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Sample records for a4 family symmetry

  1. Embedding A4 into left-right flavor symmetry: Tribimaximal neutrino mixing and fermion hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzocchi, F.; Morisi, S.; Picariello, M.

    2008-01-01

    We address two fundamental aspects of flavor physics: the mass hierarchy and the large lepton mixing angles. On one side, left-right flavor symmetry realizes the democratic mass matrix patterns and explains why one family is much heavier than the others. On the other side, discrete flavor symmetry such as A4 leads to the observed tribimaximal mixing for the leptons. We show that, by explicitly breaking the left-right flavor symmetry into the diagonal A4, it is possible to explain both the observed charged fermion mass hierarchies and quark and lepton mixing angles. In particular we predict a heavy 3rd family, the tribimaximal mixing for the leptons, and we suggest a possible origin of the Cabibbo and other mixing angles for the quarks.

  2. Consequences of an Abelian family symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1996-01-01

    The addition of an Abelian family symmetry to the Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model reproduces the observed hierarchies of quark and lepton masses and quark mixing angles, only if it is anomalous. Green-Schwarz compensation of its anomalies requires the electroweak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub {omega}} = 3/8 at the string scale, without any assumed GUT structure, suggesting a superstring origin for the standard model. The analysis is extended to neutrino masses and the lepton mixing matrix.

  3. Soft A 4→Z 3 symmetry breaking and cobimaximal neutrino mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ernest

    2016-03-28

    In this study, I propose a model of radiative charged-lepton and neutrino masses with A 4 symmetry. The soft breaking of A 4 to Z 3 lepton triality is accomplished by dimension-three terms. The breaking of Z 3 by dimension-two terms allows cobimaximal neutrino mixing (θ 13 ≠ 0, θ 23 = π/4, δ cp=π/2) to be realized with only very small finite calculable deviations from the residual Z 3 lepton triality. This construction solves a long-standing technical problem inherent in renormalizable A 4 models since their inception.

  4. Inversion symmetry breaking induced triply degenerate points in orderly arranged PtSeTe family materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R. C.; Cheung, C. H.; Gong, P. L.; Lu, W. J.; Si, J. G.; Sun, Y. P.

    2018-06-01

    k paths exactly with symmetry allow to find triply degenerate points (TDPs) in band structures. The paths that host the type-II Dirac points in PtSe2 family materials also have the spatial symmetry. However, due to Kramers degeneracy (the systems have both inversion symmetry and time reversal symmetry), the crossing points in them are Dirac ones. In this work, based on symmetry analysis, first-principles calculations, and method, we predict that PtSe2 family materials should undergo topological transitions if the inversion symmetry is broken, i.e. the Dirac fermions in PtSe2 family materials split into TDPs in PtSeTe family materials (PtSSe, PtSeTe, and PdSeTe) with orderly arranged S/Se (Se/Te). It is different from the case in high-energy physics that breaking inversion symmetry I leads to the splitting of Dirac fermion into Weyl fermions. We also address a possible method to achieve the orderly arranged in PtSeTe family materials in experiments. Our study provides a real example that Dirac points transform into TDPs, and is helpful to investigate the topological transition between Dirac fermions and TDP fermions.

  5. Generalized gauge U(1) family symmetry for quarks and leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas

    2017-01-11

    If the standard model of quarks and leptons is extended to include three singlet right-handed neutrinos, then the resulting fermion structure admits an infinite number of anomaly-free solutions with just one simple constraint. Well-known examples satisfying this constraint are B–L, L μ–Lτ, B–3Lτ, etc. Here, we derive this simple constraint, and discuss two new examples which offer some insights to the structure of mixing among quark and lepton families, together with their possible verification at the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Stuart, Alexander J.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, ϕ=(1+5)/2. We present a basic toolbox for model building using icosahedral symmetry, including explicit representation matrices and tensor product rules. As a simple application, we construct a minimal model at tree level in which the solar angle is related to the golden ratio, the atmospheric angle is maximal, and the reactor angle vanishes to leading order. The approach provides a rich setting in which to investigate the flavor puzzle of the standard model.

  7. Symmetry analysis of the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuna, Agnieszka; Sikora, Wiesława

    2011-06-01

    Symmetry analysis was applied in this work to discuss the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation (deuteration), where different structural transformations and magnetic properties, depending on the type of R and M atoms and hydrogen (deuterium) concentrations, have been found. The crystallographic structure of these compounds is described by the Fm3m space group and contain 116 atoms per unit cell occupying the positions 24e(R), 4b, 24d, 32f1 and 32f2(M). Additionally in the elementary cell, there could be up to 100 atoms of hydrogen (or deuterium) occupying the interstitial positions 4a, 32f3, 96j1 and 96k1. The symmetry analysis in the frame of the theory of space groups and their representation gives the opportunity to find all possible transformations from high symmetry parent structure to the structures with symmetry belonging to one of its subgroups. For a given transformation it indicates possible displacements of atoms from initial positions in the parent structure, ordering of hydrogen over interstitial sites and also ordering of magnetic moments, described by the smallest possible number of free parameters. The analysis was carried out by means of the MODY computer program for vectors k = (0; 0; 0) and k = (0; 0; 1) describing the changes of translational symmetry and all positions occupied by the R, M and D atoms.

  8. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel

    2017-12-01

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.

  9. Characterization of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Proteaceae, a basal eudicot family with multiple shifts in floral symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Citerne, Hélène L.; Reyes, Elisabeth; Le Guilloux, Martine; Delannoy, Etienne; Simonnet, Franck; Sauquet, Hervé; Weston, Peter H.; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The basal eudicot family Proteaceae (approx. 1700 species) shows considerable variation in floral symmetry but has received little attention in studies of evolutionary development at the genetic level. A framework for understanding the shifts in floral symmetry in Proteaceae is provided by reconstructing ancestral states on an upated phylogeny of the family, and homologues of CYCLOIDEA (CYC), a key gene for the control of floral symmetry in both monocots and eudicots, are characterized. Methods Perianth symmetry transitions were reconstructed on a new species-level tree using parsimony and maximum likelihood. CYC-like genes in 35 species (31 genera) of Proteaceae were sequenced and their phylogeny was reconstructed. Shifts in selection pressure following gene duplication were investigated using nested branch-site models of sequence evolution. Expression patterns of CYC homologues were characterized in three species of Grevillea with different types of floral symmetry. Key Results Zygomorphy has evolved 10–18 times independently in Proteaceae from actinomorphic ancestors, with at least four reversals to actinomorphy. A single duplication of CYC-like genes occurred prior to the diversification of Proteaceae, with putative loss or divergence of the ProtCYC1 paralogue in more than half of the species sampled. No shifts in selection pressure were detected in the branches subtending the two ProtCYC paralogues. However, the amino acid sequence preceding the TCP domain is strongly divergent in Grevillea ProtCYC1 compared with other species. ProtCYC genes were expressed in developing flowers of both actinomorphic and zygomorphic Grevillea species, with late asymmetric expression in the perianth of the latter. Conclusion Proteaceae is a remarkable family in terms of the number of transitions in floral symmetry. Furthermore, although CYC-like genes in Grevillea have unusual sequence characteristics, they display patterns of expression that make them good

  10. Integrability from point symmetries in a family of cosmological Horndeski Lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, N.; Giacomini, Alex; Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2017-07-01

    For a family of Horndeski theories, formulated in terms of a generalized Galileon model, we study the integrability of the field equations in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time. We are interested in point transformations which leave invariant the field equations. Noether's theorem is applied to determine the conservation laws for a family of models that belong to the same general class. The cosmological scenarios with or without an extra perfect fluid with constant equation of state parameter are the two important cases of our study. The de Sitter universe and ideal gas solutions are derived by using the invariant functions of the symmetry generators as a demonstration of our result. Furthermore, we discuss the connection of the different models under conformal transformations while we show that when the Horndeski theory reduces to a canonical field the same holds for the conformal equivalent theory. Finally, we discuss how singular solutions provides nonsingular universes in a different frame and vice versa.

  11. Theory of nodal s ±-wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-T c superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s⁺⁻ wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface “hot-spots” in the inter-band scatteringmore » channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s⁺⁻ wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.« less

  12. Common origin of nonzero θ13 and baryon asymmetry of the Universe in a TeV scale seesaw model with A4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Mukherjee, Ananya

    2018-06-01

    We study the possibility of generating nonzero reactor mixing angle θ13 and baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of an A4 flavor symmetric model. Using the conventional type I seesaw mechanism we construct the Dirac and Majorana mass matrices that give rise to the correct light neutrino mass matrix. Keeping the right-handed neutrino mass matrix structure trivial so that it gives rise to a (quasi) degenerate spectrum of heavy neutrinos suitable for resonant leptogenesis at TeV scale, we generate the nontrivial structure of Dirac neutrino mass matrix that can lead to the light neutrino mixing through the type I seesaw formula. Interestingly, such a setup naturally leads to nonzero θ13 due to the existence of antisymmetric contraction of the product of two triplet representations of A4. Such an antisymmetric part of the triplet products usually vanishes for right-handed neutrino Majorana mass terms, leading to μ -τ symmetric scenarios in the most economical setups. We constrain the model parameters from the requirement of producing the correct neutrino data as well as baryon asymmetry of the Universe for right-handed neutrino mass scale around TeV. The A4 symmetry is augmented by additional Z3×Z2 symmetry to make sure that the splitting between right-handed neutrinos required for resonant leptogenesis is generated only by next to leading order terms, making it naturally small. We find that the inverted hierarchical light neutrino masses give more allowed parameter space consistent with neutrino and baryon asymmetry data.

  13. Parental Perspectives of a 4-Week Family-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Erin S.; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Burke, Shauna M.; Shapiro, Sheree

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The childhood obesity epidemic is now recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Community-based behaviour modification treatment programs involving both children and their families are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents whose children participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): a 4-week lifestyle program delivered as a day-camp for obese children at risk for type II diabetes and their families. Parents were required to attend four half-day education sessions during the intervention period. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted immediately following the 4-week interventions offered in August 2008 and 2009. The perspectives of 38 parents representing 32 children aged 8-14 with obesity (i.e., body mass index > the 95th percentile) were shared. Results: Overall, parents were pleased with the impact of the program and proud of their children's accomplishments (e.g., increased physical activity levels, enhanced self-esteem, weight loss). Several facilitators to success (e.g., social support; a positive environment) and barriers to its maintenance (e.g., time management; unsupportive family members) were identified, and recommendations were made for future programs. Although parents found the half-day sessions valuable, post-programmatic bi-monthly booster session adherence declined over the one-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Delivered as a 4-week day-camp, C.H.A.M.P. represents a unique approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Future family-based interventions should consider avenues for intensifying the parental program component whilst employing strategies to promote parental adherence in service of enhancing long-term sustainability of health behaviour changes. PMID:23445699

  14. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE PAGES

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  15. NMR, symmetry elements, structure and phase transitions in the argyrodite family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, E.; Taulelle, F.; Boucher, F.; Evain, M.

    1998-02-01

    Cu7PSe6 belongs to a family of structures known as the argyrodites. It undergoes two phases transitions. The high temperature phase has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It has a Foverline{4}3m space group. Medium temperature phases have been refined using a non-harmonic technique and the space group proposed is P213. The low temperature phase had an apparent space group of Foverline{4}3m also. Use of X-ray diffraction and NMR together has allowed to determine the space groups of all phases as being respectively Foverline{4}3m, P213 and Pmn21. Positioning of disordered coppers in the structure is therefore possible and the structure can be described by connex polyhedra of PSe3-4 and SeCux-2_x. The phase transitions can be understood by an ordered motion of SeCux-2x polyhedra. If these polyhedra set in motion independently two transitions are to be observed, if they are coupled only one is observed. Cu7PSe6 appartient à une famille de composés connus sous le nom d'argyrodites. Cu7PSe6 possède deux transitions de phase. La structure de haute température a été déterminée par diffraction des rayons X. Elle se décrit par le groupe d'espace Foverline{4}3m. La phase de moyenne température a été raffinée en utilisant une technique non-harmonique et le groupe d'espace proposé est P213. La phase de basse température possède également un groupe d'espace apparent Foverline{4}3m. En utilisant ensemble la diffraction des rayons X et la RMN, il a été possible de déterminer les groupes d'espace de toutes les phases comme étant respectivement Foverline{4}3m, P213 et Pmn21. Placer les atomes de cuivre, désordonnés, dans la structure devient alors possible et la structure peut se décrire comme un ensemble de polyèdres connexes de PSe3-4 et SeCux-2_x. Les transitions de phases se décrivent alors comme des mouvements ordonnés des polyèdres SeCux-2_x. Si ces polyèdres se mettent en mouvement indépendamment, deux transitions de phases sont attendues, si

  16. Unconventional Superconductivity in La(7)Ir(3) Revealed by Muon Spin Relaxation: Introducing a New Family of Noncentrosymmetric Superconductor That Breaks Time-Reversal Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Barker, J A T; Singh, D; Thamizhavel, A; Hillier, A D; Lees, M R; Balakrishnan, G; Paul, D McK; Singh, R P

    2015-12-31

    The superconductivity of the noncentrosymmetric compound La(7)Ir(3) is investigated using muon spin rotation and relaxation. Zero-field measurements reveal the presence of spontaneous static or quasistatic magnetic fields below the superconducting transition temperature T(c)=2.25  K-a clear indication that the superconducting state breaks time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, transverse-field rotation measurements suggest that the superconducting gap is isotropic and that the pairing symmetry of the superconducting electrons is predominantly s wave with an enhanced binding strength. The results indicate that the superconductivity in La(7)Ir(3) may be unconventional and paves the way for further studies of this family of materials.

  17. Dragging Maintaining Symmetry: Can It Generate the Concept of Inclusivity as well as a Family of Shapes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a project using Design Based Research methodology to ascertain whether a pedagogical task based on a dynamic figure designed in a Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS) program could be instrumental in developing students' geometrical reasoning. A dragging strategy which I have named "Dragging Maintaining Symmetry" (DMS)…

  18. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage datamore » producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.« less

  19. Association of SLC6A4 variants with obsessive-compulsive disorder in a large multicenter US family study.

    PubMed

    Voyiaziakis, E; Evgrafov, O; Li, D; Yoon, H-J; Tabares, P; Samuels, J; Wang, Y; Riddle, M A; Grados, M A; Bienvenu, O J; Shugart, Y Y; Liang, K-Y; Greenberg, B D; Rasmussen, S A; Murphy, D L; Wendland, J R; McCracken, J T; Piacentini, J; Rauch, S L; Pauls, D L; Nestadt, G; Fyer, A J; Knowles, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic association studies of SLC6A4 (SERT) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been equivocal. We genotyped 1241 individuals in 278 pedigrees from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study for 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, for the linked polymorphic region (LPR) indel with molecular haplotypes at rs25531, for VNTR polymorphisms in introns 2 and 7 and for a 381-bp deletion 3' to the LPR. We analyzed using the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) under additive, dominant, recessive and genotypic models, using both OCD and sex-stratified OCD as phenotypes. Two-point FBAT analysis detected association between Int2 (P = 0.0089) and Int7 (P = 0.0187) (genotypic model). Sex-stratified two-point analysis showed strong association in females with Int2 (P<0.0002), significant after correction for linkage disequilibrium, and multiple marker and model testing (P(Adj) = 0.0069). The SLC6A4 gene is composed of two haplotype blocks (our data and the HapMap); FBAT whole-marker analysis conducted using this structure was not significant. Several noteworthy nonsignificant results have emerged. Unlike Hu et al., we found no evidence for overtransmission of the LPR L(A) allele (genotype relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 0.77-1.60); however, rare individual haplotypes containing L(A) with P<0.05 were observed. Similarly, three individuals (two with OCD/OCPD) carried the rare I425V SLC6A4 variant, but none of them passed it on to their six OCD-affected offspring, suggesting that it is unlikely to be solely responsible for the 'OCD plus syndrome', as reported by Ozaki et al. In conclusion, we found evidence of genetic association at the SLC6A4 locus with OCD. A noteworthy lack of association at the LPR, LPR-rs25531 and rare 425V variants suggests that hypotheses about OCD risk need revision to accommodate these new findings, including a possible gender effect.

  20. Heavy charged scalars from c\\overline{s} fusion: a generic search strategy applied to a 3HDM with U(1) × U(1) family symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Mandal, Tanumoy; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    We describe a class of three Higgs doublet models (3HDMs) with a softly broken U(1) × U(1) family symmetry that enforces a Cabibbo-like quark mixing while forbidding tree-level flavour changing neutral currents. The hierarchy in the observed quark masses is partly explained by a softer hierarchy in the vacuum expectation values of the three Higgs doublets. As a consequence, the physical scalar spectrum contains a Standard Model (SM) like Higgs boson h 125 while exotic scalars couple the strongest to the second quark family, leading to rather unconventional discovery channels that could be probed at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we describe a search strategy for the lightest charged Higgs boson H ±, through the process c\\overline{s}\\to {H}+\\to {W}+{h}_{125} , using a multivariate analysis that leads to an excellent discriminatory power against the SM background. Although the analysis is applied to the proposed class of 3HDMs, we employ a model-independent formulation such that it can be applied to any other model with the same discovery channel.

  1. Mutation analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes in a Chinese autosomal-dominant Alport syndrome family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liwei; Li, Duan; Dong, Shuangshuang; Wan, Donghao; Yang, Baosheng; Huang, Yanmei

    2017-06-01

    Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) accounts for 5% of all cases of Alport syndrome (AS), a primary basement membrane disorder arising from mutations in genes encoding the type IV collagen protein family.Mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes were reported to be associated with ADAS. In this study, clinical data in a large consanguineous family with seven affected members were reviewed, and genomic DNA was extracted. For mutation screening, all exons of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes were polymerase chain reaction-amplified and direct sequenced from genomic DNA, and the mutations were analyzed by comparing with members in this family, 100 ethnicitymatched controls and the sequence of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes from GenBank. A novel mutation determining a nucleotide change was found, i.e. c.4195 A>T (p.Met1399Leu) at 44th exon of COL4A4 gene, and this mutation showed heterozygous in all patients of this family. Also a novel intron mutation (c.4127+11 C>T) was observed at COL4A4 gene. Thus the novel missense mutation c.4195 A>T (p.Met1399Leu) and the intron mutation (c.4127+11 C>T) at COL4A4 gene might be responsible for ADAS of this family. Our results broadened the spectrum of mutations in COL4A4 and had important implications in the diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counselling of ADAS.

  2. Broken Symmetry

    ScienceCinema

    Englert, Francois

    2018-05-24

    - Physics, as we know it, attempts to interpret the diverse natural phenomena as particular manifestations of general laws. This vision of a world ruled by general testable laws is relatively recent in the history of mankind. Basically it was initiated by the Galilean inertial principle. The subsequent rapid development of large-scale physics is certainly tributary to the fact that gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long-range and hence can be perceived directly without the mediation of highly sophisticated technical devices. - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quantum fluctuations. In technical terms, in contradistinction to quantum electrodynamics, the Fermi theorywas not “renormalizable”. This difficulty could not be solved by smoothing the point-like interaction by a massive, and therefore short-range, charged “vector” particle exchange: theories with massive charged vector bosons were not renormalizable either. In the early nineteen sixties, there seemed to be insuperable obstacles to formulating a consistent theory with short-range forces mediated by massive vectors. - The breakthrough came from the notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking which arose in the study of phase transitions and was introduced in field theory by Nambu in 1960. - Ferromagnets illustrate the notion in phase transitions. Although no direction is dynamically preferred, the magnetization selects a global orientation. This is a spontaneous broken symmetry(SBS)of rotational invariance. Such continuous SBS imply the existence of

  3. Towards a complete A4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; King, Stephen F.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a renormalisable model based on A 4 family symmetry with an SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) which leads to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a ℤ9 × ℤ6 symmetry provides the fermion mass hierarchy in both the quark and lepton sectors, while ℤ {4/ R } symmetry is broken to ℤ {2/ R }, identified as usual R-parity. Proton decay is highly sup-pressed by these symmetries. The strong CP problem is solved in a similar way to the Nelson-Barr mechanism. We discuss both the A 4 and SU(5) symmetry breaking sectors, including doublet-triplet splitting, Higgs mixing and the origin of the μ term. The model provides an excellent fit (better than one sigma) to all quark and lepton (including neu-trino) masses and mixing with spontaneous CP violation. With the A 4 vacuum alignments, (0, 1, 1) and (1, 3, 1), the model predicts the entire PMNS mixing matrix with no free pa-rameters, up to a relative phase, selected to be 2π/3 from a choice of the nine complex roots of unity, which is identified as the leptogenesis phase. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with leptonic angles θ{13/ ι } ≈ 8.7∘, θ{12/ ι } ≈ 34∘, θ{23/ ι } ≈ 46∘ and an oscillation phase δ ι ≈ - 87∘.

  4. Developmental expression of solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4/pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Guo, Jing; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Bervoets, Theodore J; Lyaruu, Donacian M; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; DenBesten, Pamela

    2011-12-01

    Ameloblasts need to regulate pH during the formation of enamel crystals, a process that generates protons. Solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4, or pendrin) is an anion exchanger for chloride, bicarbonate, iodine, and formate. It is expressed in apical membranes of ion-transporting epithelia in kidney, inner ear, and thyroid where it regulates luminal pH and fluid transport. We hypothesized that maturation ameloblasts express SLC26A4 to neutralize acidification of enamel fluid in forming enamel. In rodents, secretory and maturation ameloblasts were immunopositive for SLC26A4. Staining was particularly strong in apical membranes of maturation ameloblasts facing forming enamel. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA transcripts for Slc26a4 in enamel organs. SLC26A4 immunostaining was also found in mineralizing connective tissues, including odontoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, bone lining cells, cellular cementoblasts, and cementocytes. However, Slc26a4-null mutant mice had no overt dental phenotype. The presence of SLC26A4 in apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts is consistent with a potential function as a pH regulator. SLC26A4 does not appear to be critical for ameloblast function and is probably compensated by other pH regulators. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-11

    We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.

  6. Static models with conformal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjonjo, A. M.; Maharaj, S. D.; Moopanar, S.

    2018-02-01

    We study static spherically symmetric spacetimes with a spherical conformal symmetry and a nonstatic conformal factor associated with the conformal Killing field. With these assumptions we find an explicit relationship relating two metric components of the metric tensor field. This leads to the general solution of the Einstein field equations with a conformal symmetry in a static spherically symmetric spacetime. For perfect fluids we can find all metrics explicitly and show that the models always admit a barotropic equation of state. Contained within this class of spacetimes are the well known metrics of (interior) Schwarzschild, Tolman, Kuchowicz, Korkina and Orlyanskii, Patwardhan and Vaidya, and Buchdahl and Land. The isothermal metric of Saslaw et al also admits a conformal symmetry. For imperfect fluids an infinite family of exact solutions to the field equations can be generated.

  7. The symmetry of man.

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A

    2007-01-01

    The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.

  8. Mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes cause recessive distal renal tubular acidosis in Mexican families.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Laura I; Simian, Christopher; Treard, Cyrielle; Hayek, Donia; Salvador, Carolina; Guerra, Norma; Matos, Mario; Medeiros, Mara; Enciso, Sandra; Camargo, María Dolores; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disease characterized by a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, and conserved glomerular filtration rate. In some cases, neurosensorial deafness is associated. dRTA is developed during the first months of life and the main manifestations are failure to thrive, vomiting, dehydration, and anorexia. Nine unrelated families were studied: seven children, a teenager, and an adult with dRTA. Hearing was preserved in four children. Coding regions of the genes responsible for recessive dRTA were analysed by Sanger sequencing. Molecular defects were found in the genes ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4. We identified three homozygous variants in ATP6V1B: a frameshift mutation (p.Ile386Hisfs*56), a nucleotide substitution in exon 10 (p.Pro346Arg), and a new splicing mutation in intron 5. Three patients were homozygous for one novel (p.Arg743Trp) and one known (p.Asp411Tyr) missense mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene. Three patients were compound heterozygous: one proband displayed two novel mutations, the frameshift mutation p.Val52Metfs*25, and a large deletion of exons 18-21; two probands showed the missense mutation p.Asp411Tyr and as a second mutation, p.Arg194Ter and c.1691+2dup, respectively. ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes were involved in recessive dRTA of Mexican families. All ATP6V1B1 mutations detected were homozygous and all patients developed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) early in infancy. ATP6V0A4 mutations were found in one infant and three children without SNHL, and in one teenager and one adult with SNHL confirming the phenotypic variability in this trait. The mutation p.Asp411Tyr detected in four Mexican families was due to a founder effect. Screening of these mutations could provide a rapid and valuable tool for diagnosis of dRTA in this population.

  9. Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.

  10. Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena

    2003-12-01

    Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.

  11. The near-symmetry of proteins.

    PubMed

    Bonjack-Shterengartz, Maayan; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    The majority of protein oligomers form clusters which are nearly symmetric. Understanding of that imperfection, its origins, and perhaps also its advantages requires the conversion of the currently used vague qualitative descriptive language of the near-symmetry into an accurate quantitative measure that will allow to answer questions such as: "What is the degree of symmetry deviation of the protein?," "how do these deviations compare within a family of proteins?," and so on. We developed quantitative methods to answer this type of questions, which are capable of analyzing the whole protein, its backbone or selected portions of it, down to comparison of symmetry-related specific amino-acids, and which are capable of visualizing the various levels of symmetry deviations in the form of symmetry maps. We have applied these methods on an extensive list of homomers and heteromers and found that apparently all proteins never reach perfect symmetry. Strikingly, even homomeric protein clusters are never ideally symmetric. We also found that the main burden of symmetry distortion is on the amino-acids near the symmetry axis; that it is mainly the more hydrophilic amino-acids that take place in symmetry-distortive interactions; and more. The remarkable ability of heteromers to preserve near-symmetry, despite the different sequences, was also shown and analyzed. The comprehensive literature on the suggested advantages symmetric oligomerizations raises a yet-unsolved key question: If symmetry is so advantageous, why do proteins stop shy of perfect symmetry? Some tentative answers to be tested in further studies are suggested in a concluding outlook. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  13. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  14. Symmetries of Chimera States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina

    2018-05-01

    Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.

  15. Symmetry in running.

    PubMed

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  16. Symmetry and Interculturality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  17. Symmetries in Lagrangian Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between Lagrangian and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…

  18. Generalized global symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; ...

    2015-02-26

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q = 0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a sub-group). They can also havemore » ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. In conclusion, our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.« less

  19. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  20. The Symmetries of QCD

    ScienceCinema

    Chivukula, Sekhar

    2017-12-22

    The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was present at the classical level.  Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of the strong interactions, exemplify each of these possibilities. The interplay of these effects determine the spectrum of particles that we observe and, ultimately, account for 99% of the mass of ordinary matter. 

  1. Molecular symmetry with quaternions.

    PubMed

    Fritzer, H P

    2001-09-01

    A new and relatively simple version of the quaternion calculus is offered which is especially suitable for applications in molecular symmetry and structure. After introducing the real quaternion algebra and its classical matrix representation in the group SO(4) the relations with vectors in 3-space and the connection with the rotation group SO(3) through automorphism properties of the algebra are discussed. The correlation of the unit quaternions with both the Cayley-Klein and the Euler parameters through the group SU(2) is presented. Besides rotations the extension of quaternions to other important symmetry operations, reflections and the spatial inversion, is given. Finally, the power of the quaternion calculus for molecular symmetry problems is revealed by treating some examples applied to icosahedral symmetry.

  2. Latent Computational Complexity of Symmetry-Protected Topological Order with Fractional Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacob; Miyake, Akimasa

    2018-04-27

    An emerging insight is that ground states of symmetry-protected topological orders (SPTOs) possess latent computational complexity in terms of their many-body entanglement. By introducing a fractional symmetry of SPTO, which requires the invariance under 3-colorable symmetries of a lattice, we prove that every renormalization fixed-point state of 2D (Z_{2})^{m} SPTO with fractional symmetry can be utilized for universal quantum computation using only Pauli measurements, as long as it belongs to a nontrivial 2D SPTO phase. Our infinite family of fixed-point states may serve as a base model to demonstrate the idea of a "quantum computational phase" of matter, whose states share universal computational complexity ubiquitously.

  3. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  4. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.

    PubMed

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Seeing Science through Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, L. I.

    Seeing Through Symmetry is a course that introduces non-science majors to the pervasive influence of symmetry in science. The concept of symmetry is usedboth as a link between subjects (such as physics, biology, mathematics, music, poetry, and art) and as a method within a subject. This is done through the development and use of interactive multimedia learning environments to stimulate learning. Computer-based labs enable the student to further explore the concept by being gently led from the arts to science. This talk is an update that includes some of the latest changes to the course. Explanations are given on methodology and how a variety of interactive multimedia tools contribute to both the lecture and lab portion of the course (created in 1991 and taught almost every semester since then, including one in Sweden).

  6. Essays on symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Jenann Tareq

    1997-04-01

    Structures of many different sorts arise in physics, e.g., the concrete structures of material bodies, the structure exemplified by the spatiotemporal configuration of a set of bodies, the structures of more abstract objects like states, state-spaces, laws, and so on. To each structure of any of these types there corresponds a set of transformations which map it onto itself. These are its symmetries. Increasingly ubiquitous in theoretical discussions in physics, the notion of symmetry is also at the root of some time-worn philosophical debates. This dissertation consists of a set of essays on topics drawn from places where the two fields overlap. The first essay is an informal introduction to the mathematical study of symmetry. The second essay defends a famous principle of Pierre Curie which states that the symmetries of a cause are always symmetries of its effect. The third essay takes up the case of reflection in space in the context of a controversy stemming from one of Kant's early arguments for the substantivality of space. The fourth essay is a discussion of the general conditions under which an asymmetry in a phenomenon suggests an asymmetry in the laws which govern it. The case of reflection in time-specifically, the theoretical strategy used in statistical mechanics to subsume the time-asymmetric phenomena of Thermodynamics under the time-symmetric classical dynamical laws-is used to illustrate the general points. The philosophical heart of the thesis lies in its fifth essay. Here a somewhat novel way of conceiving scientific theorizing is articulated, one suggested by the abstract mathematical perspective of symmetry.

  7. Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José

    2018-01-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  9. Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.

  10. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.

    PubMed

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A candidate gene study in low HDL-cholesterol families provides evidence for the involvement of the APOA2 gene and the APOA1C3A4 gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Heidi E; Soro, Aino; Ylitalo, Kati; Nuotio, Ilpo; Viikari, Jorma S A; Salomaa, Veikko; Vartiainen, Erkki; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2002-09-01

    In patients with premature coronary heart disease, the most common lipoprotein abnormality is high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency. To assess the genetic background of the low HDL-cholesterol trait, we performed a candidate gene study in 25 families with low HDL, collected from the genetically isolated population of Finland. We studied 21 genes encoding essential proteins involved in the HDL metabolism by genotyping intragenic and flanking markers for these genes. We found suggestive evidence for linkage in two candidate regions: Marker D1S2844, in the apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) region, yielded a LOD score of 2.14 and marker D11S939 flanking the apolipoprotein A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster (APOA1C3A4) produced a LOD score of 1.69. Interestingly, we identified potential shared haplotypes in these two regions in a subset of low HDL families. These families also contributed to the obtained positive LOD scores, whereas the rest of the families produced negative LOD scores. None of the remaining candidate regions provided any evidence for linkage. Since only a limited number of loci were tested in this candidate gene study, these LOD scores suggest significant involvement of the APOA2 gene and the APOA1C3A4 gene cluster, or loci in their immediate vicinity, in the pathogenesis of low HDL.

  12. Surveying the quantum group symmetries of integrable open spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Retore, Ana L.

    2018-05-01

    Using anisotropic R-matrices associated with affine Lie algebras g ˆ (specifically, A2n(2), A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1), Cn(1), Dn(1)) and suitable corresponding K-matrices, we construct families of integrable open quantum spin chains of finite length, whose transfer matrices are invariant under the quantum group corresponding to removing one node from the Dynkin diagram of g ˆ . We show that these transfer matrices also have a duality symmetry (for the cases Cn(1) and Dn(1)) and additional Z2 symmetries that map complex representations to their conjugates (for the cases A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1) and Dn(1)). A key simplification is achieved by working in a certain "unitary" gauge, in which only the unbroken symmetry generators appear. The proofs of these symmetries rely on some new properties of the R-matrices. We use these symmetries to explain the degeneracies of the transfer matrices.

  13. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  14. New approach to flavor symmetry and an extended naturalness principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    A class of nonsupersymmetric extensions of the standard model is proposed in which there is a multiplicity of light scalar doublets in a multiplet of a nonabelian family group with the standard model Higgs doublet. Anthropic tuning makes the latter light, and consequently the other scalar doublets remain light because of the family symmetry. The family symmetry greatly constrains the pattern of flavor-changing neutral-current interactions (FCNC) and p decay operators coming from scalar-exchange. Such models show that useful constraints on model-building can come from an extended naturalness principle when the electroweak scale is anthropically tuned.

  15. Gauge U (1) dark symmetry and radiative light fermion masses

    DOE PAGES

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest

    2016-06-22

    A gauge U (1) family symmetry is proposed, spanning the quarks and leptons as well as particles of the dark sector. The breaking of U (1) to Z(2) divides the two sectors and generates one-loop radiative masses for the first two families of quarks and leptons, as well as all three neutrinos. We study the phenomenological implications of this new connection between family symmetry and dark matter. In particular, a scalar or pseudoscalar particle associated with this U (1) breaking may be identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  16. Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Jamie

    2001-04-01

    This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.

  17. Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.

  18. Symmetry methods for option pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.

    2017-06-01

    We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.

  19. Symmetries in laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.

  20. Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-09-15

    We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing.

  1. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Logo Bregenz, the peaceful monastery of Mehrerau and the Opera on the Floating Stage again provided the setting for the international symposium 'Symmetries in Science'. The series which has been running for more than 30 years brings together leading theoreticians whose area of research is, in one way or another, related to symmetry. Since 1992 the meeting took place biannually in Brengez until 2003. In 2009, with the endorsement of the founder, Professor Bruno Gruber, we succeeded in re-establishing the series without external funding. The resounding success of that meeting encouraged us to continue in 2011 and, following on the enthusiasm and positive feedback of the participants, we expect to continue in 2013. Yet again, our meeting in 2011 was very international in flavour and brought together some 30 participants representing 12 nationalities, half of them from countries outside the European Union (from New Zealand to Mexico, Russia to Israel). The broad spectrum, a mixture of experienced experts and highly-motivated newcomers, the intensive exchange of ideas in a harmonious and relaxed atmosphere and the resulting joint projects are probably the secrets of why this meeting is considered to be so special to its participants. At the resumption in 2009 some leading experts and younger scientists from economically weak countries were unable to attend due to the lack of financial resources. This time, with the very worthy and unbureaucratic support of the 'Vereinigung von Freunden und Förderern der J W Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main' (in short: 'Friends and Supporters of the Frankfurt University'), it was possible for all candidates to participate. In particular some young, inspired scientists had the chance of presenting their work to a very competent, but also friendly, audience. We wish to thank the 'Freunde und Förderer' for supporting Symmetries in Science XV. Almost all participants contributed to the publication of this Conference Proceedings. There

  2. Re"CYC"ling molecular regulators in the evolution and development of flower symmetry.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Victoria; Kim, Minsung

    2018-07-01

    Flower forms are both highly diverse and multifaceted. As well as varying in colour, size, organ number, and much more, flowers show different types of symmetry. Floral symmetry can be grouped into three main categories: asymmetry, bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry, characterised by zero, one, and multiple planes of symmetry, respectively. This review will first explore floral symmetry from a classical morphological view, then from a modern molecular perspective. The recent molecular work on symmetry in monocots and eudicots will be discussed, followed by an in-depth discussion into the evolution of CYC genes, particularly in the capitulum of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Whilst recent studies on non-model species are helping to bring new light to this field, more species coverage is required to understand how traits such as bilateral symmetry have evolved so many times, and whether the same molecular regulators were recruited for this function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Charge symmetry breaking in light Λ hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Avraham; Gazda, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) is particularly strong in the A = 4 mirror hypernuclei {}14\\text{H}-Λ 4\\text{He}. Recent four-body no-core shell model calculations that confront this CSB by introducing Λ-Σ0 mixing to leading-order chiral effective field theory hyperon-nucleon potentials are reviewed, and a shell-model approach to CSB in p-shell Λ hypernuclei is outlined.

  4. The Utah rural residency study: a blueprint for evaluating potential sites for development of a 4-4-4 family practice residency program in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Catinella, A Peter; Magill, Michael K; Thiese, Steven M; Turner, Deborah; Elison, Gar T; Baden, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    Most graduates of rural residencies enter rural practice. Rural residencies therefore have emerged over the past 2 decades to increase the supply of rural physicians. However, researchers have published few descriptions of strategies to evaluate and select communities in which to locate rural residencies. This report describes the development and application of such a strategy to assess 7 rural communities in Utah as potential sites for family practice residency training. Criteria were developed on the basis of an examination of the literature, residency accreditation requirements, and characteristics of existing rural residency programs. Ten rural or frontier communities with hospitals were selected as study candidates, and 7 agreed to participate. Data were collected through hospital surveys, state hospital discharge records, and community site visits. Specific evaluation criteria that were developed included the presence of a medical practice of the appropriate specialty and size, a sufficient number of medical subspecialty physicians, an adequate number and mix of hospitalized patients, an adequate number of ambulatory patients, adequate outpatient facility space to accommodate learners, and a commitment by the practicing physician and hospital to lead the program and teach residents. Two communities were found to be potentially capable of supporting a residency if physicians and hospital leaders in the communities were to become motivated to lead program development. These criteria may be useful in other states, but they have not been tested for validity or reliability and are subject to limitations such as exclusion of alternate rural residency models. Future research should address data needs and the relationship of the evaluation criteria to the quality of resident learning.

  5. Symmetries of relativistic world lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Benjamin; Muñoz, Enrique; Reyes, Ignacio A.

    2017-10-01

    Symmetries are essential for a consistent formulation of many quantum systems. In this paper we discuss a fundamental symmetry, which is present for any Lagrangian term that involves x˙2. As a basic model that incorporates the fundamental symmetries of quantum gravity and string theory, we consider the Lagrangian action of the relativistic point particle. A path integral quantization for this seemingly simple system has long presented notorious problems. Here we show that those problems are overcome by taking into account the additional symmetry, leading directly to the exact Klein-Gordon propagator.

