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Sample records for a4 flavor model

  1. A highly predictive A 4 flavor 3-3-1 model with radiative inverse seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Long, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    We build a highly predictive 3-3-1 model, where the field content is extended by including several SU(3) L scalar singlets and six right handed Majorana neutrinos. In our model the {SU}{(3)}C× {SU}{(3)}L× U{(1)}X gauge symmetry is supplemented by the {A}4× {Z}4× {Z}6× {Z}16× {Z}16{\\prime } discrete group, which allows to get a very good description of the low energy fermion flavor data. In the model under consideration, the {A}4× {Z}4× {Z}6× {Z}16× {Z}16{\\prime } discrete group is broken at very high energy scale down to the preserved Z 2 discrete symmetry, thus generating the observed pattern of SM fermion masses and mixing angles and allowing the implementation of the loop level inverse seesaw mechanism for the generation of the light active neutrino masses, respectively. The obtained values for the physical observables in the quark sector agree with the experimental data, whereas those ones for the lepton sector also do, only for the case of inverted neutrino mass spectrum. The normal neutrino mass hierarchy scenario of the model is ruled out by the neutrino oscillation experimental data. We find an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay of m ee = 46.9 meV, a leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of -81.37° and a Jarlskog invariant of about 10-2 for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. The preserved Z 2 symmetry allows for a stable scalar dark matter candidate.

  2. Model of flavor unity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.E.

    1980-12-15

    An SU(7) model is presented toward a flavor unification for known particles. The t quark is not a partner of the b quark. There are three types of neutrinos and several: so far unobserved: light detectable particles (masses <300 GeV): a doubly charged lepton T/sup - -/, a Q=-4/3 quark x, and a Q=5/3 quark y. An intermediate mass scale is a necessity and there is no problem of magnetic monopoles.

  3. Common origin of nonzero θ13 and baryon asymmetry of the Universe in a TeV scale seesaw model with A4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Mukherjee, Ananya

    2018-06-01

    We study the possibility of generating nonzero reactor mixing angle θ13 and baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of an A4 flavor symmetric model. Using the conventional type I seesaw mechanism we construct the Dirac and Majorana mass matrices that give rise to the correct light neutrino mass matrix. Keeping the right-handed neutrino mass matrix structure trivial so that it gives rise to a (quasi) degenerate spectrum of heavy neutrinos suitable for resonant leptogenesis at TeV scale, we generate the nontrivial structure of Dirac neutrino mass matrix that can lead to the light neutrino mixing through the type I seesaw formula. Interestingly, such a setup naturally leads to nonzero θ13 due to the existence of antisymmetric contraction of the product of two triplet representations of A4. Such an antisymmetric part of the triplet products usually vanishes for right-handed neutrino Majorana mass terms, leading to μ -τ symmetric scenarios in the most economical setups. We constrain the model parameters from the requirement of producing the correct neutrino data as well as baryon asymmetry of the Universe for right-handed neutrino mass scale around TeV. The A4 symmetry is augmented by additional Z3×Z2 symmetry to make sure that the splitting between right-handed neutrinos required for resonant leptogenesis is generated only by next to leading order terms, making it naturally small. We find that the inverted hierarchical light neutrino masses give more allowed parameter space consistent with neutrino and baryon asymmetry data.

  4. The flavor-locked flavorful two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Robinson, Dean J.; Tuckler, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new framework to generate the Standard Model (SM) quark flavor hierarchies in the context of two Higgs doublet models (2HDM). The `flavorful' 2HDM couples the SM-like Higgs doublet exclusively to the third quark generation, while the first two generations couple exclusively to an additional source of electroweak symmetry breaking, potentially generating striking collider signatures. We synthesize the flavorful 2HDM with the `flavor-locking' mechanism, that dynamically generates large quark mass hierarchies through a flavor-blind portal to distinct flavon and hierarchon sectors: dynamical alignment of the flavons allows a unique hierarchon to control the respective quark masses. We further develop the theoretical construction of this mechanism, and show that in the context of a flavorful 2HDM-type setup, it can automatically achieve realistic flavor structures: the CKM matrix is automatically hierarchical with | V cb | and | V ub | generically of the observed size. Exotic contributions to meson oscillation observables may also be generated, that may accommodate current data mildly better than the SM itself.

  5. Embedding A4 into left-right flavor symmetry: Tribimaximal neutrino mixing and fermion hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzocchi, F.; Morisi, S.; Picariello, M.

    2008-01-01

    We address two fundamental aspects of flavor physics: the mass hierarchy and the large lepton mixing angles. On one side, left-right flavor symmetry realizes the democratic mass matrix patterns and explains why one family is much heavier than the others. On the other side, discrete flavor symmetry such as A4 leads to the observed tribimaximal mixing for the leptons. We show that, by explicitly breaking the left-right flavor symmetry into the diagonal A4, it is possible to explain both the observed charged fermion mass hierarchies and quark and lepton mixing angles. In particular we predict a heavy 3rd family, the tribimaximal mixing for the leptons, and we suggest a possible origin of the Cabibbo and other mixing angles for the quarks.

