, Judy W; De Land, Paul N

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the safety, validity, and comfort of 0.35% fluorexon disodium and 0.4% benoxinate (Flura-Safe) compared with the gold standard of 0.25% sodium fluorescein and 0.4% benoxinate for Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). This was a double-masked, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Subjects received either the standard or study formulation for GAT on visit 1 and the other formulation 1 week later. At each visit, tonometer mire quality, adequacy of fluorescence, ease of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, the IOP value, and anesthetizing efficacy of the formulation were assessed. Subjects graded general comfort, soreness and irritation, and burning and stinging of each formulation at 1 and 5 minutes after drop instillation. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. The mean IOP was 13.9 +/- 2.7 with fluorexon and 13.9 +/- 2.8 mm Hg with fluorescein OD and 14.0 +/- 2.8 with fluorexon and 13.9 +/- 2.5 mm Hg with fluorescein OS. The measurements with the 2 formulations were highly correlated for OD and OS, and the differences between the 2 measurements were not clinically significant. There was also no significant difference between the 2 drops in mire clarity, adequacy of fluorescence, or corneal anesthesia. However, fluorexon was statistically more comfortable (P = 0.039) and caused less stinging and burning (P = 0.014) at 1 minute versus the fluorescein formulation. Not only was the new fluorexon product accurate and effective in GAT, it was also statistically more comfortable and had a less stinging and burning effect at 1 minute after drop instillation than the traditional fluorescein formulation. Because fluorexon is less likely to stain soft contact lenses, this may be the dye-anesthetic formulation of choice for practices that routinely perform GAT.

  20. Enhanced vasculotoxic metal excretion in post-myocardial infarction patients following a single edetate disodium-based infusion.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Ivan A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ergui, Ian; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2017-10-01

    Toxic metals have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We have hypothesized that enhanced excretion of vasculotoxic metals might explain the positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single infusion of the edetate disodium- based infusion used in TACT led to enhanced excretion of toxic metals known to be associated with cardiovascular events. Twenty six patients (post-MI, age > 50 years, serum creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL) were enrolled in this open-label study. Urinary levels of 20 toxic metals normalized to urinary creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline in overnight urine collections, for 6h following a placebo infusion of 500mL normal saline and 1.2% dextrose, and for 6h following a 3g edetate disodium-based infusion. Self-reported metal exposure, smoking status, food frequency, occupational history, drinking water source, housing and hobbies were collected at baseline by a metal exposure questionnaire. The mean age was 65 years (range 51-81 years). All patients were male. 50% had diabetes mellitus and 58% were former smokers. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 0.95 (0.31) mg/dL. Toxic metals were detected in the baseline urine of >80% of patients. After placebo infusion there were no significant changes in total urinary metal levels. After edetate infusion, total urinary metal level increased by 71% compared to baseline (1500 vs. 2580µg/g creatinine; P<0.0001). The effect of edetate was particularly large for lead (3835% increase) and cadmium (633% increase). Edetate disodium-based infusions markedly enhanced the urinary excretion of lead and cadmium, toxic metals with established epidemiologic evidence and mechanisms linking them to coronary and vascular events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  2. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  3. Click strategy using disodium salts of amino acids improves the water solubility of plinabulin and KPU-300.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, Fumika; Muguruma, Kyohei; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Shirasaka, Takuya; Kawamata, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hironari; Yoshiwaka, Yushi; Taguchi, Akihiro; Takayama, Kentaro; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2017-07-15

    Plinabulin and KPU-300 are promising anti-microtubule agents; however, the low water solubility of these compounds (<0.1µg/mL) has limited their pharmaceutical advantages. Here, we developed five water-soluble derivatives of plinabulin and KPU-300 with a click strategy using disodium salts of amino acids. The mother skeleton, diketopiperazine (DKP), was transformed into a monolactim-type alkyne and a copper-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) combined azides that was derived from amino acids as a water-solubilizing moiety. The conversion of carboxyl groups into disodium salts greatly improved the water solubility by 0.8 million times compared to the solubility of the parent molecules. In addition, the α-amino acid side chains of the water-solubilizing moieties affected both the water solubility and the half-lives of the compounds during enzymatic hydrolysis. Our effort to develop a variety of water-soluble derivatives using the click strategy has revealed that the replaceable water-solubilizing moieties can alter molecular solubility and stability under enzymatic hydrolysis. With this flexibility, we are approaching to the in vivo study using water-soluble derivative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP) using oxytetracycline-Eu 3+ as a fluorescence probe by spectrofluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Faju; Miao, Yanhong; Jiang, Chongqiu

    2005-10-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). We studied the interactions between oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ complex and adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP) by using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. Using oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ as a fluorescence probe, under the optimum conditions, ATP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu 3+ complex at λ = 612 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of ATP. Optimum conditions for the determination of ATP were also investigated. The linear ranges for ATP are 8.00 × 10 -8-1.50 × 10 -6 mol L -1 with detection limits of 2.67 × 10 -9 mol L -1. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of ATP in samples. The mechanism of fluorescence enhancement between oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ complex and ATP was also studied.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  6. The role of disodium pamidronate in the management of bone pain due to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Groff, L; Zecca, E; De Conno, F; Brunelli, C; Boffi, R; Panzeri, C; Cazzaniga, M; Ripamonti, C

    2001-07-01

    A number of controlled studies have recently demonstrated the role of disodium pamidronate in the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic bone disease due to breast cancer and multiple myeloma. They have also shown that it relieves pain and is well tolerated. The aim of this open prospective study was to evaluate the acceptability of a new schedule of pamidronate infusion and to assess pain, analgesic consumption and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with metastatic bone pain treated with pamidronate in association or not with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Patients with different types of cancer and at least one painful bone metastasis were treated with two cycles of 60 mg intravenous (iv) pamidronate weekly for three consecutive doses, with a 3-week interval between the two cycles (six infusions over 7 weeks), followed by one infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 24 infusions. Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 94 received at least the first six infusions; 25 patients received all 24 infusions. Pamidronate was well tolerated in the majority of the patients both during the first six infusions and during the whole study period. In the patients under study, pain intensity decreased compared with T0 after the first two infusions (second week of treatment). The mean equivalent daily dose of oral morphine required ranged from 21.5 to 41.5 mg/day and was low and stable during the study. For the patients who remained in the study, the KPS remained around 70 during the whole treatment period and intrasubject analysis showed a substantial stability of the KPS within each subject. A first fracture occurred within 321 days in 25% of the whole population under study. Pamidronate represents a further valid therapy to add to an already consolidated list of therapies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and orthopaedic intervention in the pain management of patients with bone

  7. One-stop-shop preoperative evaluation for living liver donors with gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: efficiency and additional benefit.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangshuang; Liu, Chenhao; Yu, Zichuan; Ren, Tao; Hou, Jiancun; Chen, Lihua; Huang, Lixiang; Cheng, Yue; Ji, Qian; Yin, Jianzhong; Zhang, Longjiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-12-01

    To explore the efficiency, cost, and time for examination of one-stop-shop gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation for parent donors by comparing with multidetector computer tomography combined with conventional MR cholangiopancreatography (MDCT-MRCP). Forty parent donors were evaluated with MDCT-MRCP, and the other 40 sex-, age-, and weight-matched donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Anatomical variations and graft volume determined by pre- and intra-operative findings, costs and time for imaging were recorded. Image quality was ranked on a 4-point scale and compared between both groups. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI provided better image quality than MDCT-MRCP for the depiction of portal veins and bile ducts by both reviewers (p < 0.05), hepatic veins by one reviewer (p < 0.05), rather hepatic arteries by both reviewers (p < 0.01). Sixty-nine living donors proceeded to liver donation with all anatomical findings accurately confirmed by intra-operative findings. The "in-room" time of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was 12 min longer than MDCT-MRCP. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was cheaper than MDCT-MRCP (US$519.72 vs. US$631.85). One-stop-shop Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI has similar diagnostic accuracy as MDCT-MRCP and can provide additional benefit in terms of costs and convenience in preoperative evaluation for parent donors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonate. 73.3129 Section 73.3129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonate. 73.3129 Section 73.3129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  10. Pemetrexed disodium in combination with cisplatin versus other cytotoxic agents or supportive care for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Green, J; Dundar, Y; Dodd, S; Dickson, R; Walley, T

    2007-01-24

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive malignancy whose incidence is expected to increase in the United Kingdom, Western Europe, and Australia over the next 20 years as a result of occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. Surgery is feasible in only a small proportion of cases, and radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy are used in palliation. Pemetrexed is the first and only chemotherapy agent that has been granted a marketing approval for use in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of chemo-naïve patients with unresectable MPM. To examine evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pemetrexed disodium used in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma in chemotherapy naïve patients compared with other cytotoxic agents used alone or in combination, or supportive care. CENTRAL (Issue 2, 2005), EMBASE (1980-2005), MEDLINE (1980-2005), HTA database (1990-2005), Web of Knowledge (1990-2005) and handsearching (including reference lists of retrieved articles and the pharmaceutical company submission to to NICE), up to October 2005. Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) where the use of pemetrexed disodium in combination with cisplatin is compared with other cytotoxic agents, or supportive care for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (or non-RCTs, in the absence of RCT data ). Outcomes included overall survival, tumour response, progression-free survival, toxicity and quality of life. Data extraction and quality assessment of included trials was completed independently. Trial data and quality assessment were tabulated and presented narratively. One RCT involving 448 patients and comparing pemetrexed plus cisplatin versus cisplatin alone for the treatment of unresectable malignant mesothelioma was included in the review. In the intention-to-treat study population, the median survival was statistically significantly longer in the combination arm of pemetrexed plus cisplatin when

  11. Characterization of Severe Arterial Phase Respiratory Motion Artifact on Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced MRI - Assessment of Interrater Agreement and Reliability.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Kristina Imeen; Luetkens, Julian A; Fimmers, Rolf; Hammerstingl, Renate Maria; Layer, Günter; Maurer, Martin H; Nähle, Claas Philip; Michalik, Sabine; Reimer, Peter; Schraml, Christina; Schreyer, Andreas G; Stumpp, Patrick; Vogl, Thomas J; Wacker, Frank K; Willinek, Winfried; Kukuk, Guido Mattias

    2018-04-01

     To assess the interrater agreement and reliability of experienced abdominal radiologists in the characterization and grading of arterial phase gadoxetate disodium-related respiratory motion artifact on liver MRI.  This prospective multicenter study was initiated by the working group for abdominal imaging within the German Roentgen Society (DRG), and approved by the local IRB of each participating center. 11 board-certified radiologists independently reviewed 40 gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI datasets. Motion artifacts in the arterial phase were assessed on a 5-point scale. Interrater agreement and reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kendall coefficient of concordance (W), with p < 0.05 deemed significant.  The ICC for interrater agreement and reliability were 0.983 (CI 0.973 - 0.990) and 0.985 (CI 0.978 - 0.991), respectively (both p < 0.0001), indicating excellent agreement and reliability. Kendall's W for interrater agreement was 0.865. A severe motion artifact, defined as a mean motion score ≥ 4 in the arterial phase was observed in 12 patients. In these specific cases, a motion score ≥ 4 was assigned by all readers in 75 % (n = 9/12 cases).  Differentiation and grading of arterial phase respiratory motion artifact is possible with a high level of inter-/intrarater agreement and interrater reliability, which is crucial for assessing the incidence of this phenomenon in larger multicenter studies.   · Inter- and intrarater agreement for motion artifact scoring is excellent among experienced readers.. · Interrater reliability for motion artifact scoring is excellent among experienced readers.. · Characterization of severe motion artifacts proved feasible in this multicenter study.. · Ringe KI, Luetkens JA, Fimmers R et al. Characterization of Severe Arterial Phase Respiratory Motion Artifact on Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced MRI - Assessment of Interrater Agreement

  12. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans: a summary.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Maibach, H I; Bell, K; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Strong, P; Culver, B D

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. This made it possible, in the presence of comparatively large natural dietary boron intakes for the in vivo segment of this study, to quantify the boron passing through skin. Human volunteers were dosed with 10B-enriched boric acid, 5.0%, borax, 5.0%, or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, 10% in aqueous solutions. Urinalysis, for boron and changes in boron isotope ratios, was used to measure absorption. Boric acid in vivo percutaneous absorption was 0.226 (SD = 0.125) mean percent dose, with flux and permeability constant (Kp) calculated at 0.009 microg/cm2/h and 1.9 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Borax absorption was 0.210 (SD = 0.194) mean percent dose, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.009 microg/cm2/h and 1.8 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. DOT absorption was 0.122 (SD = 0.108) mean percent, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.01 microg/cm2/h and 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Pretreatment with the potential skin irritant 2% sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on boron skin absorption. These in vivo results show that percutaneous absorption of boron, as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, through intact human skin is low and is significantly less than the average daily dietary intake. This very low boron skin absorption makes it apparent that, for the borates tested, the use of gloves to prevent systemic uptake is unnecessary. These findings do not apply to abraded or otherwise damaged skin.

  13. Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced MRI to Differentiate Dysplastic Nodules and Grade of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlation With Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Channual, Stephanie; Tan, Nelly; Siripongsakun, Surachate; Lassman, Charles; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    The objective of our study was to determine quantitative differences to differentiate low-grade from high-grade dysplastic nodules (DNs) and low-grade from high-grade hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) using gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI. A retrospective study of 149 hepatic nodules in 127 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was performed. MRI signal intensities (SIs) of the representative lesion ROI and of ROIs in liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion were measured on unenhanced T1-weighted imaging and on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the arterial, portal venous, delayed, and hepatobiliary phases. The relative SI of the lesion was calculated for each phase as the relative intensity ratio as follows: [mass SI / liver SI]. Of the 149 liver lesions, nine (6.0%) were low-grade DNs, 21 (14.1%) were high-grade DNs, 83 (55.7%) were low-grade HCCs, and 36 (24.2%) were high-grade HCCs. The optimal cutoffs for differentiating low-grade DNs from high-grade DNs and HCCs were an unenhanced to arterial SI of ≥ 0 or a relative SI on T2-weighted imaging of ≤ 1.5, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.2% and accuracy of 88.6%. The optimal cutoffs for differentiating low-grade HCCs from high-grade HCCs were a relative hepatobiliary SI of ≤ 0.5 or a relative T2 SI of ≥ 1.5, with a PPV of 81.0% and an accuracy of 60.5%. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI allows quantitative differentiation of low-grade DNs from high-grade DNs and HCCs, but significant overlap was seen between low-grade HCCs and high-grade HCCs.

  14. Simultaneous (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/MRI with gadoxetate disodium in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Hope, Thomas A; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Nakakura, Eric; VanBrocklin, Henry; Slater, James; Jivan, Salma; Aparici, Carina Mari; Yee, Judy; Bergsland, Emily

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a simultaneous PET/MRI approach to imaging patients with neuroendocrine tumor using a combination of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC as a PET contrast agent and gadoxetate disodium as a hepatobiliary MRI contrast agent. Ten patients with neuroendocrine tumor with known or suspected hepatic disease were imaged using a (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT immediately followed by a 3.0T time-of-flight PET/MRI, using a combined whole body and liver specific imaging. The presence of lesions and DOTA-TOC avidity were assessed on CT, PET from PET/CT, diffusion weighted imaging, hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP), and PET from PET/MRI. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in hepatic lesions and nodal metastases were compared between PET/CT and PET/MRI, as were detection rates using each imaging approach. A total of 101 hepatic lesions were identified, 47 of which were DOTA-TOC avid and able to be individually measured on both PET/CT and PET/MRI. HBP imaging had a higher sensitivity for detection of hepatic lesions compared to CT or PET (99% vs. 46% and 64%, respectively; p values <0.001). There was a strong correlation between SUVmax of liver lesions obtained with PET/CT compared to PET/MR imaging (Pearson's correlation = 0.91). For nodal disease, CT had a higher sensitivity compared to whole body MRI (p = 0.015), although PET acquired from PET/MRI detected slightly more lesions compared to PET from PET/CT. A simultaneous PET/MRI using both (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC and gadoxetate disodium was successful in whole body staging of patients with neuroendocrine tumor. HBP imaging had an increased detection rate for hepatic metastases.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Ammonium citrate. Ammonium potassium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate.... Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium stearate. Magnesium...