  6. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  7. Asymptotic symmetries on Killing horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Jun-Ichirou

    2001-12-01

    We investigate asymptotic symmetries regularly defined on spherically symmetric Killing horizons in Einstein theory with or without the cosmological constant. These asymptotic symmetries are described by asymptotic Killing vectors, along which the Lie derivatives of perturbed metrics vanish on a Killing horizon. We derive the general form of the asymptotic Killing vectors and find that the group of asymptotic symmetries consists of rigid O(3) rotations of a horizon two-sphere and supertranslations along the null direction on the horizon, which depend arbitrarily on the null coordinate as well as the angular coordinates. By introducing the notion of asymptotic Killing horizons, we also show that local properties of Killing horizons are preserved not only under diffeomorphisms but also under nontrivial transformations generated by the asymptotic symmetry group. Although the asymptotic symmetry group contains the Diff(S1) subgroup, which results from supertranslations dependent only on the null coordinate, it is shown that the Poisson brackets algebra of the conserved charges conjugate to asymptotic Killing vectors does not acquire nontrivial central charges. Finally, by considering extended symmetries, we discuss the fact that unnatural reduction of the symmetry group is necessary in order to obtain the Virasoro algebra with nontrivial central charges, which is not justified when we respect the spherical symmetry of Killing horizons.

  8. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Symmetry Notations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Compares Schoenflies and Hermann-Mauguin notations of symmetry. Although the former (used by spectroscopists) and latter (used by crystallographers) both describe the same symmetry, there are distinct differences in the manner of description which may lead to confusion in correlating the two notations. (Author/JN)

  9. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  10. On differential operators generating iterative systems of linear ODEs of maximal symmetry algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndogmo, J. C.

    2017-06-01

    Although every iterative scalar linear ordinary differential equation is of maximal symmetry algebra, the situation is different and far more complex for systems of linear ordinary differential equations, and an iterative system of linear equations need not be of maximal symmetry algebra. We illustrate these facts by examples and derive families of vector differential operators whose iterations are all linear systems of equations of maximal symmetry algebra. Some consequences of these results are also discussed.

  11. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    -session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593-598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 - 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN-10: 0-8218-4355-9, ISBN-13: 978-0-8218-4355-0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically-weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing

  12. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deepermore » question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.« less

  13. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  14. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael

    2010-04-01

    also included in these Proceedings. It was especially rewarding and greatly appreciated that symposium-founder Bruno Gruber attended all the sessions and that Dr. Hubert Regner, a distinguished official of the provincial administration and ardent supporter of the symposia for over twenty years, honoured us with a visit and an encouraging address to the participants. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the local community, particularly the Schenk Family and the staff of Collegium Mehrerau for the selfless friendship, generosity and kind hospitality they offered our gathering. It made a lasting impression on participants and guests alike and provided an excellent basis for fruitful scientific discussions and personal interactions. This and the positive resonance from participants have encouraged us to take the experiment a step further to "Symmetries in Science 2011"! Thanks also to Yvette for continuous and reliable support. The conference and proceedings would probably not have materialized without her. Frankfurt am Main and Graz, June 2010 Dieter Schuch Michael Ramek Conference photograph

  15. Higher symmetries and exact solutions of linear and nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fushchych, W.I.; Nikitin, A.G.

    1997-11-01

    A new approach for the analysis of partial differential equations is developed which is characterized by a simultaneous use of higher and conditional symmetries. Higher symmetries of the Schr{umlt o}dinger equation with an arbitrary potential are investigated. Nonlinear determining equations for potentials are solved using reductions to Weierstrass, Painlev{acute e}, and Riccati forms. Algebraic properties of higher order symmetry operators are analyzed. Combinations of higher and conditional symmetries are used to generate families of exact solutions of linear and nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Broken Symmetries and Magnetic Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Phase space symmetries inherent in the statistical theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are known to be broken dynamically to produce large-scale coherent magnetic structure. Here, results of a numerical study of decaying MHD turbulence are presented that show large-scale coherent structure also arises and persists in the presence of dissipation. Dynamically broken symmetries in MHD turbulence may thus play a fundamental role in the dynamo process.

  17. Investigation of magnetic properties in the case of three families of 1-dimensional magnets: M(II)A(4,4'-bipyridine); M = iron, cobalt, nickel, copper; A = chloride, nitrogen, (ox)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, Dusan S.

    Magnetic properties of three families of metal-organic coordinated networks which have the general form of M(II)A(4,4'-bipyridine), where M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu and A=Cl2, (ox) and (N3)2, are studied in this dissertation. Novel Ni(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine), Co(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) and Cu(N 3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) have been synthesized. We applied different synthesis procedures and produced Ni, Co, and Cu azide compounds for the first time, thus leaving the hydrothermal route procedure. Powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature was done in order to establish the crystal structure of the members of these three families. It was found that all of them crystallize in orthorhombic structure, where transitional metals have an octahedral coordination. Since all three families have identical crystal structure we got opportunity to examine how ligands facilitate magnetic interaction between metallic centers and also to test existing magnetic theoretical models. Since 4,4'-bipyridine is much longer than other ligands, our systems can be considered as 1-D magnetic systems. Their interchain magnetic interactions are very weak, and they order magnetically at very low temperatures of the order of few K. Measurements of M(H) at temperatures T=1.9K and T=2K and chi(T) in different external magnetic fields in zero field and field cooled modes have been made. In the case of MCl2(4,4'-bipyridine) family of compounds, we observed ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions within the chains and antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent chains. M(ox)(4,4'-bipyridine) family of metal-organic compounds has antiferromagnetic interactions between the transitional metal ions within the chain, while weak ferromagnetic interaction exists between the chains. All members in the M(N3)2(4,4'-bipyridine) family except in the case of the copper compound were found to have ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions within the chains and then antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent

  18. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  19. SASS: A symmetry adapted stochastic search algorithm exploiting site symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Steven E.; Schleyer, Paul v. R.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2007-03-01

    A simple symmetry adapted search algorithm (SASS) exploiting point group symmetry increases the efficiency of systematic explorations of complex quantum mechanical potential energy surfaces. In contrast to previously described stochastic approaches, which do not employ symmetry, candidate structures are generated within simple point groups, such as C2, Cs, and C2v. This facilitates efficient sampling of the 3N-6 Pople's dimensional configuration space and increases the speed and effectiveness of quantum chemical geometry optimizations. Pople's concept of framework groups [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4615 (1980)] is used to partition the configuration space into structures spanning all possible distributions of sets of symmetry equivalent atoms. This provides an efficient means of computing all structures of a given symmetry with minimum redundancy. This approach also is advantageous for generating initial structures for global optimizations via genetic algorithm and other stochastic global search techniques. Application of the SASS method is illustrated by locating 14 low-lying stationary points on the cc-pwCVDZ ROCCSD(T) potential energy surface of Li5H2. The global minimum structure is identified, along with many unique, nonintuitive, energetically favorable isomers.

  20. Hidden Symmetries in String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Iurii

    In this thesis we study hidden symmetries within the framework of string theory. Symmetries play a very important role in physics: they lead to drastic simplifications, which allow one to compute various physical quantities without relying on perturbative techniques. There are two kinds of hidden symmetries investigated in this work: the first type is associated with dynamics of quantum fields and the second type is related to integrability of strings on various backgrounds. Integrability is a remarkable property of some theories that allows one to determine all dynamical properties of the system using purely analytical methods. The goals of this thesis are twofold: extension of hidden symmetries known in General Relativity to stringy backgrounds in higher dimensions and construction of new integrable string theories. In the context of the first goal we study hidden symmetries of stringy backgrounds, with and without supersymmetry. For supersymmetric geometries produced by D-branes we identify the backgrounds with solvable equations for geodesics, which can potentially give rise to integrable string theories. Relaxing the requirement of supersymmetry, we also study charged black holes in higher dimensions and identify their hidden symmetries encoded in so-called Killing(-Yano) tensors. We construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the charged rotating black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions, study behavior of such tensors under string dualities, and use the analysis of hidden symmetries to explain why exact solutions for black rings (black holes with non-spherical event horizons) in more than five dimensions remain elusive. As a byproduct we identify the standard parameterization of AdSp x Sq backgrounds with elliptic coordinates on a flat base. The second goal of this work is construction of new integrable string theories by applying continuous deformations of known examples. We use the recent developments called (generalized) lambda

  1. Structural symmetry and protein function.

    PubMed

    Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J

    2000-01-01

    The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of

  2. Novel symmetries in Christ-Lee model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Shukla, A.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the gauge-fixed Lagrangian of the Christ-Lee model respects four fermionic symmetries, namely; (anti-)BRST symmetries, (anti-)co-BRST symmetries within the framework of BRST formalism. The appropriate anticommutators amongst the fermionic symmetries lead to a unique bosonic symmetry. It turns out that the algebra obeyed by the symmetry transformations (and their corresponding conserved charges) is reminiscent of the algebra satisfied by the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. We also provide the physical realizations of the cohomological operators in terms of the symmetry properties. Thus, the present model provides a simple model for the Hodge theory.

  3. Near-horizon BMS symmetries as fluid symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Robert F.

    2017-10-01

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat gravity. Recently, Donnay et al. have derived an analogous symmetry group acting on black hole event horizons. For a certain choice of boundary conditions, it is a semidirect product of Diff( S 2), the smooth diffeomorphisms of the twosphere, acting on C ∞( S 2), the smooth functions on the two-sphere. We observe that the same group appears in fluid dynamics as symmetries of the compressible Euler equations. We relate these two realizations of Diff( S 2) ⋉ C ∞( S 2) using the black hole membrane paradigm. We show that the Lie-Poisson brackets of membrane paradigm fluid charges reproduce the near-horizon BMS algebra. The perspective presented here may be useful for understanding the BMS algebra at null infinity.

  4. Localization of Nonlocal Symmetries and Symmetry Reductions of Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Wen; Lou, Sen-Yue; Yu, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The nonlocal symmetries of the Burgers equation are explicitly given by the truncated Painlevé method. The auto-Bäcklund transformation and group invariant solutions are obtained via the localization procedure for the nonlocal residual symmetries. Furthermore, the interaction solutions of the solition-Kummer waves and the solition-Airy waves are obtained. Supported by the Global Change Research Program China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 11435005, 11175092, and 11205092, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  5. On the symmetries of integrability

    SciTech Connect

    Bellon, M.; Maillard, J.M.; Viallet, C.

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the authors show that the Yang-Baxter equations for two-dimensional models admit as a group of symmetry the infinite discrete group A{sub 2}{sup (1)}. The existence of this symmetry explains the presence of a spectral parameter in the solutions of the equations. The authors show that similarly, for three-dimensional vertex models and the associated tetrahedron equations, there also exists an infinite discrete group of symmetry. Although generalizing naturally the previous one, it is a much bigger hyperbolic Coxeter group. The authors indicate how this symmetry can help to resolve the Yang-Baxter equations and their higher-dimensional generalizations and initiatemore » the study of three-dimensional vertex models. These symmetries are naturally represented as birational projective transformations. They may preserve non-trivial algebraic varieties, and lead to proper parametrizations of the models, be they integrable or not. The authors mention the relation existing between spin models and the Bose-Messner algebras of algebraic combinatorics. The authors' results also yield the generalization of the condition q{sup n} = 1 so often mentioned in the theory of quantum groups, when no q parameter is available.« less

  6. Symmetry Guide to Ferroaxial Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlinka, J.; Privratska, J.; Ondrejkovic, P.; Janovec, V.

    2016-04-01

    The 212 species of the structural phase transitions with a macroscopic symmetry breaking are inspected with respect to the occurrence of the ferroaxial order parameter, the electric toroidal moment. In total, 124 ferroaxial species are found, some of them being also fully ferroelectric (62) or fully ferroelastic ones (61). This ensures a possibility of electrical or mechanical switching of ferroaxial domains. Moreover, there are 12 ferroaxial species that are neither ferroelectric nor ferroelastic. For each species, we have also explicitly worked out a canonical form for a set of representative equilibrium property tensors of polar and axial nature in both high-symmetry and low-symmetry phases. This information was gathered into the set of 212 mutually different symbolic matrices, expressing graphically the presence of nonzero independent tensorial components and the symmetry-imposed links between them, for both phases simultaneously. Symmetry analysis reveals the ferroaxiality in several currently debated materials, such as VO2 , LuFe2 O4 , and URu2 Si2 .

  7. Non-Hermitian photonics based on parity-time symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liang; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Ge, Li

    2017-12-01

    Nearly one century after the birth of quantum mechanics, parity-time symmetry is revolutionizing and extending quantum theories to include a unique family of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. While conceptually striking, experimental demonstration of parity-time symmetry remains unexplored in quantum electronic systems. The flexibility of photonics allows for creating and superposing non-Hermitian eigenstates with ease using optical gain and loss, which makes it an ideal platform to explore various non-Hermitian quantum symmetry paradigms for novel device functionalities. Such explorations that employ classical photonic platforms not only deepen our understanding of fundamental quantum physics but also facilitate technological breakthroughs for photonic applications. Research into non-Hermitian photonics therefore advances and benefits both fields simultaneously.

  8. Symmetries in geometrical optics: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P. H.

    1995-12-01

    A study of light and charged-particle optical systems with inversion, reflection, rotation, translation, and/or glide symmetries is presented. The constraints imposed by the various symmetries on the first-order properties of a lens are investigated. In particular, the mathematical structures of the deflection vectors and the transfer matrices are described for various symmetrical systems. In the course of studying the translation and the glide symmetries, a simple technique for characterizing a general system of N identical components in series (or cascade) is also developed, based on the linear algebra theory of factoring matrices into Jordan canonical forms. Applications of these results are presented in a follow-up paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, XXXX (1995)]. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  9. Flavor physics without flavor symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.

    2018-04-01

    We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.

  10. Asymptotic symmetries and electromagnetic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasterski, Sabrina

    2017-09-01

    Recent investigations into asymptotic symmetries of gauge theory and gravity have illuminated connections between gauge field zero-mode sectors, the corresponding soft factors, and their classically observable counterparts — so called "memories". Namely, low frequency emissions in momentum space correspond to long time integrations of the corre-sponding radiation in position space. Memory effect observables constructed in this manner are non-vanishing in typical scattering processes, which has implications for the asymptotic symmetry group. Here we complete this triad for the case of large U(1) gauge symmetries at null infinity. In particular, we show that the previously studied electromagnetic memory effect, whereby the passage of electromagnetic radiation produces a net velocity kick for test charges in a distant detector, is the position space observable corresponding to th Weinberg soft photon pole in momentum space scattering amplitudes.

  11. Symmetry breaking patterns for inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David

    2018-06-01

    We study inflationary models where the kinetic sector of the theory has a non-linearly realised symmetry which is broken by the inflationary potential. We distinguish between kinetic symmetries which non-linearly realise an internal or space-time group, and which yield a flat or curved scalar manifold. This classification leads to well-known inflationary models such as monomial inflation and α-attractors, as well as a new model based on fixed couplings between a dilaton and many axions which non-linearly realises higher-dimensional conformal symmetries. In this model, inflation can be realised along the dilatonic direction, leading to a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ˜ 0 .01 and a spectral index n s ˜ 0 .975. We refer to the new model as ambient inflation since inflation proceeds along an isometry of an anti-de Sitter ambient space-time, which fully determines the kinetic sector.

  12. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    PubMed Central

    Harter, William G.; Mitchell, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES). Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES) used in Born–Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v), then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters. PMID:23344041

  13. Bell Inequalities and Group Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Recently the method based on irreducible representations of finite groups has been proposed as a tool for investigating the more sophisticated versions of Bell inequalities (V. Ugǔr Gűney, M. Hillery, Phys. Rev. A90, 062121 ([2014]) and Phys. Rev. A91, 052110 ([2015])). In the present paper an example based on the symmetry group S 4 is considered. The Bell inequality violation due to the symmetry properties of regular tetrahedron is described. A nonlocal game based on the inequalities derived is described and it is shown that the violation of Bell inequality implies that the quantum strategies outperform their classical counterparts.

  14. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L ×SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, “SM ρ meson”, in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call “dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)”.

  15. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  16. Entanglement renormalization and gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Vidal, G.

    2011-03-01

    A lattice gauge theory is described by a redundantly large vector space that is subject to local constraints and can be regarded as the low-energy limit of an extended lattice model with a local symmetry. We propose a numerical coarse-graining scheme to produce low-energy, effective descriptions of lattice models with a local symmetry such that the local symmetry is exactly preserved during coarse-graining. Our approach results in a variational ansatz for the ground state(s) and low-energy excitations of such models and, by extension, of lattice gauge theories. This ansatz incorporates the local symmetry in its structure and exploits it to obtain a significant reduction of computational costs. We test the approach in the context of a Z2 lattice gauge theory formulated as the low-energy theory of a specific regime of the toric code with a magnetic field, for lattices with up to 16×16 sites (162×2=512 spins) on a torus. We reproduce the well-known ground-state phase diagram of the model, consisting of a deconfined and spin-polarized phases separated by a continuous quantum phase transition, and obtain accurate estimates of energy gaps, ground-state fidelities, Wilson loops, and several other quantities.

  17. Turning Students into Symmetry Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilders, Richard; VanOyen, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Exploring mathematical symmetry is one way of increasing students' understanding of art. By asking students to search designs and become pattern detectives, teachers can potentially increase their appreciation of art while reinforcing their perception of the use of math in their day-to-day lives. This article shows teachers how they can interest…

  18. Platonic Symmetry and Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Cubic symmetry is used to build the other four Platonic solids and some formalism from classical geometry is introduced. Initially, the approach is via geometric construction, e.g., the "golden ratio" is necessary to construct an icosahedron with pentagonal faces. Then conventional elementary vector algebra is used to extract quantitative…

  19. Exploiting Symmetry on Parallel Architectures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Lewis Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques for the design of parallel programs that solve well-structured problems with inherent symmetry. Part I demonstrates the reduction of such problems to generalized matrix multiplication by a group-equivariant matrix. Fast techniques for this multiplication are described, including factorization, orbit decomposition, and Fourier transforms over finite groups. Our algorithms entail interaction between two symmetry groups: one arising at the software level from the problem's symmetry and the other arising at the hardware level from the processors' communication network. Part II illustrates the applicability of our symmetry -exploitation techniques by presenting a series of case studies of the design and implementation of parallel programs. First, a parallel program that solves chess endgames by factorization of an associated dihedral group-equivariant matrix is described. This code runs faster than previous serial programs, and discovered it a number of results. Second, parallel algorithms for Fourier transforms for finite groups are developed, and preliminary parallel implementations for group transforms of dihedral and of symmetric groups are described. Applications in learning, vision, pattern recognition, and statistics are proposed. Third, parallel implementations solving several computational science problems are described, including the direct n-body problem, convolutions arising from molecular biology, and some communication primitives such as broadcast and reduce. Some of our implementations ran orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and were used in the investigation of various physical phenomena.

  20. The Symmetry of Natural Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurie M.

    This document is a monograph intended for advanced undergraduate students, or beginning graduate students, who have some knowledge of modern physics as well as classical physics, including the elementary quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom and angular momentum. The first chapter introduces symmetry and relates it to the mathematical…

  1. A Futures Curriculum for Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmann, Leonore W.

    The paper describes a model to aid curriculum developers as they design futures curricula. The objective is to demonstrate how curricula can be holistic in perspective and balanced in provision for student future-focused role image as well as subject matter. The model, based on symmetry (within the individual and the curriculum), has seven facets:…

  2. Two elementary proofs of the Wigner theorem on symmetry in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R.; Mukunda, N.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

    2008-11-01

    In quantum theory, symmetry has to be defined necessarily in terms of the family of unit rays, the state space. The theorem of Wigner asserts that a symmetry so defined at the level of rays can always be lifted into a linear unitary or an antilinear antiunitary operator acting on the underlying Hilbert space. We present two proofs of this theorem which are both elementary and economical. Central to our proofs is the recognition that a given Wigner symmetry can, by post-multiplication by a unitary symmetry, be taken into either the identity or complex conjugation. Our analysis often focuses on the behaviour of certain two-dimensional subspaces of the Hilbert space under the action of a given Wigner symmetry, but the relevance of this behaviour to the larger picture of the whole Hilbert space is made transparent at every stage.

  3. Description of the atomic disorder (local order) in crystals by the mixed-symmetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudka, A. P.; Novikova, N. E.

    2017-11-01

    An approach to the description of local atomic disorder (short-range order) in single crystals by the mixed-symmetry method based on Bragg scattering data is proposed, and the corresponding software is developed. In defect-containing crystals, each atom in the unit cell can be described by its own symmetry space group. The expression for the calculated structural factor includes summation over different sets of symmetry operations for different atoms. To facilitate the search for new symmetry elements, an "atomic disorder expert" was developed, which estimates the significance of tested models. It is shown that the symmetry lowering for some atoms correlates with the existence of phase transitions (in langasite family crystals) and the anisotropy of physical properties (in rare-earth dodecaborides RB12).

  4. Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Erez, E-mail: erez.zohar@mpq.mpg.de; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele, E-mail: michele.burrello@mpq.mpg.de

    Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of amore » simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.« less

  5. Involution symmetries and the PMNS matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Palash B.; Byakti, Pritibhajan

    2017-10-01

    C S Lam has suggested that the PMNS matrix (or at least some of its elements) can be predicted by embedding the residual symmetry of the leptonic mass terms into a bigger symmetry. We analyse the possibility that the residual symmetries consist of involution generators only and explore how Lam's idea can be implemented.

  6. Superalgebra and fermion-boson symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Hironari

    2010-01-01

    Fermions and bosons are quite different kinds of particles, but it is possible to unify them in a supermultiplet, by introducing a new mathematical scheme called superalgebra. In this article we discuss the development of the concept of symmetry, starting from the rotational symmetry and finally arriving at this fermion-boson (FB) symmetry. PMID:20228617

  7. Symmetry restoration and quantumness reestablishment.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guo-Mo; Wu, Lian-Ao; Xing, Hai-Jun

    2014-09-18

    A realistic quantum many-body system, characterized by a generic microscopic Hamiltonian, is accessible only through approximation methods. The mean field theories, as the simplest practices of approximation methods, commonly serve as a powerful tool, but unfortunately often violate the symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The conventional BCS theory, as an excellent mean field approach, violates the particle number conservation and completely erases quantumness characterized by concurrence and quantum discord between different modes. We restore the symmetry by using the projected BCS theory and the exact numerical solution and find that the lost quantumness is synchronously reestablished. We show that while entanglement remains unchanged with the particle numbers, quantum discord behaves as an extensive quantity with respect to the system size. Surprisingly, discord is hardly dependent on the interaction strengths. The new feature of discord offers promising applications in modern quantum technologies.

  8. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  9. Optomechanically induced spontaneous symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Verhagen, Ewold; Alú, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    We explore the dynamics of spontaneous breakdown of mirror symmetry in a pair of identical optomechanical cavities symmetrically coupled to a waveguide. Large optical intensities enable optomechanically induced nonlinear detuning of the optical resonators, resulting in a pitchfork bifurcation. We investigate the stability of this regime and explore the possibility of inducing multistability. By injecting proper trigger pulses, the proposed structure can toggle between two asymmetric stable states, thus serving as a low-noise nanophotonic all-optical switch or memory element.

  10. Equivariance, BRST symmetry, and superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Antti J.; Tirkkonen, Olav

    1994-12-01

    The structure of equivariant cohomology in non-Abelian localization formulas and topological field theories is discussed. Equivariance is formulated in terms of a nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry, and another nilpotent operator which restricts the BRST cohomology onto the equivariant, or basic sector. A superfield formulation is presented and connections to reducible [Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky (BFV)] quantization of topological Yang-Mills theory are discussed.

  11. Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.

  12. Fermion mass without symmetry breaking

    DOE PAGES

    Catterall, Simon

    2016-01-20

    We examine a model of reduced staggered fermions in three dimensions interacting through an SO (4) invariant four fermion interaction. The model is similar to that considered in a recent paper by Ayyer and Chandrasekharan. We present theoretical arguments and numerical evidence which support the idea that the system develops a mass gap for sufficiently strong four fermi coupling without producing a symmetry breaking fermion bilinear condensate. As a result, massless and massive phases appear to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  13. Symmetry analysis of talus bone

    PubMed Central

    Islam, K.; Dobbe, A.; Komeili, A.; Duke, K.; El-Rich, M.; Dhillon, S.; Adeeb, S.; Jomha, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Methods Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Results Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. Conclusions We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139–45. PMID:24802391

  14. Symmetry tuning for DIME Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, Natalia; Schmitt, Mark; Tregillis, Ian; Bradley, P.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Murphy, T.; Obrey, K.; Hsu, S.; Shah, R.; Batha, S.; Craxton, S.; McKenty, P.

    2012-10-01

    Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) investigates the effects of 4 pi as well as surface feature-driven mix on the directly driven ICF capsule implosion. To minimize the effects of the laser-drive asymmetry, beam pointings, pulse shape, and the energy distribution between the lasers need to be optimized for a particular capsule and shot energy. In support of the DIME experimental campaigns on OMEGA and NIF, symmetry tuning was performed with the rad-hydro code HYDRA. To assess the impact on the symmetry, synthetic radiographs and self-emission images were examined and compared with the experimental results from OMEGA and NIF shots. The dynamics of the capsules imploded under polar direct drive conditions were compared with symmetrically driven ones and the effects of cross-beam transfer and the laser imprinting on the symmetry were also investigated. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Dark matter and global symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-08-03

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Sawmore » models. Here, assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime« less

  16. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles propagating in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. In the quantum limit they are protected edge modes that separate topologically inequivalent ground states and can also occur when the particle density rather than the field is made nonuniform. We examine the correspondence of snake trajectories in single-layer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric field profile and (b) antisymmetric carrier distribution in a uniform field. These families support different internal symmetries but the same pattern of boundary and interface currents. We demonstrate that these physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p -wave paired state. A variational model is introduced to interpret the interfacial solutions of both domain wall problems.

  17. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rakesh; Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles moving in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. They can also occur in a constant perpendicular magnetic field when the particle density is made nonuniform as realized at a pn junction in a semiconductor, or in graphene. We examine the correspondence of such trajectories in monolayer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric perpendicular magnetic field and (b) antisymmetric carrier density distribution in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Although, these families support different internal symmetries, the pattern of the boundary and interface currents is the same in both cases. We demonstrate that these two physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these two problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p-wave paired state.

  18. Extended symmetry analysis of generalized Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A.; Popovych, Roman O.

    2017-10-01

    Using enhanced classification techniques, we carry out the extended symmetry analysis of the class of generalized Burgers equations of the form ut + uux + f(t, x)uxx = 0. This enhances all the previous results on symmetries of these equations and includes the description of admissible transformations, Lie symmetries, Lie and nonclassical reductions, hidden symmetries, conservation laws, potential admissible transformations, and potential symmetries. The study is based on the fact that the class is normalized, and its equivalence group is finite-dimensional.

  19. Generalization of Friedberg-Lee symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Chaoshang; Li Tianjun; George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843

    2008-07-01

    We study the possible origin of Friedberg-Lee symmetry. First, we propose the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry in the potential by including the scalar fields in the field transformations, which can be broken down to the Friedberg-Lee symmetry spontaneously. We show that the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry allows a typical form of Yukawa couplings, and the realistic neutrino masses and mixings can be generated via the seesaw mechanism. If the right-handed neutrinos transform nontrivially under the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry, we can have the testable TeV scale seesaw mechanism. Second, we present two models with the SO(3)xU(1) global flavor symmetry in the lepton sector.more » After the flavor symmetry breaking, we can obtain the charged lepton masses, and explain the neutrino masses and mixings via the seesaw mechanism. Interestingly, the complete neutrino mass matrices are similar to those of the above models with generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry. So the Friedberg-Lee symmetry is the residual symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix after the SO(3)xU(1) flavor symmetry breaking.« less

  20. Extended Friedberg-Lee hidden symmetries, quark masses, and CP violation with four generations

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Oaknin, David; Soni, Amarjit

    2009-07-01

    Motivated in part by the several observed anomalies involving CP asymmetries of B and B{sub s} decays, we consider the standard model with a 4th sequential family (SM4) which seems to offer a rather simple resolution. We initially assume T-invariance by taking the up and down-quark 4x4 mass matrix to be real. Following Friedberg and Lee (FL), we then impose a hidden symmetry on the unobserved (hidden) up and down-quark SU(2) states. The hidden symmetry for four generations ensures the existence of two zero-mass eigenstates, which we take to be the (u,c) and (d,s) states in the up and down-quarkmore » sectors, respectively. Then, we simultaneously break T-invariance and the hidden symmetry by introducing two phase factors in each sector. This breaking mechanism generates the small quark masses m{sub u}, m{sub c} and m{sub d}, m{sub s}, which, along with the orientation of the hidden symmetry, determine the size of CP-violation in the SM4. For illustration we choose a specific physical picture for the hidden symmetry and the breaking mechanism that reproduces the observed quark masses, mixing angles and CP-violation, and at the same time allows us to further obtain very interesting relations/predictions for the mixing angles of t and t'. For example, with this choice we get V{sub td}{approx}(V{sub cb}/V{sub cd}-V{sub ts}/V{sub us})+O({lambda}{sup 2}) and V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}{approx}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub d}{center_dot}(V{sub cb}/V{sub cd}), V{sub tb{sup '}}{approx}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub d}{center_dot}(V{sub ts}/V{sub us}), implying that V{sub t{sup '}}{sub d}>V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}, V{sub tb{sup '}}. We furthermore find that the Cabibbo angle is related to the orientation of the hidden symmetry and that the key CP-violating quantity of our model at high energies, J{sub SM4}{identical_to}Im(V{sub tb}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}*V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b{sup '}}V{sub tb{sup '}}*), which is the high-energy analogue of the Jarlskog invariant of the SM, is proportional to the light

  1. Extended Friedberg-Lee hidden symmetries, quark masses,and CP violation with four generations

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Shalom, S.; Soni, A.; Oaknin, D.

    2009-07-16

    Motivated in part by the several observed anomalies involving CP asymmetries of B and B{sub s} decays, we consider the standard model with a 4th sequential family (SM4) which seems to offer a rather simple resolution. We initially assume T-invariance by taking the up and down-quark 4 x 4 mass matrix to be real. Following Friedberg and Lee (FL), we then impose a hidden symmetry on the unobserved (hidden) up and down-quark SU(2) states. The hidden symmetry for four generations ensures the existence of two zero-mass eigenstates, which we take to be the (u,c) and (d,s) states in the upmore » and down-quark sectors, respectively. Then, we simultaneously break T-invariance and the hidden symmetry by introducing two phase factors in each sector. This breaking mechanism generates the small quark masses m{sub u}, m{sub c} and m{sub d}, m{sub s}, which, along with the orientation of the hidden symmetry, determine the size of CP-violation in the SM4. For illustration we choose a specific physical picture for the hidden symmetry and the breaking mechanism that reproduces the observed quark masses, mixing angles and CP-violation, and at the same time allows us to further obtain very interesting relations/predictions for the mixing angles of t and t'. For example, with this choice we get V{sub td} {approx} (V{sub cb}/V{sub cd}-V{sub ts}/V{sub us}) + O({lambda}{sup 2}) and V{sub t'b}{approx}V{sub t'd{sm_bullet}}(V{sub cb}/V{sub cd}), V{sub tb'}V{sub t'd{sm_bullet}}(V{sub ts}/V{sub us}), implying that V{sub t'd} > V{sub t'b}, V{sub tb'}. We furthermore find that the Cabibbo angle is related to the orientation of the hidden symmetry and that the key CP-violating quantity of our model at high energies, J{sub SM4} {triple_bond} Im(V{sub tb}V{sub t'b*}V{sub t'b{prime}}V{sub tb'*}), which is the high-energy analogue of the Jarlskog invariant of the SM, is proportional to the light-quark masses and the measured Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix angles: |J{sub SM4}|A{sup 3

  2. Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

  3. Crossing symmetry in alpha space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs; van Rees, Balt C.

    2017-11-01

    We initiate the study of the conformal bootstrap using Sturm-Liouville theory, specializing to four-point functions in one-dimensional CFTs. We do so by decomposing conformal correlators using a basis of eigenfunctions of the Casimir which are labeled by a complex number α. This leads to a systematic method for computing conformal block decompositions. Analyzing bootstrap equations in alpha space turns crossing symmetry into an eigenvalue problem for an integral operator K. The operator K is closely related to the Wilson transform, and some of its eigenfunctions can be found in closed form.

  4. Naturalness of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.

    2007-02-01

    After revisiting the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model and its implications for the scale of New Physics, I consider the fine tuning problem of electroweak symmetry breaking in two main scenarios beyond the Standard Model: SUSY and Little Higgs models. The main conclusions are that New Physics should appear on the reach of the LHC; that some SUSY models can solve the hierarchy problem with acceptable residual fine tuning and, finally, that Little Higgs models generically suffer from large tunings, many times hidden.

  5. Hidden symmetries in plasmonic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huidobro, P. A.; Chang, Y. H.; Kraft, M.; Pendry, J. B.

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic gratings constitute a paradigmatic instance of the wide range of applications enabled by plasmonics. While subwavelength metal gratings find applications in optical biosensing and photovoltaics, atomically thin gratings achieved by periodically doping a graphene monolayer perform as metasurfaces for the control of terahertz radiation. In this paper we show how these two instances of plasmonic gratings inherit their spectral properties from an underlying slab with translational symmetry. We develop an analytical formalism to accurately derive the mode spectrum of the gratings that provides a great physical insight.

  6. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  7. Nonlinear symmetry breaking in photometamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Maxim A.; Dobrykh, Dmitry A.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Belov, Pavel A.; Lapine, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    We design and analyze theoretically photometamaterials with each meta-atom containing both photodiode and light-emitting diode. Illumination of the photodiode by the light-emitting diode gives rise to an additional optical feedback within each unit cell, which strongly affects resonant properties and nonlinear response of the meta-atom. In particular, we demonstrate that inversion symmetry breaking occurs upon a certain threshold magnitude of the incident wave intensity resulting in an abrupt emergence of second-harmonic generation, which was not originally available, as well as in the reduced third-harmonic signal.

  8. Symmetry Violation in Hadron Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell-Mann, Murray

    1982-01-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * SU(3) × SU(3) SYMMETRY * VIOLATION OF SU(3) × SU(3) IN STRONG INTERACTIONS * POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS OF STRONG VIOLATION WITH WEAK AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS * SCALE INVARIANCE AND THE DILATION OPERATOR * THE BREAKING OF SCALE INVARIANCE * RELATION BETWEEN VIOLATIONS OF SCALE INVARIANCE AND OF SU(3) × SU(3) * REFERENCES *Note: Much of the work presented in the next two sections was done this summer in collaboration with Lowell Brown. It is based partly on the pioneering research of Kastrup, Mack, Wess, Kenneth Wilson, and others. *In this section and the next, our particle states are normalized to one particle per unit volume.

  9. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A., E-mail: bravetti@correo.nucleares.unam.mx; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S., E-mail: cesar.slm@correo.nucleares.unam.mx; Nettel, F., E-mail: Francisco.Nettel@roma1.infn.it

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendremore » symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.« less

  10. Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.

  11. Some Quantum Symmetries and Their Breaking II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    We consider symmetry breaking in the context of vector bundle theory, which arises quite naturally not only when attempting to "gauge" symmetry groups, but also as a means of localizing those global symmetry breaking effects known as spontaneous. We review such spontaneous symmetry breaking first for a simplified version of the Goldstone scenario for the case of global symmetries, and then in a localized form which is applied to a derivation of some of the phenomena associated with superconduction in both its forms, type I and type II. We then extend these procedures to effect the Higgs mechanism of electroweak theory, and finally we describe an extension to the flavor symmetries of the lightest quarks, including a brief discussion of CP-violation in the neutral kaon system. A largely self-contained primer of vector bundle theory is provided in Sect. 4, which supplies most of the results required thereafter.

  12. The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of ant Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows AFOSR-88-0196 6. AUTHOR(S) 61102F 2304/A4 Thomas J. Bridges 7...December 1990 The Effect of Symmetry on the Hydrodynamic Stability of and Bifurcation from Planar Shear Flows TIIhOMAS J. BIUDGES MATl EM ATIc(AL...spatial stabili’.y into the nonlinear regime and a theory for spa- tial Hopf bifurcation , spatial Floquet theory, wavelength doubling and spatially quasi

  13. Beyond bilateral symmetry: geometric morphometric methods for any type of symmetry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies of symmetric structures have made important contributions to evolutionary biology, for example, by using fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability or for investigating the mechanisms of morphological integration. Most analyses of symmetry and asymmetry have focused on organisms or parts with bilateral symmetry. This is not the only type of symmetry in biological shapes, however, because a multitude of other types of symmetry exists in plants and animals. For instance, some organisms have two axes of reflection symmetry (biradial symmetry; e.g. many algae, corals and flowers) or rotational symmetry (e.g. sea urchins and many flowers). So far, there is no general method for the shape analysis of these types of symmetry. Results We generalize the morphometric methods currently used for the shape analysis of bilaterally symmetric objects so that they can be used for analyzing any type of symmetry. Our framework uses a mathematical definition of symmetry based on the theory of symmetry groups. This approach can be used to divide shape variation into a component of symmetric variation among individuals and one or more components of asymmetry. We illustrate this approach with data from a colonial coral that has ambiguous symmetry and thus can be analyzed in multiple ways. Our results demonstrate that asymmetric variation predominates in this dataset and that its amount depends on the type of symmetry considered in the analysis. Conclusions The framework for analyzing symmetry and asymmetry is suitable for studying structures with any type of symmetry in two or three dimensions. Studies of complex symmetries are promising for many contexts in evolutionary biology, such as fluctuating asymmetry, because these structures can potentially provide more information than structures with bilateral symmetry. PMID:21958045

  14. Killing-Yano Symmetry in Supergravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi

    Killing-Yano symmetry has played an important role in the study of black hole physics. In supergravity theories, Killing-Yano symmetry is deformed by the presence of the fluxes which can be identified with skew-symmetric torsion. Therefore, we attempt to classify spacetimes admitting Killing-Yano symmetry with torsion. In particular, the classification problem of metrics admitting a principal Killing-Yano tensor with torsion is discussed.

  15. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  16. Dark matter reflection of particle symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the relationship between physics of cosmological dark matter and symmetry of elementary particles, a wide list of dark matter candidates is possible. New symmetries provide stability of different new particles and their combination can lead to a multicomponent dark matter. The pattern of symmetry breaking involves phase transitions in the very early Universe, extending the list of candidates by topological defects and even primordial nonlinear structures.

  17. Topological phases protected by point group symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hao; Huang, Sheng -Jie; Fu, Liang

    We consider symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases with crystalline point group symmetry, dubbed point group SPT (pgSPT) phases. We show that such phases can be understood in terms of lower-dimensional topological phases with on-site symmetry and that they can be constructed as stacks and arrays of these lower-dimensional states. This provides the basis for a general framework to classify and characterize bosonic and fermionic pgSPT phases, which can be applied for arbitrary crystalline point group symmetry and in arbitrary spatial dimensions. We develop and illustrate this framework by means of a few examples, focusing on three-dimensional states. We classify bosonic pgSPTmore » phases and fermionic topological crystalline superconductors with Z P 2 (reflection) symmetry, electronic topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) with U(1)×Z P 2 symmetry, and bosonic pgSPT phases with C 2v symmetry, which is generated by two perpendicular mirror reflections. We also study surface properties, with a focus on gapped, topologically ordered surface states. For electronic TCIs, we find a Z 8 × Z 2 classification, where the Z 8 corresponds to known states obtained from noninteracting electrons, and the Z 2 corresponds to a “strongly correlated” TCI that requires strong interactions in the bulk. Lastly, our approach may also point the way toward a general theory of symmetry-enriched topological phases with crystalline point group symmetry.« less

  18. Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.

  19. Interpretation of symmetry experiments on Omega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lours, Laurence; Bastian, Josiane; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Philippe, Franck; Jadaud, Jean-Paul

    2006-10-01

    The interpretation of the symmetry experiments performed on Omega in 2005 with 3 cone LMJ-like irradiation is presented here. The goal of this campaign was the characterization of the irradiation symmetry by X-ray imaging of the D2Ar capsule. Images of backlit implosion (as done in earlier campaigns with foam balls) and core emission were obtained on the same shot, and can be compared to FCI2 simulations. This set of shots comfirms former results with foam balls of a good symmetry control with 3 cones in empty hohlraums. The influence of the hohlraum shape on symmetry is also studied by comparison of cylindrical hohlraums vs rugby ones.

  20. PREFACE: Symmetries and Integrability of Difference Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doliwa, Adam; Korhonen, Risto; Lafortune, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    to integrability. The first section contains a paper by T Hamamoto and K Kajiwara on hypergeometric solutions to the q-Painlevé equation of type A4(1). Discrete geometry. In this category there are three papers. J Cielinski offers a geometric definition and a spectral approach on pseudospherical surfaces on time scales, while A Doliwa considers generalized isothermic lattices. The paper by U Pinkall, B Springborn and S Weiss mann is concerned with a new doubly discrete analogue of smoke ring flow and the real time simulation of fluid flow. Integrable systems in statistical physics. Under this heading there is a paper by R J Baxter on corner transfer matrices in statistical mechanics, and a paper by S Boukraa, S Hassani, J-M Maillard, B M McCoy, J-A Weil and N Zenine where the authors consider Fuchs-Painlevé elliptic representation of the Painlevé VI equation. KP lattices and differential-difference hierarchies. In this section we have seven articles. C R Gilson, J J C Nimmo and Y Ohta consider quasideterminant solutions of a non-Abelian Hirota-Miwa equation, while B Grammaticos, A Ramani, V Papageorgiou, J Satsuma and R Willox discuss the construction of lump-like solutions of the Hirota-Miwa equation. J Hietarinta and C Viallet analyze the factorization process for lattice maps searching for integrable cases, the paper by X-B Hu and G-F Yu is concerned with integrable discretizations of the (2+1)-dimensional sinh-Gordon equation, and K Kajiwara, M Mazzocco and Y Ohta consider the Hankel determinant formula of the tau-functions of the Toda equation. Finally, V G Papageorgiou and A G Tongas study Yang-Baxter maps and multi-field integrable lattice equations, and H-Y Wang, X-B Hu and H-W Tam consider the two-dimensional Leznov lattice equation with self-consistent sources. Quantum integrable systems. This category contains a paper on q-extended eigenvectors of the integral and finite Fourier transforms by N M Atakishiyev, J P Rueda and K B Wolf, and an article by S

  1. Quasi-periodic continuation along a continuous symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Matthew David

    Given a system of differential equations which admits a continuous group of symmetries and possesses a periodic solution, we show that under certain nondegeneracy assumptions there always exists a continuous family containing infinitely many periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories. This generalizes the continuation method of Poincaré to orbits which are not necessarily periodic. We apply these results in the setting of the Lagrangian N -body problem of homogeneous potential to characterize an infinite family of rotating nonplanar "hip-hop" orbits in the four-body problem of equal masses, and show how some other trajectories in the N -body theory may be extended to infinite families of periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  2. Mirror symmetry in emergent gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2017-09-01

    Given a six-dimensional symplectic manifold (M , B), a nondegenerate, co-closed four-form C introduces a dual symplectic structure B ˜ = * C independent of B via the Hodge duality *. We show that the doubling of symplectic structures due to the Hodge duality results in two independent classes of noncommutative U (1) gauge fields by considering the Seiberg-Witten map for each symplectic structure. As a result, emergent gravity suggests a beautiful picture that the variety of six-dimensional manifolds emergent from noncommutative U (1) gauge fields is doubled. In particular, the doubling for the variety of emergent Calabi-Yau manifolds allows us to arrange a pair of Calabi-Yau manifolds such that they are mirror to each other. Therefore, we argue that the mirror symmetry of Calabi-Yau manifolds is the Hodge theory for the deformation of symplectic and dual symplectic structures.

  3. Symmetry breaking in tensor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Dario; Gurau, Razvan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we analyze a quartic tensor model with one interaction for a tensor of arbitrary rank. This model has a critical point where a continuous limit of infinitely refined random geometries is reached. We show that the critical point corresponds to a phase transition in the tensor model associated to a breaking of the unitary symmetry. We analyze the model in the two phases and prove that, in a double scaling limit, the symmetric phase corresponds to a theory of infinitely refined random surfaces, while the broken phase corresponds to a theory of infinitely refined random nodal surfaces. At leading order in the double scaling limit planar surfaces dominate in the symmetric phase, and planar nodal surfaces dominate in the broken phase.

  4. A parametric symmetry breaking transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Alexander; Heugel, Toni L.; Leuch, Anina; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Zilberberg, Oded

    2018-06-01

    Force detectors rely on resonators to transduce forces into a readable signal. Usually, these resonators operate in the linear regime and their signal appears amidst a competing background comprising thermal or quantum fluctuations as well as readout noise. Here, we demonstrate a parametric symmetry breaking transduction method that leads to a robust nonlinear force detection in the presence of noise. The force signal is encoded in the frequency at which the system jumps between two phase states which are inherently protected against phase noise. Consequently, the transduction effectively decouples from readout noise channels. For a controlled demonstration of the method, we experiment with a macroscopic doubly clamped string. Our method provides a promising paradigm for high-precision force detection.

  5. Inflation, symmetry, and B-modes

    DOE PAGES

    Hertzberg, Mark P.

    2015-04-20

    Here, we examine the role of using symmetry and effective field theory in inflationary model building. We describe the standard formulation of starting with an approximate shift symmetry for a scalar field, and then introducing corrections systematically in order to maintain control over the inflationary potential. We find that this leads to models in good agreement with recent data. On the other hand, there are attempts in the literature to deviate from this paradigm by envoking other symmetries and corrections. In particular: in a suite of recent papers, several authors have made the claim that standard Einstein gravity with amore » cosmological constant and a massless scalar carries conformal symmetry. They claim this conformal symmetry is hidden when the action is written in the Einstein frame, and so has not been fully appreciated in the literature. They further claim that such a theory carries another hidden symmetry; a global SO(1,1) symmetry. By deforming around the global SO(1,1) symmetry, they are able to produce a range of inflationary models with asymptotically flat potentials, whose flatness is claimed to be protected by these symmetries. These models tend to give rise to B-modes with small amplitude. Here we explain that standard Einstein gravity does not in fact possess conformal symmetry. Instead these authors are merely introducing a redundancy into the description, not an actual conformal symmetry. Furthermore, we explain that the only real (global) symmetry in these models is not at all hidden, but is completely manifest when expressed in the Einstein frame; it is in fact the shift symmetry of a scalar field. When analyzed systematically as an effective field theory, deformations do not generally produce asymptotically flat potentials and small B-modes as suggested in these recent papers. Instead, deforming around the shift symmetry systematically, tends to produce models of inflation with B-modes of appreciable amplitude. Such simple models

  6. Symmetry Enriched Topological Phases and Their Edge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christopher

    In this thesis we investigate topological phases of matter that have a global, unbroken symmetry group--also known as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We address three questions about these phases: (1) how can we build exactly solvable models that realize them? (2) how can we determine if their edge theories can be gapped without breaking the symmetry? and (3) how do we understand the phenomenon of decoupled charge and neutral modes which occurs in certain fractional quantum Hall states? More specifically, we address the first question by constructing exactly solvable models for a wide class of symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases, which we call symmetry-enriched string nets. The construction applies to 2D bosonic SET phases with finite unitary onsite symmetry group G, and we conjecture that our models realize every phase in this class that can be described by a commuting projector Hamiltonian. As an example, we present a model for a phase with the same anyon excitations as the toric code and with a Z2 symmetry which exchanges the e and m type anyons. We further illustrate our construction with a number of additional examples. For the second question, we focus on the edge theories of 2D SET phases with Z2 symmetry. The central problem we seek to solve is to determine which edge theories can be gapped without breaking the symmetry. Previous attempts to answer this question in special cases relied on constructing perturbations of a particular type to gap the edge. This method proves the edge can be gapped when the appropriate perturbations can be found, but is inconclusive if they cannot be found. We build on this previous work by deriving a necessary and sufficient algebraic condition for when the edge can be gapped. Our results apply to Z2 symmetry protected topological phases as well as Abelian Z2 SET phases. Finally, in the fourth chapter, we describe solvable models that capture how impurity scattering in certain fractional quantum Hall edges

  7. Shape and symmetry of heptacoordinate transition-metal complexes: structural trends.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David; Alemany, Pere; Bofill, Josep M; Alvarez, Santiago

    2003-03-17

    The stereochemistries of heptacoordinate transition-metal complexes are analyzed by using continuous symmetry and shape measures of their coordination spheres. The distribution of heptacoordination through the transition-metal series is presented based on structural database searches including organometallic and Werner-type molecular complexes, metalloproteins, and extended solids. The most common polyhedron seems to be the pentagonal bipyramid, while different preferences are found for specific families of compounds, as in the complexes with three or four carbonyl or phosphine ligands, which prefer the capped octahedron or the capped trigonal prism rather than the pentagonal bipyramid. The symmetry maps for heptacoordination are presented and shown to be helpful for detecting stereochemical trends. The maximal symmetry interconversion pathways between the three most common polyhedra are defined in terms of symmetry constants and a large number of experimental structures are seen to fall along those paths.

  8. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  9. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R., E-mail: silas@physics.unh.edu

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-planemore » description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.« less

  10. Lie symmetries for systems of evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Lie symmetries for a class of systems of evolution equations are studied. The evolution equations are defined in a bimetric space with two Riemannian metrics corresponding to the space of the independent and dependent variables of the differential equations. The exact relation of the Lie symmetries with the collineations of the bimetric space is determined.

  11. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  12. R symmetries and a heterotic MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter; Schmitz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We employ powerful techniques based on Hilbert and Gröbner bases to analyze particle physics models derived from string theory. Individual models are shown to have a huge landscape of vacua that differ in their phenomenological properties. We explore the (discrete) symmetries of these vacua, the new R symmetry selection rules and their consequences for moduli stabilization.

  13. Gauge Theories and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes attempts to understand in what way spontaneous symmetry breaking arose in the context of guage field theories of elementary...gauge field theories. It was felt that the symmetry breaking used by the physicists (a procedure known as the Higgs mechanism) is not precisely a

  14. Order in the Universe: The Symmetry Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Integrative Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first two papers in this booklet provide a review of the pervasiveness of symmetry in nature and art, discussing how symmetry can be traced through every domain open to our understanding, from all aspects of nature to the special provinces of man; the checks and balances of government, the concept of equal justice, and the aesthetic ordering…

  15. NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Franklin, J.

    2010-05-01

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.

  16. Teaching symmetry in the introductory physics curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C. T.; Lederman, L. M.

    Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.

  17. Molecular Symmetry in Ab Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, P. V.; Written, J. L.

    1987-05-01

    A scheme is presented for the construction of the Fock matrix in LCAO-SCF calculations and for the transformation of basis integrals to LCAO-MO integrals that can utilize several symmetry unique lists of integrals corresponding to different symmetry groups. The algorithm is fully compatible with vector processing machines and is especially suited for parallel processing machines.

  18. Teaching Point-Group Symmetry with Three-Dimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Three tools for teaching symmetry in the context of an upper-level undergraduate or introductory graduate course on the chemical applications of group theory are presented. The first is a collection of objects that have the symmetries of all the low-symmetry and high-symmetry point groups and the point groups with rotational symmetries from 2-fold…

  19. Natural electroweak breaking from a mirror symmetry.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Z; Goh, Hock-Seng; Harnik, Roni

    2006-06-16

    We present "twin Higgs models," simple realizations of the Higgs boson as a pseudo Goldstone boson that protect the weak scale from radiative corrections up to scales of order 5-10 TeV. In the ultraviolet these theories have a discrete symmetry which interchanges each standard model particle with a corresponding particle which transforms under a twin or a mirror standard model gauge group. In addition, the Higgs sector respects an approximate global symmetry. When this global symmetry is broken, the discrete symmetry tightly constrains the form of corrections to the pseudo Goldstone Higgs potential, allowing natural electroweak symmetry breaking. Precision electroweak constraints are satisfied by construction. These models demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, stabilizing the weak scale does not require new light particles charged under the standard model gauge groups.

  20. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  1. Symmetry enriched U(1) quantum spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liujun; Wang, Chong; Senthil, T.

    2018-05-01

    We classify and characterize three-dimensional U (1 ) quantum spin liquids [deconfined U (1 ) gauge theories] with global symmetries. These spin liquids have an emergent gapless photon and emergent electric/magnetic excitations (which we assume are gapped). We first discuss in great detail the case with time-reversal and SO(3 ) spin rotational symmetries. We find there are 15 distinct such quantum spin liquids based on the properties of bulk excitations. We show how to interpret them as gauged symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs). Some of these states possess fractional response to an external SO (3 ) gauge field, due to which we dub them "fractional topological paramagnets." We identify 11 other anomalous states that can be grouped into three anomaly classes. The classification is further refined by weakly coupling these quantum spin liquids to bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases with the same symmetry. This refinement does not modify the bulk excitation structure but modifies universal surface properties. Taking this refinement into account, we find there are 168 distinct such U (1 ) quantum spin liquids. After this warm-up, we provide a general framework to classify symmetry enriched U (1 ) quantum spin liquids for a large class of symmetries. As a more complex example, we discuss U (1 ) quantum spin liquids with time-reversal and Z2 symmetries in detail. Based on the properties of the bulk excitations, we find there are 38 distinct such spin liquids that are anomaly-free. There are also 37 anomalous U (1 ) quantum spin liquids with this symmetry. Finally, we briefly discuss the classification of U (1 ) quantum spin liquids enriched by some other symmetries.

  2. Higher spins and Yangian symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; ...

    2017-04-26

    The relation between the bosonic higher spin W∞[λ]W∞[λ] algebra, the affine Yangian of gl 1, and the SH c algebra is established in detail. For generic λ we find explicit expressions for the low-lying W∞[λ] modes in terms of the affine Yangian generators, and deduce from this the precise identification between λ and the parameters of the affine Yangian. Furthermore, for the free field cases corresponding to λ = 0 and λ = 1 we give closed-form expressions for the affine Yangian generators in terms of the free fields. Interestingly, the relation between the W∞ modes and those of themore » affine Yangian is a non-local one, in general. We also establish the explicit dictionary between the affine Yangian and the SH c generators. Lastly, given that Yangian algebras are the hallmark of integrability, these identifications should pave the way towards uncovering the relation between the integrable and the higher spin symmetries.« less

  3. Anisotropic Weyl symmetry and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial; Sohn, Jongsu

    2010-11-01

    We construct an anisotropic Weyl invariant theory in the ADM formalism and discuss its cosmological consequences. It extends the original anisotropic Weyl invariance of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity using an extra scalar field. The action is invariant under the anisotropic transformations of the space and time metric components with an arbitrary value of the critical exponent z. One of the interesting features is that the cosmological constant term maintains the anisotropic symmetry for z = -3. We also include the cosmological fluid and show that it can preserve the anisotropic Weyl invariance if the equation of state satisfies P = zρ/3. Then, we study cosmology of the Einstein-Hilbert-anisotropic Weyl (EHaW) action including the cosmological fluid, both with or without anisotropic Weyl invariance. The correlation of the critical exponent z and the equation of state parameter bar omega provides a new perspective of the cosmology. It is also shown that the EHaW action admits a late time accelerating universe for an arbitrary value of z when the anisotropic conformal invariance is broken, and the anisotropic conformal scalar field is interpreted as a possible source of dark energy.

  4. Structural symmetry in evolutionary games

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, an important measure of a mutant trait (strategy) is its ability to invade and take over an otherwise-monomorphic population. Typically, one quantifies the success of a mutant strategy via the probability that a randomly occurring mutant will fixate in the population. However, in a structured population, this fixation probability may depend on where the mutant arises. Moreover, the fixation probability is just one quantity by which one can measure the success of a mutant; fixation time, for instance, is another. We define a notion of homogeneity for evolutionary games that captures what it means for two single-mutant states, i.e. two configurations of a single mutant in an otherwise-monomorphic population, to be ‘evolutionarily equivalent’ in the sense that all measures of evolutionary success are the same for both configurations. Using asymmetric games, we argue that the term ‘homogeneous’ should apply to the evolutionary process as a whole rather than to just the population structure. For evolutionary matrix games in graph-structured populations, we give precise conditions under which the resulting process is homogeneous. Finally, we show that asymmetric matrix games can be reduced to symmetric games if the population structure possesses a sufficient degree of symmetry. PMID:26423436

  5. Structural symmetry in evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-10-06

    In evolutionary game theory, an important measure of a mutant trait (strategy) is its ability to invade and take over an otherwise-monomorphic population. Typically, one quantifies the success of a mutant strategy via the probability that a randomly occurring mutant will fixate in the population. However, in a structured population, this fixation probability may depend on where the mutant arises. Moreover, the fixation probability is just one quantity by which one can measure the success of a mutant; fixation time, for instance, is another. We define a notion of homogeneity for evolutionary games that captures what it means for two single-mutant states, i.e. two configurations of a single mutant in an otherwise-monomorphic population, to be 'evolutionarily equivalent' in the sense that all measures of evolutionary success are the same for both configurations. Using asymmetric games, we argue that the term 'homogeneous' should apply to the evolutionary process as a whole rather than to just the population structure. For evolutionary matrix games in graph-structured populations, we give precise conditions under which the resulting process is homogeneous. Finally, we show that asymmetric matrix games can be reduced to symmetric games if the population structure possesses a sufficient degree of symmetry. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindi, Luca; Yao, Nan; Lin, Chaney; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-03-01

    We report the first occurrence of a natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry. The quasicrystal, with composition Al71Ni24Fe5, was discovered in the Khatyrka meteorite, a recently described CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal to be identified, was found in the same meteorite. The new quasicrystal was found associated with steinhardtite (Al38Ni32Fe30), Fe-poor steinhardtite (Al50Ni40Fe10), Al-bearing trevorite (NiFe2O4) and Al-bearing taenite (FeNi). Laboratory studies of decagonal Al71Ni24Fe5 have shown that it is stable over a narrow range of temperatures, 1120 K to 1200 K at standard pressure, providing support for our earlier conclusion that the Khatyrka meteorite reached heterogeneous high temperatures [1100 < T(K) <= 1500] and then rapidly cooled after being heated during an impact-induced shock that occurred in outer space 4.5 Gya. The occurrences of metallic Al alloyed with Cu, Ni, and Fe raises new questions regarding conditions that can be achieved in the early solar nebula.

  7. Relativity symmetries and Lie algebra contractions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Dai-Ning; Kong, Otto C.W., E-mail: otto@phy.ncu.edu.tw

    We revisit the notion of possible relativity or kinematic symmetries mutually connected through Lie algebra contractions under a new perspective on what constitutes a relativity symmetry. Contractions of an SO(m,n) symmetry as an isometry on an m+n dimensional geometric arena which generalizes the notion of spacetime are discussed systematically. One of the key results is five different contractions of a Galilean-type symmetry G(m,n) preserving a symmetry of the same type at dimension m+n−1, e.g. a G(m,n−1), together with the coset space representations that correspond to the usual physical picture. Most of the results are explicitly illustrated through the example ofmore » symmetries obtained from the contraction of SO(2,4), which is the particular case for our interest on the physics side as the proposed relativity symmetry for “quantum spacetime”. The contractions from G(1,3) may be relevant to real physics.« less

  8. Duality and symmetry lost in solid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Huy Duong

    2008-01-01

    Some conservation laws in Solids and Fracture Mechanics present a lack of symmetry between kinematic and dynamic variables. It is shown that Duality is the right tool to re-establish the symmetry between equations and variables and to provide conservation laws of the pure divergence type which provide true path independent integrals. The loss of symmetry of some energetic expressions is exploited to derive a new method for solving some inverse problems. In particular, the earthquake inverse problem is solved analytically. To cite this article: H.D. Bui, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  9. Tunable χ /PT Symmetry in Noisy Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, E. Frade; Barbosa, A. L. R.; Hussein, M. S.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the resonant regime of a mesoscopic cavity made of graphene or a doped beam splitter. Using Non-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics, we consider the Bender-Boettcher assumption that a system must obey parity and time reversal symmetry. Therefore, we describe such system by coupling chirality, parity, and time reversal symmetries through the scattering matrix formalism and apply it in the shot noise functions, also derived here. Finally, we show how to achieve the resonant regime only by setting properly the parameters concerning the chirality and the PT symmetry.

  10. Interdependence of different symmetry energy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2017-08-01

    Relations between the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient and its density derivatives are derived. The relations hold for a class of interactions with quadratic momentum dependence and a power-law density dependence. The structural connection between the different symmetry energy elements as obtained seems to be followed by almost all reasonable nuclear energy density functionals, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, suggesting a universality in the correlation structure. This, coupled with known values of some well-accepted constants related to nuclear matter, helps in constraining values of different density derivatives of the nuclear symmetry energy, shedding light on the isovector part of the nuclear interaction.

  11. Exploring Symmetry to Assist Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illán, I. A.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; López, M.; Padilla, P.; Chaves, R.; Segovia, F.; Puntonet, C. G.

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder first affecting memory functions and then gradually affecting all cognitive functions with behavioral impairments and eventually causing death. Functional brain imaging as Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is commonly used to guide the clinician's diagnosis. The essential left-right symmetry of human brains is shown to play a key role in coding and recognition. In the present work we explore the implications of this symmetry in AD diagnosis, showing that recognition may be enhanced when considering this latent symmetry.

  12. Symmetry energy III: Isovector skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielewicz, Paweł; Singh, Pardeep; Lee, Jenny

    2017-02-01

    Isoscalar density is a sum of neutron and proton densities and isovector is a normalized difference. Here, we report the experimental evidence for the displacement of the isovector and isoscalar surfaces in nuclei, by ∼ 0.9 fm from each other. We analyze data on quasielastic (QE) charge exchange (p,n) reactions, concurrently with proton and neutron elastic scattering data for the same target nuclei, following the concepts of the isoscalar and isovector potentials combined into Lane optical potential. The elastic data largely probe the geometry of the isoscalar potential and the (p,n) data largely probe a relation between the geometries of the isovector and isoscalar potentials. The targets include 48Ca, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb and projectile incident energy values span the range of (10-50) MeV. In our fit to elastic and QE charge-exchange data, we allow the values of isoscalar and isovector radii, diffusivities and overall potential normalizations to float away from those in the popular Koning and Delaroche parametrization. We find that the best-fit isovector radii are consistently larger than isoscalar and the best-fit isovector surfaces are steeper. Upon identifying the displacement of the potential surfaces with the displacement of the surfaces for the densities in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations, and by supplementing the results with those from analyzing excitation energies to isobaric analog states in the past, we arrive at the slope and value of the symmetry energy at normal density of 70 < L < 101 MeV and 33.5 < aaV < 36.4 MeV, respectively.

  13. Spacetime symmetries and topology in bimetric relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsello, Francesco; Kocic, Mikica; Högâs, Marcus; Mörtsell, Edvard

    2018-04-01

    We explore spacetime symmetries and topologies of the two metric sectors in Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory. We show that, in vacuum, the two sectors can either share or have separate spacetime symmetries. If stress-energy tensors are present, a third case can arise, with different spacetime symmetries within the same sector. This raises the question of the best definition of spacetime symmetry in Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory. We emphasize the possibility of imposing ansatzes and looking for solutions having different Killing vector fields or different isometries in the two sectors, which has gained little attention so far. We also point out that the topology of spacetime imposes a constraint on possible metric combinations.

  14. GPU Accelerated Symmetry Transform for Object Saliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    significantly reduced execution time for VGA-sized images. The symmetry transform has potential for use in finding salient regions containing objects, and also may be applicable to stable object keypoints for recognition .

  15. Scaling a Conditional Proximity Matrix to Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joseph; Brown, Morton

    1979-01-01

    Two least squares procedures for symmetrization of a conditional proximity matrix are derived. The solutions provide multiplicative constants for scaling the rows or columns of the matrix to maximize symmetry. (Author/JKS)

  16. Some General Thoughts about Broken Symmetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    to what extent one may generalize to random systems and to ’dissipative structures’. Thermal equilibrium broken symmetry is characterized by an order...stable defects. We conjecture what may be the consequences of relaxing these assumptions. (Author)

  17. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  18. R parity violation from discrete R symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2014-12-15

    We consider supersymmetric extensions of the standard model in which the usual R or matter parity gets replaced by another R or non–R discrete symmetry that explains the observed longevity of the nucleon and solves the µ problem of MSSM. In order to identify suitable symmetries, we develop a novel method of deriving the maximal Z (R) N symmetry that satisfies a given set of constraints. We identify R parity violating (RPV) and conserving models that are consistent with precision gauge unification and also comment on their compatibility with a unified gauge symmetry such as the Pati–Salam group. Finally, wemore » provide a counter– example to the statement found in the recent literature that the lepton number violating RPV scenarios must have µ term and the bilinear κ L Hu operator of comparable magnitude.« less

  19. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  20. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-07-18

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  1. Symmetries in N-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhihong

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this note is to introduce some of the basic techniques in group theory to the study the symmetries of the Newtonian n-body problem. The main tool is the representations of finite groups.

  2. Modelling Symmetry Classes 233 and 432.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutch, Steven I.

    1986-01-01

    Offers instructions and geometrical data for constructing solids of the enantiomorphous symmetry classes 233 and 432. Provides background information for each class and highlights symmetrical relationships and construction patterns. (ML)

  3. Symmetry and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollock, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy and cosmology will be presented. The close relationship between the properties of light, symmetry, and our understanding the contents of our universe will be explored.

  4. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-11-15

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadronmore » spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In conclusion, the hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly-interacting constituent quarks.« less

  5. Noether symmetries and the Swinging Atwood Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, I. C.; Almeida, M. A.

    1991-07-01

    In this work we apply the Noether theorem with generalised symmetries for discussing the integrability of the Swinging Atwood Machine (SAM) model. We analyse also the limitations of this procedure and compare it with the Yoshida method.

  6. Organizing symmetry-protected topological phases by layering and symmetry reduction: A minimalist perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Charles Zhaoxi; Alexandradinata, A.

    2018-03-01

    It is demonstrated that fermionic/bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases across different dimensions and symmetry classes can be organized using geometric constructions that increase dimensions and symmetry-reduction maps that change symmetry groups. Specifically, it is shown that the interacting classifications of SPT phases with and without glide symmetry fit into a short exact sequence, so that the classification with glide is constrained to be a direct sum of cyclic groups of order 2 or 4. Applied to fermionic SPT phases in the Wigner-Dyson class AII, this implies that the complete interacting classification in the presence of glide is Z4⊕Z2⊕Z2 in three dimensions. In particular, the hourglass-fermion phase recently realized in the band insulator KHgSb must be robust to interactions. Generalizations to spatiotemporal glide symmetries are discussed.

  7. Marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc

    2009-05-01

    We study properties of outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of space-times possessing certain symmetries, like isometries, homotheties or conformal Killings. In particular, we find restrictions on these surfaces for the vector field generating the symmetry. As an application we give a result of non-existence of outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in accelerated Friedmann-Lemaître-Roberson-Walker spacetimes.

  8. Exploiting Glide Symmetry in Planar EBG Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouris, Boules A.; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2018-02-01

    Periodic structures such as electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures can be used to prevent the propagation of electromagnetic waves within a certain frequency range known as the stop band. One of the main limitations of using EBG structures at low frequencies is their relatively large size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using glide symmetry in planar EBG structures to reduce their size. Simulated results demonstrate that exploiting glide symmetry in EBG structures can lead to size reduction.

  9. Dual symmetry in a generalized Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2016-09-01

    We examine Podolsky’s electrodynamics, which is non-invariant under the usual duality transformation. We deduce a generalization of Hodge’s star duality, which leads to a dual gauge field and restores to a certain extent the dual symmetry. The model becomes fully dual symmetric asymptotically, when it reduces to the Maxwell theory. We argue that this strict dual symmetry directly implies the existence of the basic invariants of the electromagnetic fields.

  10. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    SciTech Connect

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  11. Symmetry and Structure of Cubic Semiconductor Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stephen J

    2017-11-07

    A systematic stereographic approach to the description of surface symmetry and structure, applied previously to face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, and hexagonal close-packed metals, is here extended to the surfaces of diamond-structure and zinc-blende-structure semiconductors. A variety of symmetry-structure combinations are categorized and the chiral properties of certain cases emphasized. A general condition for nonpolarity in the surfaces of zincblende materials is also noted.

  12. Symmetry-protected topological insulator and its symmetry-enriched topologically ordered boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Witten, Edward

    We propose a mechanism for achieving symmetry-enriched topologically ordered boundaries for symmetry-protected topological states, including those of topological insulators. Several different boundary phases and their phase transitions are considered, including confined phases, deconfined phases, symmetry-breaking, gapped and gapless phases. National Science Foundation PHY-1606531, Corning Glass Works Foundation Fellowship, NSF Grant DMR- 1506475 and NSFC 11274192, the BMO Financial Group and the John Templeton Foundation No. 39901.

  13. Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chong; Nahum, Adam; Metlitski, Max A.; ...

    2017-09-22

    The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP), separating the Néel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of (2+1)D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher criticality. In this work, we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low-energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to N f=2 fermionic quantum electrodynamics, which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4)×ZT2 symmetry. We propose several dualities for the deconfined QCP with SU(2) spin symmetry whichmore » together make natural the emergence of a previously suggested SO(5) symmetry rotating the Néel and valence bond solid orders. These emergent symmetries are implemented anomalously. The associated infrared theories can also be viewed as surface descriptions of (3+1) D topological paramagnets, giving further insight into the dualities. We describe a number of numerical tests of these dualities. We also discuss the possibility of “pseudocritical” behavior for deconfined critical points, and the meaning of the dualities and emergent symmetries in such a scenario.« less

  14. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kie Sang; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  15. Exploring symmetry in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, L.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N.; MacKinnon, A.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C.; Turnbull, D.; Amendt, P.; Wilks, S.; Zylstra, A.; Rinderknecht, H.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments with near-vacuum hohlraums, which utilize a minimal but non-zero helium fill, have demonstrated performance improvements relative to conventional gas-filled (0.96 - 1.6 mg/cc helium) hohlraums: minimal backscatter, reduced capsule drive degradation, and minimal suprathermal electron generation. Because this is a low laser-plasma interaction platform, implosion symmetry is controlled via pulse-shaping adjustments to laser power balance. Extending this platform to high-yield designs with high-density carbon capsules requires achieving adequate symmetry control throughout the pulse. In simulations, laser propagation is degraded suddenly by hohlraum wall expansion interacting with ablated capsule material. Nominal radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have not yet proven predictive on symmetry of the final hotspot, and experiments show more prolate symmetry than preshot calculations. Recent efforts have focused on understanding the discrepancy between simulated and measured symmetry and on alternate designs for symmetry control through varying cone fraction, trade-offs between laser power and energy, and modifications to case-to-capsule ratio. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. The combined effects of job demand and control, effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflicts on the risk of major depressive episode: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Wang, JianLi

    2018-01-01

    Work-related psychosocial factors may precipitate the onset of depression. In occupational mental health research, there are three widely used theoretical models, namely, job demand and control (JD-C), effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and work-family conflicts (WFC). However, the interaction between these models and their combined effect on the risk of major depression in the workplace is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal combined effects of JD-C, ERI and WFC on the risk of major depression in the working population. Longitudinal data (2008-2013) were collected on randomly selected participants (n=4200) from the working population of the province of Alberta, Canada, at baseline and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Data about JD-C, ERI, WFC and major depression were collected by trained interviewers using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing method. Generalised estimating equations for longitudinal modelling were used. There was an independent association between high ERI and high WFC at t x and major depression at t x+1 (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.96; OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.52), respectively. The combined effects of JD-C and ERI, ERI and WFC, and WFC and JD-C on the risk of major depression were as follows: OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.42, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.49 and OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.30, respectively. The relative excess risks attributable to the interactions were statistically non-significant. Work-related psychosocial factors are associated with increased risk of major depression over time, but their combined effect is not synergistic. The effects of the factors depicted in the three occupational health models on the risk of major depression appear to be additive. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Periodic orbit analysis of a system with continuous symmetry--A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Cvitanović, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Dynamical systems with translational or rotational symmetry arise frequently in studies of spatially extended physical systems, such as Navier-Stokes flows on periodic domains. In these cases, it is natural to express the state of the fluid in terms of a Fourier series truncated to a finite number of modes. Here, we study a 4-dimensional model with chaotic dynamics and SO(2) symmetry similar to those that appear in fluid dynamics problems. A crucial step in the analysis of such a system is symmetry reduction. We use the model to illustrate different symmetry-reduction techniques. The system's relative equilibria are conveniently determined by rewriting the dynamics in terms of a symmetry-invariant polynomial basis. However, for the analysis of its chaotic dynamics, the "method of slices," which is applicable to very high-dimensional problems, is preferable. We show that a Poincaré section taken on the "slice" can be used to further reduce this flow to what is for all practical purposes a unimodal map. This enables us to systematically determine all relative periodic orbits and their symbolic dynamics up to any desired period. We then present cycle averaging formulas adequate for systems with continuous symmetry and use them to compute dynamical averages using relative periodic orbits. The convergence of such computations is discussed.

  18. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Nonrelativistic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Haruki

    The subject of condensed matter physics is very rich --- there are an infinite number of parameters producing a diversity of exciting phenomena. As a theorist, my goal is to distill general principles out of this complexity --- to construct theories that can coherently explain many known examples altogether. This thesis is composed of several attempts to develop such theories in topics related to spontaneously symmetry breaking. A remarkable feature of many-body interacting systems is that although they are described by equations respecting various symmetries, they may spontaneously organize into a state that explicitly breaks symmetries. Examples are numerous: various types of crystalline and magnetic orders, Bose-Einstein condensates of cold atoms, superfluids of liquid helium, chiral symmetry in QCD, neutron stars, and cosmic inflation. These systems with spontaneously broken continuous symmetries have gapless excitations, so called Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGBs). Although the properties of NGBs are well understood in Lorentz-invariant systems, surprisingly, some basic properties of NGBs such as their number and dispersion in nonrelativistic systems have not been discussed from a general perspective. In the first part of this thesis, we solve this issue by developing and analyzing an effective Lagrangian that coherently captures the low-energy, long-distance physics of many different symmetry-breaking states all at once. Next, we examine whether these NGBs originating from spontaneous symmetry breaking remain to be well-defined excitations inside a metal, where low-energy electrons near Fermi surface can collide with them. Our result is a one equation criterion that specifies whether the interactions between electrons and NGBs can be ignored, or whether it completely changes their character. In the latter case, unusual phases of matter such as non-Fermi liquids may arise; in that case, NGBs are overdamped and cannot form particle-like excitations in spite of the

  19. Perception of Mirror Symmetry in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falter, Christine M.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt grouping in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is selectively impaired for certain organization principles but for not others. Symmetry is a fundamental Gestalt principle characterizing many biological shapes. Sensitivity to symmetry was tested using the Picture Symmetry Test, which requires finding symmetry lines on pictures. Individuals…

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in coupled parametrically driven waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a system of linearly coupled parametrically driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which models a laser based on a nonlinear dual-core waveguide with parametric amplification symmetrically applied to both cores. The model may also be realized in terms of parallel ferromagnetic films, in which the parametric gain is provided by an external field. We analyze spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of fundamental and multiple solitons in this system, which was not studied systematically before in linearly coupled dissipative systems with intrinsic nonlinearity. For fundamental solitons, the analysis reveals three distinct SSB scenarios. Unlike the standard dual-core-fiber model, the present system gives rise to a vast bistability region, which may be relevant to applications. Other noteworthy findings are restabilization of the symmetric soliton after it was destabilized by the SSB bifurcation, and the existence of a generic situation with all solitons unstable in the single-component (decoupled) model, while both symmetric and asymmetric solitons may be stable in the coupled system. The stability of the asymmetric solitons is identified via direct simulations, while for symmetric and antisymmetric ones the stability is verified too through the computation of stability eigenvalues, families of antisymmetric solitons being entirely unstable. In this way, full stability maps for the symmetric solitons are produced. We also investigate the SSB bifurcation of two-soliton bound states (it breaks the symmetry between the two components, while the two peaks in the shape of the soliton remain mutually symmetric). The family of the asymmetric double-peak states may decouple from its symmetric counterpart, being no longer connected to it by the bifurcation, with a large portion of the asymmetric family remaining stable.

  1. Discovering Symmetry in Everyday Environments: A Creative Approach to Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchigami, Kei; Schrandt, Matthew; Miessler, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on symmetry project is proposed as an innovative way of teaching point groups to undergraduate chemistry students. Traditionally, courses teaching symmetry require students to identify the point group of a given object. This project asks the reverse: students are instructed to identify an object that matches each point group. Doing so…

  2. Symmetry in social exchange and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.

  3. Patterns of symmetry breaking in chiral QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi; Shifman, Mikhail

    2018-05-01

    We consider S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with massless chiral fermions in a complex representation of the gauge group. The main emphasis is on the so-called hybrid ψ χ η model. The possible patterns of realization of the continuous chiral flavor symmetry are discussed. We argue that the chiral symmetry is broken in conjunction with a dynamical Higgsing of the gauge group (complete or partial) by bifermion condensates. As a result a color-flavor locked symmetry is preserved. The 't Hooft anomaly matching proceeds via saturation of triangles by massless composite fermions or, in a mixed mode, i.e. also by the "weakly" coupled fermions associated with dynamical Abelianization, supplemented by a number of Nambu-Goldstone mesons. Gauge-singlet condensates are of the multifermion type and, though it cannot be excluded, the chiral symmetry realization via such gauge invariant condensates is more contrived (requires a number of four-fermion condensates simultaneously and, even so, problems remain) and less plausible. We conclude that in the model at hand, chiral flavor symmetry implies dynamical Higgsing by bifermion condensates.