  18. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  19. Technical report: gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced 2D R2* mapping: a novel approach for assessing bile ducts in living donors.

    PubMed

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Fowler, Kathryn J; Wolfson, Tanya; Igarashi, Saya; Lamas Constantino, Carolina P; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hong, Cheng W; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Gamst, Anthony C; Hemming, Alan; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-10-31

    Gadoxetate-disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3D T1- weighted (T1w) MR cholangiography (MRC) is an efficient method to evaluate biliary anatomy due to T1 shortening of excreted contrast in the bile. A method that exploits both T1 shortening and T2* effects may produce even greater bile duct conspicuity. The aim of our study is to determine feasibility and compare the diagnostic performance of two-dimensional (2D) T1w multi-echo (ME) spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) derived R2* maps against T1w MRC for bile duct visualization in living liver donor candidates. Ten potential living liver donor candidates underwent pretransplant 3T MRI and were included in our study. Following injection of Gd-EOBDTPA and a 20-min delay, 3D T1w MRC and 2D T1w ME SPGR images were acquired. 2D R2* maps were generated inline by the scanner assuming exponential decay. The 3D T1w MRC and 2D R2* maps were retrospectively and independently reviewed in two separate sessions by three radiologists. Visualization of eight bile duct segments was scored using a 4-point ordinal scale. The scores were compared using mixed effects regression model. Imaging was tolerated by all donors and R2* maps were successfully generated in all cases. Visualization scores of 2D R2* maps were significantly higher than 3D T1w MRC for right anterior (p = 0.003) and posterior (p = 0.0001), segment 2 (p < 0.0001), segment 3 (p = 0.0001), and segment 4 (p < 0.0001) ducts. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 2D R2* mapping is a feasible method for evaluating the bile ducts in living donors and may be a valuable addition to the living liver donor MR protocol for delineating intrahepatic biliary anatomy.

  20. Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the TACT randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Goertz, Christine; Boineau, Robin; Mark, Daniel B; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L

    2013-03-27

    Chelation therapy with disodium EDTA has been used for more than 50 years to treat atherosclerosis without proof of efficacy. To determine if an EDTA-based chelation regimen reduces cardiovascular events. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial randomized trial enrolling 1708 patients aged 50 years or older who had experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) at least 6 weeks prior and had serum creatinine levels of 2.0 mg/dL or less. Participants were recruited at 134 US and Canadian sites. Enrollment began in September 2003 and follow-up took place until October 2011 (median, 55 months). Two hundred eighty-nine patients (17% of total; n=115 in the EDTA group and n=174 in the placebo group) withdrew consent during the trial. Patients were randomized to receive 40 infusions of a 500-mL chelation solution (3 g of disodium EDTA, 7 g of ascorbate, B vitamins, electrolytes, procaine, and heparin) (n=839) vs placebo (n=869) and an oral vitamin-mineral regimen vs an oral placebo. Infusions were administered weekly for 30 weeks, followed by 10 infusions 2 to 8 weeks apart. Fifteen percent discontinued infusions (n=38 [16%] in the chelation group and n=41 [15%] in the placebo group) because of adverse events. The prespecified primary end point was a composite of total mortality, recurrent MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. This report describes the intention-to-treat comparison of EDTA chelation vs placebo. To account for multiple interim analyses, the significance threshold required at the final analysis was P = .036. Qualifying previous MIs occurred a median of 4.6 years before enrollment. Median age was 65 years, 18% were female, 9% were nonwhite, and 31% were diabetic. The primary end point occurred in 222 (26%) of the chelation group and 261 (30%) of the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .035). There was no effect on total mortality (chelation: 87 deaths [10%]; placebo, 93 deaths [11%]; HR, 0

  1. Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: The TACT Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Goertz, Christine; Boineau, Robin; Mark, Daniel B.; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L.; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Chelation therapy with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used for over 50 years to treat atherosclerosis without proof of efficacy. Objective To determine if an EDTA-based chelation regimen reduces cardiovascular events. Design and Setting Double-blind placebo-controlled 2×2 factorial multicenter randomized trial. NIH Funding was approved in August 2002. The first patient was enrolled in September 2003, and the last follow-up took place in October 2011. Median follow-up was 55 months. Participants were recruited from 134 US and Canadian clinical sites. Participants 1708 patients, age 50 or older and at least 6 weeks post myocardial infarction, with a serum creatinine <2.0 mg/dL. 289 patients (17% of total; 115 in the EDTA group and 174 in the placebo group) withdrew consent for continued follow-up over the course of the trial. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive 40 infusions of a 500 mL chelation solution (containing 3 grams of disodium EDTA, 7 grams of ascorbate, B-vitamins, electrolytes, procaine, and heparin) versus placebo, and to an oral vitamin and mineral regimen or an oral placebo. Infusions were administered weekly for 30 weeks, followed by 10 infusions 2 to 8 weeks apart. Patients received 55,222 infusions. 15% discontinued infusions for adverse events. Main outcome measure The pre-specified primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. Followup for clinical events began upon randomization. This report describes the intent-to-treat comparison of EDTA chelation versus placebo. To account for multiple interim analyses, the significance threshold required at the final analysis was p=0.036. Results The qualifying myocardial infarction occurred a median of 4.6 years before enrollment. Median age was 65 years, 18% were female, 9% were nonwhite, 31% were diabetic. 83% had prior coronary revascularization, and

  2. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  3. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  4. Diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with multi-detector CT.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yuko; Hieda, Masashi; Akiyama, Naoko; Terada, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Noriaki; Nishiki, Masayo; Kono, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Yoshikawa, Yukinobu; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Awai, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB)-MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with multidetector CT (MDCT). Fifty patients with 57 surgically proven HCCs who underwent Gd-EOB-MRI and MDCT from March 2008 to June 2011 were evaluated. Two observers evaluated MR and CT on a lesion-by-lesion basis. We analyzed sensitivity by grading on a 5-point scale, the degree of arterial enhancement and the differences in histological grades in the diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The results showed that the sensitivity of Gd-EOB-MRI was higher than that of MDCT especially for HCCs that were 1 cm in diameter or smaller. The hepatobiliary phase was useful for the detecting of small HCC. We had few cases in which it was difficult to judge HCC in the arterial enhancement between MRI and MDCT. In the diffusion-weighted image, well differentiated HCC tended to show a low signal intensity, and poorly differentiated HCC tended to show a high signal intensity. In moderately differentiated HCC's, the mean diameter of the high signal intensity group was larger than that of the low signal intensity group (24.5 mm vs. 15.8 mm). In conclusion, Gd-EOB-MRI tended to show higher sensitivity compared to MDCT in the detection of HCC.

  5. Behavior of heavy metals in human urine and blood following calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate injection: observations in metal workers.

    PubMed

    Sata, F; Araki, S; Murata, K; Aono, H

    1998-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the behavior of 8 heavy metals in human urine and blood, CaEDTA was administered for 1 h by intravenous injection to 18 male metal foundry workers, whose blood lead concentrations (PbB) were between 16 and 59 (mean 34) microg/dl. Significant increases were found in urinary excretion of manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, and copper after the start of CaEDTA injection. Urinary chromium excretion reached a maximal level within 1 h after the start of injection, while urinary manganese, lead, and zinc excretion reached their highest concentrations between 1 and 2 h. Urinary copper excretion reached the highest level between 2 and 4 h. The rapid increases in urinary excretion of five metals were different from the "circadian rhythms," which are the normal, daily variations in renal glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretory mechanisms. Plasma lead concentrations were highest 1.5 h after the start of the 1-h injection, while plasma zinc concentration became lowest 5 h after the start of CaEDTA injection. Data suggest that manganese and chromium absorbed in human tissues might be mobilized by CaEDTA.

  6. Disodium cromoglycate may act as a novel adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wu, Yifan; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2018-06-01

    We have proven the beneficial effects during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection when mast cells were inhibited by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Here we investigated the adjuvant effect of DSCG on the protective efficacy of UV-attenuated T. gondii (UV-Tg) vaccine. Mice were infected with 10 2 Tg alone or infected with 10 2 Tg plus DSCG (Tg + DSCG), immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + Tg) or immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg plus DSCG and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg). Compared to Tg group, Tg + DSCG, UV-Tg + Tg, and UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg showed significantly prolonged survival times, decreased parasite burdens, reduced liver histopathologies, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers and spleens by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to UV-Tg + Tg, UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg had significantly longer survival time, lower tissue parasite burden and histopathological score, and higher levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers or spleens. Our data suggest that DSCG may play an adjuvant role in the immunization induced by UV-attenuated T. gondii in mice, by promoting cellular immune response against T. gondii challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Reduced Graphene Oxide/Disodium Terephthalate Hybrid as a High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tengfei; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Qiaowei; Chen, Xiangrong; He, Yanbing; Kang, Fei-Yu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2017-11-21

    As a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage systems, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are experiencing a rapid development. Organic conjugated carboxylic acid anodes not only have tailorable electrochemical properties but also are easily accessible. However, the low stability and electrical conductivity hamper their practical applications. In this study, disodium terephthalate (Na 2 TP), the most favorable organic conjugated carboxylic acid anode material for SIBs, was proposed to integrate with graphene oxide (GO) by an anti-solvent precipitation process, which ensures the uniform and tight coating of GO on the Na 2 TP surface. GO is electrochemically reduced during the first several cycles of the electrochemical measurement, which buffers the volume change and improves the electrical conductivity of Na 2 TP, resulting in a better cyclic and rate performance. The incorporation of only 5 wt % GO onto Na 2 TP leads to a reversible capability of 235 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at a current rate of 0.1 C, which is the best among the state of the art organic anodes for SIBs. The one-step synthesis together with the low costs of the raw materials show a promise for the scalable preparation of anode materials for practical SIBs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy)ethanediamine: synthesis, performance, and mechanism of action toward trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Qiu, Yiqin; Sun, Shuiyu; Ren, Jie; Dai, Yongkang; Han, Dajian

    2016-10-01

    A new effective multi-dithiocarbamate heavy metal precipitant, disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy) ethanediamine (BDE), was synthesized by mixing ethanediamine with carbon disulfide under alkaline conditions, and it was utilized for removing trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II) (EDTA-Cu) from wastewater. Its structure was confirmed by ultraviolet spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The removal performance of EDTA-Cu by BDE was evaluated according to BDE dosage, initial concentration, pH, and reaction time through single-factor experiments. With the optimized conditions of a pH range of 3-9, dosage ratio of BDE/Cu of 1:1, PAM dosage of 1 mg/L, and reaction time of 4 min, the removal efficiency of Cu(2+) was more than 98 % from simulated wastewater containing EDTA-Cu with initial concentrations of 5-100 mg/L. Treatment of actual EDTA-Cu wastewater showed that BDE performed superior effectiveness, and the average residential concentration of Cu(2+) was 0.115 mg/L. Besides, the stability of chelated precipitate and the reaction mechanism of BDE and EDTA-Cu were also introduced. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) indicated that the chelated precipitate was non-hazardous and stable in weak acid and alkaline conditions. The BDE reacts with EDTA-Cu at a stoichiometric ratio, and the removal of Cu(2+) was predominantly achieved through the replacement reaction of BDE and EDTA-Cu.

  10. Mechanism of oxidation of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt with oxygen in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław

    2017-06-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the oxidation mechanism of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (R-salt) with oxygen in subcritical water. To this aim, a series of experiments were carried out which showed that at a temperature of 413 K and pH > 9 the oxidation reaction of a substrate with oxygen was relatively quick and after approximately 40 min the R-salt oxidation yield exceeded 95%. In an acidic medium (pH < 7), the rate of R-salt oxidation is small. In order to identify the mechanism of R-salt oxidation, experiments were carried out at 413-569 K in solutions with pH = 10.0 and at partial oxygen pressure p O2  = 1.73 MPa. As a result of these experiments, a stable oxidation product was isolated from the reaction mixture and subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of H NMR of this product proved that a stable intermediate product of R-salt oxidation was 4-sulfophthalic acid sodium salt. The results of the experiments have shown that destructive oxidation of R-salt can easily be obtained at a temperature of 413 K, but satisfactory reduction of TOC in wastewater containing this substrate requires the use of very high temperature: at 569 K only 60% reduction of TOC was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of tromethamine edetate disodium dihydrate on antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pye, Charlotte C; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2014-04-01

    Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been documented in canine otic isolates. An increase in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for specific antibiotics has been noted for biofilm-embedded bacteria. Tromethamine edetate disodium dihydrate buffered to pH 8 with tromethamine hydrochloride and deionized water (Triz-EDTA(®)) has been documented to potentiate bactericidal activity when used in combination with topical antibiotics, but the impact on biofilm-embedded bacteria is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Triz-EDTA(®) use on in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-embedded P. aeruginosa. Biofilm formation was documented using a microtitre plate assay. Broth microdilution was used to assess the MIC of neomycin, polymyxin B, enrofloxacin and gentamicin for the biofilm-embedded bacteria. The microtitre plate assay was again used to assess the MIC of neomycin, polymyxin B, enrofloxacin and gentamicin for biofilm-embedded bacteria with added Triz-EDTA(®). Thirty-one isolates from dogs with otitis were tested. Addition of Triz-EDTA(®) significantly reduced MICs for neomycin (P < 0.003) and gentamicin (P < 0.02) but not for polymyxin B (P = 0.3). Enrofloxacin MICs increased in the presence of Triz-EDTA (P < 0.036). Triz-EDTA(®) may be a useful adjunctive treatment for chronic cases of Pseudomonas otitis where biofilms may have developed, if gentamicin or neomycin is to be used as a topical treatment. In vivo study is required to confirm this effect. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  13. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  19. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  20. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  1. Kidney and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The serum phosphorus level is maintained through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. The kidney plays a major role in regulation of phosphorus homeostasis by renal tubular reabsorption. Type IIa and type IIc Na+/Pi transporters are important renal Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters, which are expressed in the brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Both are regulated by dietary Pi intake, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone. The expression of type IIa Na+/Pi transporter result from hypophosphatemia quickly. However, type IIc appears to act more slowly. Physiological and pathophysiological alteration in renal Pi reabsorption are related to altered brush border membrane expression/content of the type II Na+/Pi cotransporter. Many studies of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders have led to the identification of novel genes. Two novel Pi regulating genes, PHEX and FGF23, play a role in the pathophysiology of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders and studies are underway to define their mechanism on renal Pi regulation. In recent studies, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is reported as another new regulator for Pi reabsorption mechanism. PMID:24459526

  2. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    11beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11beta -OHSD2) in the kidney. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its derivatives block gap junction intracellular communication in a dose-dependent manner in animal and human cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, and astrocytes; at high concentrations, it is cytotoxic. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid protect liver tissue from carbon tetrachloride. Glycyrrhizic Acid has been used to treat chronic hepatitis, inhibiting the penetration of the hepatitis A virus into hepatocytes. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. The acute intraperitoneal LD(50) for Glycyrrhetinic Acid in mice was 308 mg/kg and the oral LD(50) was > 610 mg/kg. The oral LD(50) in rats was reported to be 610 mg/kg. Higher LD(50) values were generally reported for salts. Little short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity was seen in rats given ammonium, dipotassium, or disodium salts of Glycyrrhizic Acid. Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test. Glycyrrhetinic Acid inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and inhibited tumor initiation and promotion by other agents in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited tumor initiation by another agent, but did not prevent tumor promotion in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid delayed mortality in mice injected with Erlich ascites tumor cells, but did not reduce the mortality rate. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate was not genotoxic in in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics assays, the dominant lethal assay, an Ames assay, and heritable translocation tests, except for possible increase in dominant lethal mutations in rats given 2000 mg/kg day(-1) in their diet. Disodium Glycyrrhizate was not carcinogenic in mice in a drinking water study at exposure levels up to 12.2 mg/kg day(-1) for 96 weeks. Glycyrrhizate salts produced no reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats, mice