  4. Symmetry compression method for discovering network motifs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Yuannan; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Discovering network motifs could provide a significant insight into systems biology. Interestingly, many biological networks have been found to have a high degree of symmetry (automorphism), which is inherent in biological network topologies. The symmetry due to the large number of basic symmetric subgraphs (BSSs) causes a certain redundant calculation in discovering network motifs. Therefore, we compress all basic symmetric subgraphs before extracting compressed subgraphs and propose an efficient decompression algorithm to decompress all compressed subgraphs without loss of any information. In contrast to previous approaches, the novel Symmetry Compression method for Motif Detection, named as SCMD, eliminates most redundant calculations caused by widespread symmetry of biological networks. We use SCMD to improve three notable exact algorithms and two efficient sampling algorithms. Results of all exact algorithms with SCMD are the same as those of the original algorithms, since SCMD is a lossless method. The sampling results show that the use of SCMD almost does not affect the quality of sampling results. For highly symmetric networks, we find that SCMD used in both exact and sampling algorithms can help get a remarkable speedup. Furthermore, SCMD enables us to find larger motifs in biological networks with notable symmetry than previously possible.

  5. Graph fibrations and symmetries of network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Eddie; Rink, Bob; Sanders, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Dynamical systems with a network structure can display remarkable phenomena such as synchronisation and anomalous synchrony breaking. A methodology for classifying patterns of synchrony in networks was developed by Golubitsky and Stewart. They showed that the robustly synchronous dynamics of a network is determined by its quotient networks. This result was recently reformulated by DeVille and Lerman, who pointed out that the reduction from a network to a quotient is an example of a graph fibration. The current paper exploits this observation and demonstrates the importance of self-fibrations of network graphs. Self-fibrations give rise to symmetries in the dynamics of a network. We show that every network admits a lift with a semigroup or semigroupoid of self-fibrations. The resulting symmetries impact the global dynamics of the network and can therefore be used to explain and predict generic scenarios for synchrony breaking. Also, when the network has a trivial symmetry groupoid, then every robust synchrony in the lift is determined by symmetry. We finish this paper with a discussion of networks with interior symmetries and nonhomogeneous networks.

  6. Nodeless superconductivity and time-reversal symmetry breaking in the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Re24Ti5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, T.; Pang, G. M.; Baines, C.; Jiang, W. B.; Xie, W.; Wang, A.; Medarde, M.; Pomjakushina, E.; Shi, M.; Mesot, J.; Yuan, H. Q.; Shiroka, T.

    2018-01-01

    The noncentrosymmetric superconductor Re24Ti5 , a time-reversal symmetry- (TRS-) breaking candidate with Tc=6 K , was studied by means of muon-spin rotation/relaxation (μ SR ) and tunnel-diode oscillator techniques. At the macroscopic level, its bulk superconductivity was investigated via electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and heat-capacity measurements. The low-temperature penetration depth, superfluid density, and electronic heat capacity all evidence an s -wave coupling with an enhanced superconducting gap. The spontaneous magnetic fields revealed by zero-field μ SR below Tc indicate a time-reversal symmetry breaking and thus the unconventional nature of superconductivity in Re24Ti5 . The concomitant occurrence of TRS breaking also in the isostructural Re6(Zr ,Hf ) compounds hints at its common origin in this superconducting family and that an enhanced spin-orbital coupling does not affect pairing symmetry.

  7. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left-right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models. To cite this article: C. Grojean, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  8. BRST symmetry for a torus knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vipul Kumar; Prasad Mandal, Bhabani

    2017-08-01

    We develop BRST symmetry for the first time for a particle on the surface of a torus knot by analyzing the constraints of the system. The theory contains 2nd-class constraints and has been extended by introducing the Wess-Zumino term to convert it into a theory with first-class constraints. BFV analysis of the extended theory is performed to construct BRST/anti-BRST symmetries for the particle on a torus knot. The nilpotent BRST/anti-BRST charges which generate such symmetries are constructed explicitly. The states annihilated by these nilpotent charges consist of the physical Hilbert space. We indicate how various effective theories on the surface of the torus knot are related through the generalized version of the BRST transformation with finite-field-dependent parameters.

  9. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Supernova Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffelt, Georg G.

    2015-08-01

    Some recent developments in supernova neutrino physics are introduced where spontaneous symmetry breaking is a common theme. The physics of self-induced flavor conversion has acquired a new complication in that a new class of instabilities breaks axial symmetry of a neutrino stream, the multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability. A completely different new phenomenon, discovered in the first realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulations, is the Lepton-Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry (LESA) during the accretion phase. Here, a neutrino-hydrodynamical instability breaks global spherical symmetry in that the lepton-number flux (νe minus ν‾e) develops a stable dipole pattern such that the lepton flux is almost exclusively emitted in one hemisphere.

  10. STS, symmetry and post-truth.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.

  11. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g., at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly nontrivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the two-Rényi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasiadiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum X Y model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.

  12. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.; Silva, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSWmore » solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  13. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  14. Arbitrary lattice symmetries via block copolymer nanomeshes

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of block copolymers is a powerful motif for spontaneously forming well-defined nanostructures over macroscopic areas. Yet, the inherent energy minimization criteria of self-assembly give rise to a limited library of structures; diblock copolymers naturally form spheres on a cubic lattice, hexagonally packed cylinders and alternating lamellae. Here, we demonstrate multicomponent nanomeshes with any desired lattice symmetry. We exploit photothermal annealing to rapidly order and align block copolymer phases over macroscopic areas, combined with conversion of the self-assembled organic phase into inorganic replicas. Repeated photothermal processing independently aligns successive layers, providing full control of the size, symmetry and composition of the nanoscale unit cell. We construct a variety of symmetries, most of which are not natively formed by block copolymers, including squares, rhombuses, rectangles and triangles. In fact, we demonstrate all possible two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Finally, we elucidate the influence of nanostructure on the electrical and optical properties of nanomeshes. PMID:26100566

  15. Preserving Symmetry in Preconditioned Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Chow, E.; Saad, Y.; Yeung, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of solving a linear system Ax = b when A is nearly symmetric and when the system is preconditioned by a symmetric positive definite matrix M. In the symmetric case, one can recover symmetry by using M-inner products in the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. This idea can also be used in the nonsymmetric case, and near symmetry can be preserved similarly. Like CG, the new algorithms are mathematically equivalent to split preconditioning, but do not require M to be factored. Better robustness in a specific sense can also be observed. When combined with truncated versions of iterative methods, tests show that this is more effective than the common practice of forfeiting near-symmetry altogether.

  16. Symmetry-breaking oscillations in membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, C.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2016-12-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a membrane inside a cavity in the situation where this optomechanical system possesses a reflection symmetry. Symmetry breaking occurs through supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations of the static fixed-point solutions. Both bifurcations can be observed through variation of the laser-cavity detuning, which gives rise to a boomerang-like fixed-point pattern with hysteresis. The symmetry-breaking fixed points evolve into self-sustained oscillations when the laser intensity is increased. In addition to the analysis of the accompanying Hopf bifurcations we describe these oscillations at finite amplitudes with an ansatz that fully accounts for the frequency shift relative to the natural membrane frequency. We complete our study by following the route to chaos for the membrane dynamics.

  17. Increased Sensitivity to Mirror Symmetry in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Audrey; Gurnsey, Rick; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2011-01-01

    Can autistic people see the forest for the trees? Ongoing uncertainty about the integrity and role of global processing in autism gives special importance to the question of how autistic individuals group local stimulus attributes into meaningful spatial patterns. We investigated visual grouping in autism by measuring sensitivity to mirror symmetry, a highly-salient perceptual image attribute preceding object recognition. Autistic and non-autistic individuals were asked to detect mirror symmetry oriented along vertical, oblique, and horizontal axes. Both groups performed best when the axis was vertical, but across all randomly-presented axis orientations, autistics were significantly more sensitive to symmetry than non-autistics. We suggest that under some circumstances, autistic individuals can take advantage of parallel access to local and global information. In other words, autistics may sometimes see the forest and the trees, and may therefore extract from noisy environments genuine regularities which elude non-autistic observers. PMID:21559337

  18. Symmetries and Boundary Conditions with a Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Krissia; D'Amico, Irene; Oliveira, Luiz N.

    2017-10-01

    Interest in finite-size systems has risen in the last decades, due to the focus on nanotechnological applications and because they are convenient for numerical treatment that can subsequently be extrapolated to infinite lattices. Independently of the envisioned application, special attention must be given to boundary condition, which may or may not preserve the symmetry of the infinite lattice. Here, we present a detailed study of the compatibility between boundary conditions and conservation laws. The conflict between open boundary conditions and momentum conservation is well understood, but we examine other symmetries, as well: we discuss gauge invariance, inversion, spin, and particle-hole symmetry and their compatibility with open, periodic, and twisted boundary conditions. In the interest of clarity, we develop the reasoning in the framework of the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model, whose Hamiltonian displays a variety of symmetries. Our discussion includes analytical and numerical results. Our analytical survey shows that, as a rule, boundary conditions break one or more symmetries of the infinite-lattice Hamiltonian. The exception is twisted boundary condition with the special torsion Θ = πL/2, where L is the lattice size. Our numerical results for the ground-state energy at half-filling and the energy gap for L = 2-7 show how the breaking of symmetry affects the convergence to the L → ∞ limit. We compare the computed energies and gaps with the exact results for the infinite lattice drawn from the Bethe-Ansatz solution. The deviations are boundary-condition dependent. The special torsion yields more rapid convergence than open or periodic boundary conditions. For sizes as small as L = 7, the numerical results for twisted condition are very close to the L → ∞ limit. We also discuss the ground-state electronic density and magnetization at half filling under the three boundary conditions.

  19. Systematic construction of spin liquids on the square lattice from tensor networks with SU(2) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambrini, Matthieu; Orús, Román; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-11-01

    We elaborate a simple classification scheme of all rank-5 SU(2) spin rotational symmetric tensors according to (i) the onsite physical spin S , (ii) the local Hilbert space V⊗4 of the four virtual (composite) spins attached to each site, and (iii) the irreducible representations of the C4 v point group of the square lattice. We apply our scheme to draw a complete list of all SU(2)-symmetric translationally and rotationally invariant projected entangled pair states (PEPS) with bond dimension D ≤6 . All known SU(2)-symmetric PEPS on the square lattice are recovered and simple generalizations are provided in some cases. More generally, to each of our symmetry class can be associated a (D -1 )-dimensional manifold of spin liquids (potentially) preserving lattice symmetries and defined in terms of D -independent tensors of a given bond dimension D . In addition, generic (low-dimensional) families of PEPS explicitly breaking either (i) particular point-group lattice symmetries (lattice nematics) or (ii) time-reversal symmetry (chiral spin liquids) or (iii) SU(2) spin rotation symmetry down to U(1 ) (spin nematics or Néel antiferromagnets) can also be constructed. We apply this framework to search for new topological chiral spin liquids characterized by well-defined chiral edge modes, as revealed by their entanglement spectrum. In particular, we show how the symmetrization of a double-layer PEPS leads to a chiral topological state with a gapless edge described by a SU (2) 2 Wess-Zumino-Witten model.

  20. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2017-05-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highestdimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  1. A simple test for spacetime symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Yasui, Yukinori

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simple method for investigating spacetime symmetry for a given metric. The method makes use of the curvature conditions that are obtained from the Killing equations. We use the solutions of the curvature conditions to compute an upper bound on the number of Killing vector fields, as well as Killing-Yano (KY) tensors and closed conformal KY tensors. We also use them in the integration of the Killing equations. By means of the method, we thoroughly investigate KY symmetry of type D vacuum solutions such as the Kerr metric in four dimensions. The method is also applied to a large variety of physical metrics in four and five dimensions.

  2. An empirical approach to symmetry and probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Jill

    We often rely on symmetries to infer outcomes' probabilities, as when we infer that each side of a fair coin is equally likely to come up on a given toss. Why are these inferences successful? I argue against answering this question with an a priori indifference principle. Reasons to reject such a principle are familiar, yet instructive. They point to a new, empirical explanation for the success of our probabilistic predictions. This has implications for indifference reasoning generally. I argue that a priori symmetries need never constrain our probability attributions, even for initial credences.

  3. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2018-02-06

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  4. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2017-07-18

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  5. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2017-06-14

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  6. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2017-09-05

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  7. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  8. Flat connections in open string mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Murad; Hecht, Michael; Jockers, Hans; Mayr, Peter; Mertens, Adrian; Soroush, Masoud

    2012-06-01

    We study a flat connection defined on the open-closed deformation space of open string mirror symmetry for type II compactifications on Calabi-Yau threefolds with D-branes. We use flatness and integrability conditions to define distinguished flat coordinates and the superpotential function at an arbitrary point in the open-closed deformation space. Integrability conditions are given for concrete deformation spaces with several closed and open string deformations. We study explicit examples for expansions around different limit points, including orbifold Gromov-Witten invariants, and brane configurations with several brane moduli. In particular, the latter case covers stacks of parallel branes with non-Abelian symmetry.

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.

    2010-08-01

    Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a microscopic second law of causal horizon thermodynamics.

  10. The golden ratio in facial symmetry.

    PubMed

    Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

    2013-03-01

    Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that φ-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics.

  11. Conformal and projective symmetries in Newtonian cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horváthy, P. A.

    2017-02-01

    Definitions of non-relativistic conformal transformations are considered both in the Newton-Cartan and in the Kaluza-Klein-type Eisenhart/Bargmann geometrical frameworks. The symmetry groups that come into play are exemplified by the cosmological, and also the Newton-Hooke solutions of Newton's gravitational field equations. It is shown, in particular, that the maximal symmetry group of the standard cosmological model is isomorphic to the 13-dimensional conformal-Newton-Cartan group whose conformal-Bargmann extension is explicitly worked out. Attention is drawn to the appearance of independent space and time dilations, in contrast with the Schrödinger group or the Conformal Galilei Algebra.

  12. Small Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  13. Orbital symmetry of charge-density-wave order in La 1.875Ba 0.125CuO 4 and YBa 2Cu 3O 6.67

    DOE PAGES

    A. J. Achkar; He, F.; Sutarto, R.; ...

    2016-02-15

    Recent theories of charge density wave (CDW) order in high temperature superconductors have predicted a primarily d CDW orbital symmetry. Here, we report on the orbital symmetry of CDW order in the canonical cuprate superconductors La 1.875Ba 0.125CuO 4 (LBCO) and YBa 2Cu 3O 6.67 (YBCO), using resonant soft x-ray scattering and a model mapped to the CDW orbital symmetry. From measurements sensitive to the O sublattice, we conclude that LBCO has predominantly s0 CDW orbital symmetry, in contrast to the d orbital symmetry recently reported in other cuprates. Additionally, we show for YBCO that the CDW orbital symmetry differsmore » along the a and b crystal axes and that these both differ from LBCO. This work highlights CDW orbital symmetry as an additional key property that distinguishes the di erent cuprate families.« less

  14. Qudit quantum computation on matrix product states with global symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Stephen, David; Raussendorf, Robert

    Resource states that contain nontrivial symmetry-protected topological order are identified for universal measurement-based quantum computation. Our resource states fall into two classes: one as the qudit generalizations of the qubit cluster state, and the other as the higher-symmetry generalizations of the spin-1 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) state, namely, with unitary, orthogonal, or symplectic symmetry. The symmetry in cluster states protects information propagation (identity gate), while the higher symmetry in AKLT-type states enables nontrivial gate computation. This work demonstrates a close connection between measurement-based quantum computation and symmetry-protected topological order.

  15. Qudit quantum computation on matrix product states with global symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng; Stephen, David T.; Raussendorf, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Resource states that contain nontrivial symmetry-protected topological order are identified for universal single-qudit measurement-based quantum computation. Our resource states fall into two classes: one as the qudit generalizations of the one-dimensional qubit cluster state, and the other as the higher-symmetry generalizations of the spin-1 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) state, namely, with unitary, orthogonal, or symplectic symmetry. The symmetry in cluster states protects information propagation (identity gate), while the higher symmetry in AKLT-type states enables nontrivial gate computation. This work demonstrates a close connection between measurement-based quantum computation and symmetry-protected topological order.

  16. Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2017-11-01

    Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e.θ23 = 45 ° and δ = ± 90 ° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV =V* P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V = URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU =U*, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2 = P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing-one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ-τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.

  17. Students' Performance on a Symmetry Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Siew Yin; Logan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Singapore and Australian Grade 6 students' (n=1,187) performance on a symmetry task in a recently developed Mathematics Processing Instrument (MPI). The MPI comprised tasks sourced from Australia and Singapore's national assessments, NAPLAN and PSLE. Only half of the cohort solved the item successfully. It is possible that…

  18. Translational Symmetry-Breaking for Spiral Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, V. G.; Wulff, C.

    2000-10-01

    Spiral waves are observed in numerous physical situations, ranging from Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reactions, to cardiac tissue, to slime-mold aggregates. Mathematical models with Euclidean symmetry have recently been developed to describe the dynamic behavior (for example, meandering) of spiral waves in excitable media. However, no physical experiment is ever infinite in spatial extent, so the Euclidean symmetry is only approximate. Experiments on spiral waves show that inhomogeneities can anchor spirals and that boundary effects (for example, boundary drifting) become very important when the size of the spiral core is comparable to the size of the reacting medium. Spiral anchoring and boundary drifting cannot be explained by the Euclidean model alone. In this paper, we investigate the effects on spiral wave dynamics of breaking the translation symmetry while keeping the rotation symmetry. This is accomplished by introducing a small perturbation in the five-dimensional center bundle equations (describing Hopf bifurcation from one-armed spiral waves) which is SO(2)-equivariant but not equivariant under translations. We then study the effects of this perturbation on rigid spiral rotation, on quasi-periodic meandering and on drifting.

  19. Domain wall fermion and CP symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    We examine the CP properties of chiral gauge theory defined by a formulation of the domain wall fermion, where the light field variables q and q¯ together with Pauli-Villars fields Q and Q¯ are utilized. It is shown that this domain wall representation in the infinite flavor limit N=∞ is valid only in the topologically trivial sector, and that the conflict among lattice chiral symmetry, strict locality and CP symmetry still persists for finite lattice spacing a. The CP transformation generally sends one representation of lattice chiral gauge theory into another representation of lattice chiral gauge theory, resulting in the inevitable change of propagators. A modified form of lattice CP transformation motivated by the domain wall fermion, which keeps the chiral action in terms of the Ginsparg-Wilson fermion invariant, is analyzed in detail; this provides an alternative way to understand the breaking of CP symmetry at least in the topologically trivial sector. We note that the conflict with CP symmetry could be regarded as a topological obstruction. We also discuss the issues related to the definition of Majorana fermions in connection with the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model on the lattice.

  20. Tunneling magnetoresistance from a symmetry filtering effect

    PubMed Central

    Butler, William H

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the young, but rapidly growing field of spintronics. Its primary objective is to explain how as electrons tunnel through simple insulators such as MgO, wavefunctions of certain symmetries are preferentially transmitted. This symmetry filtering property can be converted into a spin-filtering property if the insulator is joined epitaxially to a ferromagnetic electrode with the same two-dimensional symmetry parallel to the interface. A second requirement of the ferromagnetic electrodes is that a wavefunction with the preferred symmetry exists in one of the two spin channels but not in the other. These requirements are satisfied for electrons traveling perpendicular to the interface for Fe–MgO–Fe tunnel barriers. This leads to a large change in the resistance when the magnetic moment of one of the electrodes is rotated relative to those of the other electrode. This large tunneling magnetoresistance effect is being used as the read sensor in hard drives and may form the basis for a new type of magnetic memory. PMID:27877932

  1. Golden probe of electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings tomore » $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $$h\\to4\\ell$$ ($$4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $$h\\to4\\ell$$ to the magnitude of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at 1-loop. Furthermore, this makes $$h\\to4\\ell$$ a unique and independent probe of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and custodial symmetry.« less

  2. Golden probe of electroweak symmetry breaking

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria; ...

    2016-12-09

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings tomore » $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $$h\\to4\\ell$$ ($$4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $$h\\to4\\ell$$ to the magnitude of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at 1-loop. Furthermore, this makes $$h\\to4\\ell$$ a unique and independent probe of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and custodial symmetry.« less

  3. The Symmetry Group of the Permutahedron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisman, Karl-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Although it can be visualized fairly easily and its symmetry group is easy to calculate, the permutahedron is a somewhat neglected combinatorial object. We propose it as a useful case study in abstract algebra. It supplies concrete examples of group actions, the difference between right and left actions, and how geometry and algebra can work…

  4. Folded Fashions: Symmetry in Clothing Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evered, Lisa J.

    1992-01-01

    Fashion design is a field perceived as both a female and male domain that utilizes mathematics. Presents creative activities to teach the concept of symmetry as applied in fashion designs in the style of the famous French designer Madeleine Vionnet. (MDH)

  5. Asymptotic symmetries, holography and topological hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmish K.; Sundrum, Raman

    2018-01-01

    Asymptotic symmetries of AdS4 quantum gravity and gauge theory are derived by coupling the holographically dual CFT3 to Chern-Simons gauge theory and 3D gravity in a "probe" (large-level) limit. Despite the fact that the three-dimensional AdS4 boundary as a whole is consistent with only finite-dimensional asymptotic symmetries, given by AdS isometries, infinite-dimensional symmetries are shown to arise in circumstances where one is restricted to boundary subspaces with effectively two-dimensional geometry. A canonical example of such a restriction occurs within the 4D subregion described by a Wheeler-DeWitt wavefunctional of AdS4 quantum gravity. An AdS4 analog of Minkowski "super-rotation" asymptotic symmetry is probed by 3D Einstein gravity, yielding CFT2 structure (in a large central charge limit), via AdS3 foliation of AdS4 and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. The maximal asymptotic symmetry is however probed by 3D conformal gravity. Both 3D gravities have Chern-Simons formulation, manifesting their topological character. Chern-Simons structure is also shown to be emergent in the Poincare patch of AdS4, as soft/boundary limits of 4D gauge theory, rather than "put in by hand" as an external probe. This results in a finite effective Chern-Simons level. Several of the considerations of asymptotic symmetry structure are found to be simpler for AdS4 than for Mink4, such as non-zero 4D particle masses, 4D non-perturbative "hard" effects, and consistency with unitarity. The last of these in particular is greatly simplified because in some set-ups the time dimension is explicitly shared by each level of description: Lorentzian AdS4, CFT3 and CFT2. Relatedly, the CFT2 structure clarifies the sense in which the infinite asymptotic charges constitute a useful form of "hair" for black holes and other complex 4D states. An AdS4 analog of Minkowski "memory" effects is derived, but with late-time memory of earlier events being replaced by (holographic) "shadow" effects. Lessons

  6. The symmetry energy, neutron skin thickness and isovector dipole response of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, A.; Paar, N.

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic evolution of the relationship between the symmetry energy at saturation density of nuclear matter (J), neutron skin thickness (ΔR) and relevant observables related to isovector dipole excitations in neutron rich 116-136Sn isotopes has been investigated in the framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functional theory. The description employs a family of effective interactions with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings (DDME) spanning the range of values J = 30 - 38 MeV.

  7. Symmetry associated with symmetry break: Revisiting ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Q.; Xin, C.; Tang, S. X.; Huang, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Crowd panic has incurred massive injuries or deaths throughout the world, and thus understanding it is particularly important. It is now a common knowledge that crowd panic induces "symmetry break" in which some exits are jammed while others are underutilized. Amazingly, here we show, by experiment, simulation and theory, that a class of symmetry patterns come to appear for ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms while the symmetry break exists. Our symmetry pattern is described by the fact that the ratio between the ensemble-averaging numbers of ants or humans escaping from different exits is equal to the ratio between the widths of the exits. The mechanism lies in the effect of heterogeneous preferences of agents with limited information for achieving the Nash equilibrium. This work offers new insights into how to improve public safety because large public areas are always equipped with multiple exits, and it also brings an ensemble-averaging method for seeking symmetry associated with symmetry breaking.

  8. Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian

    We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compacti cations with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compacti cations on genus-one bered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z n. Such models are obtained by studying rst a speci c toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/Ftheory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compacti cations to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirrorpairsmore » for symmetric examples with Z 2 and Z 3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in eld theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stuckelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of brations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.« less

  9. Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian

    2017-06-30

    We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compacti cations with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compacti cations on genus-one bered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z n. Such models are obtained by studying rst a speci c toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/Ftheory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compacti cations to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirrorpairsmore » for symmetric examples with Z 2 and Z 3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in eld theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stuckelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of brations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.« less

  10. Unity of quark and lepton interactions with symplectic gauge symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpoot, S.

    1982-07-01

    Properties of symplectic groups are reviewed and the gauge structure of Sp(2n) derived. The electroweak unification of leptons within Sp(8) gauge symmetry and grand unification of quarks and leptons within Sp(10) gauge symmetry are discussed.

  11. New Forms of BRST Symmetry in Rigid Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Sumit Kumar; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    We derive the different forms of BRST symmetry by using the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky formalism in a rigid rotor. The so-called "dual-BRST" symmetry is obtained from the usual BRST symmetry by making a canonical transformation in the ghost sector. On the other hand, a canonical transformation in the sector involving Lagrange multiplier and its corresponding momentum leads to a new form of BRST as well as dual-BRST symmetry.

  12. New symmetries and ghost structure of covariant string theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, A.; Nicolai, H.; West, P.

    1986-02-01

    It is shown that there exists an infinite set of new symmetries of the previously given covariant string formulations. These symmetries have themselves an infinite set of hidden local symmetries and so on. A new physically equivalent further extended string action is given in which the infinite set of symmetries is most easily displayed. A quantization involving gauge fixing and ghosts of the various covariant string actions is given. permanent address: Kings College, Mathematics Department, London WC2R 2LS, UK.

  13. Symmetries, supersymmetries and cohomologies in gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎbǎlîc, Elena-Mirela

    2009-12-01

    The main subjects approached in the thesis are the following: a) the derivation of the interactions in two space-time dimensions in a particular class of topological BF models; b) the construction of the couplings in D ≥ 5 dimensions between one massless tensor field with the mixed symmetry (3, 1) and one with the mixed symmetry of the Riemann tensor; c) the evaluation of the existence of interactions in D ≥ 5 dimensions between two different collections of massless tensor fields with the mixed symmetries (3, 1) and (2, 2); d) the analysis of the relation between the BRST charges obtained in the pure-spinor formalism, respectively in the κ-symmetric one for the supermembrane in eleven dimensions. Our procedure for the first three subjects is based on solving the equations that describe the deformation of the solution to the master equation by means of specific cohomological techniques, while for the fourth one we will use techniques specific to the BRST Hamiltonian approach in order to write the BRST charge. The interactions are obtained under the following hypotheses: locality, Lorentz covariance, Poincare invariance, analyticity of the deformations, and preservation of the number of derivatives on each field. The first three assumptions imply that the interacting theory is local in space-time, Lorentz covariant and Poincare invariant. The analyticity of the deformations refers to the fact that the deformed solution to the master equation is analytical in the coupling constant and reduces to the original solution in the free limit. The conservation of the number of derivatives on each field with respect to the free theory means here that the following two requirements are simultaneously satisfied: (i) the derivative order of the equations of motion on each field is the same for the free and respectively for the interacting theory; (ii) the maximum number of derivatives in the interaction vertices is equal to two, i.e. the maximum number of derivatives from

  14. Symmetry of semi-reduced lattices.

    PubMed

    Stróż, Kazimierz

    2015-05-01

    The main result of this work is extension of the famous characterization of Bravais lattices according to their metrical, algebraic and geometric properties onto a wide class of primitive lattices (including Buerger-reduced, nearly Buerger-reduced and a substantial part of Delaunay-reduced) related to low-restricted semi-reduced descriptions (s.r.d.'s). While the `geometric' operations in Bravais lattices map the basis vectors into themselves, the `arithmetic' operators in s.r.d. transform the basis vectors into cell vectors (basis vectors, face or space diagonals) and are represented by matrices from the set {\\bb V} of all 960 matrices with the determinant ±1 and elements {0, ±1} of the matrix powers. A lattice is in s.r.d. if the moduli of off-diagonal elements in both the metric tensors M and M(-1) are smaller than corresponding diagonal elements sharing the same column or row. Such lattices are split into 379 s.r.d. types relative to the arithmetic holohedries. Metrical criteria for each type do not need to be explicitly given but may be modelled as linear derivatives {\\bb M}(p,q,r), where {\\bb M} denotes the set of 39 highest-symmetry metric tensors, and p,q,r describe changes of appropriate interplanar distances. A sole filtering of {\\bb V} according to an experimental s.r.d. metric and subsequent geometric interpretation of the filtered matrices lead to mathematically stable and rich information on the Bravais-lattice symmetry and deviations from the exact symmetry. The emphasis on the crystallographic features of lattices was obtained by shifting the focus (i) from analysis of a lattice metric to analysis of symmetry matrices [Himes & Mighell (1987). Acta Cryst. A43, 375-384], (ii) from the isometric approach and invariant subspaces to the orthogonality concept {some ideas in Le Page [J. Appl. Cryst. (1982), 15, 255-259]} and splitting indices [Stróż (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 421-429] and (iii) from fixed cell transformations to transformations

  15. Near-horizon conformal symmetry and black hole entropy.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2002-06-17

    Near an event horizon, the action of general relativity acquires a new asymptotic conformal symmetry. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, this symmetry results in a chiral Virasoro algebra, and Cardy's formula for the density of states reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This lends support to the notion that black hole entropy is controlled universally by conformal symmetry near the horizon.

  16. Young Children Reasoning about Symmetry in a Dynamic Geometry Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate children's learning of reflectional symmetry in a dynamic geometry environment. Through a classroom-based intervention involving two 1-h lessons, we analyse the changes in the children's thinking about reflectional symmetry: first, they developed dynamic and embodied ways of thinking about symmetry after working with…

  17. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  18. Human Odometry Verifies the Symmetry Perspective on Bipedal Gaits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turvey, M. T.; Harrison, Steven J.; Frank, Till D.; Carello, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias "cells") required to model them. Primary gaits are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary gaits are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact was used in a test of human…

  19. Matrix Representation of Symmetry Operators in Elementary Crystallography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Presents the derivation of rotation and reflection matrix representation of symmetry operators as used in the initial discussion of crystal symmetry in elementary mineralogy at Iowa State University. Includes references and an appended list of matrix representations of the important crystallographic symmetry operators, excluding the trigonal and…

  20. Dirac neutrinos with S4 flavor symmetry in warped extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2013-11-01

    We present a warped extra dimension model with the custodial symmetry SU(2×SU(2×U(1×PLR based on the flavor symmetry S4×Z2×Z2', and the neutrinos are taken to be Dirac particles. At leading order, the democratic lepton mixing is derived exactly, and the high-dimensional operators introduce corrections of order λc to all the three lepton mixing angles such that agreement with the experimental data can be achieved. The neutrino mass spectrum is predicted to be of the inverted hierarchy and the second octant of θ23 is preferred. We suggest the modified democratic mixing, which is obtained by permuting the second and the third rows of the democratic mixing matrix, should be a good first order approximation to understanding sizable θ13 and the first octant of θ23. The constraints on the model from the electroweak precision measurements are discussed. Furthermore, we investigate the lepton mixing patterns for all the possible residual symmetries Gν and Gl in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors, respectively. For convenience, we work in the base in which m≡mlml† is diagonal, where ml is the charged lepton mass matrix. It is easy to see that the symmetry transformation matrix Gl, which is determined by the condition Gl†mGl=m, is a diagonal and non-degenerate 3×3 phase matrix. In the case that neutrinos are Majorana particles, the light neutrino mass matrix for DC mixing is of the form mνDC=UDC*diag(m1,m2,m3)UDC†. The symmetry transformations Gi, which satisfy GiTmνDCGi=mνDC, are determined to be G1=+u1u1†-u2u2†-u3u3†, G2=-u1u1†+u2u2†-u3u3† and G3=-u1u1†-u2u2†+u3u3† besides the identity transformation, where ui is the ith column of UDC. They satisfy Gi2=1, GiGj=GjGi=Gk(i≠j≠k). Consequently the symmetry group of the neutrino mass matrix mνDC is the Klein four group K4≅Z2×Z2. Denoting the underlying family symmetry group at high energies as G, then the symmetry transformations Gl and Gi should be the elements of G. In the

  1. Baryon magnetic moments: Symmetries and relations

    SciTech Connect

    Parreno, Assumpta; Savage, Martin; Tiburzi, Brian

    Magnetic moments of the octet baryons are computed using lattice QCD in background magnetic fields, including the first treatment of the magnetically coupled Σ0- Λ system. Although the computations are performed for relatively large values of the up and down quark masses, we gain new insight into the symmetries and relations between magnetic moments by working at a three-flavor mass-symmetric point. While the spinflavor symmetry in the large Nc limit of QCD is shared by the naïve constituent quark model, we find instances where quark model predictions are considerably favored over those emerging in the large Nc limit. We suggestmore » further calculations that would shed light on the curious patterns of baryon magnetic moments.« less

  2. The role of Weyl symmetry in hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diles, Saulo

    2018-04-01

    This article is dedicated to the analysis of Weyl symmetry in the context of relativistic hydrodynamics. Here is discussed how this symmetry is properly implemented using the prescription of minimal coupling: ∂ → ∂ + ωA. It is shown that this prescription has no problem to deal with curvature since it gives the correct expressions for the commutator of covariant derivatives. In hydrodynamics, Weyl gauge connection emerges from the degrees of freedom of the fluid: it is a combination of the expansion and entropy gradient. The remaining degrees of freedom, shear, vorticity and the metric tensor, are see in this context as charged fields under the Weyl gauge connection. The gauge nature of the connection provides natural dynamics to it via equations of motion analogous to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetism. As a consequence, a charge for the Weyl connection is defined and the notion of local charge is analyzed generating the conservation law for the Weyl charge.

  3. Lorentzian symmetry predicts universality beyond scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Stephen J.

    2017-06-01

    We present a covariant theory for the ageing characteristics of phase-ordering systems that possess dynamical symmetries beyond mere scalings. A chiral spin dynamics which conserves the spin-up (+) and spin-down (-) fractions, μ+ and μ- , serves as the emblematic paradigm of our theory. Beyond a parabolic spatio-temporal scaling, we discover a hidden Lorentzian dynamical symmetry therein, and thereby prove that the characteristic length L of spin domains grows in time t according to L = \\fracβ{\\sqrt{1 - σ^2}}t\\frac{1{2}} , where σ:= μ+ - μ- (the invariant spin-excess) and β is a universal constant. Furthermore, the normalised length distributions of the spin-up and the spin-down domains each provably adopt a coincident universal (σ-independent) time-invariant form, and this supra-universal probability distribution is empirically verified to assume a form reminiscent of the Wigner surmise.

  4. Baryon magnetic moments: Symmetries and relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Wilhelm, Jonas; Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic moments of the octet baryons are computed using lattice QCD in background magnetic fields, including the first treatment of the magnetically coupled ∑0- ⋀ system. Although the computations are performed for relatively large values of the up and down quark masses, we gain new insight into the symmetries and relations between magnetic moments by working at a three-flavor mass-symmetric point. While the spinflavor symmetry in the large Nc limit of QCD is shared by the naïve constituent quark model, we find instances where quark model predictions are considerably favored over those emerging in the large Nc limit. We suggest further calculations that would shed light on the curious patterns of baryon magnetic moments.

  5. Ferromagnets without inversion symmetry - room for superconductivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidomskyy, Andriy; Linder, Jacob; Sudbø, Asle

    2009-03-01

    Motivated by the recent discoveries of ferromagnetic and non-centrosymmetric superconductors, we present a mean-field theory [1] for a superconductor that both lacks inversion symmetry and displays ferromagnetism, a scenario which is believed to be realized in UIr under applied pressure [2]. We study the interplay between the order parameters to clarify how superconductivity is affected by the presence of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-orbit coupling seems to enhance both ferromagnetism and superconductivity in both singlet and triplet channels. We discuss our results in the context of the heavy fermion superconductor UIr and analyze possible symmetries of the order parameter. [3pt] [1] J. Linder, A. H. Nevidomskyy, and A. Sudbø, Phys. Rev. B 78, 172502 (2008). [0pt] [2] T. Akazawa et al., J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 16, L29 (2004); J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 3129 (2004).

  6. Hidden symmetry in the presence of fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubizňák, David; Warnick, Claude M.; Krtouš, Pavel

    2011-03-01

    We derive the most general first-order symmetry operator for the Dirac equation coupled to arbitrary fluxes. Such an operator is given in terms of an inhomogeneous form ω which is a solution to a coupled system of first-order partial differential equations which we call the generalized conformal Killing-Yano system. Except trivial fluxes, solutions of this system are subject to additional constraints. We discuss various special cases of physical interest. In particular, we demonstrate that in the case of a Dirac operator coupled to the skew symmetric torsion and U(1) field, the system of generalized conformal Killing-Yano equations decouples into the homogeneous conformal Killing-Yano equations with torsion introduced in D. Kubiznak et al. (2009) [8] and the symmetry operator is essentially the one derived in T. Houri et al. (2010) [9]. We also discuss the Dirac field coupled to a scalar potential and in the presence of 5-form and 7-form fluxes.

  7. Broken symmetries, non-reciprocity, and multiferroicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Talbayev, Diyar; Kiryukhin, Valery

    The interplay of space and time symmetries, ferroic properties, chirality and notions of reciprocity determines many of the technologically important properties of materials such as optical diode effect, e.g., in polar ferromagnet FeZnMo 3O 8. Here, we illustrate these concepts, including the non-reciprocal directional dichroism, through a number of practical examples. In particular, the conditions for non-reciprocity of ferro-rotational order are discussed and the possible use of linear optical gyration is suggested as a way to detect ferro-rotational domains. In addition, we provide the means to achieve high-temperature optical diode effect and elucidate multiferroic behaviors as a result of helicalmore » vs. cycloidal spins. Finally, we identify different entities behaving similarly under all symmetry operations, which are useful to understand non-reciprocity and multiferroicity in various materials intuitively.« less

  8. Mechanochemical Symmetry Breaking in Hydra Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Mercker, Moritz; Köthe, Alexandra; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis comprises the self-organized creation of various patterns and shapes. Although detailed underlying mechanisms are still elusive in many cases, an increasing amount of experimental data suggests that chemical morphogen and mechanical processes are strongly coupled. Here, we develop and test a minimal model of the axis-defining step (i.e., symmetry breaking) in aggregates of the Hydra polyp. Based on previous findings, we combine osmotically driven shape oscillations with tissue mechanics and morphogen dynamics. We show that the model incorporating a simple feedback loop between morphogen patterning and tissue stretch reproduces a wide range of experimental data. Finally, we compare different hypothetical morphogen patterning mechanisms (Turing, tissue-curvature, and self-organized criticality). Our results suggest the experimental investigation of bigger (i.e., multiple head) aggregates as a key step for a deeper understanding of mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra. PMID:25954896

  9. Breaking Symmetry Effects on Heavy Tetraquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Richard, J.-M.

    In this contribution we present symmetry arguments that can be applied to study the stability of four-quark systems with two different masses. The role played by different symmetry breaking effects and the non-Abelian algebra of color forces is discussed in detail. In the particular case of hidden-flavor all-heavy four-quark states, QQQ¯Q¯, the system becomes unstable for standard color-additive models. Differences and similarities between QqQ¯q¯ and QQq¯q¯ configurations are presented. In the latter case, its stability when the mass ratio M/m increases was established almost forty years ago. In the former case, we find a kind of metastability between the lowest threshold, (QQ¯) ‑ (qq¯) and the highest one, (Qq¯) ‑ (Q¯q).