  4. A Pictorial Review of Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Hepatocyte-Specific Contrast Agents: Uses, Findings, and Pitfalls of Gadoxetate Disodium and Gadobenate Dimeglumine.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Walshe, Triona; Tiwari, Hina Arif; Harris, Alison C; Chang, Silvia D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a well-established role as a highly specific and accurate modality for characterizing benign and malignant focal liver lesions. In particular, contrast-enhanced MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (HSCAs) improves lesion detection and characterization compared to other imaging modalities and MRI techniques. In this pictorial review, the mechanism of action of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents, with a focus on HSCAs, is described. The clinical indications, protocols, and emerging uses of the 2 commercially available combined contrast agents available in the United States, gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are discussed. The MRI features of these agents are compared with examples of focal hepatic masses, many of which have been obtained within the same patient therefore allowing direct lesion comparison. Finally, the pitfalls in the use of combined contrast agents in liver MRI are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  6. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  7. Phosphate base laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

    1980-12-16

    A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrificationmore » resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.« less

  8. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  9. Using parahydrogen to hyperpolarize amines, amides, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phosphates, and carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Iali, Wissam; Rayner, Peter J.; Duckett, Simon B.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarization turns weak nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses into strong signals, so normally impractical measurements are possible. We use parahydrogen to rapidly hyperpolarize appropriate 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P responses of analytes (such as NH3) and important amines (such as phenylethylamine), amides (such as acetamide, urea, and methacrylamide), alcohols spanning methanol through octanol and glucose, the sodium salts of carboxylic acids (such as acetic acid and pyruvic acid), sodium phosphate, disodium adenosine 5′-triphosphate, and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The associated signal gains are used to demonstrate that it is possible to collect informative single-shot NMR spectra of these analytes in seconds at the micromole level in a 9.4-T observation field. To achieve these wide-ranging signal gains, we first use the signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) process to hyperpolarize an amine or ammonia and then use their exchangeable NH protons to relay polarization into the analyte without changing its identity. We found that the 1H signal gains reach as high as 650-fold per proton, whereas for 13C, the corresponding signal gains achieved in a 1H-13C refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) experiment exceed 570-fold and those in a direct-detected 13C measurement exceed 400-fold. Thirty-one examples are described to demonstrate the applicability of this technique. PMID:29326984

  10. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium oleate. Calcium acetate. Calcium carbonate. Calcium ricinoleate. Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium...

  11. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium oleate. Calcium acetate. Calcium carbonate. Calcium ricinoleate. Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium...

  12. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium oleate. Calcium acetate. Calcium carbonate. Calcium ricinoleate. Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium...

  13. 21 CFR 181.29 - Stabilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycerophosphate. Calcium phosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. Calcium oleate. Calcium acetate. Calcium carbonate. Calcium ricinoleate. Calcium stearate. Disodium hydrogen phosphate. Magnesium glycerophosphate. Magnesium...

  14. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J; Carroll, Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain's dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O(2) consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA, PAS and ASA. C. virginica continues to be a good model with which to investigate the mechanism that underlies manganese neurotoxcity and in the pharmacological study of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism.

  15. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J.; Carroll, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain’s dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O2 consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA, PAS and ASA. C. virginica continues to be a good model with which to investigate the mechanism that underlies manganese neurotoxcity and in the pharmacological study of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism. PMID:21977482

  16. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans compared to in vitro absorption in human skin from infinite and finite doses.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Hartway, T; Maibach, H I; Bell, K; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Strong, P; Culver, B D

    1998-09-01

    Literature from the first half of this century report concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. This made it possible, in the presence of comparatively large natural dietary boron intakes for the in vivo segment of this study, to quantify the boron passing through skin. Human volunteers were dosed with 10B-enriched boric acid, 5.0%, borax, 5.0%, or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, 10%, in aqueous solutions. Urinalysis, for boron and changes in boron isotope ratios, was used to measure absorption. Boric acid in vivo percutaneous absorption was 0.226 (SD = 0.125) mean percentage dose, with flux and permeability constant (Kp) calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.9 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Borax absorption was 0.210 (SD = 0.194) mean percentage of dose, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.8 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. DOT absorption was 0.122 (SD = 0.108) mean percentage, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.01 microgram/cm2/h and 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Pretreatment with the potential skin irritant 2% sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on boron skin absorption. In vitro human skin percentage of doses of boric acid absorbed were 1.2 for a 0.05% solution, 0.28 for a 0.5% solution, and 0.70 for a 5.0% solution. These absorption amounts translated into flux values of, respectively, 0.25, 0.58, and 14.58 micrograms/cm2/h and permeability constants (Kp) of 5.0 x 10(-4), 1.2 x 10(-4), and 2.9 x 10(-4) cm/h for the 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0% solutions. The above in vitro doses were at infinite, 1000 microliters/cm2 volume. At 2 microliters/cm2 (the in vivo dosing volume), flux decreased some

  17. Downregulation of mucosal mast cell activation and immune response in diarrhoea-irritable bowel syndrome by oral disodium cromoglycate: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Beatriz; Ramos, Laura; Martínez, Cristina; Guilarte, Mar; González-Castro, Ana M; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen; Pigrau, Marc; de Torres, Inés; Rodiño-Janeiro, Bruno K; Salvo-Romero, Eloisa; Fortea, Marina; Pardo-Camacho, Cristina; Guagnozzi, Danila; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background and goal Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) exhibits intestinal innate immune and mucosal mast cell (MC) activation. MC stabilisers have been shown to improve IBS symptoms but the mechanism is unclear. Our primary aim was to investigate the effect of oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on jejunal MC activation and specific innate immune signalling pathways in IBS-D, and secondarily, its potential clinical benefit. Study Mucosal MC activation (by ultrastructural changes, tryptase release and gene expression) and innate immune signalling (by protein and gene expression) were quantified in jejunal biopsies from healthy (HS; n = 16) and IBS-D subjects after six months of either treatment with DSCG (600 mg/day, IBS-D-DSCG group; n = 18) or without treatment (IBS-D-NT group; n = 25). All IBS-D patients recorded abdominal pain and bowel habits at baseline and in the last 10 days prior to jejunal sampling. Results IBS-D-NT exhibited significant MC activation and over-expression of immune-related genes as compared to HS, whereas in IBS-D-DSCG MC activity and gene expression were similar to HS. Furthermore, DSCG significantly reduced abdominal pain and improved stool consistency. Conclusion Oral DSCG modulates mucosal immune activity and improves gut symptoms in IBS-D patients. Future placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed for confirmation of clinical benefit of DSCG for IBS-D. PMID:29026603

  18. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  19. Experimental Determination of Solubilities of Sodium Polyborates In MgCl 2 Solutions: Solubility Constant of Di-Sodium Hexaborate Tetrahydrate, and Implications For the Diagenetic Formation of Ameghinite

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Kirkes, Leslie; KNOX, Jandi

    In this paper, solubility measurements were conducted for sodium polyborates in MgCl 2 solutions at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. According to solution chemistry and XRD patterns, di-sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) dissolves congruently, and is the sole solubility-controlling phase, in a 0.01 mol/kg MgCl 2 solution: Na 2B 4O 7•10H 2O(cr) ⇌ 2Na + + 4B(OH) 4 + 2H + + H 2O(l). However, in a 0.1 mol/kg MgCl 2 solution borax dissolves incongruently and is in equilibrium with di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate: 2Na 2B 6O 10•4H 2O(cr) + 2Na + + 23H 2O(l) ⇌ 3Na 2B 4O 7•10H 2O(cr) + 2Hmore » +. In this study, the equilibrium constant (log K 0) for Reaction 2 at 25 °C and infinite dilution was determined to be –16.44 ± 0.13 (2σ) based on the experimental data and the Pitzer model for calculations of activity coefficients of aqueous species. In accordance with the log K 0 for Reaction 1 from a previous publication from this research group, and log K 0 for Reaction 2 from this study, the equilibrium constant for dissolution of di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate at 25 °C and at infinite dilution, Na 2B 6O 10•4H 2O(cr) + 10H 2O(l) ⇌ 2Na + + 6B(OH) 4 - + 4H + was derived to be –45.42 ± 0.16 (2σ). The equilibrium constants determined in this study can find applications in many fields. For example, in the field of nuclear waste management, the formation of di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate in brines containing magnesium will decrease borate concentrations, making less borate available for interactions with Am(III). In the field of experimental investigations, based on the equilibrium constant for Reaction 2, the experimental systems can be controlled in terms of acidity around neutral pH by using the equilibrium assemblage of borax and di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate at 25 °C. As salt lakes and natural brines contain both borate and magnesium as well as sodium, the formation of sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate may influence the chemical evolution of salt lakes

  20. Experimental Determination of Solubilities of Sodium Polyborates In MgCl 2 Solutions: Solubility Constant of Di-Sodium Hexaborate Tetrahydrate, and Implications For the Diagenetic Formation of Ameghinite

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang; Kirkes, Leslie; KNOX, Jandi; ...

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, solubility measurements were conducted for sodium polyborates in MgCl 2 solutions at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. According to solution chemistry and XRD patterns, di-sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) dissolves congruently, and is the sole solubility-controlling phase, in a 0.01 mol/kg MgCl 2 solution: Na 2B 4O 7•10H 2O(cr) ⇌ 2Na + + 4B(OH) 4 + 2H + + H 2O(l). However, in a 0.1 mol/kg MgCl 2 solution borax dissolves incongruently and is in equilibrium with di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate: 2Na 2B 6O 10•4H 2O(cr) + 2Na + + 23H 2O(l) ⇌ 3Na 2B 4O 7•10H 2O(cr) + 2Hmore » +. In this study, the equilibrium constant (log K 0) for Reaction 2 at 25 °C and infinite dilution was determined to be –16.44 ± 0.13 (2σ) based on the experimental data and the Pitzer model for calculations of activity coefficients of aqueous species. In accordance with the log K 0 for Reaction 1 from a previous publication from this research group, and log K 0 for Reaction 2 from this study, the equilibrium constant for dissolution of di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate at 25 °C and at infinite dilution, Na 2B 6O 10•4H 2O(cr) + 10H 2O(l) ⇌ 2Na + + 6B(OH) 4 - + 4H + was derived to be –45.42 ± 0.16 (2σ). The equilibrium constants determined in this study can find applications in many fields. For example, in the field of nuclear waste management, the formation of di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate in brines containing magnesium will decrease borate concentrations, making less borate available for interactions with Am(III). In the field of experimental investigations, based on the equilibrium constant for Reaction 2, the experimental systems can be controlled in terms of acidity around neutral pH by using the equilibrium assemblage of borax and di-sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate at 25 °C. As salt lakes and natural brines contain both borate and magnesium as well as sodium, the formation of sodium hexaborate tetrahydrate may influence the chemical evolution of salt lakes

  1. Phosphate toxicity and vascular mineralization.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification or mineralization is a major complication seen in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with markedly increased morbidity and mortality. Most of the CKD-related vascular mineralization is attributable to abnormal mineral ion metabolism. Elevated serum calcium and phosphate levels, along with increased calcium-phosphorus byproduct, and the use of active vitamin D metabolites are thought to be the predisposing factors for developing vascular mineralization in patients with CKD. Recent experimental studies have shown that vascular mineralization can be suppressed by reducing serum phosphate levels, even in the presence of extremely high serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, indicating that reducing 'phosphate toxicity' should be the important therapeutic priority in CKD patients for minimizing the risk of developing vascular mineralization and the disease progression. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hydroxyapatite hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres: rapid, sustainable microwave-hydrothermal synthesis by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in drug delivery and protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2013-04-22

    Hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres of hydroxyapatite (HAP) are a promising biomaterial, owing to their excellent biocompatibility and porous hollow structure. Traditionally, synthetic hydroxyapatite is prepared by using an inorganic phosphorus source. Herein, we report a new strategy for the rapid, sustainable synthesis of HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres by using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-obtained products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorptometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM micrographs show that HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres consist of HAP nanosheets or nanorods as the building blocks and DLS measurements show that the diameters of HAP hollow microspheres are within the range 0.8-1.5 μm. The specific surface area and average pore size of the HAP porous hollow microspheres are 87.3 m(2) g(-1) and 20.6 nm, respectively. The important role of creatine phosphate disodium salt and the influence of the experimental conditions on the products were systematically investigated. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres show a relatively high drug-loading capacity and protein-adsorption ability, as well as sustained drug and protein release, by using ibuprofen as a model drug and hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein, respectively. These experiments indicate that the as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres are promising for applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE David E. Tevault JOINT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, INC. Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 August 2017 Approved for public release...21010-5424 Joint Research and Development, Inc.; 4694 Millennium Drive, Suite 105, Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  4. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  3. Features of acute liver congestion on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in a rat model: Role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A1.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akira; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Momose, Masanobu; Kadoya, Masumi; Miyagawa, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the features of hepatic congestion on gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the mechanisms responsible for the radiological findings in a rat model of partial liver congestion. A conventional T1 -weighted spin-echo sequence of the liver was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imager with an 80-mm magnetic aperture for animal studies. We induced regional congestion using partial left lateral hepatic vein ligation (n = 5) and evaluated the following in both congestive liver (CL) and noncongestive liver (non-CL): 1) chronological changes in the relative enhancement (RE) up to 60 minutes after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, and 2) mRNA and protein expression of rat organic anion transporting protein 1a1 (Oatp1a1). The RE in the CL reached a small peak (18%) at 5 minutes, corresponding to approximately half of the value observed in the non-CL, then slowly decreased in a linear manner thereafter. The degree of RE in the CL was significantly lower than that in the non-CL for up to 30 minutes (P < 0.05). An immunohistological examination showed that Oatp1a1 protein expression was downregulated in the CL. The mRNA level of Oatp1a1 in the CL was significantly upregulated, compared with that in control rat liver (P = 0.046), whereas no significant difference was observed between the CL and the non-CL (P = 0.698). The reduced signal intensity in the CL on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI could be explained by the decreased uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA via Oatp1a1 protein in the congestive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  18. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. Fabrication of carbonate apatite blocks from set gypsum based on dissolution-precipitation reaction in phosphate-carbonate mixed solution.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Kanji; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap), fabricated by dissolution-precipitation reaction based on an appropriate precursor, is expected to be replaced by bone according to bone remodeling cycle. One of the precursor candidates is gypsum because it shows self-setting ability, which then enables it to be shaped and molded. The aim of this study, therefore, was to fabricate CO3Ap blocks from set gypsum. Set gypsum was immersed in a mixed solution of 0.4 mol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) and 0.4 mol/L sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) at 80-200°C for 6-48 h. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that CO3Ap block was fabricated by dissolution-precipitation reaction in Na2HPO4-NaHCO3 solution using set gypsum in 48 h when the temperature was 100°C or higher. Conversion rate to CO3Ap increased with treatment temperature. CO3Ap block containing a larger amount of carbonate was obtained when treated at lower temperature.

  6. Intracellular Phosphate Dynamics in Muscle Measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Thomas; Kocevar, Gabriel; Belloi, Amélie; Normand, Gabrielle; Ibarrola, Danielle; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Of the 600–700 mg inorganic phosphate (Pi) removed during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, a maximum of 10% may be extracted from the extracellular space. The origin of the other 90% of removed phosphate is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that the main source of phosphate removed during hemodialysis is the intracellular compartment. Six binephrectomized pigs each underwent one 3-hour hemodialysis session, during which the extracorporeal circulation blood flow was maintained between 100 and 150 ml/min. To determine in vivo phosphate metabolism, we performed phosphorous (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a 1.5-Tesla system and a surface coil placed over the gluteal muscle region. 31P magnetic resonance spectra (repetition time =10 s; echo time =0.35 ms) were acquired every 160 seconds before, during, and after dialysis. During the dialysis sessions, plasma phosphate concentrations decreased rapidly (−30.4 %; P=0.003) and then, plateaued before increasing approximately 30 minutes before the end of the sessions; 16 mmol phosphate was removed in each session. When extracellular phosphate levels plateaued, intracellular Pi content increased significantly (11%; P<0.001). Moreover, βATP decreased significantly (P<0.001); however, calcium levels remained balanced. Results of this study show that intracellular Pi is the source of Pi removed during dialysis. The intracellular Pi increase may reflect cellular stress induced by hemodialysis and/or strong intracellular phosphate regulation. PMID:26561642

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Chromium (III) with the Disodium Salt of (Ethylenediamine) tetraacetic Acid (Complexon III); DETERMINACION ESPECTROFOTOMETRICA DE CROMO (III) CON LA SAL DISODICA DEL ACIDO ETILEN-DIAMINO-TETRA-ACETICO (COMPLEXONA III)

    SciTech Connect

    Cellini, R.F.; Valiente, E.A.

    1956-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for Cr (III) determination is established: hot and weak acid solutions are treated by disodium (ethylenediamine)tetraacetic acid (complexoneIII) yielding a very stable violet chelate, which follows Beer's law between 1 and 7 gamma Cr(III)/ml. These concentrations are employed in the experiences of this work. The absorption spectrum of Cr(III)-complexone-III has two maximums at 396 and 538 m mu . The maximum at 538 mu m is utilized in this method. Time, temperature, pH, and complexone-III concentration are studied and the best experimental conditions are fixed. (auth)

  8. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  9. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological and medical significance of calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V; Epple, Matthias

    2002-09-02

    The inorganic part of hard tissues (bones and teeth) of mammals consists of calcium phosphate, mainly of apatitic structure. Similarly, most undesired calcifications (i.e. those appearing as a result of various diseases) of mammals also contain calcium phosphate. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood-vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium phosphate. Dental caries result in a replacement of less soluble and hard apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Osteoporosis is a demineralization of bone. Therefore, from a chemical point of view, processes of normal (bone and teeth formation and growth) and pathological (atherosclerosis and dental calculus) calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium phosphate. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis can be considered to be in vivo dissolution of calcium phosphates. On the other hand, because of the chemical similarity with biological calcified tissues, all calcium phosphates are remarkably biocompatible. This property is widely used in medicine for biomaterials that are either entirely made of or coated with calcium phosphate. For example, self-setting bone cements made of calcium phosphates are helpful in bone repair and titanium substitutes covered with a surface layer of calcium phosphates are used for hip-joint endoprostheses and tooth substitutes, to facilitate the growth of bone and thereby raise the mechanical stability. Calcium phosphates have a great biological and medical significance and in this review we give an overview of the current knowledge in this subject.

  12. Effect of disodium/calcium malate or supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality, ruminal fermentation products, and blood metabolites of heifers.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, C; Medel, P; Fuentetaja, A; Ranilla, M J; Carro, M D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of malate salts and culture on growth performance, carcass quality, ruminal fermentation products, and blood metabolites in heifers raised under southern Europe practical farm conditions. A total of 108 Charolaise cross heifers (214 ± 27.3 kg BW and 6.4 ± 1.1 mo of age) were housed in 18 pens of 6 animals each and used in a 114-d feedlot study. There was a totally randomized experimental design, and 6 pens were assigned to each of the following experimental diets: a control (no supplementation), the control plus 4 g of disodium/calcium malate mixture per kilogram of concentrate (2.12 g malate/kg), and the control plus 0.15 g of CBS 493.94 per kilogram of concentrate (1.5 × 10 cfu/kg). The control diet consisted of wheat-barley-based pelleted concentrate (32% starch, DM basis) and full-length barley straw. Concentrate and straw were fed separately ad libitum (5% orts) in an 88:12 ratio. On Days 0, 56, and 114, ruminal fluid and blood samples were obtained from each heifer between 2 and 2.5 h after the morning feeding by ruminocentesis and tail venipuncture, respectively. Body weight, concentrate ADFI, and G:F were recorded at 28, 56, 84, and 114 d. At slaughter, hot carcass weight and yield and carcass classification were determined in 2 representative heifers per pen (12 animals per dietary treatment). Supplementation with malate salts or did not affect concentrate ADFI ( = 0.98), ADG ( = 0.74), or G:F ( = 0.50) at any time during the experiment. At slaughter, there were no differences in carcass weight ( = 0.86), classification ( = 0.18), or carcass yield ( = 0.84) among experimental groups. Also, there were no differences treatments on ruminal pH ( = 0.24), ruminal fermentation products ( = 0.69, = 0.88, and = 0.93 for total VFA, NH-N, and lactate, respectively), and blood metabolites ( = 0.96, = 0.82, and = 0.15 for glucose, urea N, and lactate, respectively). In conclusion, under the feeding and management

  13. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  14. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  15. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  16. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  17. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  19. Clinical applicability of inorganic phosphate measurements.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    Many articles have warned of the dangers of too much and/or too little potassium, calcium or sodium in the blood, but phosphate has not received similar attention. Yet, because of its pivotal role in intermediary metabolism and its close solubility product relationship with ionized calcium, disordered phosphate homeostasis can have profound clinical effects.

  20. Calcium Phosphate Transfection of Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Victoria L.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells. PMID:24300106

  1. Calcium phosphate transfection of primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Bernard, Laura P; Dibona, Victoria L; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-11-12

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells.

  2. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2010-10-12

    Autotrophic organisms obtain phosphorus from the environment by secreting alkaline phosphatases that act on esters, resulting in inorganic phosphate that is then taken up. New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  4. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  5. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 μc per μmole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 μc per μmole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 mμmoles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 mμmoles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  6. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  7. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  8. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  9. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  10. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  12. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  13. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  15. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  16. Phosphate Dependence of Monosaccharide Transport in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Cerbón, Jorge; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    1968-01-01

    Uptake of the monosaccharides d-glucose and d-mannose by Nocardia asteroides and N. brasiliensis is dependent on the presence of an adequate phosphate concentration in the environment. When phosphate is replaced by solutions of sodium chloride or potassium chloride of identical ionic strength, there is no sugar uptake. In the presence of iso-osmolar concentrations of sodium arsenate, there is, however, sugar uptake activation. When nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl d-glucose is used, most of the sugar taken up can be shown to be in the cell at a concentration never exceeding that of the external medium. Phosphate, or arsenate, seems to be essential for the actual migration of the sugar through the cell envelope. The transport of the nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl glucose also requires phosphate, and the transport seems to be of a type that does not require energy. PMID:5640377

  17. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  18. Serum phosphate predicts temporary hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Sam, Amir H; Dhillo, W S; Donaldson, M; Moolla, A; Meeran, K; Tolley, N S; Palazzo, F F

    2011-03-01

    Temporary hypocalcaemia occurs in up to 40% of patients following a total thyroidectomy. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements are currently used to predict post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. However, immediate access to PTH measurement is expensive and not widely available. Serum phosphate responds rapidly to changes in circulating PTH levels, and its measurement is readily available in all hospitals. We evaluated the use of serum phosphate to predict temporary hypocalcaemia post-thyroidectomy. We retrospectively assessed 111 consecutive patients who had total or completion thyroidectomy. Patients had serum calcium and phosphate measured preoperatively, on the evening of surgery (day 0), on the morning of day 1 and over the following week as clinically indicated. Serum PTH was measured on the morning of day 1. Vitamin D levels were measured preoperatively. Seventy-six patients did not develop treatment-demanding hypocalcaemia. In these patients, the mean serum phosphate concentration was lower on the morning of day 1 compared to that on the evening of surgery. Seventeen patients with a vitamin D>25 nmol/l developed hypocalcaemia requiring treatment from day 1 onwards. All had an overnight rise in serum phosphate to >1.44 mmol/l (100% sensitivity and specificity for predicting hypocalcaemia). Twelve patients who had a vitamin D<25 nmol/l also developed hypocalcaemia but had an attenuated rise in serum phosphate. Serum phosphate is a reliable biochemical predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia in patients without vitamin D deficiency. The use of serum phosphate may facilitate safe day 1 discharge of patients undergoing thyroidectomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days. The purpose of this project is to find a better material for adsorption of phosphate from water treatment facilities. The material is made into pellets which allow for adsorption and are easier to remove from the system when capacity is reached.

  20. Blood Organic Phosphate in Hyperthermic Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    fermenting uptake is then responsible for the previously yeast caused an increase in fezrmentation and a observed fall in plasma inorganic phosphate in...Young. The alcoholic 3. Radigan, L. R., and S. Robinson. Effects of ferment of yast- juice . Proc. Roy. Soc. London environmental heat stress and...4. Kenny, R. A. The effect of hot, humid environ- yeast - juice from hexose and phosphate. Proc. ments on the renal function of West Africans. Roy Soc

  1. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.

  3. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils con

  4. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Hudek, L.; Premachandra, D.; Webster, W. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB−) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes

  7. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  8. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-08

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching.

  9. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching. PMID:29292788

  10. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  11. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

    2009-06-01

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  12. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  13. Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jiangchuan; Ding, Xiaolei

    2017-04-28

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

  14. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  15. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O

    2017-09-01

    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  17. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  18. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  19. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-09

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Octacalcium phosphate: osteoconductivity and crystal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, O

    2010-09-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is structurally similar to hydroxyapatite (HA), is a possible precursor of bone apatite crystals. Although disagreement remains as to whether OCP comprises the initial mineral crystals in the early stage of bone mineralization, the results of recent biomaterial studies using synthetic OCP indicate the potential role of OCP as a bone substitute material, owing to its highly osteoconductive and biodegradable characteristics. OCP tends to convert to HA not only in an in vitro environment, but also as an implant in bone defects. Several lines of evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the conversion process could be involved in the stimulatory capacity of OCP for osteoblastic differentiation and osteoclast formation. However, the osteoconductivity of OCP cannot always be secured if an OCP with distinct crystal characteristics is used, because the stoichiometry and microstructure of OCP crystals greatly affect bone-regenerative properties. Osteoconductivity and stimulatory capabilities may be caused by the chemical characteristics of OCP, which allows the release or exchange of calcium and phosphate ions with the surrounding of this salt, and its tendency to grow towards specific crystal faces, which could be a variable of the synthesis condition. This paper reviews the effect of calcium phosphates on osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration, with a special emphasis on OCP, since OCP seems to be performing better than other calcium phosphates in vivo. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Etoposide phosphate: what, why, where, and how?

    PubMed

    Schacter, L

    1996-12-01

    The podophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide are active in the treatment of a variety of malignant conditions. Both represent chemical modifications of podophyllin, an extract of Podophyllum peltatum (May apple, mandrake, Indian apple, wild lemon, or duck's foot), a plant long used as a folk remedy and recognized in the 19th century to be effective in the treatment of cancer. While etoposide is active in the treatment of many cancers and is widely used, it has a number of limitations due to its lack of water solubility. Etoposide phosphate (Etopophos; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide that is rapidly and completely converted to the parent compound after intravenous dosing. The pharmacokinetic profile of etoposide after treatment with either etoposide or etoposide phosphate is identical. Toxicity and clinical activity also are the same. Because etoposide phosphate is water soluble and can be made up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL, however, it can be given as a 5-minute bolus, in high doses in small volumes, and as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, it is not formulated with polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 (Tween; ICI Americas, Wilmington, DE), and ethanol, and does not cause acidosis when given at high doses. The easier-to-use etoposide phosphate represents an improved formulation of etoposide.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient homozygous for the L487F mutation in the human GPI gene. Int J Hematol. 2012 Aug;96(2):263- ... PubMed Xu W, Beutler E. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic ...

  3. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizermore » caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  6. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained frommore » the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.« less

  7. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. Phosphates in some Missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Foord, Eugene E.; Keller, David J.; Keller, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays.The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River. In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspore, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore (“burley”" clay).The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality.The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite. The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water, nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore

  11. Effects of phosphate binders in moderate CKD.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Wheeler, David C; Persky, Martha S; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M; Allison, Matthew A; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-08-01

    Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain.

  12. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  13. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  14. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  18. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Martin, Adrian P.; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5–40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate. PMID:26198420

  19. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  1. Liesegang banding and multiple precipitate formation in cobalt phosphate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Tony; El-Rassy, Houssam; Zaknoun, Farah; Moussa, Zeinab; Sultan, Rabih

    2012-02-01

    We study a cobalt phosphate Liesegang pattern from cobalt(II) and phosphate ions in a 1D tube. The system yields a complex, multi-component pattern. Characterization of the different precipitates by FTIR, SEM and XRD reveals that they are cobalt phosphate polymorphs with different degrees of hydration.

  2. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  12. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain potassium... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  16. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels.

  17. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed Central

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels. PMID:22219005

  18. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST, WITH THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID PLANT APPEARING IN SUCCESSION DOWN GOVERNMENT GULCH. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  6. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ∼13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs.

  11. Differentiating phosphate-dependent and phosphate-independent systemic phosphate-starvation response networks in Arabidopsis thaliana through the application of phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Ricarda; Pharmawati, Made; Lapis-Gaza, Hazel R.; Rossig, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Lambers, Hans; Finnegan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphite is a less oxidized form of phosphorus than phosphate. Phosphite is considered to be taken up by the plant through phosphate transporters. It can mimic phosphate to some extent, but it is not metabolized into organophosphates. Phosphite could therefore interfere with phosphorus signalling networks. Typical physiological and transcriptional responses to low phosphate availability were investigated and the short-term kinetics of their reversion by phosphite, compared with phosphate, were determined in both roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phosphite treatment resulted in a strong growth arrest. It mimicked phosphate in causing a reduction in leaf anthocyanins and in the expression of a subset of the phosphate-starvation-responsive genes. However, the kinetics of the response were slower than for phosphate, which may be due to discrimination against phosphite by phosphate transporters PHT1;8 and PHT1;9 causing delayed shoot accumulation of phosphite. Transcripts encoding PHT1;7, lipid-remodelling enzymes such as SQD2, and phosphocholine-producing NMT3 were highly responsive to phosphite, suggesting their regulation by a direct phosphate-sensing network. Genes encoding components associated with the ‘PHO regulon’ in plants, such as At4, IPS1, and PHO1;H1, generally responded more slowly to phosphite than to phosphate, except for SPX1 in roots and MIR399d in shoots. Two uncharacterized phosphate-responsive E3 ligase genes, PUB35 and C3HC4, were also highly phosphite responsive. These results show that phosphite is a valuable tool to identify network components directly responsive to phosphate. PMID:25697796

  12. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  13. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  14. Dual Mechanism of Ion Permeation through VDAC Revealed with Inorganic Phosphate Ions and Phosphate Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a “charged brush” which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms. PMID:25860993

  15. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  16. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ulrich H.; Saam, Henning G.; Schmidt, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of phosphate, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of phosphate on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  17. The pentose phosphate pathway and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Krushna C.; Hay, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival. PMID:25037503

  18. Cutaneous manifestations of phosphate solution extravasation.

    PubMed

    Verykiou, S; Aljefri, K; Gopee, H; Taheri, L; Charlton, F; Langtry, J A; Blasdale, C

    2018-01-01

    Extravasation injuries are common in patients receiving multiple intravenous infusions. Although such injuries are closely associated with the infusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy, they have also been been associated with extravasation of noncytotoxic drugs. Extravasation injuries can lead to skin ulceration and nerve and tendon damage, and therefore to permanent disability. We report three cases of phosphate solution extravasation leading to unusual cutaneous manifestations. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Henrique; Mibielli, Marco Antonio; Nunes, Carlos Pereira; Goldberg, Stephanie Wrobel; Buchman, Luiz; Mezitis, Spyros Ge; Rzetelna, Helio; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro; Wajnsztajn, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP]) and vitamin B 12 . To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP) and vitamin B 12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B 12 . A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200) receiving nucleotides + vitamin B 12, and Group B (n=200) receiving vitamin B 12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ); percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment); and number of subjects presenting adverse events. The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among subjects treated with the combination of nucleotides + vitamin B 12 , with a statistically significant superiority of the combination in pain reduction (evidenced by VAS scores). There were adverse events in both treatment groups, but these were transitory and no severe adverse event was recorded during the study period. Safety parameters were maintained throughout the study in both treatment groups. The combination of uridine, cytidine, and vitamin B 12 was safe and effective in the treatment of neuralgias arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma.