  10. Broken symmetries, non-reciprocity, and multiferroicity

    DOE PAGES

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Talbayev, Diyar; Kiryukhin, Valery; ...

    2018-04-03

    The interplay of space and time symmetries, ferroic properties, chirality and notions of reciprocity determines many of the technologically important properties of materials such as optical diode effect, e.g., in polar ferromagnet FeZnMo 3O 8. Here, we illustrate these concepts, including the non-reciprocal directional dichroism, through a number of practical examples. In particular, the conditions for non-reciprocity of ferro-rotational order are discussed and the possible use of linear optical gyration is suggested as a way to detect ferro-rotational domains. In addition, we provide the means to achieve high-temperature optical diode effect and elucidate multiferroic behaviors as a result of helicalmore » vs. cycloidal spins. Finally, we identify different entities behaving similarly under all symmetry operations, which are useful to understand non-reciprocity and multiferroicity in various materials intuitively.« less

  11. Patterns and partners for chiral symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Nicola, A.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.

    2018-04-01

    We present and analyze a new set of Ward Identities which shed light on the distinction between different patterns of chiral symmetry restoration in QCD, namely O (4 ) vs O (4 )×U (1 )A. The degeneracy of chiral partners for all scalar and pseudoscalar meson nonet members is studied through their corresponding correlators. Around chiral symmetry degeneration of O (4 ) partners, our analysis predicts that U (1 )A partners are also degenerated. Our analysis also leads to I =1 /2 scalar-pseudoscalar partner degeneration at exact chiral restoration and supports ideal mixing between the η - η' and the f0(500 )- f0(980 ) mesons at O (4 )×U (1 )A restoration, with a possible range where the pseudoscalar mixing vanishes if the two transitions are well separated. We test our results with lattice data and provide further relevant observables regarding chiral and U (1 )A restoration for future lattice and model analyses.

  12. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.

  13. The symmetry of single-molecule conduction.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gemma C; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Frauenheim, Thomas; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S

    2006-11-14

    We introduce the conductance point group which defines the symmetry of single-molecule conduction within the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. It is shown, either rigorously or to within a very good approximation, to correspond to a molecular-conductance point group defined purely in terms of the properties of the conducting molecule. This enables single-molecule conductivity to be described in terms of key qualitative chemical descriptors that are independent of the nature of the molecule-conductor interfaces. We apply this to demonstrate how symmetry controls the conduction through 1,4-benzenedithiol chemisorbed to gold electrodes as an example system, listing also the molecular-conductance point groups for a range of molecules commonly used in molecular electronics research.

  14. Higgs boson from an extended symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Bellazzini, Brando; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.

    The variety of ideas put forward in the context of a composite picture for the Higgs boson calls for a simple and effective description of the related phenomenology. Such a description is given here by means of a minimal model and is explicitly applied to the example of a Higgs-top sector from an SO(5) symmetry. We discuss the spectrum, the electroweak precision tests, B-physics, and naturalness. We show the difficulty in complying with the different constraints. The extended gauge sector relative to the standard SU(2)xU(1), if there is any, has little or no impact on these considerations. We also discussmore » the relation of the minimal model with its 'little Higgs' or holographic extensions based on the same symmetry.« less

  15. E11, brane dynamics and duality symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Following arXiv:hep-th/0412336 we use the nonlinear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation to construct brane dynamics. The brane moves through a space-time which arises in the nonlinear realisation from the vector representation and it contains the usual embedding coordinates as well as the worldvolume fields. The resulting equations of motion are first order in derivatives and can be thought of as duality relations. Each brane carries the full E11 symmetry and so the Cremmer-Julia duality symmetries. We apply this theory to find the dynamics of the IIA and IIB strings, the M2 and M5 branes, the IIB D3 brane as well as the one and two branes in seven dimensions.

  16. Higgsing the stringy higher spin symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Peng, Cheng; Zadeh, Ida G.

    2015-10-01

    It has recently been argued that the symmetric orbifold theory of T 4 is dual to string theory on AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 at the tensionless point. At this point in moduli space, the theory possesses a very large symmetry algebra that includes, in particular, a W ∞ algebra capturing the gauge fields of a dual higher spin theory. Using conformal perturbation theory, we study the behaviour of the symmetry generators of the symmetric orbifold theory under the deformation that corresponds to switching on the string tension. We show that the generators fall nicely into Reggemore » trajectories, with the higher spin fields corresponding to the leading Regge trajectory. We also estimate the form of the Regge trajectories for large spin, and find evidence for the familiar logarithmic behaviour, thereby suggesting that the symmetric orbifold theory is dual to an AdS background with pure RR flux.« less

  17. Hidden symmetry and nonlinear paraxial atom optics

    SciTech Connect

    Impens, Francois

    2009-12-15

    A hidden symmetry of the nonlinear wave equation is exploited to analyze the propagation of paraxial and uniform atom-laser beams in time-independent and quadratic transverse potentials with cylindrical symmetry. The quality factor and the paraxial ABCD formalism are generalized to account exactly for mean-field interaction effects in such beams. Using an approach based on moments, these theoretical tools provide a simple yet exact picture of the interacting beam profile evolution. Guided atom laser experiments are discussed. This treatment addresses simultaneously optical and atomic beams in a unified manner, exploiting the formal analogy between nonlinear optics, nonlinear paraxial atom optics, andmore » the physics of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates.« less

  18. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Patrick L.

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based onmore » the pulse shapes of the output signals.« less

  19. Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.

  20. Gauged twistor spinors and symmetry operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertem, Ümit

    2017-03-01

    We consider gauged twistor spinors which are supersymmetry generators of supersymmetric and superconformal field theories in curved backgrounds. We show that the spinor bilinears of gauged twistor spinors satisfy the gauged conformal Killing-Yano equation. We prove that the symmetry operators of the gauged twistor spinor equation can be constructed from ordinary conformal Killing-Yano forms in constant curvature backgrounds. This provides a way to obtain gauged twistor spinors from ordinary twistor spinors.

  1. Charmed states and flavour symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, R.; Koumi, Z.; Nakamura, Y.; Perlt, H.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schierholz, G.; Schiller, A.; Stüben, H.; Young, R. D.; Zanotti, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    Extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses allows an extrapolation to the charm quark mass. This approach leads to a determination of charmed quark hadron masses and decay constants. We describe our recent progress and give preliminary results in particular with regard to the recently discovered doubly charmed baryon (the Ξcc++) by the LHCb Collaboration.

  2. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Historical Perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Quigg, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson is a major milestone in our progress toward understanding the natural world. A particular aim of my review is to show how diverse ideas came together in the conception of electroweak symmetry breaking that led up to the discovery. Furthermore, I survey what we know now that we did not know before, what properties of the Higgs boson remain to be established, and what new questions we may now hope to address.

  3. Non-Hermitian physics and PT symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ganainy, Ramy; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Musslimani, Ziad H.; Rotter, Stefan; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, notions drawn from non-Hermitian physics and parity-time (PT) symmetry have attracted considerable attention. In particular, the realization that the interplay between gain and loss can lead to entirely new and unexpected features has initiated an intense research effort to explore non-Hermitian systems both theoretically and experimentally. Here we review recent progress in this emerging field, and provide an outlook to future directions and developments.

  4. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  5. Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2017-11-01

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

  6. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen, E-mail: lwchen@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can bemore » well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.« less

  7. Extended spin symmetry and the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besprosvany, J.; Romero, R.

    2010-12-01

    We review unification ideas and explain the spin-extended model in this context. Its consideration is also motivated by the standard-model puzzles. With the aim of constructing a common description of discrete degrees of freedom, as spin and gauge quantum numbers, the model departs from q-bits and generalized Hilbert spaces. Physical requirements reduce the space to one that is represented by matrices. The classification of the representations is performed through Clifford algebras, with its generators associated with Lorentz and scalar symmetries. We study a reduced space with up to two spinor elements within a matrix direct product. At given dimension, the demand that Lorentz symmetry be maintained, determines the scalar symmetries, which connect to vector-and-chiral gauge-interacting fields; we review the standard-model information in each dimension. We obtain fermions and bosons, with matter fields in the fundamental representation, radiation fields in the adjoint, and scalar particles with the Higgs quantum numbers. We relate the fields' representation in such spaces to the quantum-field-theory one, and the Lagrangian. The model provides a coupling-constant definition.

  8. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Interdependent Networked Game

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Spatial evolution game has traditionally assumed that players interact with direct neighbors on a single network, which is isolated and not influenced by other systems. However, this is not fully consistent with recent research identification that interactions between networks play a crucial rule for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. In this work, we introduce the simple game model into the interdependent networks composed of two networks. By means of imitation dynamics, we display that when the interdependent factor α is smaller than a threshold value αC, the symmetry of cooperation can be guaranteed. Interestingly, as interdependent factor exceeds αC, spontaneous symmetry breaking of fraction of cooperators presents itself between different networks. With respect to the breakage of symmetry, it is induced by asynchronous expansion between heterogeneous strategy couples of both networks, which further enriches the content of spatial reciprocity. Moreover, our results can be well predicted by the strategy-couple pair approximation method. PMID:24526076

  9. Generalized global symmetries and dissipative magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Hofman, Diego M.; Iqbal, Nabil

    2017-05-01

    The conserved magnetic flux of U (1 ) electrodynamics coupled to matter in four dimensions is associated with a generalized global symmetry. We study the realization of such a symmetry at finite temperature and develop the hydrodynamic theory describing fluctuations of a conserved 2-form current around thermal equilibrium. This can be thought of as a systematic derivation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, constrained only by symmetries and effective field theory. We construct the entropy current and show that at first order in derivatives, there are seven dissipative transport coefficients. We present a universal definition of resistivity in a theory of dynamical electromagnetism and derive a direct Kubo formula for the resistivity in terms of correlation functions of the electric field operator. We also study fluctuations and collective modes, deriving novel expressions for the dissipative widths of magnetosonic and Alfvén modes. Finally, we demonstrate that a nontrivial truncation of the theory can be performed at low temperatures compared to the magnetic field: this theory has an emergent Lorentz invariance along magnetic field lines, and hydrodynamic fluctuations are now parametrized by a fluid tensor rather than a fluid velocity. Throughout, no assumption is made of weak electromagnetic coupling. Thus, our theory may have phenomenological relevance for dense electromagnetic plasmas.

  10. Financial Symmetry and Moods in the Market

    PubMed Central

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter. PMID:25856392

  11. Symmetries of the quantum damped harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J.; López-Ruiz, F. F.; Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.

    2012-11-01

    For the non-conservative Caldirola-Kanai system, describing a quantum damped harmonic oscillator, a couple of constant-of-motion operators generating the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra can be found. The inclusion of the standard time evolution generator (which is not a symmetry) as a symmetry in this algebra, in a unitary manner, requires a non-trivial extension of this basic algebra and hence of the physical system itself. Surprisingly, this extension leads directly to the so-called Bateman dual system, which now includes a new particle acting as an energy reservoir. In addition, the Caldirola-Kanai dissipative system can be retrieved by imposing constraints. The algebra of symmetries of the dual system is presented, as well as a quantization that implies, in particular, a first-order Schrödinger equation. As opposed to other approaches, where it is claimed that the spectrum of the Bateman Hamiltonian is complex and discrete, we obtain that it is real and continuous, with infinite degeneracy in all regimes.

  12. Constraining the physical state by symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Fatibene, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it; INFN - Sezione Torino - IS QGSKY; Ferraris, M.

    After reviewing the hole argument and its relations with initial value problem and general covariance, we shall discuss how much freedom one has to define the physical state in a generally covariant field theory (with or without internal gauge symmetries). Our analysis relies on Cauchy problems, thus it is restricted to globally hyperbolic spacetimes. We shall show that in generally covariant theories on a compact space (as well as for internal gauge symmetries on any spacetime) one has no freedom and one is forced to declare as physically equivalent two configurations which differ by a global spacetime diffeomorphism (or bymore » an internal gauge transformation) as it is usually prescribed. On the contrary, when space is not compact, the result does not hold true and one may have different options to define physically equivalent configurations, still preserving determinism. - Highlights: • Investigate the relation between the hole argument, covariance, determinism and physical state. • Show that if space is compact then any diffeomorphism is a gauge symmetry. • Show that if space is not compact then there may be more freedom in choosing gauge group.« less

  13. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadronmore » phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.« less

  14. Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin

    2007-08-01

    We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine fraktur e9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of fraktur e9. This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of fraktur e9.

  15. Financial symmetry and moods in the market.

    PubMed

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter.

  16. Symmetry aspects in emergent quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2009-06-01

    We discuss an explicit realization of the dissipative dynamics anticipated in the proof of 't Hooft's existence theorem, which states that 'For any quantum system there exists at least one deterministic model that reproduces all its dynamics after prequantization'. - There is an energy-parity symmetry hidden in the Liouville equation, which mimics the Kaplan-Sundrum protective symmetry for the cosmological constant. This symmetry may be broken by the coarse-graining inherent in physics at scales much larger than the Planck length. We correspondingly modify classical ensemble theory by incorporating dissipative fluctuations (information loss) - which are caused by discrete spacetime continually 'measuring' matter. In this way, aspects of quantum mechanics, such as the von Neumann equation, including a Lindblad term, arise dynamically and expectations of observables agree with the Born rule. However, the resulting quantum coherence is accompanied by an intrinsic decoherence and continuous localization mechanism. Our proposal leads towards a theory that is linear and local at the quantum mechanical level, but the relation to the underlying classical degrees of freedom is nonlocal.

  17. Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2017-01-01

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

  18. Aspects of Higher Spin Symmetry and its Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiboedov, Alexander

    This thesis explores different aspects of higher spin symmetry and its breaking in the context of Quantum Field Theory, AdS/CFT and String Theory. In chapter 2, we study the constraints imposed by the existence of a single higher spin conserved current on a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). A single higher spin conserved current implies the existence of an infinite number of higher spin conserved currents. The correlation functions of the stress tensor and the conserved currents are then shown to be equal to those of a free field theory. Namely a theory of N free bosons or free fermions. This is an extension of the Coleman-Mandula theorem to CFT's, which do not have a conventional S-matrix. In chapter 3, we consider three-dimensional conformal field theories that have a higher spin symmetry that is slightly broken. The theories have a large N limit, in the sense that the operators separate into single-trace and multi-trace and obey the usual large N factorization properties. We assume that the only single trace operators are the higher spin currents plus an additional scalar. Using the slightly broken higher spin symmetry we constrain the three-point functions of the theories to leading order in N. We show that there are two families of solutions. One family can be realized as a theory of N fermions with an O( N) Chern-Simons gauge field, the other as a N bosons plus the Chern-Simons gauge field. In chapter 4, we consider several aspects of unitary higher-dimensional conformal field theories. We investigate the dimensions of spinning operators via the crossing equations in the light-cone limit. We find that, in a sense, CFTs become free at large spin and 1/s is a weak coupling parameter. The spectrum of CFTs enjoys additivity: if two twists tau 1, tau2 appear in the spectrum, there are operators whose twists are arbitrarily close to tau1 + tau2. We characterize how tau1 + tau2 is approached at large spin by solving the crossing equations analytically

  19. Hopf bifurcation with dihedral group symmetry - Coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    1986-01-01

    The theory of Hopf bifurcation with symmetry developed by Golubitsky and Stewart (1985) is applied to systems of ODEs having the symmetries of a regular polygon, that is, whose symmetry group is dihedral. The existence and stability of symmetry-breaking branches of periodic solutions are considered. In particular, these results are applied to a general system of n nonlinear oscillators coupled symmetrically in a ring, and the generic oscillation patterns are described. It is found that the symmetry can force some oscillators to have twice the frequency of others. The case of four oscillators has exceptional features.

  20. Trinucleotide's quadruplet symmetries and natural symmetry law of DNA creation ensuing Chargaff's second parity rule.

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Vlahović, Ines; Glunčić, Matko; Paar, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    For almost 50 years the conclusive explanation of Chargaff's second parity rule (CSPR), the equality of frequencies of nucleotides A=T and C=G or the equality of direct and reverse complement trinucleotides in the same DNA strand, has not been determined yet. Here, we relate CSPR to the interstrand mirror symmetry in 20 symbolic quadruplets of trinucleotides (direct, reverse complement, complement, and reverse) mapped to double-stranded genome. The symmetries of Q-box corresponding to quadruplets can be obtained as a consequence of Watson-Crick base pairing and CSPR together. Alternatively, assuming Natural symmetry law for DNA creation that each trinucleotide in one strand of DNA must simultaneously appear also in the opposite strand automatically leads to Q-box direct-reverse mirror symmetry which in conjunction with Watson-Crick base pairing generates CSPR. We demonstrate quadruplet's symmetries in chromosomes of wide range of organisms, from Escherichia coli to Neanderthal and human genomes, introducing novel quadruplet-frequency histograms and 3D-diagrams with combined interstrand frequencies. These "landscapes" are mutually similar in all mammals, including extinct Neanderthals, and somewhat different in most of older species. In human chromosomes 1-12, and X, Y the "landscapes" are almost identical and slightly different in the remaining smaller and telocentric chromosomes. Quadruplet frequencies could provide a new robust tool for characterization and classification of genomes and their evolutionary trajectories.

  1. The priority of internal symmetries in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorovich, Aharon

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, I try to decipher the role of internal symmetries in the ontological maze of particle physics. The relationship between internal symmetries and laws of nature is discussed within the framework of ;Platonic realism.; The notion of physical ;structure; is introduced as representing a deeper ontological layer behind the observable world. I argue that an internal symmetry is a structure encompassing laws of nature. The application of internal symmetry groups to particle physics came about in two revolutionary steps. The first was the introduction of the internal symmetries of hadrons in the early 1960s. These global and approximate symmetries served as means of bypassing the dynamics. I argue that the realist could interpret these symmetries as ontologically prior to the hadrons. The second step was the gauge revolution in the 1970s, where symmetries became local and exact and were integrated with the dynamics. I argue that the symmetries of the second generation are fundamental in the following two respects: (1) According to the so-called ;gauge argument,; gauge symmetry dictates the existence of gauge bosons, which determine the nature of the forces. This view, which has been recently criticized by some philosophers, is widely accepted in particle physics at least as a heuristic principle. (2) In view of grand unified theories, the new symmetries can be interpreted as ontologically prior to baryon matter.

  2. Botulinum toxin to improve lower facial symmetry in facial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, S A; Khwaja, S; Saeed, S R

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In long-standing facial palsy, muscles on the normal side overcontract causing difficulty in articulation, eating, drinking, cosmetic embarrassment, and psychological effects as patients lack confidence in public. Methods We injected botulinum toxin A (BTXA) into the normal contralateral smile muscles to weaken them and restore symmetry to both active and passive movements by neutralising these overacting muscles. Results A total of 14 patients received BTXA (79% women, median age 47 years, average length of palsy 8 years). They were all difficult cases graded between 2 and 6 (average grade 3 House–Brackmann). All 14 patients reported improved facial symmetry with BTXA (dose altered in some to achieve maximum benefit). Average dose was 30 units, but varied from 10 to 80 units. Average time to peak effect was 6 days; average duration of effect was 11 weeks. Three patients had increased drooling (resolved within a few days). Conclusion The improvement in symmetry was observed by both patient and examining doctor. Patients commented on increased confidence, being more likely to allow photographs taken of themselves, and families reported improved legibility of speech. Younger patients have more muscle tone than older patients; the effect is more noticeable and the benefit greater for them. BTXA improves symmetry in patients with facial palsy, is simple and acceptable, and provides approximately 4 months of benefit. The site of injection depends on the dynamics of the muscles in each individual patient. PMID:22975654

  3. Two-plane symmetry in the structural organization of man.

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, A E

    2005-01-01

    Manifestations of symmetry in the human structural organization in ontogenesis and phylogenetic development are analysed. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant: (a) the location of the organs is governed by two principles: in compliance with the symmetry planes and in compliance with the radial symmetry around cavities; (b) the location of the radial symmetry organs is also governed by the principle of two-plane symmetry; (c) out of the four antimeres of two-plane symmetry, two are paired while the other two have merged into one organ; (d) some organs which are antimeres relative to the horizontal plane are located at the cranial end of the organism (sensory organs, cerebrum-cerebellum, heart-spleen and others). The two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms--(a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and (b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry. When comparing mineral and biological entities we should consider not the whole immobile crystal but only the active superficial part of a growing or dissolving crystal, the interface between the crystal surface and the crystal-forming environment which directly controls crystal growth and adapts itself to it, as well as crystal feed stock expressed in the structure of concentration flows. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrion at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described.

  4. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals: (A) hexagonal symmetry, (B) trigonal symmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.

    1965-01-01

    Variational principles of anisotropic elasticity have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having hexagonal symmetry and trigonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a considerable improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be in most cases a good approximation when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  5. Fierz bilinear formulation of the Maxwell-Dirac equations and symmetry reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Shaun; Jarvis, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We study the Maxwell-Dirac equations in a manifestly gauge invariant presentation using only the spinor bilinear scalar and pseudoscalar densities, and the vector and pseudovector currents, together with their quadratic Fierz relations. The internally produced vector potential is expressed via algebraic manipulation of the Dirac equation, as a rational function of the Fierz bilinears and first derivatives (valid on the support of the scalar density), which allows a gauge invariant vector potential to be defined. This leads to a Fierz bilinear formulation of the Maxwell tensor and of the Maxwell-Dirac equations, without any reference to gauge dependent quantities. We show how demanding invariance of tensor fields under the action of a fixed (but arbitrary) Lie subgroup of the Poincaré group leads to symmetry reduced equations. The procedure is illustrated, and the reduced equations worked out explicitly for standard spherical and cylindrical cases, which are coupled third order nonlinear PDEs. Spherical symmetry necessitates the existence of magnetic monopoles, which do not affect the coupled Maxwell-Dirac system due to magnetic terms cancelling. In this paper we do not take up numerical computations. As a demonstration of the power of our approach, we also work out the symmetry reduced equations for two distinct classes of dimension 4 one-parameter families of Poincaré subgroups, one splitting and one non-splitting. The splitting class yields no solutions, whereas for the non-splitting class we find a family of formal exact solutions in closed form.

  6. On standardization of low symmetry crystal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, Zbigniew

    2015-07-01

    Standardization methods of low symmetry - orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic - crystal fields are formulated and discussed. Two alternative approaches are presented, the conventional one, based on the second-rank parameters and the standardization based on the fourth-rank parameters. Mainly f-electron systems are considered but some guidelines for d-electron systems and the spin Hamiltonian describing the zero-field splitting are given. The discussion focuses on premises for choosing the most suitable method, in particular on inadequacy of the conventional one. Few examples from the literature illustrate this situation.

  7. Sterile neutrinos and B-L symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the relation between the neutrino masses and the spontaneous breaking of the B-L gauge symmetry. We discuss the main scenarios for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and point out two simple mechanisms for neutrino masses. In this context the neutrino masses can be generated either at tree level or at quantum level and one predicts the existence of very light sterile neutrinos with masses below the eV scale. The predictions for lepton number violating processes such as μ → e and μ → eγ are discussed in detail. The impact from the cosmological constraints on the effective number of relativistic degree of freedom is investigated.

  8. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  9. Symmetry structure in neutron deficient xenon nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    1998-12-01

    The paper describes the measurements of the lifetimes of the excited states in the ground state band of the Neutron deficient Xe nuclei (122,124Xe) by recoil Distance Method (RDM). The lifetimes of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the RDM measurements but for 124Xe it does not agree the RDM measurements but agrees with the earlier Coulomb-excitation experiment. The experimental results are compared with the existing theories to understand the changes in the symmetry structure of the Xe-nuclei as the Neutron number decreases from N=76(130Xe) to N=64(118Xe).

  10. PT-symmetry of coupled fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey V.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Makarenko, Maxim; Vatnik, Ilya; Suchkov, Sergey V.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we propose a concept of a coupled fiber laser exhibiting PT-symmetry properties. We consider a system operated via Raman gain. The scheme comprises two identical fiber loops (ring cavities) connected by means of two fiber couplers with variable phase shift between them. We show that by changing the phase shift one can switch between generation regimes, realizing either PT-symmetric or PT-broken solution. Furthermore, the paper investigates some peculiarities of the system such as power oscillations and the role of nonlinear phase shift in fiber rings.

  11. Spacetime symmetries and Kepler's third law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre

    2012-11-01

    The curved spacetime geometry of a system of two point masses moving on a circular orbit has a helical symmetry. We show how Kepler’s third law for circular motion, and its generalization in post-Newtonian theory, can be recovered from a simple, covariant condition on the norm of the associated helical Killing vector field. This unusual derivation can be used to illustrate some concepts of prime importance in a general relativity course, including those of Killing field, covariance, coordinate dependence and gravitational redshift.

  12. Theoretical Studies of Lorentz and CPT Symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental symmetries studied here are Lorentz and CPT invariance, which form a cornerstone of the relativistic quantum theories used in modern descriptions of nature. The results obtained during the reporting period focus on the idea, originally suggested by the P.I. and his group in the late 1980s, that observable CPT and Lorentz violation in nature might emerge from the qualitatively new physics expected to hold at the Planck scale. What follows is a summary of results obtained during the period of this grant.

  13. Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja

    We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in quasi one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathi, Urbashi, E-mail: urbashi@bose.res.in; Deo, P. Singha

    2015-06-24

    Electronic charge and spin separation leading to charge density wave and spin density wave is well established in one dimension in the presence and absence of Coulomb interaction. We start from quasi one dimension and show the possibility of such a transition in quasi one dimension as well as in two dimensions by going to a regime where it can be shown for electrons that just interact via Fermi statistics. Such density waves arise due to internal symmetry breaking in a many fermion quantum system. We can extend this result to very wide rings with infinitely many electrons including Coulombmore » interaction.« less

  15. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  16. Evolution of Perianth and Stamen Characteristics with Respect to Floral Symmetry in Ranunculales

    PubMed Central

    Damerval, Catherine; Nadot, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral symmetry presents two main states in angiosperms, namely polysymmetry and monosymmetry. Monosymmetry is thought to have evolved several times independently from polysymmetry, possibly in co-adaptation with specialized pollinators. Monosymmetry commonly refers to the perianth, even though associated androecium modifications have been reported. The evolution of perianth symmetry is examined with respect to traits of flower architecture in the Ranunculales, the sister group to all other eudicots, which present a large diversity of floral forms. Methods Characters considered were perianth merism, calyx, corolla and androecium symmetry, number of stamens and spurs. Character evolution was optimized on a composite phylogenetic tree of Ranunculales using maximum parsimony. Key Results The ancestral state for merism could not be inferred because the basalmost Eupteleaceae lack a perianth and have a variable number of stamens. The Papaveraceae are dimerous, and the five other families share a common trimerous ancestor. Shifts from trimery to dimery (or reverse) are observed. Pentamery evolved in Ranunculaceae. Ranunculales except Eupteleaceae, present a polysymmetric ancestral state. Monosymmetry evolved once within Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae and Menispermaceae (female flowers only). Oligandry is the ancestral state for all Ranunculales, and polyandry evolved several times independently, in Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae, Berberidaceae and Ranunculaceae, with two reversions to oligandry in the latter. The ancestral state for androecium symmetry is ambiguous for the Ranunculales, while polysymmetry evolved immediately after the divergence of Eupteleaceae. A disymmetric androecium evolved in Papaveraceae. The ancestral state for spurs is none. Multiple spurs evolved in Papaveraceae, Berberidaceae and Ranunculaceae, and single spurs occur in Papaveraceae and Ranunculaceae. Conclusions The evolution of symmetry appears disconnected from changes in

  17. Universal measurement-based quantum computation in two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Huang, Ching-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Recent progress in the characterization of gapped quantum phases has also triggered the search for a universal resource for quantum computation in symmetric gapped phases. Prior works in one dimension suggest that it is a feature more common than previously thought, in that nontrivial one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases provide quantum computational power characterized by the algebraic structure defining these phases. Progress in two and higher dimensions so far has been limited to special fixed points. Here we provide two families of two-dimensional Z2 symmetric wave functions such that there exists a finite region of the parameter in the SPT phases that supports universal quantum computation. The quantum computational power appears to lose its universality at the boundary between the SPT and the symmetry-breaking phases.

  18. Hawks, doves, and mixed-symmetry games.

    PubMed

    Crowley, P H

    2000-06-21

    The hawk-dove game has proved to be an important tool for understanding the role of aggression in social interactions. Here, the game is presented in a more general form (GHD) to facilitate analyses of interactions between individuals that may differ in "size", where size is interpreted as a surrogate for resource holding power. Three different situations are considered, based on the availability and use of information that interacting individuals have about their sizes: the classical symmetric case, in which no information about sizes is used, the asymmetric case, in which the individuals know their relative sizes and thus their chances of prevailing in combat, and a mixed-symmetry case, in which each individual only knows its own size (or only knows its opponent's size). I describe and use some recently developed methods for multitype games-evolutionary games involving two or more categories of players. With these methods and others, the evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) that emerge for the three different cases are identified and compared. A proof of the form and uniqueness of the ESS for the mixed-symmetry case is presented. In this situation, one size category at most can play a mixed strategy; larger individuals are aggressive and smaller individuals are not. As the number of size categories approaches infinity and the size distribution becomes continuous, there is a threshold size, above which all individuals are aggressive, and below which they are not. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Lorentz symmetry violation and UHECR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2001-08-01

    Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) at Planck scale can be tested through ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). We discuss deformed Lorentz symmetry (DLS) and energy non-conservation (ENC) patterns where the effective LSV parameter varies like the square of the momentum scale (e.g. quadratically de-formed relativistic kinematics, QDRK). In such patterns, a ≈ 106 LSV at Planck scale would be enough to produce observable effects on the properties of cosmic rays at the ≈ 1020 eV scale: absence of GZK cutoff, stability of unstable particles, lower interaction rates, kinematical failure of any parton model and of standard formulae for Lorentz contraction and time dilation... Its phenomeno-logical implications are compatible with existing data. Precise signatures are discussed in several patterns. If the effective LSV or ENC parameter is taken to vary linearly with the momentum scale (e.g. linearly deformed relativistic kinematics, LDRK), contradictions seem to arise with UHECR data. Conse-quences are important for UHECR and high-energy gamma-ray exper iments, as well as for high-energy cosmic rays and gravitational waves.

  20. Electronic Asymmetry by Compositionally Braking Inversion Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warusawithana, Maitri

    2005-03-01

    By stacking molecular layers of 3 different perovskite titanate phases, BaTiO3, SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 with atomic layer control, we construct nanostructures where global inversion symmetry is broken. With the structures clamped to the substrate, the stacking order gives rise to asymmetric strain fields. The dielectric response show asymmetric field tuning consistent with the symmetry of the stacking order. By analyzing the temperature and frequency dependence of the complex dielectric constant, we show that the response comes from activated switching of dipoles between two asymmetric states separated by an energy barrier. We find the size of average dipole units from the temperature dependence of the linewidth of field tuning curves to be around 10 unit cells in all the different nanostructures we investigate. At low temperatures we observe a deviation from the kinetic response suggesting a further growth in correlations. Pyrocurrent measurements confirm this observation indicating a phase transition to a ferro-like state. We explain the high temperature dipoles as single unit cell cross sectional columns correlated via the strain fields in the stacking direction, with the height somewhat short of the film thickness possibly due to some form of weak disorder.

  1. New symmetry of the cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts rotation-vibration structure with rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a 𝒟3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our measurement of the new 22+ and the measured of the new 5- state in 12C fit very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band structure with the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a 𝒟3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules, and it is observed in 12C for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C.

  2. Conditional discriminations, symmetry, and semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Manish; Hudgins, Caleb D; Ortu, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Psychologists interested in the study of symbolic behavior have found that people are faster at reporting that two words are related to one another than they are in reporting that two words are not related - an effect called semantic priming. This phenomenon has largely been documented in the context of natural languages using real words as stimuli. The current study asked whether laboratory-generated stimulus-stimulus relations established between arbitrary geometrical shapes would also show the semantic priming effect. Participants learned six conditional relations using a one-to-many training structure (A1-B1, A1-C1, A1-D1, A2-B2, A2-C2, A2-D2) and demonstrated, via accurate performance on tests of derived symmetry, that the trained stimulus functions had become reversible. In a lexical decision task, subjects also demonstrated a priming effect as they displayed faster reaction times to target stimuli when the prime and target came from the same trained or derived conditional relations, compared to the condition in which the prime and target came from different trained or derived conditional relations. These data suggest that laboratory-generated equivalence relations may serve as useful analogues of symbolic behavior. However, the fact that conditional relations training and symmetry alone were sufficient to produce the effect suggests that semantic priming like effects may be the byproduct of simpler stimulus-stimulus relations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  4. Biogenic twinned crystals exhibiting unique morphological symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Anna; Gur, Dvir; Palmer, Ben; Addadi, Lia; Leiserowitz, Leslie; Kronik, Leeor

    Guanine crystals are widely used in nature as components of multilayer reflectors. Organisms control the size, morphology, and arrangement of these crystals, to obtain a variety of optical ''devices''. The reflection systems found in the lens of the scallop eye and in the copepod cuticle are unique in that the multilayered reflectors are tiled together to form a contiguous packed array. In the former, square crystals are tiled to form a reflecting mirror. In the latter, hexagonal crystals are closely packed to produce brilliant colors. Based on electron diffraction, morphology considerations, and density functional theory, these crystals were shown to possess similar monoclinic crystal symmetry, which we have previously identified as different from that of synthetic anhydrous guanine. However, the crystals are different in that multiple twinning about the {012} and the {011} crystallographic planes results in square and hexagonal morphology, respectively. This is a unique example where controlled twinning is used as a strategy to form a morphology with higher symmetry than that of the underlying crystal, allowing for tilling that facilitates optical functionality.

  5. Interfacial Symmetry Control of Emergent Ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Alexander; Borchers, Julie; Kirby, Brian; He, Chunyong; Arenholz, Elke; Vailionis, Arturas; Flint, Charles; Suzuki, Yuri

    Atomically precise complex oxide heterostructures provide model systems for the discovery of new emergent phenomena since their magnetism, structure and electronic properties are strongly coupled. Octahedral tilts and rotations have been shown to alter the magnetic properties of complex oxide heterostructures, but typically induce small, gradual magnetic changes. Here, we demonstrate sharp switching between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order at the emergent ferromagnetic interfaces of CaRuO3/CaMnO3 superlattices. Through synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectometry, we show that octahedral distortions in superlattices with an odd number of CaMnO3 unit cells in each layer are symmetry mismatched across the interface. In this case, the rotation symmetry switches across the interface, reducing orbital overlap, suppressing charge transfer from Ru to Mn, and disrupting the interfacial double exchange. This disruption switches half of the interfaces from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic and lowers the saturation magnetic of the superlattice from 1.0 to 0.5 μB/interfacial Mn. By targeting a purely interfacial emergent magnetic system, we achieve drastic alterations to the magnetic ground state with extremely small changes in layer thickness.

  6. Emergent symmetries in the canonical tensor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obster, Dennis; Sasakura, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    The canonical tensor model (CTM) is a tensor model proposing a classically and quantum mechanically consistent description of gravity, formulated as a first-class constraint system with structural similarities to the ADM formalism of general relativity. The classical CTM produces a general relativistic system in a formal continuum limit, the emergence of which should be explained by the quantum CTM. In this paper we study the symmetry properties of a wave function that exactly solves the quantum constraints of the CTM. We have found that it has strong peaks at configurations invariant under some Lie groups, as predicted by a mechanism described in our previous paper. A surprising result is the preference for configurations invariant not only under Lie groups with positive definite signature, but also with Lorentzian signature. Such symmetries could characterize the global structures of spacetimes, and our results are encouraging towards showing spacetime emergence in the CTM. To verify the asymptotic convergence of the wave function we have also analyzed the asymptotic behavior, which for the most part seems to be well under control.

  7. Long-lived polarization protected by symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yesu; Theis, Thomas; Wu, Tung-Lin; Claytor, Kevin; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we elucidate, theoretically and experimentally, molecular motifs which permit Long-Lived Polarization Protected by Symmetry (LOLIPOPS). The basic assembly principle starts from a pair of chemically equivalent nuclei supporting a long-lived singlet state and is completed by coupling to additional pairs of spins. LOLIPOPS can be created in various sizes; here we review four-spin systems, introduce a group theory analysis of six-spin systems, and explore eight-spin systems by simulation. The focus is on AA'XnX'n spin systems, where typically the A spins are 15N or 13C and X spins are protons. We describe the symmetry of the accessed states, we detail the pulse sequences used to access these states, we quantify the fraction of polarization that can be stored as LOLIPOPS, we elucidate how to access the protected states from A or from X polarization and we examine the behavior of these spin systems upon introduction of a small chemical shift difference.

  8. Persistence and breakdown of strand symmetry in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shang-Hong

    2015-04-07

    Afreixo, V., Bastos, C.A.C., Garcia, S.P., Rodrigues, J.M.O.S., Pinho, A.J., Ferreira, P.J.S.G., 2013. The breakdown of the word symmetry in the human genome. J. Theor. Biol. 335, 153-159 analyzed the word symmetry (strand symmetry or the second parity rule) in the human genome. They concluded that strand symmetry holds for oligonucleotides up to 6 nt and is no longer statistically significant for oligonucleotides of higher orders. However, although they provided some new results for the issue, their interpretation would not be fully justified. Also, their conclusion needs to be further evaluated. Further analysis of their results, especially those of equivalence tests and word symmetry distance, shows that strand symmetry would persist for higher-order oligonucleotides up to 9 nt in the human genome, at least for its overall frequency framework (oligonucleotide frequency pattern). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scale-chiral symmetry, ω meson, and dense baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that explicitly broken scale symmetry is essential for dense skyrmion matter in hidden local symmetry theory. Consistency with the vector manifestation fixed point for the hidden local symmetry of the lowest-lying vector mesons and the dilaton limit fixed point for scale symmetry in dense matter is found to require that the anomalous dimension (|γG2| ) of the gluon field strength tensor squared (G2 ) that represents the quantum trace anomaly should be 1.0 ≲|γG2|≲3.5 . The magnitude of |γG2| estimated here will be useful for studying hadron and nuclear physics based on the scale-chiral effective theory. More significantly, that the dilaton limit fixed point can be arrived at with γG2≠0 at some high density signals that scale symmetry can arise in dense medium as an "emergent" symmetry.