  20. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  1. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Janina; Jortzik, Esther; Becker, Katja

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is still one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. The high drug resistance rates of malarial parasites make its eradication difficult and furthermore necessitate the development of new antimalarial drugs. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria and therefore of special interest with regard to drug development. Plasmodium parasites are highly dependent on glucose and very sensitive to oxidative stress; two observations that drew interest to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) with its key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). A central position of the PPP for malaria parasites is supported by the fact that human G6PD deficiency protects to a certain degree from malaria infections. Plasmodium parasites and the human host possess a complete PPP, both of which seem to be important for the parasites. Interestingly, there are major differences between parasite and human G6PD, making the enzyme of Plasmodium a promising target for antimalarial drug design. This review gives an overview of the current state of research on glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in P. falciparum and its impact on malaria infections. Moreover, the unique characteristics of the enzyme G6PD in P. falciparum are discussed, upon which its current status as promising target for drug development is based. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Lombard, Kenneth H.; Hazen, Terry C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Borthen, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  4. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  6. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality. PMID:29089852

  7. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  9. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1(control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6- mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater (p 55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. The purpose of the current research was to examine the feasability of using phosphate based ammend

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge where...

  1. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  2. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  5. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, {sup 238}U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 226}Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 232}Th in concentrations of 37, 24, and 19 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; and {sup 40}K in concentrations of 19, 3, and 16 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} for the analyzed materials, respectively. The data are discussed and compared with those given inmore » the literature for some other countries in light of permissible radiation dose rates. 11 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidationmore » of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.« less

  8. Methods for the determination of intracellular levels of ribose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2006-10-31

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway or stem from the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of ribonucleosides. The two major pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, can be readily interconverted by phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is also the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, which is used for both de novo and salvage synthesis of nucleotides. On the other hand, the phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the major source of deoxyribose phosphates. While the destiny of the nucleobase stemming from nucleoside phosphorolysis has been extensively investigated, the fate of the sugar moiety has been somehow neglected. However, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. Nevertheless, many aspects of pentose phosphate metabolism, and the possible involvement of these compounds in a number of cellular processes still remain obscure. The comprehension of the role played by pentose phosphates may be greatly facilitated by the knowledge of their steady-state intracellular levels and of their changes in response to variations of intra- and extracellular signals.

  9. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  10. 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Phosphate Compartmentation in Leaves of Reproductive Soybeans (Glycine max L.) as Affected by Phosphate Nutrition 1

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Michael J.; Blevins, Dale G.; Sierzputowska-Gracz, Hanna

    1989-01-01

    Most leaf phosphorus is remobilized to the seed during reproductive development in soybean. We determined, using 31P-NMR, the effect phosphorus remobilization has on vacuolar inorganic phosphate pool size in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves with respect to phosphorus nutrition and plant development. Phosphate compartmentation between cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools was observed and followed in intact tissue grown hydroponically, at the R2, R4, and R6 growth stages. As phosphorus in the nutrient solution decreased from 0.45 to 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak became less prominent relative to cytoplasmic phosphate and hexose monophosphate peaks. At a nutrient phosphate concentration of 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak was not detectable. At higher levels of nutrient phosphate, as plants progressed from the R2 to the R6 growth stage, the vacuolar phosphate peak was the first to disappear, suggesting that storage phosphate was remobilized to a greater extent than metabolic phosphate. Under suboptimal phosphate nutrition (≤ 0.20 millimolar), the hexose monophosphate and cytoplasmic phosphate peaks declined earlier in reproductive development than when phosphate was present in optimal amounts. Under low phosphate concentrations (0.05 millimolar) cytoplasmic phosphate was greatly reduced. Carbon metabolism was coincidently disrupted under low phosphate nutrition as shown by the appearance of large, prominent starch grains in the leaves. Cytoplasmic phosphate, and leaf carbon metabolism dependent on it, are buffered by vacuolar phosphate until late stages of reproductive growth. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666705

  11. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  12. THE CHEMISTRY OF TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1955-10-27

    The preparation, purification, and chemical properties of THP have been reviewed with emphasis on the hydrolytic reactions. TBP is chemically a very stable compound as evidenced by its thermal stability and resistance to oxidation. The most important reactions are hydrolytic which cleave the butyl or butoxy group and normally produce butyl alcohol together with dibutyl and monobutyl phosphate (DBP and MBP, respectively), and eventually H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Hydrolysis occurs in either the organic phase or the aqueous phase and is first order with respect to the ester. Although the rate in the aqueous phase is much faster than in themore » organic phase, the solubility is so low in aqueous solutions that the organic phase reactions become more important. Acid hydrolysis depends on both the nature of the acid and the concentration. The order with respect to acid concentration is close to one but often less than one. Hydrolysis is catalyzed by both acids and bases. In the latter case, the reaction occurs only in the aqueous phase and normally stops with the formation of dibutyl phosphate. The hydrolysis rate increases greatly as the temperature is raised and an activation energy of the order of 20 kcal is often found. The rates observed in the presence of 5 M acid at 60 and 70 deg C may be high enough to cause some concern in solvent extraction technology, since the product, dibutyl phosphate, has undesirable properties. Impurities produced during manufacture or by thermal degradation during purification such as the pyrophosphates, if present, would yield the same objectionable products as TBP hydrolysis, but at a faster rate. Included in the survey is a selected tabulation of physical properties of TBP. (auth)« less

  13. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40-66 percent PbO, 30-55 percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  14. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-1 - Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(4). 1.401(a)(4)-1 Section 1.401(a)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(a)(4)-1 Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4). (a) In general. Section 401(a)(4...). (b) Requirements a plan must satisfy—(1) In general. In order to satisfy section 401(a)(4), a plan...

  16. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  17. Hydrogen bonding between phosphate and amino acid side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, P.; Rodriguez, M. L.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrogen bonds between polar groups of amino acid side chains (histidine, lysine, glutamic acid) and phosphate ions have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Proton transfer from amino acid groups to phosphate occur mainly in case that tribasic and dibasic phosphate ions take part in hydrogen bonds. Conformational changes and continuum are strongly related to the degree of proton transfer and hydration. It is pointed out that the aforementioned properties should be of great significance for nucleation and growth of prostatic and renal stones.

  18. Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott D; Mirzaei, Farzad; Sharifi, Ali; Bearne, Stephen L

    2006-12-08

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) catalyzes the formation of cytidine triphosphate from glutamine, uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine-5'-triphosphate. Inhibitors of CTPS are of interest because of their potential as therapeutic agents. One approach to potent enzyme inhibitors is to use analogues of high energy intermediates formed during the reaction. The CTPS reaction proceeds via the high energy intermediate UTP-4-phosphate (UTP-4-P). Four novel analogues of uridine-4-phosphate (U-4-P) and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate (3-deazaU-4-P) were synthesized in which the labile phosphate ester oxygen was replaced with a methylene and difluoromethylene group. The methylene analogue of U-4-P, compound 1, was prepared by a reaction of the sodium salt of tert-butyl diethylphosphonoacetate with protected, 4-O-activated uridine followed by acetate deprotection and decarboxylation. It was found that this compound undergoes relatively facile dephosphonylation presumably via a metaphosphate intermediate. The difluoromethylene derivative, compound 2, was prepared by electrophilic fluorination of protected 1. This compound was stable and did not undergo dephosphonylation. Synthesis of the methylene analogue of 3-deazaU-4-P, compound 3, was achieved by ribosylation of protected 4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine. Electrophilic fluorination was also employed in the preparation of protected 4-(phosphonodifluoromethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine which was used as the key building block in the synthesis of difluoro derivative 4. These compounds represent the first examples of a nucleoside in which the base has been chemically modified with a methylene or difluormethylenephosphonate group.

  19. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in pot...

  20. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- andmore » compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.« less

  1. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  2. Deposition of phosphate coatings on titanium within scaffold structure.

    PubMed

    Trybuś, Bartłomiej; Zieliński, Andrzej; Beutner, Rene; Seramak, Tomasz; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Existing knowledge about the appearance, thickness, and chemical composition of phosphate coatings on titanium inside porous structures is insufficient. Such knowledge is important for the design and fabrication of porous implants. Metallic scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel powder. Phosphate coatings were deposited on Ti sensors placed either outside the scaffolds or in the holes in the scaffolds. The electrochemically-assisted cathodic deposition of phosphate coatings was performed under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyte containing the calcium and phosphate ions. The phosphate deposits were microscopically investigated; this included the performance of mass weight measurements and chemical analyses of the content of Ca2+ and  24 PO ions after the dissolution of deposits. The thicknesses of the calcium phosphate coatings were about 140 and 200 nm for isolated titanium sensors and 170 and 300 nm for titanium sensors placed inside pores. Deposition of calcium phosphate occurred inside the pores up to 150 mm below the scaffold surface. The deposits were rich in Ca, with a Ca/P ratio ranging from 2 to 2.5. Calcium phosphate coatings can be successfully deposited on a Ti surface inside a model scaffold. An increase in cathodic current results in an increase in coating thickness. Any decrease in the cathodic current inside the porous structure is slight. The calcium phosphate inside the pores has a much higher Ca/P ratio than that of stoichiometric HAp, likely due to a gradual increase in Ca fraction with distance from the surface.

  3. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  4. Allosteric Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Xylulose 5-Phosphate/Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolase (Xfp)

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which catalyzes the conversion of xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P) or fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to acetyl phosphate, plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus neoformans Xfp2 exhibits both substrate cooperativity for all substrates (X5P, F6P, and Pi) and allosteric regulation in the forms of inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), oxaloacetic acid (OAA), and ATP and activation by AMP (K. Glenn, C. Ingram-Smith, and K. S. Smith. Eukaryot Cell 13:657–663, 2014). Allosteric regulation has not been reported previously for the characterized bacterial Xfps. Here, we report the discovery of substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation among bacterial Xfps, specifically the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp. L. plantarum Xfp is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by PEP, OAA, and glyoxylate but unaffected by the presence of ATP or AMP. Glyoxylate is an additional inhibitor to those previously reported for C. neoformans Xfp2. As with C. neoformans Xfp2, PEP and OAA share the same or possess overlapping sites on L. plantarum Xfp. Glyoxylate, which had the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the three inhibitors, binds at a separate site. This study demonstrates that substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation may be common properties among bacterial and eukaryotic Xfp enzymes, yet important differences exist between the enzymes in these two domains. IMPORTANCE Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Although we recently demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus Xfp is subject to substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation, neither phenomenon has been reported for a bacterial Xfp. Here, we report that the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp displays substrate cooperativity and is allosterically inhibited by

  5. Allosteric regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp).

    PubMed

    Glenn, Katie; Smith, Kerry S

    2015-04-01

    Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which catalyzes the conversion of xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P) or fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to acetyl phosphate, plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus neoformans Xfp2 exhibits both substrate cooperativity for all substrates (X5P, F6P, and Pi) and allosteric regulation in the forms of inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), oxaloacetic acid (OAA), and ATP and activation by AMP (K. Glenn, C. Ingram-Smith, and K. S. Smith. Eukaryot Cell 13: 657-663, 2014). Allosteric regulation has not been reported previously for the characterized bacterial Xfps. Here, we report the discovery of substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation among bacterial Xfps, specifically the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp. L. plantarum Xfp is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by PEP, OAA, and glyoxylate but unaffected by the presence of ATP or AMP. Glyoxylate is an additional inhibitor to those previously reported for C. neoformans Xfp2. As with C. neoformans Xfp2, PEP and OAA share the same or possess overlapping sites on L. plantarum Xfp. Glyoxylate, which had the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the three inhibitors, binds at a separate site. This study demonstrates that substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation may be common properties among bacterial and eukaryotic Xfp enzymes, yet important differences exist between the enzymes in these two domains. Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Although we recently demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus Xfp is subject to substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation, neither phenomenon has been reported for a bacterial Xfp. Here, we report that the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp displays substrate cooperativity and is allosterically inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and oxaloacetate

  6. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent - Method validation.

    PubMed

    Wijnker, J J; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, J L M; Veldhuizen, E J A

    2009-01-01

    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever via treated casings. The commercially available Quantichrom™ phosphate assay kit has been evaluated as to whether it can serve as a reliable and low-tech method for routine analysis of casings treated with phosphate. The outcome of this study indicates that this particular assay kit has sufficient sensitivity to qualitatively determine the presence of phosphate in treated casings without interference of naturally occurring phosphate in salt used for brines in which casings are preserved.

  7. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Netanya Y; Stanton, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase. Decreased G6PD activity and, as a result, decreased NADPH level have been associated with diabetic kidney disease, altered nitric oxide production, aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysfunction, and dialysis-associated anemia. Increased G6PD activity is associated with all cancers including kidney cancer. Inherited G6PD deficiency is the most common mutation in the world that is thought to be a relatively mild disorder primarily associated with anemia. Yet, intriguing studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in G6PD-deficient people. It is not known if G6PD-deficient people are at more risk for other diseases. Much more research needs to be done to determine the role of altered G6PD activity (inherited or acquired) in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

  8. Bacterial Phosphating of Mild (Unalloyed) Steel

    PubMed Central

    Volkland, Hans-Peter; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Beat; Repphun, Gernot; Wanner, Oskar; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached −510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at −510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion. PMID:11010888

  9. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  10. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  11. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  12. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  13. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  14. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to...

  15. Continuous analysis of phosphate in a Greenland shallow ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Vallelonga, Paul; Kettner, Ernesto; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2010-05-01

    Phosphate is an important and sometimes limiting nutrient for primary production in the oceans. Because of deforestation and the use of phosphate as a fertilizer changes in the phosphate cycle have occurred over the last centuries. On longer time scales, sea level changes are thought to have also caused changes in the phosphate cycle. Analyzing phosphate concentrations in ice cores may help to gain important knowledge about those processes. In the present study, we attach a phosphate detection line to an existing continuous flow analysis (CFA) setup for ice core analysis at the University of Copenhagen. The CFA system is optimized for high-resolution measurements of insoluble dust particles, electrolytic melt water conductivity, and the concentrations of ammonium and sodium. For the phosphate analysis we apply a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method that has been successfully applied to determine phosphate concentrations of sea water (Zhang and Chi, 2002). A line of melt water from the CFA melt head (1.01 ml per minute) is combined with a molybdate blue reagent and an ascorbic acid buffer. An uncompleted reaction takes place in five meters of heated mixing coils before the absorption measurement at a wavelength of 710 nanometer takes place in a 2 m long liquid waveguide cell (LWCC) with an inner volume of 0.5 ml. The method has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and we are currently investigating a possible interference from molybdate reacting with silicates that are present in low amounts in the ice. Preliminary analysis of early Holocene samples from the NGRIP ice core show phosphate concentration values of a few ppb. In this study, we will attempt to determine past levels of phosphate in a shallow Northern Greenland firn core with an annual layer thickness of about 20 cm ice equivalent. With a melt speed of 2.5 cm ice per minute our method should allow the resolution of any seasonal variability in phosphate concentrations.

  16. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  17. Plasmodium glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: A potential malaria diagnostic target.

    PubMed

    Krause, Robert G E; Hurdayal, Ramona; Choveaux, David; Przyborski, Jude M; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Goldring, J P Dean

    2017-08-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P. falciparum and P. yoelii proteins were recombinantly expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherischia coli host cells and affinity purified. Two epitopes (CADGFLLIGEKKVSVFA and CAEKDPSQIPWGKCQV) specific to P. falciparum GAPDH and one common to all mammalian malaria species (CKDDTPIYVMGINH) were identified. Antibodies were raised in chickens against the two recombinant proteins and the three epitopes and affinity purified. The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite cytosolic localization for the native protein. The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA formats, consistent with published proteomic data. PfGAPDH shows interesting potential as a malaria diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Mimicking Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick R; Johnson, Sally; Brocklebank, Vicky; Salvatore, Jacobo; Christian, Martin; Kavanagh, David

    2018-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with nonimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Investigations for an underlying cause failed to identify a definitive cause and a putative diagnosis of complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) was made. The patient was started initially on plasma exchange and subsequently eculizumab therapy, after which his kidney function rapidly improved. While on eculizumab therapy, despite adequate complement blockade, he presented 2 more times with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, but without renal involvement. Genetic analysis did not uncover a mutation in any known aHUS gene (CFH, CFI, CFB, C3, CD46, THBD, INF2, and DGKE) and anti-factor H antibodies were undetectable. Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken to identify a cause for the eculizumab resistance. This revealed a pathogenic variant in G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), which was confirmed by functional analysis demonstrating decreased erythrocyte G6PD activity. Eculizumab therapy was withdrawn. Complement-mediated aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion and this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty that remains without an immediately available biomarker for confirmation. This case of G6PD deficiency presented with a phenotype clinically indistinguishable from complement-mediated aHUS. We recommend that G6PD deficiency be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with aHUS and suggest measuring erythrocyte G6PD concentrations in these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Low-phosphate-selected Auxenochlorella protothecoides redirects phosphate to essential pathways while producing more biomass

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Kyndt, John; Chougule, Kapeel; Park, Jeong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Despite the capacity to accumulate ~70% w/w of lipids, commercially produced unicellular green alga A. protothecoides may become compromised due to the high cost of phosphate fertilizers. To address this limitation A. protothecoides was selected for adaptation to conditions of 100× and 5× lower phosphate and peptone, respectively, compared to ‘wild-type media’. The A. protothecoides showed initial signs of adaptation by 45–50 days, and steady state growth at ~100 days. The low phosphate (P)-adapted strain produced up to ~30% greater biomass, while total lipids (~10% w/w) remained about the same, compared to the wild-type strain. Metabolomic analyses indicated that the low P-adapted produced 3.3-fold more saturated palmitic acid (16:0) and 2.2-fold less linolenic acid (18:3), compared to the wild-type strain, resulting in an ~11% increase in caloric value, from 19.5kJ/g for the wild-type strain to 21.6kJ/g for the low P-adapted strain, due to the amounts and composition of certain saturated fatty acids, compared to the wild type strain. Biochemical changes in A. protothecoides adapted to lower phosphate conditions were assessed by comparative RNA-Seq analysis, which yielded 27,279 transcripts. Among them, 2,667 and 15 genes were significantly down- and up-regulated, at >999-fold and >3-fold (adjusted p-value <0.1), respectively. The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cellular processes such as division, growth, and membrane biosynthesis, showed a trend toward down-regulation. At the genomic level, synonymous SNPs and Indels were observed primarily in coding regions, with the 40S ribosomal subunit gene harboring substantial SNPs. Overall, the adapted strain out-performed the wild-type strain by prioritizing the use of its limited phosphate supply for essential biological processes. The low P-adapted A. protothecoides is expected to be more economical to grow over the wild-type strain, based on overall greater productivity and caloric content

  20. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  1. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg -1 , max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg -1 ), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg -1 , min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg -1 ) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg -1 . The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg -1 , with the average of 254 Bq kg -1 , measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P 2 O 5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content. Copyright © 2016

  2. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrientmore » for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal

  3. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-04-04

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formationmore » of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount (< 1 wt.%) of Na{sub 2}S or K{sub 2}S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOX{trademark} residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient

  4. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  10. SAR11 lipid renovation in response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Paul; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Thrash, J. Cameron; White, Angelicque; Zhao, Yanlin; Campbell, Emily O.; Fredricks, Helen F.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton inhabiting oligotrophic ocean gyres actively reduce their phosphorus demand by replacing polar membrane phospholipids with those lacking phosphorus. Although the synthesis of nonphosphorus lipids is well documented in some heterotrophic bacterial lineages, phosphorus-free lipid synthesis in oligotrophic marine chemoheterotrophs has not been directly demonstrated, implying they are disadvantaged in phosphate-deplete ecosystems, relative to phytoplankton. Here, we show the SAR11 clade chemoheterotroph Pelagibacter sp. str. HTCC7211 renovates membrane lipids when phosphate starved by replacing a portion of its phospholipids with monoglucosyl- and glucuronosyl-diacylglycerols and by synthesizing new ornithine lipids. Lipid profiles of cells grown with excess phosphate consisted entirely of phospholipids. Conversely, up to 40% of the total lipids were converted to nonphosphorus lipids when cells were starved for phosphate, or when growing on methylphosphonate. Cells sequentially limited by phosphate and methylphosphonate transformed >75% of their lipids to phosphorus-free analogs. During phosphate starvation, a four-gene cluster was significantly up-regulated that likely encodes the enzymes responsible for lipid renovation. These genes were found in Pelagibacterales strains isolated from a phosphate-deficient ocean gyre, but not in other strains from coastal environments, suggesting alternate lipid synthesis is a specific adaptation to phosphate scarcity. Similar gene clusters are found in the genomes of other marine α-proteobacteria, implying lipid renovation is a common strategy used by heterotrophic cells to reduce their requirement for phosphorus in oligotrophic habitats. PMID:26056292

  11. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium...

  12. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  13. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  14. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 2. PHOSPHATE UNLOADING BUILDING. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PHOSPHATE UNLOADING BUILDING. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH. THIS STRUCTURE WAS RELOCATED TO THE SOUTH OF ITS ORIGINAL SITE IN 1993 FOR USE AS A DECONTAMINATION FACILITY WITHIN THE BUNKER HILL SUPERFUND SITE. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  3. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  4. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  5. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  6. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  7. The sodium phosphate cotransporter family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase contribute to the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate concentration.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Atsumi; Tatsumi, Sawako; Takahama, Wako; Fujii, Osamu; Nagamoto, Kenta; Kinoshita, Emi; Nomura, Kengo; Ikuta, Kayo; Fujii, Toru; Hanazaki, Ai; Kaneko, Ichiro; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-01

    Circulating inorganic phosphate exhibits a remarkable daily oscillation based on food intake. In humans and rodents, the daily oscillation in response to food intake may be coordinated to control the intestinal absorption, renal excretion, cellular shifts, and extracellular concentration of inorganic phosphate. However, mechanisms regulating the resulting oscillation are unknown. Here we investigated the roles of the sodium phosphate cotransporter SLC34 (Npt2) family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) in the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels. First, it is roughly linked to urinary inorganic phosphate excretion. Second, expression of renal Npt2a and Npt2c, and intestinal Npt2b proteins also exhibit a dynamic daily oscillation. Analyses of Npt2a, Npt2b, and Npt2c knockout mice revealed the importance of renal inorganic phosphate reabsorption and cellular inorganic phosphate shifts in the daily oscillation. Third, experiments in which nicotinamide and a specific Nampt inhibitor (FK866) were administered in the active and rest phases revealed that the Nampt/NAD + system is involved in renal inorganic phosphate excretion. Additionally, for cellular shifts, liver-specific Nampt deletion disturbed the daily oscillation of plasma phosphate during the rest but not the active phase. In systemic Nampt +/- mice, NAD levels were significantly reduced in the liver, kidney, and intestine, and the daily oscillation (active and rest phases) of the plasma phosphate concentration was attenuated. Thus, the Nampt/NAD + system for Npt2 regulation and cellular shifts to tissues such as the liver play an important role in generating daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  9. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  10. Root Architecture Responses: In Search of Phosphate1

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Satomi; Nussaume, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Soil phosphate represents the only source of phosphorus for plants and, consequently, is its entry into the trophic chain. This major component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and energy currency of the cell (ATP) can limit plant growth because of its low mobility in soil. As a result, root responses to low phosphate favor the exploration of the shallower part of the soil, where phosphate tends to be more abundant, a strategy described as topsoil foraging. We will review the diverse developmental strategies that can be observed among plants by detailing the effect of phosphate deficiency on primary and lateral roots. We also discuss the formation of cluster roots: an advanced adaptive strategy to cope with low phosphate availability observed in a limited number of species. Finally, we will put this work into perspective for future research directions. PMID:25341534

  11. Dynamic interplay between uranyl phosphate precipitation, sorption, and phase evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Munasinghe, P. Sumudu; Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Brooks, Scott C.; ...

    2015-04-17

    We report that natural examples demonstrate uranyl-phosphate minerals can maintain extremely low levels of aqueous uranium in groundwaters due to their low solubility. Thus, greater understanding of the geochemical factors leading to uranyl phosphate precipitation may lead to successful application of phosphate-based remediation methods. However, the solubility of uranyl phosphate phases varies over >3 orders of magnitude, with the most soluble phases typically observed in lab experiments. To understand the role of common soil/sediment mineral surfaces in the nucleation and transformation of uranyl phosphate minerals under environmentally relevant conditions, we carried out batch experiments with goethite and mica at pHmore » 6 in mixed electrolyte solutions ranging from 1–800 μM U and 1–800 μM P. All experiments ended with uranium concentrations below the USEPA MCL for U, but with 2–3 orders of magnitude difference in uranium concentrations.« less

  12. Streptococcus mutans serotype c tagatose 6-phosphate pathway gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K; Hansen, J B; Crow, V L; Thomas, T D; Honeyman, A L; Curtiss, R

    1992-01-01

    DNA cloned into Escherichia coli K-12 from a serotype c strain of Streptococcus mutans encodes three enzyme activities for galactose utilization via the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway: galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. The genes coding for the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were located on a 3.28-kb HindIII DNA fragment. Analysis of the tagatose proteins expressed by recombinant plasmids in minicells was used to determine the sizes of the various gene products. Mutagenesis of these plasmids with transposon Tn5 was used to determine the order of the tagatose genes. Tagatose 6-phosphate isomerase appears to be composed of 14- and 19-kDa subunits. The sizes of the kinase and aldolase were found to be 34 and 36 kDa, respectively. These values correspond to those reported previously for the tagatose pathway enzymes in Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis. Images PMID:1328153

  13. A study of phosphate absorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Rees, Nicholas; O'Hare, Dermot

    2009-10-21

    A study of the mechanism of phosphate adsorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate, [Mg(2.25)Fe(0.75)(OH)(6)](CO(3))(0.37).0.65H(2)O over a range of pH has been carried out. The efficiency of the phosphate removal from aqueous solution has been investigated between pH 3-9 and the resulting solid phases have been studied by elemental analysis, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, HRTEM, EDX and solid-state MAS (31)P NMR. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggest that phosphate removal from solution occurs not by anion intercalation of the relevant phosphorous oxyanion (H(2)PO(4)(-) or HPO(4)(2-)) into the LDH but by the precipitation of either an insoluble iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate and/or a magnesium phosphate hydrate.

  14. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphate binder usage in kidney failure patients.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Anthony J

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorus binders are used in patients with kidney failure because of the incomplete removal of phosphorus with dialysis and the inability to exclude phosphorus from the diet. Aluminium was the initial phosphorus binder used, but was replaced by calcium-containing binders because of the development of aluminium toxicity. Calcium-based binders have been the mainstay of therapy for many years, but recent investigations have pointed to increased rates of vascular calcification in patients taking calcium-containing binders. For this reason, alternative agents have been developed. Sevelamer (Renagel), GelTex Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is a polymer which has been found to effectively bind phosphorus. It has resulted in a decreased rate of vascular calcification compared to calcium-containing binders. Other agents under development include lanthanum carbonate and iron-complex preparations. Further research will likely concentrate on identifying binders that bind phosphate more efficiently, have minimal gastrointestinal side effects and provide other benefits to dialysis patients.

  16. Autonomous microfluidic system for phosphate detection.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Christina M; Stitzel, Shannon E; Cleary, John; Slater, Conor; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-02-28

    Miniaturization of analytical devices through the advent of microfluidics and micro total analysis systems is an important step forward for applications such as medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. The development of field-deployable instruments requires that the entire system, including all necessary peripheral components, be miniaturized and packaged in a portable device. A sensor for long-term monitoring of phosphate levels has been developed that incorporates sampling, reagent and waste storage, detection, and wireless communication into a complete, miniaturized system. The device employs a low-power detection and communication system, so the entire instrument can operate autonomously for 7 days on a single rechargeable, 12V battery. In addition, integration of a wireless communication device allows the instrument to be controlled and results to be downloaded remotely. This autonomous system has a limit of detection of 0.3mg/L and a linear dynamic range between 0 and 20mg/L.

  17. The active centre of triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Pamela M.; Waley, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    The molecular weight and amino acid composition of triose phosphate isomerase have been determined. The molecular weight (43000) is lower and the molecular activity (500000) higher than those of most other glycolytic enzymes. Reaction with iodoacetate (studied with radioactive reagent) takes place in two phases: in the first phase, at pH6·3, cysteine and methionine groups react and enzymic activity is unimpaired; in the second phase, histidine reacts and enzymic activity is lost. Photo-oxidation leads to inactivation, with loss of cysteine, of histidine and of tryptophan, but little loss of tyrosine. The mechanism postulated for the action of the enzyme demands the intervention of a group functioning as a base, and the results obtained are consistent with histidine's being the basic group in the active centre. PMID:5969283

  18. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  19. Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedelnikova, M. B.; Komarova, E. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Tolkacheva, T. V.; Khlusov, I. A.; Sheikin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Biocomposites based on bioinert metals or alloys and bioactive calcium phosphate coatings are a promising tendency of the new-generation implants development. In recent years, the approach of regenerative medicine based on the use of biodegradable biomaterials has been priority direction. Such materials are capable of initiating the bone tissue regeneration and replaced by the newly formed bone. The microarc oxidation (MAO) method allows obtaining the bioactive coatings with a porous structure, special functional properties, and modified by the essential elements. During the last decade, the investigations in the field of the nanostructured biocomposites based on bioinert Ti, Zr, Nb and their alloys with a calcium phosphate coatings deposited by the MAO method have been studied in the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk. In this article the possibility to produce the bioactive coatings with high antibacterial and osseoconductive properties due to the introduction in the coatings of Zn, Cu, Ag, La, Si elements and wollastonite CaSiO3 was shown. The high hydrophilic and bioresorbed coatings stimulate the processes of osseointegration of the implant into the bone tissue. A promising direction in the field of the medical material science is a development of the metallic implants with good biomechanical compatibility to the bone, such as Ti-Nb alloys with a low elastic modulus that can be classified as biomaterials of the second generation. Zr and its alloys are promising materials for the dentistry and orthopedic surgery due to their high strength and corrosion resistance. Biodegradable Mg alloys are biomaterials of third generation. Such materials can dissolve with a certain speed in human body and excreted from the body thereby excluding the need for reoperation. This article presents the analysis of the study results of bioactive MAO coatings on Ti, Ti-Nb, Zr-Nb and Mg alloys and their promising medical application.