  10. Critical fermion density for restoring spontaneously broken symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Hagen; Xue, She-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    We show how the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breakdown is affected by the presence of a sea of fermions in the system. When its density exceeds a critical value, the broken symmetry can be restored. We calculate the critical value and discuss the consequences for three different physical systems: First, for the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, where the spontaneous symmetry breakdown leads to nonzero masses of intermediate gauge bosons and fermions. The symmetry restoration will greatly enhance various processes with dramatic consequences for the early universe. Second, for the Gell-Mann-Lévy σ-model of nuclear physics, where the symmetry breakdown gives rise to the nucleon and meson masses. The symmetry restoration may have important consequences for formation or collapse of stellar cores. Third, for the superconductive phase of condensed-matter, where the BCS condensate at low-temperature may be destroyed by a too large electron density.

  11. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.M., E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn; Horvathy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr; Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours

    2013-06-15

    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry ismore » decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.« less

  12. Fierz bilinear formulation of the Maxwell–Dirac equations and symmetry reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Inglis, Shaun, E-mail: sminglis@utas.edu.au; Jarvis, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Jarvis@utas.edu.au

    We study the Maxwell–Dirac equations in a manifestly gauge invariant presentation using only the spinor bilinear scalar and pseudoscalar densities, and the vector and pseudovector currents, together with their quadratic Fierz relations. The internally produced vector potential is expressed via algebraic manipulation of the Dirac equation, as a rational function of the Fierz bilinears and first derivatives (valid on the support of the scalar density), which allows a gauge invariant vector potential to be defined. This leads to a Fierz bilinear formulation of the Maxwell tensor and of the Maxwell–Dirac equations, without any reference to gauge dependent quantities. We showmore » how demanding invariance of tensor fields under the action of a fixed (but arbitrary) Lie subgroup of the Poincaré group leads to symmetry reduced equations. The procedure is illustrated, and the reduced equations worked out explicitly for standard spherical and cylindrical cases, which are coupled third order nonlinear PDEs. Spherical symmetry necessitates the existence of magnetic monopoles, which do not affect the coupled Maxwell–Dirac system due to magnetic terms cancelling. In this paper we do not take up numerical computations. As a demonstration of the power of our approach, we also work out the symmetry reduced equations for two distinct classes of dimension 4 one-parameter families of Poincaré subgroups, one splitting and one non-splitting. The splitting class yields no solutions, whereas for the non-splitting class we find a family of formal exact solutions in closed form. - Highlights: • Maxwell–Dirac equations derived in manifestly gauge invariant tensor form. • Invariant scalar and four vector fields for four Poincaré subgroups derived, including two unusual cases. • Symmetry reduction imposed on Maxwell–Dirac equations under example subgroups. • Magnetic monopole arises for spherically symmetric case, consistent with charge quantization condition.« less

  13. Symmetric development: transcriptional regulation of symmetry transition in plants.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Liam

    2014-12-15

    Symmetry breaking and re-establishment is an important developmental process that occurs during the development of multicellular organisms. A new report determines that transcription factors regulate a symmetry transition event in plants by modifying the direction of auxin transport. This provides one of the first mechanistic descriptions of a transition from bilateral to radial symmetry in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the symmetries of the 12C nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseh, J.; Trencsényi, R.

    The consequences of some symmetries of the three-alpha system are discussed. In particular, the recent description of the low-energy spectrum of the 12C nucleus in terms of the algebraic cluster model (ACM) is compared to that of the multichannel dynamical symmetry (MUSY), which is the intersection of the shell and cluster models. The previous one applies interactions of a D3h geometric symmetry [D. J. Marin-Lambarri et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 012502], while the latter one has a U(3) dynamical symmetry. The available data is in line with both descriptions.

  15. More on the hidden symmetries of 11D supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianopoli, Laura; D'Auria, Riccardo; Ravera, Lucrezia

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we clarify the relations occurring among the osp (1 | 32) algebra, the M-algebra and the hidden superalgebra underlying the Free Differential Algebra of D=11 supergravity (to which we will refer as DF-algebra) that was introduced in the literature by D'Auria and Frè in 1981 and is actually a (Lorentz valued) central extension of the M-algebra including a nilpotent spinor generator, Q‧. We focus in particular on the 4-form cohomology in 11D superspace of the supergravity theory, strictly related to the presence in the theory of a 3-form A (3). Once formulated in terms of its hidden superalgebra of 1-forms, we find that A (3) can be decomposed into the sum of two parts having different group-theoretical meaning: One of them allows to reproduce the FDA of the 11D Supergravity due to non-trivial contributions to the 4-form cohomology in superspace, while the second one does not contribute to the 4-form cohomology, being a closed 3-form in the vacuum, defining however a one parameter family of trilinear forms invariant under a symmetry algebra related to osp (1 | 32) by redefining the spin connection and adding a new Maurer-Cartan equation. We further discuss about the crucial role played by the 1-form spinor η (dual to the nilpotent generator Q‧) for the 4-form cohomology of the eleven dimensional theory on superspace.

  16. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545

  17. Separability and dynamical symmetry of Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.-M., E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn; Zou, L.-P., E-mail: zoulp@impcas.ac.cn; Horvathy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr

    2014-02-15

    The separability and Runge–Lenz-type dynamical symmetry of the internal dynamics of certain two-electron Quantum Dots, found by Simonović et al. (2003), are traced back to that of the perturbed Kepler problem. A large class of axially symmetric perturbing potentials which allow for separation in parabolic coordinates can easily be found. Apart from the 2:1 anisotropic harmonic trapping potential considered in Simonović and Nazmitdinov (2013), they include a constant electric field parallel to the magnetic field (Stark effect), the ring-shaped Hartmann potential, etc. The harmonic case is studied in detail. -- Highlights: • The separability of Quantum Dots is derived frommore » that of the perturbed Kepler problem. • Harmonic perturbation with 2:1 anisotropy is separable in parabolic coordinates. • The system has a conserved Runge–Lenz type quantity.« less

  18. Infrared modification of gravity from conformal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegenberg, Jack; Rahmati, Shohreh; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2016-03-01

    We reconsider a gauge theory of gravity in which the gauge group is the conformal group SO(4,2), and the action is of the Yang-Mills form, quadratic in the curvature. The resulting gravitational theory exhibits local conformal symmetry and reduces to Weyl-squared gravity under certain conditions. When the theory is linearized about flat spacetime, we find that matter which couples to the generators of special conformal transformations reproduces Newton's inverse square law. Conversely, matter which couples to generators of translations induces a constant and possibly repulsive force far from the source, which may be relevant for explaining the late-time acceleration of the Universe. The coupling constant of the theory is dimensionless, which means that it is potentially renormalizable.

  19. Nilpotent symmetries in supergroup field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study the gauge invariance of the third quantized supergroup field cosmology which is a model for multiverse. Further, we propose both the infinitesimal (usual) as well as the finite superfield-dependent BRST symmetry transformations which leave the effective theory invariant. The effects of finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations on the path integral (so-called void functional in the case of third quantization) are implemented. Within the finite superfield-dependent BRST formulation, the finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations with specific parameter switch the void functional from one gauge to another. We establish this result for the most general gauge with the help of explicit calculations which holds for all possible sets of gauge choices at both the classical and the quantum levels.

  20. Point interactions, metamaterials, and PT-symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We express the boundary conditions for TE and TM waves at the interfaces of an infinite planar slab of homogeneous metamaterial as certain point interactions and use them to compute the transfer matrix of the system. This allows us to demonstrate the omnidirectional reflectionlessness of Veselago's slab for waves of arbitrary wavelength, reveal the translational and reflection symmetry of this slab, explore the laser threshold condition and coherent perfect absorption for active negative-index metamaterials, introduce a point interaction modeling phase-conjugation, determine the corresponding antilinear transfer matrix, and offer a simple proof of the equivalence of Veselago's slab with a pair of parallel phase-conjugating plates. We also study the connection between certain optical setups involving metamaterials and a class of PT-symmetric quantum systems defined on wedge-shape contours in the complex plane. This provides a physical interpretation for the latter.

  1. Dynamic symmetries and quantum nonadiabatic transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Fuxiang; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-05-30

    Kramers degeneracy theorem is one of the basic results in quantum mechanics. According to it, the time-reversal symmetry makes each energy level of a half-integer spin system at least doubly degenerate, meaning the absence of transitions or scatterings between degenerate states if the Hamiltonian does not depend on time explicitly. Here we generalize this result to the case of explicitly time-dependent spin Hamiltonians. We prove that for a spin system with the total spin being a half integer, if its Hamiltonian and the evolution time interval are symmetric under a specifically defined time reversal operation, the scattering amplitude between anmore » arbitrary initial state and its time reversed counterpart is exactly zero. Lastly, we also discuss applications of this result to the multistate Landau–Zener (LZ) theory.« less

  2. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; ...

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z 3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general,more » however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  3. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-02-01

    The tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valued non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing.

  4. Symmetry as Bias: Rediscovering Special Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a rational reconstruction of Einstein's discovery of special relativity, validated through an implementation: the Erlanger program. Einstein's discovery of special relativity revolutionized both the content of physics and the research strategy used by theoretical physicists. This research strategy entails a mutual bootstrapping process between a hypothesis space for biases, defined through different postulated symmetries of the universe, and a hypothesis space for physical theories. The invariance principle mutually constrains these two spaces. The invariance principle enables detecting when an evolving physical theory becomes inconsistent with its bias, and also when the biases for theories describing different phenomena are inconsistent. Structural properties of the invariance principle facilitate generating a new bias when an inconsistency is detected. After a new bias is generated. this principle facilitates reformulating the old, inconsistent theory by treating the latter as a limiting approximation. The structural properties of the invariance principle can be suitably generalized to other types of biases to enable primal-dual learning.

  5. Symmetries and synchronization in multilayer random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In the light of the recently proposed scenario of asymmetry-induced synchronization (AISync), in which dynamical uniformity and consensus in a distributed system would demand certain asymmetries in the underlying network, we investigate here the influence of some regularities in the interlayer connection patterns on the synchronization properties of multilayer random networks. More specifically, by considering a Stuart-Landau model of complex oscillators with random frequencies, we report for multilayer networks a dynamical behavior that could be also classified as a manifestation of AISync. We show, namely, that the presence of certain symmetries in the interlayer connection pattern tends to diminish the synchronization capability of the whole network or, in other words, asymmetries in the interlayer connections would enhance synchronization in such structured networks. Our results might help the understanding not only of the AISync mechanism itself but also its possible role in the determination of the interlayer connection pattern of multilayer and other structured networks with optimal synchronization properties.

  6. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  7. Conservation laws and symmetries in stochastic thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Polettini, Matteo; Bulnes-Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Phenomenological nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes how fluxes of conserved quantities, such as matter, energy, and charge, flow from outer reservoirs across a system and how they irreversibly degrade from one form to another. Stochastic thermodynamics is formulated in terms of probability fluxes circulating in the system's configuration space. The consistency of the two frameworks is granted by the condition of local detailed balance, which specifies the amount of physical quantities exchanged with the reservoirs during single transitions between configurations. We demonstrate that the topology of the configuration space crucially determines the number of independent thermodynamic affinities (forces) that the reservoirs generate across the system and provides a general algorithm that produces the fundamental affinities and their conjugate currents contributing to the total dissipation, based on the interplay between macroscopic conservations laws for the currents and microscopic symmetries of the affinities.

  8. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z 3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general,more » however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  9. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    DOE PAGES

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-02-08

    Here, the tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valuedmore » non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing.« less

  10. Symmetry breaking in linear multipole traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J.; Champenois, C.; Kamsap, M. R.; Hagel, G.; Houssin, M.; Knoop, M.

    2018-03-01

    Radiofrequency multipole traps have been used for some decades in cold collision experiments and are gaining interest for precision spectroscopy due to their low micromotion contribution and the predicted unusual cold-ion structures. However, the experimental realisation is not yet fully controlled, and open questions in the operation of these devices remain. We present experimental observations of symmetry breaking of the trapping potential in a macroscopic octupole trap with laser-cooled ions. Numerical simulations have been performed in order to explain the appearance of additional local potential minima and be able to control them in a next step. We characterise these additional potential minima, in particular with respect to their position, their potential depth and their probability of population as a function of the radial and angular displacement of the trapping rods.

  11. Overview: Parity Violation and Fundamental Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The fields of nuclear and particle physics have undertaken extensive programs of research to search for evidence of new phenomena via the precision measurement of observables that are well predicted within the standard model of electroweak interaction. It is already known that the standard model is incomplete as it does not include gravity and dark matter/energy and therefore likely the low energy approximation of a more complex theory. This talk will be an overview of the motivation, experimental methods and status of some of these efforts (past and future) related to precision in-direct searches that are complementary to the direct searches underway at the Large Hadron Collider. This abstract is for the invited talk associated with the Mini-symposium titled ``Electro-weak Physics and Fundamental Symmetries'' organized by Julie Roche.

  12. Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.

  13. Lorentz symmetry breaking in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.

    This thesis is comprised primarily of work from three independent papers, written in collaboration with Sean Carroll, Tim Dulaney, and Heywood Tam. The original motivation for the projects undertaken came from revisiting the standard assumption of spatial isotropy during inflation. Each project relates to the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry---in early Universe cosmology or in the context of effective field theory, in general. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides context for the thesis. Chapter 2 is an investigation of the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector "aether" fields. It is shown that models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the phenomenological properties of the one low-energy effective theory of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking found in the previous chapter to have a globally bounded Hamiltonian and a perturbatively stable vacuum---the theory in which the Lagrangian takes the form of a sigma model. In chapter 4 cosmological perturbations in a dynamical theory of inflation in which an Abelian gauge field couples directly to the inflaton are examined. The dominant effects of a small, persistent anisotropy on the primordial gravitational wave and curvature perturbation power spectra are found using the "in-in" formalism of perturbation theory. It is found that the primordial power spectra of cosmological perturbations gain significant direction dependence and that the fractional direction dependence of the tensor power spectrum is suppressed in comparison to that of the scalar power spectrum.

  14. Kondo effect in systems with dynamical symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, T.; Kikoin, K.; Avishai, Y.

    2004-05-01

    This paper is devoted to a systematic exposure of the Kondo physics in quantum dots for which the low-energy spin excitations consist of a few different spin multiplets |SiMi>. Under certain conditions (to be explained below), some of the lowest energy levels ESi are nearly degenerate. The dot in its ground state cannot then be regarded as a simple quantum top, in the sense that beside its spin operator other dot (vector) operators Rn are needed (in order to fully determine its quantum states), which have nonzero matrix elements between states of different spin multiplets ≠0. These Runge-Lenz operators do not appear in the isolated dot Hamiltonian (so in some sense they are “hidden”). Yet, they are exposed when tunneling between dot and leads is switched on. The effective spin Hamiltonian which couples the metallic electron spin s with the operators of the dot then contains exchange terms JnsṡRn besides the ubiquitous ones JisṡSi. The operators Si and Rn generate a dynamical group [usually SO(n)]. Remarkably, the value of n can be controlled by gate voltages, indicating that abstract concepts such as dynamical symmetry groups are experimentally realizable. Moreover, when an external magnetic field is applied, under favorable circumstances the exchange interaction involves solely the Runge-Lenz operators Rn and the corresponding dynamical symmetry group is SU(n). For example, the celebrated group SU(3) is realized in a triple quantum dot with four electrons.

  15. Technique to achieve the symmetry of the new inframammary fold

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Marcello; Zoccali, Giovanni; Buccheri, Ernesto Maria; de Vita, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Summary The literature outlines several surgical techniques to restore inframmammary fold definition, but symmetry of the fold is often left to irreproducible procedures. We report our personal technique to restore the symmetry of the inframmammary fold during multistep breast reconstruction. PMID:25078934

  16. On systems having Poincaré and Galileo symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Peter, E-mail: peter.holland@gtc.ox.ac.uk

    Using the wave equation in d≥1 space dimensions it is illustrated how dynamical equations may be simultaneously Poincaré and Galileo covariant with respect to different sets of independent variables. This provides a method to obtain dynamics-dependent representations of the kinematical symmetries. When the field is a displacement function both symmetries have a physical interpretation. For d=1 the Lorentz structure is utilized to reveal hitherto unnoticed features of the non-relativistic Chaplygin gas including a relativistic structure with a limiting case that exhibits the Carroll group, and field-dependent symmetries and associated Noether charges. The Lorentz transformations of the potentials naturally associated withmore » the Chaplygin system are given. These results prompt the search for further symmetries and it is shown that the Chaplygin equations support a nonlinear superposition principle. A known spacetime mixing symmetry is shown to decompose into label-time and superposition symmetries. It is shown that a quantum mechanical system in a stationary state behaves as a Chaplygin gas. The extension to d>1 is used to illustrate how the physical significance of the dual symmetries is contingent on the context by showing that Maxwell’s equations exhibit an exact Galileo covariant formulation where Lorentz and gauge transformations are represented by field-dependent symmetries. A natural conceptual and formal framework is provided by the Lagrangian and Eulerian pictures of continuum mechanics.« less

  17. ASP: Automated symbolic computation of approximate symmetries of differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, G. F.; Carminati, J.

    2013-03-01

    A recent paper (Pakdemirli et al. (2004) [12]) compared three methods of determining approximate symmetries of differential equations. Two of these methods are well known and involve either a perturbation of the classical Lie symmetry generator of the differential system (Baikov, Gazizov and Ibragimov (1988) [7], Ibragimov (1996) [6]) or a perturbation of the dependent variable/s and subsequent determination of the classical Lie point symmetries of the resulting coupled system (Fushchych and Shtelen (1989) [11]), both up to a specified order in the perturbation parameter. The third method, proposed by Pakdemirli, Yürüsoy and Dolapçi (2004) [12], simplifies the calculations required by Fushchych and Shtelen's method through the assignment of arbitrary functions to the non-linear components prior to computing symmetries. All three methods have been implemented in the new MAPLE package ASP (Automated Symmetry Package) which is an add-on to the MAPLE symmetry package DESOLVII (Vu, Jefferson and Carminati (2012) [25]). To our knowledge, this is the first computer package to automate all three methods of determining approximate symmetries for differential systems. Extensions to the theory have also been suggested for the third method and which generalise the first method to systems of differential equations. Finally, a number of approximate symmetries and corresponding solutions are compared with results in the literature.

  18. Symmetries in vakonomic dynamics: applications to optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sonia; Cortés, Jorge; de León, Manuel

    2001-06-01

    Symmetries in vakonomic dynamics are discussed. Appropriate notions are introduced and their relationship with previous work on symmetries of singular Lagrangian systems is shown. Some Noether-type theorems are obtained. The results are applied to a class of general optimal control problems and to kinematic locomotion systems.

  19. Self-consistent Models of Strong Interaction with Chiral Symmetry

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nambu, Y.; Pascual, P.

    1963-04-01

    Some simple models of (renormalizable) meson-nucleon interaction are examined in which the nucleon mass is entirely due to interaction and the chiral ( gamma {sub 5}) symmetry is "broken'' to become a hidden symmetry. It is found that such a scheme is possible provided that a vector meson is introduced as an elementary field. (auth)

  20. Time symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Gammal, A.

    2017-09-01

    We consider different processes leading to time symmetry breaking in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our approach provides a global description of time symmetry breaking, based on the equations of a thermal condensate. This includes quenching and expansion of the condensate, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism associated with the creation of vorticity, the dynamical Casimir effect and the formation of time crystals.

  1. Lorentz- and CPT-symmetry studies in subatomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    Subatomic systems provide an exquisite test bench for spacetime symmetries. This work motivates such measurements, reviews the effective field theory test framework for the description of Lorentz and CPT violation, and employs this framework to study the phenomenology of spacetime-symmetry breaking in various subatomic systems.

  2. Yoichiro Nambu and the Mechanism of Spontaneous Broken Symmetries in

    Science.gov Websites

    Subatomic Physics RSS Archive Videos XML DOE R&D Accomplishments DOE R&D Mechanism of Spontaneous Broken Symmetries in Subatomic Physics Resources with Additional Information Physics "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

  3. Associative symmetry in a spatial sample-response paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry has been difficult to observe in nonhumans mainly because they seem to perceive stimuli as a conjunction of visual, spatial, and temporal characteristics. When such characteristics are controlled, symmetry does emerge in nonhumans (cf. Frank and Wasserman 2005; Urcuioli 2008). Recently, however, Garcia and Benjumea (2006) reported symmetry in pigeons without controlling for temporal order. The present experiments explored their paradigm and the ingredients for their success. Experiments 1 and 2 sought to replicate their findings and to examine different symmetry measures. We found evidence for symmetry using non-reinforced choice probe tests, a latency-based test, and a reinforced consistent versus inconsistent manipulation. Experiment 3 adapted their procedure to successive matching to evaluate their contention that a choice between at least two comparisons is necessary for symmetry to emerge. Contrary to their prediction, symmetry was observed following go/no-go training. Our results confirm Garcia and Benjumea’s findings, extend them to other test and training procedures, and once again demonstrate symmetry in the absence of language. PMID:21238554

  4. Gauging Spatial Symmetries and the Classification of Topological Crystalline Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Ryan; Else, Dominic V.

    2018-01-01

    We put the theory of interacting topological crystalline phases on a systematic footing. These are topological phases protected by space-group symmetries. Our central tool is an elucidation of what it means to "gauge" such symmetries. We introduce the notion of a crystalline topological liquid and argue that most (and perhaps all) phases of interest are likely to satisfy this criterion. We prove a crystalline equivalence principle, which states that in Euclidean space, crystalline topological liquids with symmetry group G are in one-to-one correspondence with topological phases protected by the same symmetry G , but acting internally, where if an element of G is orientation reversing, it is realized as an antiunitary symmetry in the internal symmetry group. As an example, we explicitly compute, using group cohomology, a partial classification of bosonic symmetry-protected topological phases protected by crystalline symmetries in (3 +1 ) dimensions for 227 of the 230 space groups. For the 65 space groups not containing orientation-reversing elements (Sohncke groups), there are no cobordism invariants that may contribute phases beyond group cohomology, so we conjecture that our classification is complete.

  5. Montessori and Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Dee Joy

    2003-01-01

    Explains the educational movements precipitated by Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner as comprising a pattern of reverse symmetries. Notes the influence of war on their philosophies. Discusses reverse symmetries in curriculum related to mathematics, geography, and history. Maintains that each of these two movements holds the other at its core,…

  6. Noetherian symmetries of noncentral forces with drag term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose-Choudhury, A.; Guha, Partha; Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Leach, P. G. L.

    We consider the Noetherian symmetries of second-order ODEs subjected to forces with nonzero curl. Both position and velocity dependent forces are considered. In the former case, the first integrals are shown to follow from the symmetries of the celebrated Emden-Fowler equation.

  7. Symmetry remnants in the face of competing interactions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il; Macek, M., E-mail: michal.macek@yale.edu

    2015-10-15

    Detailed description of nuclei necessitates model Hamiltonians which break most dynamical symmetries. Nevertheless, generalized notions of partial and quasi dynamical symmetries may still be applicable to selected subsets of states, amidst a complicated environment of other states. We examine such scenarios in the context of nuclear shape-phase transitions.

  8. Generalized symmetries and [ital w][sub [infinity

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, S.

    After establishing a formal theory for getting solutions of one type of high-dimensional partial differential equation, two sets of generalized symmetries of the 3D Toda theory, which arises from a particular reduction of the 4D self-dual gravity equation, are obtained concretely by a simple formula. Each set of symmetries constitutes a generalized [omega][sub [infinity

  9. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  10. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  11. Current-Current Interactions, Dynamical Symmetry - and Quantum Chromodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight Edward, Jr.

    Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass (TBOND) xm(,p)) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g (--->) (INFIN); x (--->) (INFIN)), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. (1) Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x('2) << 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4, 6, 8, ...-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. (2) With the possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g('2)/x('2) << 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry -breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.

  12. Loop suppressed light fermion masses with U (1 )R gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a model with a two-Higgs doublet, where quark and charged-lepton masses in the first and second families are induced at one-loop level, and neutrino masses are induced at the two-loop level. In our model, we introduce an extra U (1 )R gauge symmetry that plays a crucial role in achieving desired terms in no conflict with anomaly cancellation. We show the mechanism to generate fermion masses, the resultant mass matrices, and Yukawa interactions in mass eigenstates, and we discuss several interesting phenomenologies such as the muon anomalous magnetic dipole moment and the dark matter candidate that arise from this model.

  13. From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings.

    PubMed

    Longo, G; Montévil, M

    2011-08-01

    Symmetries play a major role in physics, in particular since the work by E. Noether and H. Weyl in the first half of last century. Herein, we briefly review their role by recalling how symmetry changes allow to conceptually move from classical to relativistic and quantum physics. We then introduce our ongoing theoretical analysis in biology and show that symmetries play a radically different role in this discipline, when compared to those in current physics. By this comparison, we stress that symmetries must be understood in relation to conservation and stability properties, as represented in the theories. We posit that the dynamics of biological organisms, in their various levels of organization, are not "just" processes, but permanent (extended, in our terminology) critical transitions and, thus, symmetry changes. Within the limits of a relative structural stability (or interval of viability), variability is at the core of these transitions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Symmetry breaking in occupation number based slave-particle methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2017-10-01

    We describe a theoretical approach to finding spontaneously symmetry-broken electronic phases due to strong electronic interactions when using recently developed slave-particle (slave-boson) approaches based on occupation numbers. We describe why, to date, spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven difficult to achieve in such approaches. We then provide a total energy based approach for introducing auxiliary symmetry-breaking fields into the solution of the slave-particle problem that leads to lowered total energies for symmetry-broken phases. We point out that not all slave-particle approaches yield energy lowering: the slave-particle model being used must explicitly describe the degrees of freedom that break symmetry. Finally, our total energy approach permits us to greatly simplify the formalism used to achieve a self-consistent solution between spinon and slave modes while increasing the numerical stability and greatly speeding up the calculations.

  15. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. Farasat; Jhangeer, Adil; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkowski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries (Bokhari et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 45:1063, 2006).

  16. Positive Disintegration as a Process of Symmetry Breaking.

    PubMed

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2017-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms. Their main function is to restructure a mental structure by breaking the symmetry of a low level and bringing differentiation and then integration to higher levels. The positive disintegration is then the process of transitions from a lower level of high symmetry and low complexity to higher levels of low symmetry and high complexity of mental structure.

  17. The Pleasantness of Visual Symmetry: Always, Never or Sometimes

    PubMed Central

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis David James; Ruta, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence of a preference for visual symmetry. This is true from mate selection in the animal world to the aesthetic appreciation of works of art. It has been proposed that this preference is due to processing fluency, which engenders positive affect. But is visual symmetry pleasant? Evidence is mixed as explicit preferences show that this is the case. In contrast, implicit measures show that visual symmetry does not spontaneously engender positive affect but it depends on participants intentionally assessing visual regularities. In four experiments using variants of the affective priming paradigm, we investigated when visual symmetry engenders positive affect. Findings showed that, when no Stroop-like effects or post-lexical mechanisms enter into play, visual symmetry spontaneously elicits positive affect and results in affective congruence effects. PMID:24658112

  18. Which symmetry? Noether, Weyl, and conservation of electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, Katherine A.

    In 1918, Emmy Noether published a (now famous) theorem establishing a general connection between continuous 'global' symmetries and conserved quantities. In fact, Noether's paper contains two theorems, and the second of these deals with 'local' symmetries; prima facie, this second theorem has nothing to do with conserved quantities. In the same year, Hermann Weyl independently made the first attempt to derive conservation of electric charge from a postulated gauge symmetry. In the light of Noether's work, it is puzzling that Weyl's argument uses local gauge symmetry. This paper explores the relationships between Weyl's work, Noether's two theorems, and the modern connection between gauge symmetry and conservation of electric charge. This includes showing that Weyl's connection is essentially an application of Noether's second theorem, with a novel twist.

  19. From anomalies of finite symmetries to heterotic GUTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.

    2017-11-01

    We review the role of finite symmetries for particle physics with special emphasis on discrete anomalies and on their possible origin from extra dimensions. Then, we apply our knowledge on finite symmetries to the problematic proton decay operators of various mass-dimensions, focusing on ℤ4R , i.e. a special R-symmetry of order 4. We show that this ℤ4R symmetry can naturally originate from extra dimensions as a discrete remnant of higher-dimensional Lorentz symmetry. Finally, in order to obtain a unified picture from the heterotic string theory we discuss grand unified theories (GUTs) in extra dimensions compactified on ℤ2 × ℤ2 orbifolds and show how proton decay operators can be suppressed in a certain class of orbifolds.

  20. The dynamic-stimulus advantage of visual symmetry perception.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Katsumi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    It has been speculated that visual symmetry perception from dynamic stimuli involves mechanisms different from those for static stimuli. However, previous studies found no evidence that dynamic stimuli lead to active temporal processing and improve symmetry detection. In this study, four psychophysical experiments investigated temporal processing in symmetry perception using both dynamic and static stimulus presentations of dot patterns. In Experiment 1, rapid successive presentations of symmetric patterns (e.g., 16 patterns per 853 ms) produced more accurate discrimination of orientations of symmetry axes than static stimuli (single pattern presented through 853 ms). In Experiments 2-4, we confirmed that the dynamic-stimulus advantage depended upon presentation of a large number of unique patterns within a brief period (853 ms) in the dynamic conditions. Evidently, human vision takes advantage of temporal processing for symmetry perception from dynamic stimuli.

  1. Symmetry classification of time-fractional diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, I.; Khan, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a new approach is proposed to construct the symmetry groups for a class of fractional differential equations which are expressed in the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. We perform a complete group classification of a nonlinear fractional diffusion equation which arises in fractals, acoustics, control theory, signal processing and many other applications. Introducing the suitable transformations, the fractional derivatives are converted to integer order derivatives and in consequence the nonlinear fractional diffusion equation transforms to a partial differential equation (PDE). Then the Lie symmetries are computed for resulting PDE and using inverse transformations, we derive the symmetries for fractional diffusion equation. All cases are discussed in detail and results for symmetry properties are compared for different values of α. This study provides a new way of computing symmetries for a class of fractional differential equations.

  2. Noether symmetry approach in the cosmological alpha-attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkhao, Narakorn; Kanesom, Thanyagamon; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2018-06-01

    In cosmological framework, Noether symmetry technique has revealed a useful tool in order to examine exact solutions. In this work, we first introduce the Jordan-frame Lagrangian and apply the conformal transformation in order to obtain the Lagrangian equivalent to Einstein-frame form. We then analyze the dynamics of the field in the cosmological alpha-attractors using the Noether symmetry approach by focusing on the single field scenario in the Einstein-frame form. We show that with a Noether symmetry the corresponding dynamical system can be completely integrated and the potential exhibited by the symmetry can be exactly obtained. With the proper choice of parameters, the behavior of the scale factor displays an exponential (de Sitter) behavior at the present epoch. Moreover, we discover that the Hubble parameters strongly depends on the initial values of parameters exhibited by the Noether symmetry. Interestingly, it can retardedly evolve and becomes a constant in the present epoch in all cases.

  3. On gauge independence for gauge models with soft breaking of BRST symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A consistent quantum treatment of general gauge theories with an arbitrary gauge-fixing in the presence of soft breaking of the BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is developed. It is based on a gauged (involving a field-dependent parameter) version of finite BRST transformations. The prescription allows one to restore the gauge-independence of the effective action at its extremals and therefore also that of the conventional S-matrix for a theory with BRST-breaking terms being additively introduced into a BRST-invariant action in order to achieve a consistency of the functional integral. We demonstrate the applicability of this prescription within the approach of functional renormalization group to the Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The Gribov-Zwanziger action and the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for a many-parameter family of gauges, including the Coulomb, axial and covariant gauges, are derived perturbatively on the basis of finite gauged BRST transformations starting from Landau gauge. It is proved that gauge theories with soft breaking of BRST symmetry can be made consistent if the transformed BRST-breaking terms satisfy the same soft BRST symmetry breaking condition in the resulting gauge as the untransformed ones in the initial gauge, and also without this requirement.

  4. Symmetries and integrability of a fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli beam equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Mahomed, F. M.; Zaman, F. D.

    2010-05-01

    The complete symmetry group classification of the fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli ordinary differential equation, where the elastic modulus and the area moment of inertia are constants and the applied load is a function of the normal displacement, is obtained. We perform the Lie and Noether symmetry analysis of this problem. In the Lie analysis, the principal Lie algebra which is one dimensional extends in four cases, viz. the linear, exponential, general power law, and a negative fractional power law. It is further shown that two cases arise in the Noether classification with respect to the standard Lagrangian. That is, the linear case for which the Noether algebra dimension is one less than the Lie algebra dimension as well as the negative fractional power law. In the latter case the Noether algebra is three dimensional and is isomorphic to the Lie algebra which is sl(2,R). This exceptional case, although admitting the nonsolvable algebra sl(2,R), remarkably allows for a two-parameter family of exact solutions via the Noether integrals. The Lie reduction gives a second-order ordinary differential equation which has nonlocal symmetry.

  5. Photonic topological insulator with broken time-reversal symmetry

    PubMed Central

    He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A topological insulator is a material with an insulating interior but time-reversal symmetry-protected conducting edge states. Since its prediction and discovery almost a decade ago, such a symmetry-protected topological phase has been explored beyond electronic systems in the realm of photonics. Electrons are spin-1/2 particles, whereas photons are spin-1 particles. The distinct spin difference between these two kinds of particles means that their corresponding symmetry is fundamentally different. It is well understood that an electronic topological insulator is protected by the electron’s spin-1/2 (fermionic) time-reversal symmetry Tf2=−1. However, the same protection does not exist under normal circumstances for a photonic topological insulator, due to photon’s spin-1 (bosonic) time-reversal symmetry Tb2=1. In this work, we report a design of photonic topological insulator using the Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling as the photonic pseudospin orbit interaction for left and right circularly polarized helical spin states. The Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling breaks bosonic time-reversal symmetry but instead gives rise to a conserved artificial fermionic-like-pseudo time-reversal symmetry, Tp (Tp2=−1), due to the electromagnetic duality. Surprisingly, we find that, in this system, the helical edge states are, in fact, protected by this fermionic-like pseudo time-reversal symmetry Tp rather than by the bosonic time-reversal symmetry Tb. This remarkable finding is expected to pave a new path to understanding the symmetry protection mechanism for topological phases of other fundamental particles and to searching for novel implementations for topological insulators. PMID:27092005

  6. PREFACE: Workshop on Higher Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig; María Ancochea, José; Castrillón, Marco

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the Workshop on Higher Symmetries in Physics (WHSP), held at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM) on 6-8 November 2008. This meeting constituted one of the activities of the research group GEODISIM-920920 of the Universidad Complutense, through the research project CCG07/ESP-2922 of the UCM/CAM for the academic year 2008/2009. The objective of this meeting was to provide a forum to facilitate the opportunity for interaction between specialists working in different fields of physics and mathematics, but who share a common interest in group theoretical, geometrical and symmetry methods applied to physical phenomena. This goal was achieved by means of lectures and technical presentations on different subjects, the only constraint being the current academic interest. The multidisciplinary character of the meeting allowed an effective exchange of ideas between different topics having a symmetry background, like higher order and n-Lie algebras and their cohomology theories, supergravity backgrounds, the geometric approach to the Quantum Hall effect, integrable and superintegrable systems, loop quantum gravity, master symmetries, constants of motion, Gowdy cosmological models, new methods for the Kronecker product decomposition of multiplets, the internal labelling problem or recent developments concerning Grand Unified Theories. The workshop consisted of three microcourses of three hours each and some plenary talks of one hour, as well as a small number of short communications. The Proceedings have been divided into two main sections, according to the structure of the meeting. The first one corresponds to the papers of the courses, which in addition to the material presented in the lectures also contain new and original results. The second part is devoted to the papers of the plenary talks and the remaining contributions. In some cases, the corresponding contributions are completely

  7. Constraining the physical state by symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Ferraris, M.; Magnano, G.

    2017-03-01

    After reviewing the hole argument and its relations with initial value problem and general covariance, we shall discuss how much freedom one has to define the physical state in a generally covariant field theory (with or without internal gauge symmetries). Our analysis relies on Cauchy problems, thus it is restricted to globally hyperbolic spacetimes. We shall show that in generally covariant theories on a compact space (as well as for internal gauge symmetries on any spacetime) one has no freedom and one is forced to declare as physically equivalent two configurations which differ by a global spacetime diffeomorphism (or by an internal gauge transformation) as it is usually prescribed. On the contrary, when space is not compact, the result does not hold true and one may have different options to define physically equivalent configurations, still preserving determinism. For this scenario to be effective, the group G of formal transformations needs to be a subgroup of dynamical symmetries (otherwise field equations, which are written in terms of configurations would not induce equations for the physical state classes) and it must contain the group D generated by Cauchy transformations (otherwise the equations induced on physical state classes would not be well posed, either). We argue that it is exactly because of this double inclusion that the hole argument in its initial problem formulation is more powerful than in its boundary formulation. In the boundary formulation of the hole argument one still has that the group G of formal transformations is a subgroup of dynamical symmetries, but there is no evidence for it to contain a particular non-trivial subgroup.In this paper we shall show that this scenario is exactly implemented in generally covariant theories. In the last section we shall show it to be implemented in gauge theories as well.Norton also argued (see [1]) that the definition of physical state is

  8. Enlarged symmetry algebras of spin chains, loop models, and S-matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, N.; Saleur, H.