  20. Laser induced hierarchical calcium phosphate structures.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Anil; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2006-11-01

    The surface properties of biomedical implant materials control the dynamic interactions at tissue-implant interfaces. At such interfaces, if the nanoscale features influence protein interactions, those of the microscale and mesoscale aid cell orientation and provide tissue integration, respectively. It seems imperative that the synthetic materials expected to replace natural hard tissues are engineered to mimic the complexity of their hierarchical assembly. However, the current surface engineering approaches are single scaled. It is demonstrated that using laser surface engineering a controlled multiscale surface can be synthesized for bioactive functions. A systematic organization of bioactive calcium phosphate coating with multiphase composition on Ti-alloy substrate ranging from nano- to mesoscale has been achieved by effectively controlling the thermo physical interactions during laser processing. The morphology of the coating consisted of a periodic arrangement of Ti-rich and Ca-P-deficient star-like phases uniformly distributed inside a Ca-P-rich self-assembled cellular structure with the presence of CaO, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, CaTiO(3), TiO(2) and Ti phase in the coating matrix. The cellular structures ranged in diameter from 2.5 microm to 10 microm as an assembly of cuboid shaped particles of dimensions of approximately 200 nm x 1 microm. The multiscale texture also included nanoscale particles that are the precursors for many of these phases. The rapid cooling associated with the laser processing resulted in formation, organization and controlling dimensions of the Ca-P-rich glassy phase into a micron scale cellular morphology and submicron scale clusters of CaTiO(3) phase inside the cellular structures. The self-assembly of the coating into multiscale structure was influenced by chemical and physical interactions among the multiphases that evolved during laser processing.

  1. Phosphate microaggregates in Archean sediments. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S.; Fan, G. Y.; Arrhenius, G.

    1994-01-01

    Light microscopy conducted on samples of Archean sediments reveals phosphate microaggregates which are suggestive of a biotic origin (Arrhenius et al., 1993). These aggregates, typically 15 micrometers wide and 50 micrometers long, are thought to be the mineral remains of colonies of microorganisms that lived during the late Archean Eon (greater than or equal to 2.5 Ga). Confocal microscopy was used to study the structures of these microaggregates in three dimensions. Samples used in this study are from the lowermost section of drill core taken from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron-Formation (Hamersley Basin) in Western Australia. These sediments are well-preserved and escaped extensive metamorphism typically experienced by older rocks of this type. Two types of samples were prepared for study under the microscope: thin sections (30 micrometers) for transmitted light microscopy to study the general rock texture and to locate the grains of interest, and thick sections (3mm) for confocal microscopy to determine the 3-D structure of the aggregates in situ. The samples have been carefully polished so that they may be directly placed on the oil-immersion lens without the use of a cover slip. No chemical treatments of the surfaces have been performed. The aggregates often form clusters, although isolated aggregates have also been found. The clusters tend to distribute along microbands in the rocks. Electron microprobe analyses show that the phosphate grains and their inclusions, besides calcium and phosphorus, contain no major elements heavier than sodium. The proportions of calcium to phosphorus, the absence of stoichiometric amounts of other cations such as magnesium and iron, as well as optical properties suggest apatite as the mineral form.

  2. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Three Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Microhardness.

    PubMed

    Haghgou, En Hr; Haghgoo, Roza; Roholahi, Mohamad R; Ghorbani, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of casein phos-phopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and three calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and TCP) on increasing the microhardness of human enamel after induction of erosion. A total of 26 healthy human-impacted third molar teeth were chosen, and their hardness measured using a microhardness testing machine. The samples were immersed in Coca Cola (pH = 4.7) for 8 minutes. Then, micro-hardness was measured again, and these samples were randomly divided into four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). (1) Negative control group: Artificial saliva was used for 10 minutes, (2) positive control group: Fluoride gel was used for 10 minutes, (3) β-TCP group: TCP was used for 10 minutes, (4) CCP-ACP group: CCP-ACP was used for 10 minutes. The final microhardness of those samples was measured, and the changes in microhardness of teeth within group and between groups were analyzed using the paired and analysis of variance tests respectively. Results were considered statistically significant at a level of p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in microhard-ness between CPP-ACP group and TCP group (p = 0.368) during the time microhardness significantly dropped after soaking in soda. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP increased the microhardness of teeth. The increase in hardness in the TCP group was higher than in the CPP-ACP group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.36). Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP can affect the remineralization of erosive lesions.

  3. Phosphate recovery through struvite precipitation by CO2 removal: effect of magnesium, phosphate and ammonium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Korchef, Atef; Saidou, Hassidou; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2011-02-15

    In the present study, the precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) using the CO(2) degasification technique is investigated. The precipitation of struvite was done from supersaturated solutions in which precipitation was induced by the increase of the solution supersaturation concomitant with the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide. The effect of magnesium, phosphate and ammonium concentrations on the kinetics and the efficiency of struvite precipitation was measured monitoring the respective concentrations in solution. In all cases struvite precipitated exclusively and the solid was characterized by powder XRD and FTIR. The morphology of the precipitated crystals was examined by scanning electronic microscopy and it was found that it exhibited the typical prismatic pattern of the struvite crystals with sizes in the range between 100 and 300 μm. The increase of magnesium concentration in the supersaturated solutions, resulted for all phosphate concentration tested, in significantly higher phosphate removal efficiency. Moreover, it is interesting to note that in this case the adhesion of the suspended struvite crystals to the reactor walls was reduced suggesting changes in the particle characteristics. The increase of phosphate concentration in the supersaturated solutions, for the magnesium concentrations tested resulted to the reduction of struvite suppression which reached complete suppression of the precipitate formation. Excess of ammonium in solution was found favour struvite precipitation. Contrary to the results found with increasing the magnesium concentration in solution, higher ammonium concentrations resulted to higher adhesion of the precipitated crystallites to the reactor walls. The results of the present work showed that it is possible to recover phosphorus in the form of struvite from wastewater reducing water pollution and at the same time saving valuable resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  5. Intermediate-range order in simple metal-phosphate glasses: The effect of metal cations on the phosphate anion distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Ramey, J.O.

    1997-06-01

    The technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to probe the phosphate anion distribution in a variety of metal phosphate glasses including glasses made with trivalent metal cations (Al, In, Ga, La). The composition of each glass was chosen so that the average phosphate chain length was between 2 and 4 PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The widths of the resulting phosphate anion distributions were determined directly from an analysis of the HPLC chromatograms. Literature values for the free energy of formation of the crystalline metal-orthophosphate compounds with respect to P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and the metal oxide, were compared tomore » the chromatogram widths. It was found that the smaller the energy of formation, the wider the distribution of phosphate chains, and the greater the ease of glass formation.« less

  6. NuA4 Lysine Acetyltransferase Complex Contributes to Phospholipid Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dacquay, Louis; Flint, Annika; Butcher, James; Salem, Danny; Kennedy, Michael; Kaern, Mads; Stintzi, Alain; Baetz, Kristin

    2017-06-07

    Actively proliferating cells constantly monitor and readjust their metabolic pathways to ensure the replenishment of phospholipids necessary for membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , multiple studies have suggested that the lysine acetyltransferase complex NuA4 plays a role in phospholipid homeostasis. For one, NuA4 mutants induce the expression of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase gene, INO1 , which leads to excessive accumulation of inositol, a key metabolite used for phospholipid biosynthesis. Additionally, NuA4 mutants also display negative genetic interactions with sec14-1 ts , a mutant of a lipid-binding gene responsible for phospholipid remodeling of the Golgi. Here, using a combination of genetics and transcriptional profiling, we explore the connections between NuA4, inositol, and Sec14 Surprisingly, we found that NuA4 mutants did not suppress but rather exacerbated the growth defects of sec14-1 ts under inositol-depleted conditions. Transcriptome studies reveal that while loss of the NuA4 subunit EAF1 in sec14-1 ts does derepress INO1 expression, it does not derepress all inositol/choline-responsive phospholipid genes, suggesting that the impact of Eaf1 on phospholipid homeostasis extends beyond inositol biosynthesis. In fact, we find that NuA4 mutants have impaired lipid droplet levels and through genetic and chemical approaches, we determine that the genetic interaction between sec14-1 ts and NuA4 mutants potentially reflects a role for NuA4 in fatty acid biosynthesis. Altogether, our work identifies a new role for NuA4 in phospholipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Dacquay et al.

  7. 21 CFR 172.535 - Disodium inosinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... of water of crystallization. (b) The food additive is used as a flavoring adjuvant in food. ...

  8. 40 CFR 418.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate...-process phosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate and ammonium phosphate, except that...

  9. 40 CFR 418.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate...-process phosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate and ammonium phosphate, except that...

  10. Genetic Evidence for the Physiological Significance of the d-Tagatose 6-Phosphate Pathway of Lactose and d-Galactose Degradation in Staphylococcus aureus1

    PubMed Central

    Bissett, Donald L.; Anderson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated which were unable to utilize d-galactose or lactose, but which were able to utilize all other carbohydrates tested. Growth of the mutants on a peptone-containing medium was inhibited by d-galactose. Of those mutants selected for further study, one (tagI2) was missing d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, one (tagK3) was missing d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and one (tagA4) was missing d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase. Each of these mutants accumulated the substrate of the missing enzyme intracellularly. Spontaneous revertants of each of the mutants simultaneously regained their ability to utilize d-galactose and lactose, lost their sensitivity to d-galactose, regained the missing enzymatic activities, and no longer accumulated intermediates of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. These data support our previous contention that the physiologically significant route for the metabolism of d-galactose and the d-galactosyl moiety of lactose in S. aureus is the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. Furthermore, a mutant constitutive for all three enzymes of this pathway was isolated, indicating that the products of the tagI, tagK, and tagA genes are under common genetic control. This conclusion was supported by the demonstration that d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase are coordinately induced in the parental strain. PMID:4277494

  11. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda

    2010-03-26

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMSmore » was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L).« less

  12. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  13. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  14. Radiological assessment of Abu-Tartur phosphate, Western Desert Egypt.

    PubMed

    Uosif, M A M; El-Taher, A

    2008-01-01

    The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in sedimentary phosphate rock samples (Abu-Tartur phosphate, Western Desert Egypt) by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3"x 3"). Phosphate and environmental samples were collected from Abu-Tartur phosphate mine and the surrounding region. The results are discussed and compared with the levels in phosphate rocks from different countries. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th series and (40)K are between (14.9 +/- 0.8 and 302.4 +/- 15.2), (2.6 +/- 1.0 and 154.9 +/- 7.8) and (10.0 +/- 0.5 and 368.4 +/- 18.4) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The Abu-Tartur phosphate deposit was found to have lower activity than many others exploited phosphate sedimentary deposits, with its average total annual dose being only 114.6 microSv y(-1). This value is about 11.46% of the 1.0 mSv y(-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60, 1990) as the maximum annual dose to members of the public.

  15. Phosphate limitation induces sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Vagner Alexandre; Ferreira da Cruz, Angela; Nunis da Silva, Antonio; Corrêa, Luiz Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The cell cycle is controlled by numerous mechanisms that ensure correct cell division. If growth is not possible, cells may eventually promote autophagy, differentiation, or apoptosis. Microorganisms interrupt their growth and differentiate under general nutrient limitation. We analyzed the effects of phosphate limitation on growth and sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii using kinetic data, phase-contrast, and laser confocal microscopy. Under phosphate limitation, zoospores germinated and subsequently formed 2-4 spores, regardless of the nutritional content of the medium. The removal of phosphate at any time during growth induced sporulation of vegetative cells. If phosphate was later added to the same cultures, growth was restored if the cells were not yet committed to sporulation. The cycles of addition and withdrawal of phosphate from growth medium resulted in cycles of germination-growth, germination-sporulation, or germination-growth-sporulation. These results show that phosphate limitation is sufficient to interrupt cell growth and to induce complete sporulation in B. emersonii. We concluded that the determination of growth or sporulation in this microorganism is linked to phosphate availability when other nutrients are not limiting. This result provides a new tool for the dissection of nutrient-energy and signal pathways in cell growth and differentiation.

  16. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors.

    PubMed

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce

    2018-02-10

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  17. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Christopher S.; Coldrick, Zachary; Donoghue, Jack Marsden

    2018-01-01

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N-allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP. PMID:29439386

  18. Effect of Tenapanor on Serum Phosphate in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David P.; Leonsson-Zachrisson, Maria; Åstrand, Magnus; Johansson, Susanne; Knutsson, Mikael; Langkilde, Anna Maria; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients with CKD stage 5D and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend lowering serum phosphate concentrations toward normal. Tenapanor is a minimally absorbed small molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 that functions in the gut to reduce sodium and phosphate absorption. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of tenapanor on serum phosphate concentration in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis. After a 1- to 3-week washout of phosphate binders, we randomly assigned 162 eligible patients (serum phosphate =6.0 to <10.0 mg/dl and a 1.5-mg/dl increase from before washout) to one of six tenapanor regimens (3 or 30 mg once daily or 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change in serum phosphate concentration from baseline (randomization) to end of treatment. In total, 115 patients (71%) completed the study. Mean serum phosphate concentrations at baseline (after washout) were 7.32–7.92 mg/dl for tenapanor groups and 7.87 mg/dl for the placebo group. Tenapanor provided dose-dependent reductions in serum phosphate level from baseline (least squares mean change: tenapanor =0.47–1.98 mg/dl; placebo =0.54 mg/dl; P=0.01). Diarrhea was the most common adverse event (tenapanor =18%–68%; placebo =12%) and frequent at the highest tenapanor doses. In conclusion, tenapanor treatment resulted in statistically significant, dose-dependent reductions in serum phosphate concentrations in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis. Additional studies are required to clarify the optimal dosing of tenapanor in patients with CKD-related hyperphosphatemia. PMID:28159782

  19. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from semiconductor wastewater.

    PubMed

    Warmadewanthi, B; Liu, J C

    2009-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) are widely used in semiconductor industry for etching and rinsing purposes. Consequently, significant amount of wastewater containing phosphate and fluoride is generated. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from the semiconductor wastewater, containing 936 mg/L of fluoride, 118 mg/L of phosphate, 640 mg/L of sulfate, and 26.7 mg/L of ammonia, was studied. Chemical precipitation and flotation reactions were utilized in the two-stage treatment processes. The first-stage reaction involved the addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) to induce selective precipitation of magnesium phosphate. The optimal condition was pH 10 and molar ratio, [Mg(2 + )]/[(PO(4) (3-))], of 3:1, and 66.2% of phosphate was removed and recovered as bobierrite (Mg(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O). No reaction was found between MgCl(2) and fluoride. Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) was used in the second-stage reaction to induce precipitation of calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate. The optimum molar ratio, [Ca(2 + )]/[F(-)], was 0.7 at pH 10, and residual fluoride concentration of 10.7 mg/L and phosphate concentration of lower than 0.5 mg/L was obtained. Thermodynamic equilibrium was modeled with PHREEQC and compared with experimental results. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was an effective collector for subsequent solid-liquid removal via dispersed air flotation (DiAF). The study demonstrated that phosphate can be selectively recovered from the wastewater. Potential benefits include recovery of phosphate for reuse, lower required dosage of calcium for fluoride removal, and less amount of CaF(2) sludge.

  1. Properties of Powder Composite Polyhydroxybutyrate-Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvecky, L.; Stulajterova, R.; Giretova, M.; Faberova, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prepared powder polyhydroxybutyrate - chitosan - calcium phosphate composite system with 10 wt % of biopolymer component can be utilized as biocement which is characterized by the prolonged setting time and achieves wash out resistance after 5 minutes of setting. The origin powder tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite agglomerates were coated with the thin layer of biopolymer which decelerates both the transformation rate of calcium phosphates and hardening process of composites. The porosity of hardened composite was around 62% and the compressive strength (8 MPa) was close to trabecular bone. No cytotoxicity of composite resulted from live/dead staining of osteoblasts cultured on substrates.

  2. Effect of Phosphate on the Oxidation of Hydroxysulfate Green Rust

    SciTech Connect

    Benali, Omar; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Genin, Jean-Marie R.

    During Hydroxysulfate green rust GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2}) oxidation, lepidocrocite and goethite were formed. The oxidation of GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the presence of phosphate ions, also involved the formation of poorly crystallized lepidocrocite but not that of goethite. The dissolution of lepidocrocite is inhibited by adsorption of phosphate ions as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of the poorly crystallized protective layer against corrosion is effectively due to the phosphate ions which adsorb on the surface of lepidocrocite, and prevents it to turn into a well crystallized oxide.

  3. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    PubMed

    De Rose, Aldo Franco; Mantica, Guglielmo; Tosi, Mattia; Bovio, Giulio; Terrone, Carlo

    2016-10-05

    Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  4. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be... on the life of the veteran shall remain at a constant level until the principal amount of the...

  5. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  6. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  7. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  8. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  9. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  10. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  11. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  12. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  13. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Young, M.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    A seasonal analysis assesing variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system, California. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen in DIP (exchange of oxygen between phosphate and environmental water) at surface water temperatures occurs only as a result of enzyme-mediated, biological reactions. Accordingly, if phospate demand is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopic composition of DIP (?? 18Op) will reflect the isotopic composition of the source of phosphate to the system. Such is the case for the North San Francisco Bay, an anthropogenically impacted estuary with high surface water phosphate concentrations. Variability in the ?? 18Op in the bay is primarily controlled by mixing of water masses with different ??18Op signatures. The ??18Op values range from 11.4??? at the Sacramento River to 20.1??? at the Golden Gate. Deviations from the two-component mixing model for the North Bay reflect additional, local sources of phosphate to the estuary that vary seasonally. Most notably, deviations from the mixing model occur at the confluence of a major river into the bay during periods of high river discharge and near wastewater treatment outlets. These data suggest that ??18Op can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine systems. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Guesto-Barnak, Donna

    1992-01-01

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  15. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  16. Renal osteodystrophy, phosphate homeostasis, and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Keith A; Saab, Georges; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard

    2007-01-01

    New advances in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) change the perspective from which many of its features and treatment are viewed. Calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D have been shown to be important determinants of survival associated with kidney diseases. Now ROD dependent and independent of these factors is linked to survival more than just skeletal frailty. This review focuses on recent discoveries that renal injury impairs skeletal anabolism decreasing the osteoblast compartment of the skeleton and consequent bone formation. This discovery and the discovery that PTH regulates the hematopoietic stem cell niche alters our view of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) from that of a disease to that of a necessary adaptation to renal injury that goes awry. Furthermore, ROD is shown to be an underappreciated factor in the level of the serum phosphorus in CKD. The discovery and the elucidation of the mechanism of hyperphosphatemia as a cardiovascular risk in CKD change the view of ROD. It is now recognized as more than a skeletal disorder, it is an important component of the mortality of CKD that can be treated.

  17. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Joseph S.; Sapak, David L.; Ward, Julia M.

    1990-01-01

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis): the amounts of Li.sub.2 O and Na.sub.2 O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK and .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 can be replaced by other lasing species.

  18. Antiferroelectric films of deuterated betaine phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thin films of partially deuterated betaine phosphate have been grown by the evaporation on Al2O3(110) and NdGaO3(001) substrates with a preliminarily deposited structure of interdigitated electrodes. The grown films have a polycrystalline block structure with characteristic dimensions of blocks of the order of 0.1-1.5 mm. The degree of deuteration of the films D varies in the range of 20-50%. It has been found that, at the antiferroelectric phase transition temperature T c afe = 100-114 K, the fabricated structures exhibit an anomaly of the electrical capacitance C, which is not accompanied by a change in the dielectric loss tangent tanδ. The strong-signal dielectric response is characterized by the appearance of a ferroelectric nonlinearity at temperatures T > T c afe , which is transformed into an antiferroelectric nonlinearity at T < T c afe . With a further decrease in the temperature, double dielectric hysteresis loops appear in the antiferroelectric phase. The dielectric properties of the films have been described within the framework of the Landau-type thermodynamic model taking into account the biquadratic coupling ξ P 2η2 between the polar order parameter P and the nonpolar order parameter η with a positive coefficient ξ. The E-T phase diagram has been constructed.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  20. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, Dileep

    1997-07-01

    We have investigated mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) using four surrogate waste streams that represent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ash, soil, and two secondary waste streams resulting from the destruction of DOE`s high-organic wastes by the DETOX{sup SM} Wet Oxidation Process. Hg content in the waste streams was 0.1 to 0.5 wt.% (added as soluble salts). Sulfidation of Hg and its concurrent stabilization in the CBPC matrix yielded highly nonleachable waste forms. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure showed that leaching levels were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s regulatory limits. The American Nuclear Society`s ANSmore » 16.1 immersion test also gave very high leaching indices, indicating excellent retention of the contaminants. In particular, leaching levels of Hg in the ash waste form were below the measurement detection limit in neutral and alkaline water, negligibly low but measureable in the first 72 h of leaching in acid water, and below the detection limit after that. These studies indicate that the waste forms are stable in a wide range of chemical environments during storage. 9 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  1. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  2. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].

    PubMed

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  3. Computer modeling of lithium phosphate and thiophosphate electrolyte materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, N. A. W.; Lepley, N. D.; Du, Yaojun A.

    In this work, several lithium phosphate and thiophosphate materials are modeled to determine their optimized lattice structures, their total energies, and their electronic structures. Included in this study are materials characterized by isolated phosphate and thiophosphate groups - Li 3PS 4 and Li 3PO 4 and materials characterized by phosphate and thiophosphate dimers - Li 4P 2S 6 and Li 4P 2O 6 and Li 4P 2S 7 and Li 4P 2O 7. In addition, the superionic conducting material Li 7P 3S 11 is also modeled as are recently discovered crystalline argyrodite materials Li 7PS 6 and Li 6PS 5Cl. A comparison of Li ion vacancy migration in Li 4P 2S 7 and Li 4P 2O 7 shows the migration energy barriers in the thiophosphate to be smaller (less than one-half) than in the phosphate.

  4. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  5. Structural Isosteres of Phosphate Groups in the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuezhou; Borrel, Alexandre; Ghemtio, Leo; Regad, Leslie; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Xhaard, Henri

    2017-03-27

    We developed a computational workflow to mine the Protein Data Bank for isosteric replacements that exist in different binding site environments but have not necessarily been identified and exploited in compound design. Taking phosphate groups as examples, the workflow was used to construct 157 data sets, each composed of a reference protein complexed with AMP, ADP, ATP, or pyrophosphate as well other ligands. Phosphate binding sites appear to have a high hydration content and large size, resulting in U-shaped bioactive conformations recurrently found across unrelated protein families. A total of 16 413 replacements were extracted, filtered for a significant structural overlap on phosphate groups, and sorted according to their SMILES codes. In addition to the classical isosteres of phosphate, such as carboxylate, sulfone, or sulfonamide, unexpected replacements that do not conserve charge or polarity, such as aryl, aliphatic, or positively charged groups, were found.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency An estimated 400 million ...

  7. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  8. Measuring phosphate with an inexpensive, easy to build photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Weijs, Steven; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a course for first year students to get hands-on experience with measuring in the environment, a photometric system for measuring phosphate concentration was developed. The system makes use of a single LED as a light source, a Si photodiode-based light to frequency conversion IC and an Arduino electronic card as acquisition system. The instrument is designed as an easy to assemble system and assembling and alignment is part of the exercise. The phosphate measurement is based on the formation of phosphor-molybdate complex which is eventually reduced to a blue component. The absorbance at 710 nm of a phosphate-containing fluid with added indicator is then measured and calibrated with a known solution. The initial test has demonstrated the ability of the instrument to detect phosphates in tap water. Other components as nitrates or chlorophyll could be easily measured with the instrument using LED emitting at the respective wavelengths.

  9. The international phosphate resource data base; development and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, Nancy J.

    1983-01-01

    The IPRDB (International Phosphate Resource Data Base) was developed to provide a single computerized source of geologic information about phosphate deposits worldwide. It is expected that this data base will encourage more thorough scientific analyses of phosphate deposits and assessments of undiscovered phosphate resources, and that methods of data collection and storage will be streamlined. Because the database was intended to serve as a repository for diverse and detailed data, a large amount of the early research effort was devoted to the design and development of the system. To date (1982), the file remains incomplete. All development work and file maintenance work on IPRDB was suspended as of October 1, 1982; this paper is intended to document the steps taken up to that date. The computer programs listed in the appendices were written specifically for the IPRDB phosbib file and are of limited future use.

  10. An infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of natural zinc phosphates.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L

    2004-06-01

    Zinc phosphates are important in the study of the phosphatisation of metals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterise the zinc phosphate minerals. The minerals may be characterised by the patterns of the hydroxyl stretching vibrations in both the Raman and infrared spectra. Spencerite is characterised by a sharp Raman band at 3516 cm(-1) and tarbuttite by a single band at 3446 cm(-1). The patterns of the Raman spectra of the hydroxyl stretching region of hopeite and parahopeite are different in line with their differing crystal structures. The Raman spectrum of the PO4 stretching region shows better band separated peaks than the infrared spectra which consist of a complex set of overlapping bands. The position of the PO4 symmetric stretching mode can be used to identify the zinc phosphate mineral. It is apparent that Raman spectroscopy lends itself to the fundamental study of the evolution of zinc phosphate films.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... J, Müller A, Heep A, Bartmann P, Franz AR. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy. Arch Dis ... Windfuhr M, Wagner N, Strehl H, Bagci S, Franz AR, Mills PB, Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, ...

  12. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  13. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry.

    PubMed

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary and genetic evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating mammalian aging

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Razzaque, M. Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    Identifying factors that accelerate the aging process can provide important therapeutic targets for slowing down this process. Misregulation of phosphate homeostasis has been noted in various skeletal, cardiac, and renal diseases, but the exact role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging is not clearly defined. Phosphate is widely distributed in the body and is involved in cell signaling, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, and the maintenance of acid-base balance by urinary buffering. In this study, we used an in vivo genetic approach to determine the role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging. Klotho-knockout mice (klotho−/−) have a short life span and show numerous physical, biochemical, and morphological features consistent with premature aging, including kyphosis, uncoordinated movement, hypogonadism, infertility, severe skeletal muscle wasting, emphysema, and osteopenia, as well as generalized atrophy of the skin, intestine, thymus, and spleen. Molecular and biochemical analyses suggest that increased renal activity of sodium-phosphate cotransporters (NaPi2a) leads to severe hyperphosphatemia in klotho−/− mice. Genetically reducing serum phosphate levels in klotho−/− mice by generating a NaPi2a and klotho double-knockout (NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/−) strain resulted in amelioration of premature aging-like features. The NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/− double-knockout mice regained reproductive ability, recovered their body weight, reduced their organ atrophy, and suppressed ectopic calcifications, with the resulting effect being prolonged survival. More important, when hyperphosphatemia was induced in NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/− mice by feeding with a high-phosphate diet, premature aging-like features reappeared, clearly suggesting that phosphate toxicity is the main cause of premature aging in klotho−/− mice. The results of our dietary and genetic manipulation studies provide in vivo evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating the

  15. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D; Catalano, Jeffrey G; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  16. Dental Composites with Calcium / Strontium Phosphates and Polylysine.

    PubMed

    Panpisut, Piyaphong; Liaqat, Saad; Zacharaki, Eleni; Xia, Wendy; Petridis, Haralampos; Young, Anne Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2.5 wt%) and/or reactive phosphate fillers (15 wt% TSrP and 10 wt% MCPM). The commercial composite, Z250, was used as a control. Monomer conversion and calculated polymerization shrinkage were assessed using FTIR. Subsequent mass or volume changes in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF) were quantified using gravimetric studies. These were used, along with Raman and SEM, to assess apatite precipitation on the composite surface. PLS release was determined using UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, biaxial flexural strengths after 24 hours of SBF immersion were obtained. Monomer conversion of the composites decreased upon the addition of phosphate fillers (from 76 to 64%) but was always higher than that of Z250 (54%). Phosphate addition increased water sorption induced expansion from 2 to 4% helping to balance the calculated polymerization shrinkage of ~ 3.4%. Phosphate addition promoted apatite precipitation from SBF. Polylysine increased the apatite layer thickness from ~ 10 to 20 μm after 4 weeks. The novel composites showed a burst release of PLS (3.7%) followed by diffusion-controlled release irrespective of phosphate addition. PLS and phosphates decreased strength from 154 MPa on average by 17% and 18%, respectively. All formulations, however, had greater strength than the ISO 4049 requirement of > 80 MPa. The addition of MCPM with TSrP promoted hygroscopic expansion, and apatite formation. These properties are expected to help compensate polymerization shrinkage and help

  17. Serum phosphate and cognitive function in older men.

    PubMed

    Slinin, Yelena; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Murray, Anne M; Schousboe, John; Langsetmo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    Determine whether serum phosphate is associated with concurrent cognitive impairment and subsequent cognitive decline in older men independent of demographic covariates and atherosclerotic risk factors. In a prospective study of 5529 men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we measured baseline serum phosphate, baseline cognitive function, and change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up exams an average of 4.6 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination and Trails B. There was no association between serum phosphate and odds of cognitive impairment as assessed by baseline 3MS score or risk of cognitive decline as assessed by longitudinal change in 3MS score. Higher baseline serum phosphate was associated with higher odds of poor executive function as assessed by Trails B with fully adjusted odds ratios 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.52), 1.31 (0.97-1.77), and 1.45 (1.08-1.94) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.007). However, higher phosphate level was not associated with risk of decline in executive function as assessed by longitudinal change in Trails B score with fully adjusted odds ratios 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.28), 0.96 (0.70-1.32), and 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.22). Higher serum phosphate in older men was associated with a higher likelihood of poor executive function, but not with impaired global cognitive function or decline in executive or global cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred onlymore » at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.« less

  19. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred onlymore » at high initial U(VI) (>25μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.« less

  20. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  1. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory at...

  2. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  3. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  4. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  5. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the processing of phosphate bearing rock, ore or...

  6. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  7. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the processing of phosphate bearing rock, ore or...

  8. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  9. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  10. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  11. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  12. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  13. Phosphate homeostasis in Bartter syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Viganò, Cristina; Provero, Maria Cristina; Barretta, Francesco; Albisetti, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Silvana; Scicchitano, Barbara; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2014-11-01

    Bartter patients may be hypercalciuric. Additional abnormalities in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones have occasionally been reported. The metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones was investigated in 15 patients with Bartter syndrome and 15 healthy subjects. Compared to the controls, Bartter patients had significantly reduced plasma phosphate {mean [interquartile range]:1.29 [1.16-1.46] vs. 1.61 [1.54-1.67] mmol/L} and maximal tubular phosphate reabsorption (1.16 [1.00-1.35] vs. 1.41 [1.37-1.47] mmol/L) and significantly increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (6.1 [4.5-7.7] vs. 2.8 [2.2-4.4] pmol/L). However, patients and controls did not differ in blood calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. In patients, an inverse correlation (P < 0.05) was noted between total plasma calcium or glomerular filtration rate and PTH concentration. A positive correlation was also noted between PTH and osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.005), as well as between chloriduria or natriuria and phosphaturia (P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between calciuria and PTH concentration or between urinary or circulating phosphate and PTH. The results of this study demonstrate a tendency towards renal phosphate wasting and elevated circulating PTH levels in Bartter patients.

  14. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-07

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil.

  15. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-02-24

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.

  17. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  18. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  19. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  20. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.