    2007-08-01

    The symmetry algebras of certain families of quantum spin chains are considered in detail. The simplest examples possess m states per site ( m⩾2), with nearest-neighbor interactions with U(m) symmetry, under which the sites transform alternately along the chain in the fundamental m and its conjugate representation m¯. We find that these spin chains, even with arbitrary coefficients of these interactions, have a symmetry algebra A much larger than U(m), which implies that the energy eigenstates fall into sectors that for open chains (i.e., free boundary conditions) can be labeled by j=0,1,…,L, for the 2 L-site chain such that the degeneracies of all eigenvalues in the jth sector are generically the same and increase rapidly with j. For large j, these degeneracies are much larger than those that would be expected from the U(m) symmetry alone. The enlarged symmetry algebra A(2L) consists of operators that commute in this space of states with the Temperley-Lieb algebra that is generated by the set of nearest-neighbor interaction terms; A(2L) is not a Yangian. There are similar results for supersymmetric chains with gl(m+n|n) symmetry of nearest-neighbor interactions, and a richer representation structure for closed chains (i.e., periodic boundary conditions). The symmetries also apply to the loop models that can be obtained from the spin chains in a spacetime or transfer matrix picture. In the loop language, the symmetries arise because the loops cannot cross. We further define tensor products of representations (for the open chains) by joining chains end to end. The fusion rules for decomposing the tensor product of representations labeled j and j take the same form as the Clebsch-Gordan series for SU(2). This and other structures turn the symmetry algebra A into a ribbon Hopf algebra, and we show that this is "Morita equivalent" to the quantum group U(sl) for m=q+q. The open-chain results are extended to the cases |m|<2 for which the algebras are no longer

  9. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  10. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, A.; Hees, A.; Bouquillon, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Francou, G.; Angonin, M.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10-8 for s¯T X, 10-12 for s¯X Y and s¯X Z, 10-11 for s¯X X-s¯Y Y and s¯X X+s¯Y Y-2 s¯Z Z-4.5 s¯Y Z, and 10-9 for s¯T Y+0.43 s¯T Z. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  11. Infinitesimal Legendre symmetry in the Geometrothermodynamics programme

    SciTech Connect

    García-Peláez, D., E-mail: dgarciap@up.edu.mx; Universidad Panamericana, Tecoyotitla 366. Col. Ex Hacienda Guadalupe Chimalistac, 01050 México D.F., México; López-Monsalvo, C. S., E-mail: cesar.slm@correo.nucleares.unam.mx

    2014-08-15

    The work within the Geometrothermodynamics programme rests upon the metric structure for the thermodynamic phase-space. Such structure exhibits discrete Legendre symmetry. In this work, we study the class of metrics which are invariant along the infinitesimal generators of Legendre transformations. We solve the Legendre-Killing equation for a K-contact general metric. We consider the case with two thermodynamic degrees of freedom, i.e., when the dimension of the thermodynamic phase-space is five. For the generic form of contact metrics, the solution of the Legendre-Killing system is unique, with the sole restriction that the only independent metric function – Ω – should bemore » dragged along the orbits of the Legendre generator. We revisit the ideal gas in the light of this class of metrics. Imposing the vanishing of the scalar curvature for this system results in a further differential equation for the metric function Ω which is not compatible with the Legendre invariance constraint. This result does not allow us to use Quevedo's interpretation of the curvature scalar as a measure of thermodynamic interaction for this particular class.« less

  12. Twofold symmetries of the pure gravity action

    DOE PAGES

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2017-01-25

    Here, we recast the action of pure gravity into a form that is invariant under a twofold Lorentz symmetry. To derive this representation, we construct a general parameterization of all theories equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert action up to a local field redefinition and gauge fixing. We then exploit this freedom to eliminate all interactions except those exhibiting two sets of independently contracted Lorentz indices. The resulting action is local, remarkably simple, and naturally expressed in a field basis analogous to the exponential parameterization of the nonlinear sigma model. The space of twofold Lorentz invariant field redefinitions then generates an infinitemore » class of equivalent representations. By construction, all off-shell Feynman diagrams are twofold Lorentz invariant while all on-shell tree amplitudes are automatically twofold gauge invariant. We extend our results to curved spacetime and calculate the analogue of the Einstein equations. Finally, while these twofold invariances are hidden in the canonical approach of graviton perturbation theory, they are naturally expected given the double copy relations for scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity.« less

  13. Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.

  14. A rate distortion approach to protein symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-08-01

    A spontaneous symmetry breaking argument is applied to the problem of protein folding, via a rate distortion analysis of the relation between genome coding and the final condensation of the protein molten globule that is, in spirit, analogous to Tlusty's (2007) exploration of the evolution of the genetic code. In the 'energy' picture, the average distortion between codon message and final protein structure, under constraints driven by evolutionary selection, serves as a temperature analog, so that low values limit the possible distribution of protein forms, producing the canonical folding funnel. A dual 'developmental' perspective sees the rate distortion function itself as the temperature analog, and permits incorporation of chaperons or toxic exposures as catalysts, driving the system to different possible outcomes or affecting the rate of convergence. The rate distortion function appears constrained by the availability of metabolic free energy, with implications for prebiotic evolution, and a nonequilibrium empirical Onsager treatment provides an adaptable statistical model that can be fitted to data, in the same manner as a regression equation. In sum, mechanistic models of protein folding fail to account for the observed spectrum of protein folding and aggregation disorders, suggesting that a biologically based cognitive paradigm describing folding will be needed for understanding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. The developmental formalism introduced here may contribute substantially to such a paradigm.

  15. Long-lived polarization protected by symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yesu; Theis, Thomas; Wu, Tung-Lin

    2014-10-07

    In this paper we elucidate, theoretically and experimentally, molecular motifs which permit Long-Lived Polarization Protected by Symmetry (LOLIPOPS). The basic assembly principle starts from a pair of chemically equivalent nuclei supporting a long-lived singlet state and is completed by coupling to additional pairs of spins. LOLIPOPS can be created in various sizes; here we review four-spin systems, introduce a group theory analysis of six-spin systems, and explore eight-spin systems by simulation. The focus is on AA′X{sub n}X′{sub n} spin systems, where typically the A spins are {sup 15}N or {sup 13}C and X spins are protons. We describe the symmetrymore » of the accessed states, we detail the pulse sequences used to access these states, we quantify the fraction of polarization that can be stored as LOLIPOPS, we elucidate how to access the protected states from A or from X polarization and we examine the behavior of these spin systems upon introduction of a small chemical shift difference.« less

  16. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies. PMID:10380676

  17. Twofold symmetries of the pure gravity action

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    Here, we recast the action of pure gravity into a form that is invariant under a twofold Lorentz symmetry. To derive this representation, we construct a general parameterization of all theories equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert action up to a local field redefinition and gauge fixing. We then exploit this freedom to eliminate all interactions except those exhibiting two sets of independently contracted Lorentz indices. The resulting action is local, remarkably simple, and naturally expressed in a field basis analogous to the exponential parameterization of the nonlinear sigma model. The space of twofold Lorentz invariant field redefinitions then generates an infinitemore » class of equivalent representations. By construction, all off-shell Feynman diagrams are twofold Lorentz invariant while all on-shell tree amplitudes are automatically twofold gauge invariant. We extend our results to curved spacetime and calculate the analogue of the Einstein equations. Finally, while these twofold invariances are hidden in the canonical approach of graviton perturbation theory, they are naturally expected given the double copy relations for scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity.« less

  18. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry.

    PubMed

    Nordén, B; Zolotaryuk, Y; Christiansen, P L; Zolotaryuk, A V

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must be provided with some internal structure realizing such a velocity- or force-friction dependence. For demonstration of a ratchet mechanism of this type, an experimental setup (gadget) that converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation has been built and experiments with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion. In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments. Despite the setup being three dimensional, the ratchet rotary motion is proved to be described by one dynamical equation. This kind of motion is a result of the interplay of friction and inertia. We also consider a case with viscous friction, which is irrelevant to this gadget, but it can be a possible mechanism of rotary unidirectional motion of some swimming organisms in a liquid.

  19. Crystal structure of low-symmetry rondorfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Zadov, A. E.; Chukanov, N. V.

    2008-03-01

    The crystal structure of an aluminum-rich variety of the mineral rondorfite with the composition Ca16[Mg2(Si7Al)(O31OH)]Cl4 from the skarns of the Verkhne-Chegemskoe plateau (the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Northern Caucasus Region, Russia) was solved in the triclinic space group with the unit-cell parameters a = 15.100(2) Å, b = 15.110(2) Å, c = 15.092(2) Å, α = 90.06(1)°, β = 90.01(1)°, γ = 89.93(1)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P1. The structural model consisting of 248 independent atoms was determined by the phase-correction method and refined to R = 3.8% with anisotropic displacement parameters based on all 7156 independent reflections with 7156 F > 3σ( F). The crystal structure is based on pentamers consisting of four Si tetrahedra linked by the central Mg tetrahedron. The structure can formally be refined in the cubic space group ( a = 15.105 Å, sp. gr. Fd overline 3 , seven independent positions) with anisotropic displacement parameters to R = 2.74% based on 579 reflections with F > 3σ( F) without accounting for more than 1000 observed reflections, which are inconsistent with the cubic symmetry of the crystal structure.

  20. Symmetry Breaking by Parallel Flow Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiacong; Diamond, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Plasma rotation is important in reducing turbulent transport, suppressing MHD instabilities, and is beneficial to confinement. Intrinsic rotation without an external momentum input is of interest for its plausible application on ITER. k∥ spectrum asymmetry is required for residual Reynolds stress that drives the intrinsic rotation. Parallel flows are reported in linear devices without magnetic shear. In CSDX, parallel flows are mostly peaked in the core [Thakur et al., 2014]; more robust flows and reversed profiles are seen in PANTA [Oldenburger, et al. 2012]. A novel mechanism for symmetry breaking in momentum transport is proposed. Magnetic shear or mean flow profile are not required. A seed parallel flow shear (PFS) sets the sign of residual stress by selecting certain modes to grow faster. The resulted spectrum imbalance leads to a nonzero residual stress, which further drives a parallel flow with ∇n as the free energy source, adding to the shear until saturated by diffusion. Balanced flow gradient is set by Π∥Res /χϕ . Residual stress is calculated for ITG turbulence and collisional drift wave turbulence where electron-ion and electron-neutral collisions are discussed and compared. Numerical simulation is proposed for testing the effect of PFS.

  1. Symmetries and band gaps in nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Yiteng; Fernando, Gayanath; Kocharian, Armen

    In ideal graphene-like systems, time reversal and sublattice symmetries preserve the degeneracies at the Dirac point(s). We have examined such degeneracies in the band structure as well as the transport properties in various arm-twisted (graphene-related) nanoribbons. A twist angle is defined such that at 0 degrees the ribbon is a rectangular ribbon and at 60 degrees the ribbon is cut from a honeycomb lattice. Using model Hamiltonians and first principles calculations in these nanoribbons with Z2 topology, we have monitored the band structure as a function of the twist angle θ. In twisted ribbons, it turns out that the introduction of an extra hopping term leads to a gap opening. We have also calculated the size and temperature broadening effects in similar ribbons in addition to Rashba-induced transport properties. The authors acknowledge the computing facilities provided by the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No.DE-AC02- 98CH10886.

  2. The role of gauge symmetry in spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Sobreiro, R.F., E-mail: sobreiro@if.uff.br; Vasquez Otoya, V.J.

    2011-12-15

    In this work we employ a field theoretical approach to explain the nature of the non-conserved spin current in spintronics. In particular, we consider the usual U(1) gauge theory for the electromagnetism at classical level in order to obtain the broken continuity equation involving the spin current and spin-transfer torque. Inspired by the recent work of A. Vernes, B. L. Gyorffy and P. Weinberger where they obtain such an equation in terms of relativistic quantum mechanics, we formalize their result in terms of the well known currents of field theory such as the Bargmann-Wigner current and the chiral current. Thus,more » an interpretation of spintronics is provided in terms of Noether currents (conserved or not) and symmetries of the electromagnetism. In fact, the main result of the present work is that the non-conservation of the spin current is associated with the gauge invariance of physical observables where the breaking term is proportional to the chiral current. Moreover, we generalize their result by including the electromagnetic field as a dynamical field instead of an external one.« less

  3. The Role of Visual Eccentricity on Preference for Abstract Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    O’ Sullivan, Noreen; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested preference for abstract patterns, comparing random patterns to a two-fold bilateral symmetry. Stimuli were presented at random locations in the periphery. Preference for bilateral symmetry has been extensively studied in central vision, but evaluation at different locations had not been systematically investigated. Patterns were presented for 200 ms within a large circular region. On each trial participant changed fixation and were instructed to select any location. Eccentricity values were calculated a posteriori as the distance between ocular coordinates at pattern onset and coordinates for the centre of the pattern. Experiment 1 consisted of two Tasks. In Task 1, participants detected pattern regularity as fast as possible. In Task 2 they evaluated their liking for the pattern on a Likert-scale. Results from Task 1 revealed that with our parameters eccentricity did not affect symmetry detection. However, in Task 2, eccentricity predicted more negative evaluation of symmetry, but not random patterns. In Experiment 2 participants were either presented with symmetry or random patterns. Regularity was task-irrelevant in this task. Participants discriminated the proportion of black/white dots within the pattern and then evaluated their liking for the pattern. Even when only one type of regularity was presented and regularity was task-irrelevant, preference evaluation for symmetry decreased with increasing eccentricity, whereas eccentricity did not affect the evaluation of random patterns. We conclude that symmetry appreciation is higher for foveal presentation in a way not fully accounted for by sensitivity. PMID:27124081

  4. The Role of Visual Eccentricity on Preference for Abstract Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Rampone, Giulia; O' Sullivan, Noreen; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested preference for abstract patterns, comparing random patterns to a two-fold bilateral symmetry. Stimuli were presented at random locations in the periphery. Preference for bilateral symmetry has been extensively studied in central vision, but evaluation at different locations had not been systematically investigated. Patterns were presented for 200 ms within a large circular region. On each trial participant changed fixation and were instructed to select any location. Eccentricity values were calculated a posteriori as the distance between ocular coordinates at pattern onset and coordinates for the centre of the pattern. Experiment 1 consisted of two Tasks. In Task 1, participants detected pattern regularity as fast as possible. In Task 2 they evaluated their liking for the pattern on a Likert-scale. Results from Task 1 revealed that with our parameters eccentricity did not affect symmetry detection. However, in Task 2, eccentricity predicted more negative evaluation of symmetry, but not random patterns. In Experiment 2 participants were either presented with symmetry or random patterns. Regularity was task-irrelevant in this task. Participants discriminated the proportion of black/white dots within the pattern and then evaluated their liking for the pattern. Even when only one type of regularity was presented and regularity was task-irrelevant, preference evaluation for symmetry decreased with increasing eccentricity, whereas eccentricity did not affect the evaluation of random patterns. We conclude that symmetry appreciation is higher for foveal presentation in a way not fully accounted for by sensitivity.

  5. On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600

    Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws drivenmore » for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.« less

  6. Family Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    34 Family Policy," December 30, 1988 o / (b) DoD Directive 4001.1, "Installation Management ,, September 4, 1986 (c) DoD 4165.63-M, "DoD Housing Management ... managing the competing demands of the military mission and the family . They shall provide the information and family services necessary to support single...effectiveness of Family Centers. The evaluation system shall include: (1) A management information report to allow Family Centers to reflect actual workloads

  7. Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc

    2009-09-01

    We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.

  8. 𝒩 = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Novel symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss a set of novel discrete symmetry transformations of the 𝒩 = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model of a charged particle moving on a sphere in the background of Dirac magnetic monopole. The usual five continuous symmetries (and their conserved Noether charges) and two discrete symmetries together provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. We have also exploited the supervariable approach to derive the nilpotent 𝒩 = 4 SUSY transformations and provided the geometrical interpretation in the language of translational generators along the Grassmannian directions 𝜃α and 𝜃¯α onto (1, 4)-dimensional supermanifold.

  9. Hawking radiation by Kerr black holes and conformal symmetry.

    PubMed

    Agullo, Ivan; Navarro-Salas, José; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Parker, Leonard

    2010-11-19

    The exponential blueshift associated with the event horizon of a black hole makes conformal symmetry play a fundamental role in accounting for its thermal properties. Using a derivation based on two-point functions, we show that the full spectrum of thermal radiation of scalar particles by Kerr black holes can be explicitly derived on the basis of a conformal symmetry arising in the wave equation near the horizon. The simplicity of our approach emphasizes the depth of the connection between conformal symmetry and black hole radiance.

  10. Global Symmetries of Naive and Staggered Fermions in Arbitrary Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieburg, Mario; Würfel, Tim R.

    2018-03-01

    It is well-known that staggered fermions do not necessarily satisfy the same global symmetries as the continuum theory. We analyze the mechanism behind this phenomenon for arbitrary dimension and gauge group representation. For this purpose we vary the number of lattice sites between even and odd parity in each single direction. Since the global symmetries are manifest in the lowest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator, the spectral statistics and also the symmetry breaking pattern will be affected. We analyze these effects and compare our predictions with Monte-Carlo simulations of naive Dirac operators in the strong coupling limit. This proceeding is a summary of our work [1].

  11. Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.

  12. Orbital symmetry fingerprints for magnetic adatoms in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchoa, Bruno; Yang, Ling; Tsai, S.-W.; Peres, N. M. R.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the formation of local resonances in graphene in the presence of magnetic adatoms containing localized orbitals of arbitrary symmetry, corresponding to any given angular momentum state. We show that quantum interference effects which are naturally inbuilt in the honeycomb lattice in combination with the specific orbital symmetry of the localized state lead to the formation of fingerprints in differential conductance curves. In the presence of Jahn-Teller distortion effects, which lift the orbital degeneracy of the adatoms, the orbital symmetries can lead to distinctive signatures in the local density of states. We show that those effects allow scanning tunneling probes to characterize adatoms and defects in graphene.

  13. Fluctuations and symmetry energy in nuclear fragmentation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colonna, M

    2013-01-25

    Within a dynamical description of nuclear fragmentation, based on the liquid-gas phase transition scenario, we explore the relation between neutron-proton density fluctuations and nuclear symmetry energy. We show that, along the fragmentation path, isovector fluctuations follow the evolution of the local density and approach an equilibrium value connected to the local symmetry energy. Higher-density regions are characterized by smaller average asymmetry and narrower isotopic distributions. This dynamical analysis points out that fragment final state isospin fluctuations can probe the symmetry energy of the density domains from which fragments originate.

  14. Boundary states in the chiral symmetric systems with a spatial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jinpeng; An, Jin

    2018-02-01

    We study topological systems with both a chiral and a spatial symmetry which result in an additional spatial chiral symmetry. We distinguish the topologically nontrivial states according to the chiral symmetries protecting them and study several models in 1D and 3D systems. The perturbations breaking the spatial symmetry can break only one of the two chiral symmetries while the perturbations preserving the spatial symmetry always break or preserve both of them. In 3D systems, besides the 3D symmetries, the topologically nontrivial boundary modes may also be protected by the hidden lower dimensional symmetries. We then figure out the corresponding topological invariants and connect them with the 3D invariants.

  15. Male perpetrators, the gender symmetry debate, and the rejection-abuse cycle: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jac

    2012-07-01

    This review article examined the gender symmetry debate in light of recent research relating to the feminist and family research perspectives on intimate partner violence, providing a context for rethinking perpetrator programs. The concept of coercive control is considered as an explanatory factor in an attempt to integrate the feminist and family research perspectives. The limited effectiveness of perpetrator programs is examined. Research highlighting potential factors that could improve the effectiveness of perpetrator programs is introduced, followed by a discussion of the rejection-abuse cycle, one attempt to incorporate current research into a more inclusive program. The rejection-abuse cycle identifies a pattern of perpetrator behavior, which links rejection, threat to self, defense against threat, and abuse. Finally, suggestions for changing perpetrator programs are elaborated, incorporating past research, which would make them appropriate for both male and female perpetrators. These implications are contextualized within a meta-theory to provide greater clarity for the development of future perpetrator programs.

  16. Static axisymmetric Einstein equations in vacuum: Symmetry, new solutions, and Ricci solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, M. M.; MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2015-09-01

    An explicit one-parameter Lie point symmetry of the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with two commuting hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector fields is presented. The parameter takes values over all of the real line and the action of the group can be effected algebraically on any solution of the system. This enables one to construct particular one-parameter extended families of axisymmetric static solutions and cylindrical gravitational wave solutions from old ones, in a simpler way than most solution-generation techniques, including the prescription given by Ernst for this system. As examples, we obtain the families that generalize the Schwarzschild solution and the C -metric. These in effect superpose a Levi-Civita cylindrical solution on the seeds. Exploiting a correspondence between static solutions of Einstein's equations and Ricci solitons (self-similar solutions of the Ricci flow), this also enables us to construct new steady Ricci solitons.

  17. Searching Remote Homology with Spectral Clustering with Symmetry in Neighborhood Cluster Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Sarkar, Anasua

    2013-01-01

    Remote homology detection among proteins utilizing only the unlabelled sequences is a central problem in comparative genomics. The existing cluster kernel methods based on neighborhoods and profiles and the Markov clustering algorithms are currently the most popular methods for protein family recognition. The deviation from random walks with inflation or dependency on hard threshold in similarity measure in those methods requires an enhancement for homology detection among multi-domain proteins. We propose to combine spectral clustering with neighborhood kernels in Markov similarity for enhancing sensitivity in detecting homology independent of “recent” paralogs. The spectral clustering approach with new combined local alignment kernels more effectively exploits the unsupervised protein sequences globally reducing inter-cluster walks. When combined with the corrections based on modified symmetry based proximity norm deemphasizing outliers, the technique proposed in this article outperforms other state-of-the-art cluster kernels among all twelve implemented kernels. The comparison with the state-of-the-art string and mismatch kernels also show the superior performance scores provided by the proposed kernels. Similar performance improvement also is found over an existing large dataset. Therefore the proposed spectral clustering framework over combined local alignment kernels with modified symmetry based correction achieves superior performance for unsupervised remote homolog detection even in multi-domain and promiscuous domain proteins from Genolevures database families with better biological relevance. Source code available upon request. Contact: sarkar@labri.fr. PMID:23457439

  18. Searching remote homology with spectral clustering with symmetry in neighborhood cluster kernels.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Sarkar, Anasua

    2013-01-01

    Remote homology detection among proteins utilizing only the unlabelled sequences is a central problem in comparative genomics. The existing cluster kernel methods based on neighborhoods and profiles and the Markov clustering algorithms are currently the most popular methods for protein family recognition. The deviation from random walks with inflation or dependency on hard threshold in similarity measure in those methods requires an enhancement for homology detection among multi-domain proteins. We propose to combine spectral clustering with neighborhood kernels in Markov similarity for enhancing sensitivity in detecting homology independent of "recent" paralogs. The spectral clustering approach with new combined local alignment kernels more effectively exploits the unsupervised protein sequences globally reducing inter-cluster walks. When combined with the corrections based on modified symmetry based proximity norm deemphasizing outliers, the technique proposed in this article outperforms other state-of-the-art cluster kernels among all twelve implemented kernels. The comparison with the state-of-the-art string and mismatch kernels also show the superior performance scores provided by the proposed kernels. Similar performance improvement also is found over an existing large dataset. Therefore the proposed spectral clustering framework over combined local alignment kernels with modified symmetry based correction achieves superior performance for unsupervised remote homolog detection even in multi-domain and promiscuous domain proteins from Genolevures database families with better biological relevance. Source code available upon request. sarkar@labri.fr.

  19. Symmetry, Statistics and Structure in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we examine homogeneous MHD turbulence in terms of truncated Fourier series. The ideal MHD equations and the associated statistical theory of absolute equilibrium ensembles are symmetric under P, C and T. However, the presence of invariant helicities, which are pseudoscalars under P and C, dynamically breaks this symmetry. This occurs because the surface of constant energy in phase space has disjoint parts, called components: while ensemble averages are taken over all components, a dynamical phase trajectory is confined to only one component. As the Birkhoff-Khinchin theorem tells us, ideal MHD turbulence is thus non-ergodic. This non-ergodicity manifests itself in low-wave number Fourier modes that have large mean values (while absolute ensemble theory predicts mean values of zero). Therefore, we have coherent structure in ideal MHD turbulence. The level of non-ergodicity and amount of energy contained in the associated coherent structure depends on the values of the helicities, as well as on the presence, or not, of a mean magnetic field and/or overall rotation. In addition to the well known cross and magnetic helicities, we also present a new invariant, which we call the parallel helicity, since it occurs when mean field and rotation axis are aligned. The question of applicability of these results to real (i.e., dissipative) MHD turbulence is also examined. Several long-time numerical simulations on a 64(exp 3) grid are given as examples. It is seen that coherent structure begins to form before decay dominates over nonlinearity. The connection of these results with inverse spectral cascades, selective decay, and magnetic dynamos is also discussed.

  20. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  1. Topological crystalline magnets: Symmetry-protected topological phases of fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Haruki; Fu, Liang

    Here, we introduce a novel class of interaction-enabled topological crystalline insulators in two- and three-dimensional electronic systems, which we call “topological crystalline magnet.” It is protected by the product of the time-reversal symmetry T and a mirror symmetry or a rotation symmetry R. A topological crystalline magnet exhibits two intriguing features: (i) it cannot be adiabatically connected to any Slater insulator and (ii) the edge state is robust against coupling electrons to the edge. These features are protected by the anomalous symmetry transformation property ( RT) 2 = -1 of the edge state. Finally, an anisotropic response to the externalmore » magnetic field can be an experimental signature.« less

  2. Impact of symmetry breaking in networks of globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the consequences of symmetry breaking in the coupling in a network of globally coupled identical Stuart-Landau oscillators. We observe that symmetry breaking leads to increased disorderliness in the dynamical behavior of oscillatory states and consequently results in a rich variety of dynamical states. Depending on the strength of the nonisochronicity parameter, we find various dynamical states such as amplitude chimera, amplitude cluster, frequency chimera, and frequency cluster states. In addition we also find disparate transition routes to recently observed chimera death states in the presence of symmetry breaking even with global coupling. We also analytically verify the chimera death region, which corroborates the numerical results. These results are compared with that of the symmetry-preserving case as well.

  3. Emergent rotational symmetries in disordered magnetic domain patterns.

    PubMed

    Su, Run; Seu, Keoki A; Parks, Daniel; Kan, Jimmy J; Fullerton, Eric E; Roy, Sujoy; Kevan, Stephen D

    2011-12-16

    Uniaxial systems often form labyrinthine domains that exhibit short-range order but are macroscopically isotropic and would not be expected to exhibit precise symmetries. However, their underlying frustration results in a multitude of metastable configurations of comparable energy, and driving such a system externally might lead to pattern formation. We find that soft x-ray speckle diffraction patterns of the labyrinthine domains in CoPd/IrMn heterostructures reveal a diverse array of hidden rotational symmetries about the magnetization axis, thereby suggesting an unusual form of emergent order in an otherwise disordered system. These symmetries depend on applied magnetic field, magnetization history, and scattering wave vector. Maps of rotational symmetry exhibit intriguing structures that can be controlled by manipulating the applied magnetic field in concert with the exchange bias condition. © 2011 American Physical Society

  4. "Hidden" O(2) and SO(2) symmetry in lepton mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-02-01

    To generate the minimal neutrino Majorana mass matrix that has a free solar mixing angle and Δ m_{{^{text{sol}}}}^2 = 0 it suffices to implement an O(2) symmetry, or one of its subgroups SO(2), ZN ≥3, or DN ≥3. This O(2) generalizes the hidden {text{Z}}_{{^{{2}}}}^s of lepton mixing and leads in addition automatically to μ-τ symmetry. Flavor-democratic perturbations, as expected e.g. from the Planck scale, then result in tri-bimaximal mixing. We present a minimal model with three Higgs doublets implementing a type-I seesaw mechanism with a spontaneous breakdown of the symmetry, leading to large θ 13 and small Δ m_{{^{text{sol}}}}^2 = 0 due to the particular decomposition of the perturbations under μ-τ symmetry.

  5. Emergent Rotational Symmetries in Disordered Magnetic Domain Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Run; Seu, Keoki A.; Parks, Daniel; Kan, Jimmy J.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Roy, Sujoy; Kevan, Stephen D.

    2011-12-01

    Uniaxial systems often form labyrinthine domains that exhibit short-range order but are macroscopically isotropic and would not be expected to exhibit precise symmetries. However, their underlying frustration results in a multitude of metastable configurations of comparable energy, and driving such a system externally might lead to pattern formation. We find that soft x-ray speckle diffraction patterns of the labyrinthine domains in CoPd/IrMn heterostructures reveal a diverse array of hidden rotational symmetries about the magnetization axis, thereby suggesting an unusual form of emergent order in an otherwise disordered system. These symmetries depend on applied magnetic field, magnetization history, and scattering wave vector. Maps of rotational symmetry exhibit intriguing structures that can be controlled by manipulating the applied magnetic field in concert with the exchange bias condition.

  6. Implementing the SU(2) Symmetry for the DMRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo

    2010-03-01

    In the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm (White, 1992), Hamiltonian symmetries play an important role. Using symmetries, the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian can be blocked. Diagonalizing each matrix block is more efficient than diagonalizing the original matrix. This talk will explain how the DMRG++ codefootnotetextarXiv:0902.3185 or Computer Physics Communications 180 (2009) 1572-1578. has been extended to handle the non-local SU(2) symmetry in a model independent way. Improvements in CPU times compared to runs with only local symmetries will be discussed for typical tight-binding models of strongly correlated electronic systems. The computational bottleneck of the algorithm, and the use of shared memory parallelization will also be addressed. Finally, a roadmap for future work on DMRG++ will be presented.

  7. Mimicking glide symmetry dispersion with coupled slot metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Miguel; Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C.; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that the dispersion properties associated with glide symmetry can be achieved in systems that only possess reflection symmetry by balancing the influence of two sublattices. We apply this approach to a pair of coupled slots cut into an infinite perfectly conducting plane. Each slot is notched on either edge, with the complete two-slot system having only mirror symmetry. By modifying the relative size of the notches on either side of the slots, we show that a linear dispersion relation with a degeneracy with non-zero group velocity at the Brillouin zone boundary can be achieved. These properties, until now, only found in systems with glide symmetry are numerically and experimentally validated. We also show that these results can be used for the design of ultra-wideband one-dimensional leaky wave antennas in coplanar waveguide technology.

  8. New infinite-dimensional hidden symmetries for heterotic string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yajun

    The symmetry structures of two-dimensional heterotic string theory are studied further. A (2d+n)x(2d+n) matrix complex H-potential is constructed and the field equations are extended into a complex matrix formulation. A pair of Hauser-Ernst-type linear systems are established. Based on these linear systems, explicit formulations of new hidden symmetry transformations for the considered theory are given and then these symmetry transformations are verified to constitute infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the semidirect product of the Kac-Moody o(d,d+n-circumflex) and Virasoro algebras (without center charges). These results demonstrate that the heterotic string theory under consideration possesses more and richer symmetry structures than previously expected.

  9. Prethermal Phases of Matter Protected by Time-Translation Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, Dominic V.; Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan

    2017-01-01

    In a periodically driven (Floquet) system, there is the possibility for new phases of matter, not present in stationary systems, protected by discrete time-translation symmetry. This includes topological phases protected in part by time-translation symmetry, as well as phases distinguished by the spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, dubbed "Floquet time crystals." We show that such phases of matter can exist in the prethermal regime of periodically driven systems, which exists generically for sufficiently large drive frequency, thereby eliminating the need for integrability or strong quenched disorder, which limited previous constructions. We prove a theorem that states that such a prethermal regime persists until times that are nearly exponentially long in the ratio of certain couplings to the drive frequency. By similar techniques, we can also construct stationary systems that spontaneously break continuous time-translation symmetry. Furthermore, we argue that for driven systems coupled to a cold bath, the prethermal regime could potentially persist to infinite time.

  10. Symmetry breaking and the geometry of reduced density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauner, V.; Draxler, D.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of symmetry breaking and the emergence of corresponding local order parameters constitute the pillars of modern day many body physics. We demonstrate that the existence of symmetry breaking is a consequence of the geometric structure of the convex set of reduced density matrices of all possible many body wavefunctions. The surfaces of these convex bodies exhibit non-analyticities, which signal the emergence of symmetry breaking and of an associated order parameter and also show different characteristics for different types of phase transitions. We illustrate this with three paradigmatic examples of many body systems exhibiting symmetry breaking: the quantum Ising model, the classical q-state Potts model in two-dimensions at finite temperature and the ideal Bose gas in three-dimensions at finite temperature. This state based viewpoint on phase transitions provides a unique novel tool for studying exotic many body phenomena in quantum and classical systems.

  11. Symmetry breaking in holographic theories with Lifshitz scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Hartong, Jelle; Marzolla, Andrea; Naegels, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    We study holographically Lifshitz-scaling theories with broken symmetries. In order to do this, we set up a bulk action with a complex scalar and a massless vector on a background which consists in a Lifshitz metric and a massive vector. We first study separately the complex scalar and the massless vector, finding a similar pattern in the twopoint functions that we can compute analytically. By coupling the probe complex scalar to the background massive vector we can construct probe actions that are more general than the usual Klein-Gordon action. Some of these actions have Galilean boost symmetry. Finally, in the presence of a symmetry breaking scalar profile in the bulk, we reproduce the expected Ward identities of a Lifshitz-scaling theory with a broken global continuous symmetry. In the spontaneous case, the latter imply the presence of a gapless mode, the Goldstone boson, which will have dispersion relations dictated by the Lifshitz scaling.

  12. Asymptotic symmetries of colored gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Euihun; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Jihun; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional colored gravity refers to nonabelian isospin extension of Einstein gravity. We investigate the asymptotic symmetry algebra of the SU( N)-colored gravity in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Formulated by the Chern-Simons theory with SU( N, N) × SU( N, N) gauge group, the theory contains graviton, SU( N) Chern-Simons gauge fields and massless spin-two multiplets in the SU( N) adjoint representation, thus extending diffeomorphism to colored, nonabelian counterpart. We identify the asymptotic symmetry as Poisson algebra of generators associated with the residual global symmetries of the nonabelian diffeomorphism set by appropriately chosen boundary conditions. The resulting asymptotic symmetry algebra is a nonlinear extension of \\widehat{su(N)} Kac-Moody algebra, supplemented by additional generators corresponding to the massless spin-two adjoint matter fields.

  13. Topological crystalline magnets: Symmetry-protected topological phases of fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Watanabe, Haruki; Fu, Liang

    2017-02-27

    Here, we introduce a novel class of interaction-enabled topological crystalline insulators in two- and three-dimensional electronic systems, which we call “topological crystalline magnet.” It is protected by the product of the time-reversal symmetry T and a mirror symmetry or a rotation symmetry R. A topological crystalline magnet exhibits two intriguing features: (i) it cannot be adiabatically connected to any Slater insulator and (ii) the edge state is robust against coupling electrons to the edge. These features are protected by the anomalous symmetry transformation property ( RT) 2 = -1 of the edge state. Finally, an anisotropic response to the externalmore » magnetic field can be an experimental signature.« less

  14. Symmetry-protected coherent relaxation of open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Caspel, Moos; Gritsev, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We compute the effect of Markovian bulk dephasing noise on the staggered magnetization of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain, as the system evolves after a Néel quench. For sufficiently weak system-bath coupling, the unitary dynamics are found to be preserved up to a single exponential damping factor. This is a consequence of the interplay between PT symmetry and weak symmetries, which strengthens previous predictions for PT -symmetric Liouvillian dynamics. Requirements are a nondegenerate PT -symmetric generator of time evolution L ̂, a weak parity symmetry, and an observable that is antisymmetric under this parity transformation. The spectrum of L ̂ then splits up into symmetry sectors, yielding the same decay rate for all modes that contribute to the observable's time evolution. This phenomenon may be realized in trapped ion experiments and has possible implications for the control of decoherence in out-of-equilibrium many-body systems.

  15. Test of SU(3) Symmetry in Hyperon Semileptonic Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, T. N.

    2015-01-01

    Existing analyzes of baryon semileptonic decays indicate the presence of a small SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays, but to provide evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking, one would need a relation similar to the Gell-Mann-Okubo (GMO) baryon mass formula which is satisfied to a few percents, showing evidence for a small SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in the GMO mass formula. In this talk, I would like to present a similar GMO relation obtained in a recent work for hyperon semileptonic decay axial vector current matrix elements. Using these generalized GMO relations for the measured axial vector current to vector current form factor ratios, it is shown that SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays is of 5-11% and confirms the validity of the Cabibbo model for hyperon semi-leptonic decays.

  16. Isotropy of Angular Frequencies and Weak Chimeras with Broken Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The notion of a weak chimeras provides a tractable definition for chimera states in networks of finitely many phase oscillators. Here, we generalize the definition of a weak chimera to a more general class of equivariant dynamical systems by characterizing solutions in terms of the isotropy of their angular frequency vector—for coupled phase oscillators the angular frequency vector is given by the average of the vector field along a trajectory. Symmetries of solutions automatically imply angular frequency synchronization. We show that the presence of such symmetries is not necessary by giving a result for the existence of weak chimeras without instantaneous or setwise symmetries for coupled phase oscillators. Moreover, we construct a coupling function that gives rise to chaotic weak chimeras without symmetry in weakly coupled populations of phase oscillators with generalized coupling.

  17. PREFACE: DISCRETE '08: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.

    2009-07-01

    The Symposium DISCRETE'08 on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries was held at the Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia, Spain from 11 to 16 December 2008. IFIC is a joint centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and the Universitat de València (UVEG). The aim of the Symposium was to bring together experts on the field of Discrete Symmetries in order to discuss its prospects on the eve of the LHC era. The general state of the art for CP, T and CPT symmetries was reviewed and their interplay with Baryogenesis, Early Cosmology, Quantum Gravity, String Theory and the Dark Sector of the Universe was emphasised. Connections with physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular Supersymmetry, were investigated. Experimental implications in current and proposed facilities received particular attention. The scientific programme consisted of 24 invited Plenary Talks and 93 contributions selected among the submitted papers. Young researchers, in particular, were encouraged to submit an abstract. The Special Lecture on ''CERN and the Future of Particle Physics'', given by the CERN Director General Rolf-Dieter Heuer to close the Symposium, was of particular relevance. On the last day of the Symposium, an open meeting took place between Professor Heuer and the Spanish community of particle physics. The Symposium covered recent developments on the subject of Discrete Symmetries in the following topics: Quantum Vacuum Entanglement, Symmetrisation Principle CPT in Quantum Gravity and String Theory, Decoherence, Lorentz Violation Ultra-high-energy Messengers Time Reversal CP violation in the SM and beyond Neutrino Mass, Mixing and CP Baryogenesis, Leptogenesis Family Symmetries Supersymmetry and other searches Experimental Prospects: LHC, Super-B Factories, DAΦNE-2, Neutrino Beams The excellence of most of the presentations during the Symposium was pointed out by many participants. The broad spectrum of topics under the

  18. Symmetry and equivalence restrictions in electronic structure calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method for obtaining MCSCF orbitals and CI natural orbitals adapted to degenerate point groups, with full symmetry and equivalnece restrictions, is described. Among several advantages accruing from this method are the ability to perform atomic SCF calculations on states for which the SCF energy expression cannot be written in terms of Coulomb and exchange integrals over real orbitals, and the generation of symmetry-adapted atomic natural orbitals for use in a recently proposed method for basis set contraction.

  19. Chapter 5. Hidden Symmetry and Exact Solutions in Einstein Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Y.; Houri, T.

    Conformal Killing-Yano tensors are introduced as ageneralization of Killing vectors. They describe symmetries of higher-dimensional rotating black holes. In particular, a rank-2 closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor generates the tower of both hidden symmetries and isometries. We review a classification of higher-dimensional spacetimes admitting such a tensor, and present exact solutions to the Einstein equations for these spacetimes.

  20. Symmetry Energy Effects in the Neutron Star Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.; Kubis, S.

    2012-12-01

    The functional form of the nuclear symmetry energy has only been determined in a very narrow range of densities. Uncertainties concern both the low as well as the high density behaviour of this function. In this work different shapes of the symmetry energy, consistent with the experimental data, were introduced and their consequences for the crustal properties of neutron stars are presented. The resulting models are in agreement with astrophysical observations.

  1. Symmetries of SU(2) Skyrmion in Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    We apply the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) method to the SU(2) Skyrmion to study the full symmetry structure of the model at the first-class Hamiltonian level. On the other hand, we also analyze the symmetry structure of the action having the WZ term, which corresponds to this Hamiltonian, in the framework of the Lagrangian approach. Furthermore, following the BFV formalism we derive the BRST invariant gauge fixed Lagrangian from the above extended action.

  2. Partial dynamical symmetry and the vibrational structure of Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviatan, A.; Gavrielov, N.; García-Ramos, J. E.; Van Isacker, P.

    2018-05-01

    The recently reported deviations of selected non-yrast states in 110Cd from the expected sphericalvibrator behaviour, is addressed by means of an Hamiltonian with U(5) partial dynamical symmetry. The latter preserves the U(5) symmetry in a segment of the spectrum and breaks it in other states. The effect of intruder states is treated in the framework of the interacting boson model with configuration mixing.

  3. Crystallographic interpretation of Galois symmetries for magnetic pentagonal ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, J.; Lulek, T.; Łabuz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Galois symmetry of exact Bethe Ansatz eigenstates for the magnetic pentagonal ring within the XXX model are investigated by a comparison with crystallographic constructions of space groups. It follows that the arithmetic symmetry of Bethe parameters for the interior of the Brillouin zone admits crystallographic interpretation, in terms of the periodic square Z2 ×Z2 , that is the two-dimensional crystal lattice with Born-Karman period two in both directions.

  4. Gauge B-L model with residual Z 3 symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Srivastava, Rahul; ...

    2016-09-07

    We study a gauge B–L extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons with unconventional charges for the singlet right-handed neutrinos, and extra singlet scalars, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. The phenomenological consequences of this scenario, including the possibility of long-lived self-interacting dark matter and Z' collider signatures is discussed. Lepton number L is a familiar concept. It is usually defined as a global U (1) symmetry, under which the leptons of the standard model (SM), i.e. e,μ,τ together with their neutrinos ν e,ν μ,ν τ have L=1, and allmore » other SM particles have L=0. In the case of nonzero Majorana neutrino masses, this continuous symmetry is broken to a discrete Z 2 symmetry, i.e. (-1) L or lepton parity. In this paper, we consider a gauge B–L extension of the SM, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. This is then a realization of the unusual notion of Z 3 lepton symmetry. It has specific phenomenological consequences, including the possibility of a long-lived particle as a dark-matter candidate.« less

  5. Gauge B-L model with residual Z 3 symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Srivastava, Rahul

    We study a gauge B–L extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons with unconventional charges for the singlet right-handed neutrinos, and extra singlet scalars, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. The phenomenological consequences of this scenario, including the possibility of long-lived self-interacting dark matter and Z' collider signatures is discussed. Lepton number L is a familiar concept. It is usually defined as a global U (1) symmetry, under which the leptons of the standard model (SM), i.e. e,μ,τ together with their neutrinos ν e,ν μ,ν τ have L=1, and allmore » other SM particles have L=0. In the case of nonzero Majorana neutrino masses, this continuous symmetry is broken to a discrete Z 2 symmetry, i.e. (-1) L or lepton parity. In this paper, we consider a gauge B–L extension of the SM, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. This is then a realization of the unusual notion of Z 3 lepton symmetry. It has specific phenomenological consequences, including the possibility of a long-lived particle as a dark-matter candidate.« less

  6. Symmetry in locomotor central pattern generators and animal gaits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1999-10-01

    Animal locomotion is controlled, in part, by a central pattern generator (CPG), which is an intraspinal network of neurons capable of generating a rhythmic output. The spatio-temporal symmetries of the quadrupedal gaits walk, trot and pace lead to plausible assumptions about the symmetries of locomotor CPGs. These assumptions imply that the CPG of a quadruped should consist of eight nominally identical subcircuits, arranged in an essentially unique matter. Here we apply analogous arguments to myriapod CPGs. Analyses based on symmetry applied to these networks lead to testable predictions, including a distinction between primary and secondary gaits, the existence of a new primary gait called `jump', and the occurrence of half-integer wave numbers in myriapod gaits. For bipeds, our analysis also predicts two gaits with the out-of-phase symmetry of the walk and two gaits with the in-phase symmetry of the hop. We present data that support each of these predictions. This work suggests that symmetry can be used to infer a plausible class of CPG network architectures from observed patterns of animal gaits.

  7. How does symmetry impact the flexibility of proteins?

    PubMed

    Schulze, Bernd; Sljoka, Adnan; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-02-13

    It is well known that (i) the flexibility and rigidity of proteins are central to their function, (ii) a number of oligomers with several copies of individual protein chains assemble with symmetry in the native state and (iii) added symmetry sometimes leads to added flexibility in structures. We observe that the most common symmetry classes of protein oligomers are also the symmetry classes that lead to increased flexibility in certain three-dimensional structures-and investigate the possible significance of this coincidence. This builds on the well-developed theory of generic rigidity of body-bar frameworks, which permits an analysis of the rigidity and flexibility of molecular structures such as proteins via fast combinatorial algorithms. In particular, we outline some very simple counting rules and possible algorithmic extensions that allow us to predict continuous symmetry-preserving motions in body-bar frameworks that possess non-trivial point-group symmetry. For simplicity, we focus on dimers, which typically assemble with twofold rotational axes, and often have allosteric function that requires motions to link distant sites on the two protein chains.

  8. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Novel symmetries in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical models

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.P., E-mail: malik@bhu.ac.in; DST-CIMS, Faculty of Science, BHU-Varanasi-221 005; Khare, Avinash, E-mail: khare@iiserpune.ac.in

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel set of discrete symmetries in the context of the N=2 supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum mechanical model with a potential function f(x) that is a generalization of the potential of the 1D SUSY harmonic oscillator. We perform the same exercise for the motion of a charged particle in the X–Y plane under the influence of a magnetic field in the Z-direction. We derive the underlying algebra of the existing continuous symmetry transformations (and corresponding conserved charges) and establish its relevance to the algebraic structures of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. We showmore » that the discrete symmetry transformations of our present general theories correspond to the Hodge duality operation. Ultimately, we conjecture that any arbitrary N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical system can be shown to be a tractable model for the Hodge theory. -- Highlights: •Discrete symmetries of two completely different kinds of N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical models have been discussed. •The discrete symmetries provide physical realizations of Hodge duality. •The continuous symmetries provide the physical realizations of de Rham cohomological operators. •Our work sheds a new light on the meaning of the above abstract operators.« less

  10. Numerical preservation of symmetry properties of continuum problems

    SciTech Connect

    Caramana, E.J.; Whalen, P.

    1997-12-31

    The authors investigate the problem of perfectly preserving a symmetry associated naturally with one coordinate system when calculated in a different coordinate system. This allows a much wider range of problems that may be viewed as perturbations of the given symmetry to be investigated. They study the problem of preserving cylindrical symmetry in two-dimensional cartesian geometry and spherical symmetry in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. They show that this can be achieved by a simple modification of the gradient operator used to compute the force in a staggered grid Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithm. In the absence of the supposed symmetry they show thatmore » the new operator produces almost no change in the results because it is always close to the original gradient operator. Their technique this results in a subtle manipulation of the spatial truncation error in favor of the assumed symmetry but only to the extent that it is naturally present in the physical situation. This not only extends the range of previous algorithms and the use of new ones for these studies, but for spherical or cylindrical calculations reduces the sensitivity of the results to grid setup with equal angular zoning that has heretofore been necessary with these problems. Although this work is in two-dimensions, it does point the way to solving this problem in three-dimensions. This is particularly important for the ASCI initiative. The manner in which these results can be extended to three-dimensions will be discussed.« less

  11. How does symmetry impact the flexibility of proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Bernd; Sljoka, Adnan; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that (i) the flexibility and rigidity of proteins are central to their function, (ii) a number of oligomers with several copies of individual protein chains assemble with symmetry in the native state and (iii) added symmetry sometimes leads to added flexibility in structures. We observe that the most common symmetry classes of protein oligomers are also the symmetry classes that lead to increased flexibility in certain three-dimensional structures—and investigate the possible significance of this coincidence. This builds on the well-developed theory of generic rigidity of body–bar frameworks, which permits an analysis of the rigidity and flexibility of molecular structures such as proteins via fast combinatorial algorithms. In particular, we outline some very simple counting rules and possible algorithmic extensions that allow us to predict continuous symmetry-preserving motions in body–bar frameworks that possess non-trivial point-group symmetry. For simplicity, we focus on dimers, which typically assemble with twofold rotational axes, and often have allosteric function that requires motions to link distant sites on the two protein chains. PMID:24379431

  12. Relating quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Hideo; Doi, Takahiro M.; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2017-12-01

    We study the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Using lattice QCD formalism, we analytically express the various ‘confinement indicators’, such as the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, the Wilson loop, the inter-quark potential and the string tension, in terms of the Dirac eigenmodes. In the Dirac spectral representation, there appears a power of the Dirac eigenvalue {λ }n such as {λ }n{Nt-1}, which behaves as a reduction factor for small {λ }n. Consequently, since this reduction factor cannot be cancelled, the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes give negligibly small contribution to the confinement quantities, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. These relations indicate that there is no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In other words, there is some independence of quark confinement from chiral symmetry breaking, which can generally lead to different transition temperatures/densities for deconfinement and chiral restoration. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain-wall fermion kernels, and find similar results. The independence of quark confinement from chiral symmetry breaking seems to be natural, because confinement is realized independently of quark masses and heavy quarks are also confined even without the chiral symmetry.

  13. Reformulation of the symmetries of first-order general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Merced; González, Diego; Celada, Mariano; Díaz, Bogar

    2017-10-01

    We report a new internal gauge symmetry of the n-dimensional Palatini action with cosmological term (n>3 ) that is the generalization of three-dimensional local translations. This symmetry is obtained through the direct application of the converse of Noether’s second theorem on the theory under consideration. We show that diffeomorphisms can be expressed as linear combinations of it and local Lorentz transformations with field-dependent parameters up to terms involving the variational derivatives of the action. As a result, the new internal symmetry together with local Lorentz transformations can be adopted as the fundamental gauge symmetries of general relativity. Although their gauge algebra is open in general, it allows us to recover, without resorting to the equations of motion, the very well-known Lie algebra satisfied by translations and Lorentz transformations in three dimensions. We also report the analog of the new gauge symmetry for the Holst action with cosmological term, finding that it explicitly depends on the Immirzi parameter. The same result concerning its relation to diffeomorphisms and the open character of the gauge algebra also hold in this case. Finally, we consider the non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to gravity in n dimensions and establish that the new gauge symmetry is affected by this matter field. Our results indicate that general relativity in dimension greater than three can be thought of as a gauge theory.

  14. Exploring a new S U (4 ) symmetry of meson interpolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glozman, L. Ya.; Pak, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent lattice calculations it has been discovered that mesons upon truncation of the quasizero modes of the Dirac operator obey a symmetry larger than the S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )A symmetry of the QCD Lagrangian. This symmetry has been suggested to be S U (4 )⊃S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )A that mixes not only the u- and d-quarks of a given chirality, but also the left- and right-handed components. Here it is demonstrated that bilinear q ¯q interpolating fields of a given spin J ≥1 transform into each other according to irreducible representations of S U (4 ) or, in general, S U (2 NF). This fact together with the coincidence of the correlation functions establishes S U (4 ) as a symmetry of the J ≥1 mesons upon quasizero mode reduction. It is shown that this symmetry is a symmetry of the confining instantaneous charge-charge interaction in QCD. Different subgroups of S U (4 ) as well as the S U (4 ) algebra are explored.

  15. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  16. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such ... Listening to each other and working to resolve conflicts are important in strengthening the family.

  17. Familial gigantism

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W.

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  18. Family Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-30

    comander in coordination with installation residents, activities, and family support program managers . Unresourced requirements are forwarded through...members and their families in keeping their personal financial affairs in order. The program provides basic money management and consumer education...Directive 1342.16 (references (d) through (f)). 7. Deployment Support. Helps single and married Military Service members and their families to manage

  19. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Peggy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Kellogg Family Collaborative project that involves the University of Montana and four tribal colleges in a family-strengths approach to improving student retention and achievement. States that the project is grounded in social work theory and research that recognize and reinforce family and student resilience through promotion of…

  20. Global Bifurcation of Periodic Solutions with Symmetry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    C4-family of sectorial operators on a real Hilbert (2.32.a) space X, with dense domain D(A(A)) which is independent of A E E, and with compact...Vanl, theorem 2.5.91. If .F and E’ are both Hilbert spaces with orthogonal action of r, we may drop the assumption that 1 is compact. Just take...some meandering. Let us define a limit for any sequence Si of subsets of some metric space . Following Whyburn [Why], we define lir sup Si {z: z

  1. Capsule symmetry sensitivity and hohlraum symmetry calculations for the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson Porter, D. L., Jr.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.

    2000-10-01

    Capsule radiation symmetry is a crucial issue in the design of the z-pinch driven hohlraum approach to high-yield inertial confinement fusion [1]. Capsule symmetry may be influenced by power imbalance of the two z-pinch x-ray sources, and by hohlraum effects (geometry, time-dependent albedo, wall motion). We have conducted two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to estimate the symmetry sensitivity of the 220 eV beryllium ablator capsule that nominally yields 400 MJ in this concept. These estimates then determine the symmetry requirements to be met by the hohlraum design (for even Legendre modes) and by the top-bottom pinch imbalance and mistiming (for odd Legendre modes). We have used a combination of 2- and 3-D radiosity ("viewfactor"), and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to identify hohlraum geometries that meet these symmetry requirements for high-yield, and are testing these models against ongoing Z foam ball symmetry experiments. 1. J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6, 2129 (1999).

  2. Partner symmetries of the complex Monge Ampère equation yield hyper-Kähler metrics without continuous symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykh, A. A.; Nutku, Y.; Sheftel, M. B.

    2003-10-01

    We extend the Mason-Newman Lax pair for the elliptic complex Monge-Ampère equation so that this equation itself emerges as an algebraic consequence. We regard the function in the extended Lax equations as a complex potential. Their differential compatibility condition coincides with the determining equation for the symmetries of the complex Monge-Ampère equation. We shall identify the real and imaginary parts of the potential, which we call partner symmetries, with the translational and dilatational symmetry characteristics, respectively. Then we choose the dilatational symmetry characteristic as the new unknown replacing the Kähler potential. This directly leads to a Legendre transformation. Studying the integrability conditions of the Legendre-transformed system we arrive at a set of linear equations satisfied by a single real potential. This enables us to construct non-invariant solutions of the Legendre transform of the complex Monge-Ampère equation. Using these solutions we obtained explicit Legendre-transformed hyper-Kähler metrics with a anti-self-dual Riemann curvature 2-form that admit no Killing vectors. They satisfy the Einstein field equations with Euclidean signature. We give the detailed derivation of the solution announced earlier and present a new solution with an added parameter. We compare our method of partner symmetries for finding non-invariant solutions to that of Dunajski and Mason who use 'hidden' symmetries for the same purpose.

  3. Reduction by symmetries in singular quantum-mechanical problems: General scheme and application to Aharonov-Bohm model

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A. G., E-mail: smirnov@lpi.ru

    2015-12-15

    We develop a general technique for finding self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator that respects a given set of its symmetries. Problems of this type naturally arise when considering two- and three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. The approach is based on constructing a unitary transformation diagonalizing the symmetries and reducing the initial operator to the direct integral of a suitable family of partial operators. We prove that symmetry preserving self-adjoint extensions of the initial operator are in a one-to-one correspondence with measurable families of self-adjoint extensions of partial operators obtained by reduction. The general scheme is applied to themore » three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian describing the electron in the magnetic field of an infinitely thin solenoid. We construct all self-adjoint extensions of this Hamiltonian, invariant under translations along the solenoid and rotations around it, and explicitly find their eigenfunction expansions.« less

  4. Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content through Novel Visualization Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…

  5. Jamaican families.

    PubMed

    Miner, Dianne Cooney

    2003-01-01

    The study of the family in the Caribbean originated with European scholars who assumed the universality of the patriarchal nuclear family and the primacy of this structure to the healthy functioning of society. Matrifocal Caribbean families thus were seen as chaotic and disorganized and inadequate to perform the essential tasks of the social system. This article provides a more current discussion of the Jamaican family. It argues that its structure is the result of the agency and adaptation of its members and not the root cause of the increasing marginalization of peoples in the developing world. The article focuses on families living in poverty and how the family structure supports essential family functions, adaptations, and survival.

  6. Active Families in the Great Outdoors: A Program to Promote Family Outdoor Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Jennifer I.; Bassett, David R.; Fouts, Hillary N.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Coe, Dawn P.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a 4-week program to increase the time families spent engaging in outdoor activity. Parents were provided strategies to increase family outdoor activity and locations to be active. Sixteen families completed the program. Duration and number of family outdoor activity bouts per week, type of activities, locations, and family…

  7. Measurement of Radiation Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David L.

    2001-10-01

    The z-pinch driven hohlraum (ZPDH) is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [1]. In this concept [2], x rays are produced by an axial z-pinch in a primary hohlraum at each end of a secondary hohlraum. A fusion capsule in the secondary is imploded by a symmetric x-ray flux distribution, effectively smoothed by wall reemission during transport to the capsule position. Capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in the design of such a system, is influenced by hohlraum geometry, wall motion and time-dependent albedo, as well as power balance and pinch timing between the two z-pinch x-ray sources. In initial symmetry studies on Z, we used solid low density burnthrough spheres to diagnose highly asymmetric, single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries. We then applied this technique to the more symmetric double z-pinch geometry [3]. As a result of design improvements, radiation flux symmetry in Z double-pinch wire array experiments now exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic (15% max-min flux asymmetry). To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2 - 5% level attainable with our present ZPDH designs, we are using high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules. We will present the results of polar flux symmetry measuremets on Z for several ZPDH capsule geometries together with radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for comparison. [1] M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,2257(2001); [2] J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6,2129(1999); [3] D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,360(2000).

  8. On the dynamical and geometrical symmetries of Keplerian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamical symmetries of classical, relativistic and quantum-mechanical Kepler systems are considered to arise from geometric symmetries in PQET phase space. To establish their interconnection, the symmetries are related with the aid of a Lie-algebraic extension of Dirac's correspondence principle, a canonical transformation containing a Cunningham-Bateman inversion, and a classical limit involving a preliminary canonical transformation in ET space. The Lie-algebraic extension establishes the conditions under which the uncertainty principle allows the local dynamical symmetry of a quantum-mechanical system to be the same as the geometrical phase-space symmetry of its classical counterpart. The canonical transformation converts Poincaré-invariant free-particle systems into ISO(3,1) invariant relativistic systems whose classical limit produces Keplerian systems. Locally Cartesian relativistic PQET coordinates are converted into a set of eight conjugate position and momentum coordinates whose classical limit contains Fock projective momentum coordinates and the components of Runge-Lenz vectors. The coordinate systems developed via the transformations are those in which the evolution and degeneracy groups of the classical system are generated by Poisson-bracket operators that produce ordinary rotation, translation and hyperbolic motions in phase space. The way in which these define classical Keplerian symmetries and symmetry coordinates is detailed. It is shown that for each value of the energy of a Keplerian system, the Poisson-bracket operators determine two invariant functions of positions and momenta, which together with its regularized Hamiltonian, define the manifold in six-dimensional phase space upon which motions evolve.

  9. On domain symmetry and its use in homogenization

    DOE PAGES

    Barbarosie, Cristian A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Watts, Seth E.

    2017-03-08

    The present study focuses on solving partial differential equations in domains exhibiting symmetries and periodic boundary conditions for the purpose of homogenization. We show in a systematic manner how the symmetry can be exploited to significantly reduce the complexity of the problem and the computational burden. This is especially relevant in inverse problems, when one needs to solve the partial differential equation (the primal problem) many times in an optimization algorithm. The main motivation of our study is inverse homogenization used to design architected composite materials with novel properties which are being fabricated at ever increasing rates thanks to recentmore » advances in additive manufacturing. For example, one may optimize the morphology of a two-phase composite unit cell to achieve isotropic homogenized properties with maximal bulk modulus and minimal Poisson ratio. Typically, the isotropy is enforced by applying constraints to the optimization problem. However, in two dimensions, one can alternatively optimize the morphology of an equilateral triangle and then rotate and reflect the triangle to form a space filling D 3 symmetric hexagonal unit cell that necessarily exhibits isotropic homogenized properties. One can further use this D 3 symmetry to reduce the computational expense by performing the “unit strain” periodic boundary condition simulations on the single triangle symmetry sector rather than the six fold larger hexagon. In this paper we use group representation theory to derive the necessary periodic boundary conditions on the symmetry sectors of unit cells. The developments are done in a general setting, and specialized to the two-dimensional dihedral symmetries of the abelian D 2, i.e. orthotropic, square unit cell and nonabelian D 3, i.e. trigonal, hexagon unit cell. We then demonstrate how this theory can be applied by evaluating the homogenized properties of a two-phase planar composite over the triangle symmetry sector

  10. Evaluation of the Elekta Symmetry ™ 4D IGRT system by using a moving lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Shin-Wook; Kay, Chul Seung; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi-Woong; Kang, Ki-Mun; Jang, Hong Seok; Kang, Young-nam

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors because it can help us to understand where the tumors are actually located and it has a precise treatment plan. However, general CBCT images have a limitation in that they cannot perfectly perform a sophisticated registration. On the other hand, the Symmetry TM 4D image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system of Elekta offers a 4D CBCT registration option. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Symmetry TM . Method and Materials: Planning CT images of the CIRS moving lung phantom were acquired 4D multi-detector CT (MDCT), and the images were sorted as 10 phases from 0% phase to 90% phase. The thickness of the CT images was 1 mm. Acquired MDCT images were transferred to the contouring software, and a virtual target was generated. A one-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed by using the treatment planning system on the virtual target. Finally, the movement of the phantom was verified by using the XVI Symmetry TM system. Results: The physical movement of the CIRS moving lung phantom was ±10.0 mm in the superiorinferior direction, ±1.0 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the 4D MDCT registration as ±10.2 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.45 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the SymmetryTM registration as ±10.1 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.4 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusion: We confirmed that 4D CBCT is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors, and that the 4D registration of SymmetryTM can increase the precision of the registration when a movable tumor is the target of radiation treatment.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  12. A4 flavour model for Dirac neutrinos: Type I and inverse seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Karmakar, Biswajit

    2018-05-01

    We propose two different seesaw models namely, type I and inverse seesaw to realise light Dirac neutrinos within the framework of A4 discrete flavour symmetry. The additional fields and their transformations under the flavour symmetries are chosen in such a way that naturally predicts the hierarchies of different elements of the seesaw mass matrices in these two types of seesaw mechanisms. For generic choices of flavon alignments, both the models predict normal hierarchical light neutrino masses with the atmospheric mixing angle in the lower octant. Apart from predicting interesting correlations between different neutrino parameters as well as between neutrino and model parameters, the model also predicts the leptonic Dirac CP phase to lie in a specific range - π / 3 to π / 3. While the type I seesaw model predicts smaller values of absolute neutrino mass, the inverse seesaw predictions for the absolute neutrino masses can saturate the cosmological upper bound on sum of absolute neutrino masses for certain choices of model parameters.

  13. Compact localized states and flat bands from local symmetry partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röntgen, M.; Morfonios, C. V.; Schmelcher, P.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a framework for the connection between local symmetries of discrete Hamiltonians and the design of compact localized states. Such compact localized states are used for the creation of tunable, local symmetry-induced bound states in an energy continuum and flat energy bands for periodically repeated local symmetries in one- and two-dimensional lattices. The framework is based on very recent theorems in graph theory which are here employed to obtain a block partitioning of the Hamiltonian induced by the symmetry of a given system under local site permutations. The diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is thereby reduced to finding the eigenspectra of smaller matrices, with eigenvectors automatically divided into compact localized and extended states. We distinguish between local symmetry operations which commute with the Hamiltonian, and those which do not commute due to an asymmetric coupling to the surrounding sites. While valuable as a computational tool for versatile discrete systems with locally symmetric structures, the approach provides in particular a unified, intuitive, and efficient route to the flexible design of compact localized states at desired energies.

  14. Imaging chiral symmetry breaking from Kekule bond order in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Gutiérrez, Christopher; Kim, Cheol -Joo; Brown, Lola; ...

    2016-05-23

    Chirality—or ‘handedness’—is a symmetry property crucial to fields as diverse as biology, chemistry and high-energy physics. In graphene, chiral symmetry emerges naturally as a consequence of the carbon honeycomb lattice. This symmetry can be broken by interactions that couple electrons with opposite momenta in graphene. Here we directly visualize the formation of Kekulé bond order, one such phase of broken chiral symmetry, in an ultraflat graphene sheet grown epitaxially on a copper substrate. We show that its origin lies in the interactions between individual vacancies in the copper substrate that are mediated electronically by the graphene. We show that thismore » interaction causes the bonds in graphene to distort, creating a phase with broken chiral symmetry. Furthermore, the Kekulé ordering is robust at ambient temperature and atmospheric conditions, indicating that intercalated atoms may be harnessed to drive graphene and other two-dimensional materials towards electronically desirable and exotic collective phases.« less

  15. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Campennì, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated “social relationships” and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions. PMID:26998412

  16. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    PubMed

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  17. Holographic Symmetries and Generalized Order Parameters for Topological Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobanera, Emilio; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a universally applicable method, based on the bond-algebraic theory of dualities, to search for generalized order parameters in a wide variety of non-Landau systems, including topologically ordered matter. To this end we introduce the key notion of holographic symmetry. It reflects situations in which global symmetries become exact boundary symmetries under a duality mapping. Holographic symmetries are naturally related to edge modes and localization. The utility of our approach is illustrated by presenting a systematic derivation of generalized order parameters for pure and matter-coupled Abelian gauge theories and (extended) toric codes. Also we introduce a many-body extension of the Kitaev wire, the gauged Kitaev wire, and exploit holographic symmetries and dualities to describe its phase diagram, generalized order parameter, and edge states. [arXiv:1211.0564] This work was supported by the Dutch Science Foundation NWO/FOM and an ERC Advanced Investigator grant, and, in part, under grants No. NSF PHY11-25915 and CMMT 1106293.

  18. Floquet topological phases with symmetry in all dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rahul; Harper, Fenner

    2017-05-01

    Dynamical systems may host a number of remarkable symmetry-protected phases that are qualitatively different from their static analogs. In this work, we consider the phase space of symmetry-respecting unitary evolutions in detail and identify several distinct classes of evolution that host dynamical order. Using ideas from group cohomology, we construct a set of interacting Floquet drives that generate dynamical symmetry-protected topological order for each nontrivial cohomology class in every dimension, illustrating our construction with explicit two-dimensional examples. We also identify a set of symmetry-protected Floquet drives that lie outside of the group cohomology construction, and a further class of symmetry-respecting topological drives which host chiral edge modes. We use these special drives to define a notion of phase (stable to a class of local perturbations in the bulk) and the concepts of relative and absolute topological order, which can be applied to many different classes of unitary evolutions. These include fully many-body localized unitary evolutions and time crystals.

  19. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breakinga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Donald A.

    2015-05-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  20. Argyres–Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2015-12-21

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the (A(1), A(2n-3)) and(A(1), D-2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S-1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S-3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases-with the exception of the reduction of the (A(1), D-4) SCFTcertain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as Rmore » symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S-1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional N = 2 superconformal U(1)(R) symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the fourdimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general N = 2 SCFTs.« less

  1. Argyres–Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the (A(1), A(2n-3)) and(A(1), D-2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S-1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S-3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases-with the exception of the reduction of the (A(1), D-4) SCFTcertain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as Rmore » symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S-1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional N = 2 superconformal U(1)(R) symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the fourdimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general N = 2 SCFTs.« less

  2. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  3. Continuum limit and symmetries of the periodic gℓ(1|1) spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, A. M.; Read, N.; Saleur, H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is the first in a series devoted to the study of logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFT) in the bulk. Building on earlier work in the boundary case, our general strategy consists in analyzing the algebraic properties of lattice regularizations (quantum spin chains) of these theories. In the boundary case, a crucial step was the identification of the space of states as a bimodule over the Temperley-Lieb (TL) algebra and the quantum group Uqsℓ(2). The extension of this analysis in the bulk case involves considerable difficulties, since the Uqsℓ(2) symmetry is partly lost, while the TL algebra is replaced by a much richer version (the Jones-Temperley-Lieb — JTL — algebra). Even the simplest case of the gℓ(1|1) spin chain — corresponding to the c=-2 symplectic fermions theory in the continuum limit — presents very rich aspects, which we will discuss in several papers. In this first work, we focus on the symmetries of the spin chain, that is, the centralizer of the JTL algebra in the alternating tensor product of the gℓ(1|1) fundamental representation and its dual. We prove that this centralizer is only a subalgebra of Uqsℓ(2) at q=i that we dub Uqoddsℓ(2). We then begin the analysis of the continuum limit of the JTL algebra: using general arguments about the regularization of the stress-energy tensor, we identify families of JTL elements going over to the Virasoro generators Ln,L in the continuum limit. We then discuss the sℓ(2) symmetry of the (continuum limit) symplectic fermions theory from the lattice and JTL point of view. The analysis of the spin chain as a bimodule over Uqoddsℓ(2) and JTLN is discussed in the second paper of this series.

  4. Global Symmetries of Six Dimensional Superconformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkx, Peter R.

    In this work we investigate the global symmetries of six-dimensional superconformal field theories (6D SCFTs) via their description in F-theory. We provide computer algebra system routines determining global symmetry maxima for all known 6D SCFTs while tracking the singularity types of the associated elliptic fibrations. We tabulate these bounds for many CFTs including every 0-link based theory. The approach we take provides explicit tracking of geometric information which has remained implicit in the classifications of 6D SCFTs to date. We derive a variety of new geometric restrictions on collections of singularity collisions in elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau varieties and collect data from local model analyses of these collisions. The resulting restrictions are sufficient to match the known gauge enhancement structure constraints for all 6D SCFTs without appeal to anomaly cancellation and enable our global symmetry computations for F-theory SCFT models to proceed similarly.

  5. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  6. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.

    2015-01-21

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetricmore » case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.« less

  7. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanović, D.; Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  8. Hidden chiral symmetries in BDI multichannel Kitaev chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manesco, Antônio L. R.; Weber, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Durval, Jr.

    2018-05-01

    Realistic implementations of the Kitaev chain require, in general, the introduction of extra internal degrees of freedom. In the present work, we discuss the presence of hidden BDI symmetries for free Hamiltonians describing systems with an arbitrary number of internal degrees of freedom. We generalize results of a spinfull Kitaev chain to construct a Hamiltonian with n internal degrees of freedom and obtain the corresponding hidden chiral symmetry. As an explicit application of this generalized result, we exploit by analytical and numerical calculations the case of a spinful two-band Kitaev chain, which can host up to four Majorana bound states. We also observe the appearence of minigap states, when chiral symmetry is broken.

  9. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  10. T-branes through 3d mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinucci, Andrés; Giacomelli, Simone; Savelli, Raffaele; Valandro, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    T-branes are exotic bound states of D-branes, characterized by mutually non-commuting vacuum expectation values for the worldvolume scalars. The M/F-theory geometry lifting D6/D7-brane configurations is blind to the T-brane data. In this paper, we make this data manifest, by probing the geometry with an M2-brane. We find that the effect of a T-brane is to deform the membrane worldvolume superpotential with monopole operators, which partially break the three-dimensional flavor symmetry, and reduce super-symmetry from {N} = 4 to {N} = 2. Our main tool is 3d mirror symmetry. Through this language, a very concrete framework is developed for understanding T-branes in M-theory. This leads us to uncover a new class of {N} = 2 quiver gauge theories, whose Higgs branches mimic those of membranes at ADE singularities, but whose Coulomb branches differ from their {N} = 4 counterparts.

  11. Suppression of Speckles at High Adaptive Correction Using Speckle Symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.

    2006-01-01

    Focal-plane speckles set important sensitivity limits on ground- or space-based imagers and coronagraphs that may be used to search for faint companions, perhaps ultimately including exoplanets, around stars. As speckles vary with atmospheric fluctuations or with drifting beamtrain aberrations, they contribute speckle noise proportional to their full amplitude. Schemes to suppress speckles are thus of great interest. At high adaptive correction, speckles organize into species, represented by algebraic terms in the expansion of the phase exponential, that have distinct spatial symmetry, even or odd, under spatial inversion. Filtering speckle patterns by symmetry may eliminate a disproportionate fraction of the speckle noise while blocking (only) half of the image signal from the off-axis companion being sought. The fraction of speckle power and hence of speckle noise in each term will vary with degree of correction, and so also will the net symmetry in the speckle pattern.

  12. On the Importance of Electronic Symmetry for Triplet State Delocalization

    DOE PAGES

    Richert, Sabine; Bullard, George; Rawson, Jeff; ...

    2017-03-29

    The influence of electronic symmetry on triplet state delocalization in linear zinc porphyrin oligomers is explored by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. Using a combination of transient continuous wave and pulse electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopies, it is demonstrated experimentally that complete triplet state delocalization requires the chemical equivalence of all porphyrin units. These results are supported by density functional theory calculations, showing uneven delocalization in a porphyrin dimer in which a terminal ethynyl group renders the two porphyrin units inequivalent. When the conjugation length of the molecule is further increased upon addition of a second terminal ethynyl group that restoresmore » the symmetry of the system, the triplet state is again found to be completely delocalized. Finally, the observations suggest that electronic symmetry is of greater importance for triplet state delocalization than other frequently invoked factors such as conformational rigidity or fundamental length-scale limitations.« less

  13. Consistency condition for inflation from (broken) conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der; Shiu, Gary, E-mail: kschalm@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu, E-mail: vdaalst@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum, i.e. the three-point correlation function of primordial density fluctuations, in slow-roll inflation. It follows from the defining property of slow-roll inflation that primordial correlation functions inherit most of their structure from weakly broken de Sitter symmetries. Using holographic techniques borrowed from the AdS/CFT correspondence, the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum can be mapped to a set of stress-tensor Ward identities in a weakly broken 2+1-dimensional Euclidean CFT. We construct the consistency condition from these Ward identities using conformal perturbation theory. This requires a second order Ward identity and the use of themore » evolution equation. Our result also illustrates a subtle difference between conformal perturbation theory and the slow-roll expansion.« less

  14. Continuous spin fields of mixed-symmetry type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Grigoriev, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We propose a description of continuous spin massless fields of mixed-symmetry type in Minkowski space at the level of equations of motion. It is based on the appropriately modified version of the constrained system originally used to describe massless bosonic fields of mixed-symmetry type. The description is shown to produce generalized versions of triplet, metric-like, and light-cone formulations. In particular, for scalar continuous spin fields we reproduce the Bekaert-Mourad formulation and the Schuster-Toro formulation. Because a continuous spin system inevitably involves infinite number of fields, specification of the allowed class of field configurations becomes a part of its definition. We show that the naive choice leads to an empty system and propose a suitable class resulting in the correct degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate that the gauge symmetries present in the formulation are all Stueckelberg-like so that the continuous spin system is not a genuine gauge theory.

  15. On symmetry inheritance of nonminimally coupled scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjašić, Irena; Smolić, Ivica

    2018-04-01

    We present the first symmetry inheritance analysis of fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. In this work we are focused on the real scalar field ϕ with nonminimal coupling of the form ξφ2 R . Possible cases of symmetry noninheriting fields are constrained by the properties of the Ricci tensor and the scalar potential. Examples of such spacetimes can be found among those which are ‘dressed’ with the stealth scalar field, a nontrivial scalar field configuration with the vanishing energy–momentum tensor. We classify the scalar field potentials which allow symmetry noninheriting stealth field configurations on top of the exact solutions of the Einstein’s gravitational field equation with the cosmological constant.

  16. Algebraic Construction of Exact Difference Equations from Symmetry of Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Toshiaki

    2009-09-01

    Difference equations or exact numerical integrations, which have general solutions, are treated algebraically. Eliminating the symmetries of the equation, we can construct difference equations (DCE) or numerical integrations equivalent to some ODEs or PDEs that means both have the same solution functions. When arbitrary functions are given, whether we can construct numerical integrations that have solution functions equal to given function or not are treated in this work. Nowadays, Lie's symmetries solver for ODE and PDE has been implemented in many symbolic software. Using this solver we can construct algebraic DCEs or numerical integrations which are correspond to some ODEs or PDEs. In this work, we treated exact correspondence between ODE or PDE and DCE or numerical integration with Gröbner base and Janet base from the view of Lie's symmetries.

  17. Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F.

    2017-11-01

    We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory.

  18. a Heavy Higgs Boson from Flavor and Electroweak Symmetry Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2005-08-01

    We present a unified picture of flavor and electroweak symmetry breaking based on a nonlinear sigma model spontaneously broken at the TeV scale. Flavor and Higgs bosons arise as pseudo-Goldstone modes. Explicit collective symmetry breaking yields stable vacuum expectation values and masses protected at one loop by the little-Higgs mechanism. The coupling to the fermions generates well-definite mass textures--according to a U(1) global flavor symmetry--that correctly reproduce the mass hierarchies and mixings of quarks and leptons. The model is more constrained than usual little-Higgs models because of bounds on weak and flavor physics. The main experimental signatures testable at the LHC are a rather large mass mh0 = 317 ± 80 GeV for the (lightest) Higgs boson.

  19. Influence of inter-item symmetry in visual search.

    PubMed

    Roggeveen, Alexa B; Kingstone, Alan; Enns, James T

    2004-01-01

    Does visual search involve a serial inspection of individual items (Feature Integration Theory) or are items grouped and segregated prior to their consideration as a possible target (Attentional Engagement Theory)? For search items defined by motion and shape there is strong support for prior grouping (Kingstone and Bischof, 1999). The present study tested for grouping based on inter-item shape symmetry. Results showed that target-distractor symmetry strongly influenced search whereas distractor-distractor symmetry influenced search more weakly. This indicates that static shapes are evaluated for similarity to one another prior to their explicit identification as 'target' or 'distractor'. Possible reasons for the unequal contributions of target-distractor and distractor-distractor relations are discussed.

  20. Constraints on the symmetry noninheriting scalar black hole hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Any recipe to grow black hole hair has to circumvent no-hair theorems by violating some of their assumptions. Recently discovered hairy black hole solutions exist due to the fact that their scalar fields don't inherit the symmetries of the spacetime metric. We present here a general analysis of the constraints which limit the possible forms of such a hair, for both the real and the complex scalar fields. These results can be taken as a novel piece of the black hole uniqueness theorems or simply as a symmetry noninheriting Ansätze guide. In addition, we introduce new classification of the gravitational field equations which might prove useful for various generalizations of the theorems about spacetimes with symmetries.