  6. On the flavor structure of natural composite Higgs models & top flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Panico, Giuliano; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2014-12-01

    We explore the up flavor structure of composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone-boson Higgs models, where we focus on the flavor anarchic minimal SO(5) case. We identify the different sources of flavor violation in this framework and emphasise the differences from the anarchic Randall-Sundrum scenario. In particular, the fact that the flavor symmetry does not commute with the symmetries that stabilize the Higgs potential may constrain the flavor structure of the theory. In addition, we consider the interplay between the fine tuning of the model and flavor violation. We find that generically the tuning of this class of models is worsen in the anarchic case due to the contributions from the additional fermion resonances. We show that, even in the presence of custodial symmetry, large top flavor violating rate are naturally expected. In particular, t → cZ branching ratio of order of 10-5 is generic for this class of models. Thus, this framework can be tested in the next run of the LHC as well as in other future colliders. We also find that the top flavor violation is weakly correlated with the increase amount of fine tuning. Finally, other related flavor violation effects, such as t → ch and in the D system, are found to be too small to be observed by the current and near future colliders.

  7. Flavor instabilities in the neutrino line model

    DOE PAGES

    Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank

    2015-05-27

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective flavor oscillations through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make this multi-dimensional flavor transport problem more tractable, all existing studies have assumed certain symmetries (e.g., the spatial homogeneity and directional isotropy in the early universe) to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. In this article we show that, if both the directional and spatial symmetries are not enforced in the neutrino line model, collective oscillations can develop in the physical regimes where the symmetry-preserving oscillation modes are stable. Our results suggest that collective neutrino oscillations in real astrophysical environments (such as core-collapse supernovae and black-holemore » accretion discs) can be qualitatively different from the predictions based on existing models in which spatial and directional symmetries are artificially imposed.« less

  8. Flavor instabilities in the neutrino line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank

    2015-07-01

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective flavor oscillations through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make this multi-dimensional flavor transport problem more tractable, all existing studies have assumed certain symmetries (e.g., the spatial homogeneity and directional isotropy in the early universe) to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. In this work we show that, if both the directional and spatial symmetries are not enforced in the neutrino line model, collective oscillations can develop in the physical regimes where the symmetry-preserving oscillation modes are stable. Our results suggest that collective neutrino oscillations in real astrophysical environments (such as core-collapse supernovae and black-hole accretion discs) can be qualitatively different from the predictions based on existing models in which spatial and directional symmetries are artificially imposed.

  9. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    PubMed

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  10. A minimal model of neutrino flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Christoph; Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2012-12-01

    Models of neutrino mass which attempt to describe the observed lepton mixing pattern are typically based on discrete family symmetries with a non-Abelian and one or more Abelian factors. The latter so-called shaping symmetries are imposed in order to yield a realistic phenomenology by forbidding unwanted operators. Here we propose a supersymmetric model of neutrino flavor which is based on the group T 7 and does not require extra {Z} N or U(1) factors in the Yukawa sector, which makes it the smallest realistic family symmetry that has been considered so far. At leading order, the model predicts tribimaximal mixing which arises completely accidentally from a combination of the T 7 Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and suitable flavon alignments. Next-to-leading order (NLO) operators break the simple tribimaximal structure and render the model compatible with the recent results of the Daya Bay and Reno collaborations which have measured a reactor angle of around 9°. Problematic NLO deviations of the other two mixing angles can be controlled in an ultraviolet completion of the model. The vacuum alignment mechanism that we use necessitates the introduction of a hidden flavon sector that transforms under a {Z} 6 symmetry, thereby spoiling the minimality of our model whose flavor symmetry is then T 7 × {Z} 6.

  11. A three-site gauge model for flavor hierarchies and flavor anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Marzia; Cornella, Claudia; Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Isidori, Gino

    2018-04-01

    We present a three-site Pati-Salam gauge model able to explain the Standard Model flavor hierarchies while, at the same time, accommodating the recent experimental hints of lepton-flavor non-universality in B decays. The model is consistent with low- and high-energy bounds, and predicts a rich spectrum of new states at the TeV scale that could be probed in the near future by the high-pT experiments at the LHC.

  12. Flavor gauge models below the Fermi scale

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K. S.; Friedland, A.; Machado, P. A. N.

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson,more » $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, $B^+$, $D^+$ and Upsilon decays, $$D-\\bar{D}^0$$ mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling $$g_X$$ in the range $$(10^{-2} - 10^{-4})$$ the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in $b$ physics, top and $Z$ decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. In conclusion, the proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.« less

  13. Flavor gauge models below the Fermi scale

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, K. S.; Friedland, A.; Machado, P. A. N.; ...

    2017-12-18

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson,more » $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, $B^+$, $D^+$ and Upsilon decays, $$D-\\bar{D}^0$$ mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling $$g_X$$ in the range $$(10^{-2} - 10^{-4})$$ the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in $b$ physics, top and $Z$ decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. In conclusion, the proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.« less

  14. GUT and flavor models for neutrino masses and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, Davide

    2017-10-01

    In the recent years experiments have established the existence of neutrino oscillations and most of the oscillation parameters have been measured with a good accuracy. However, in spite of many interesting ideas, no real illumination was sparked on the problem of flavor in the lepton sector. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of models for neutrino masses and mixings formulated in the context of flavor symmetries, with particular emphasis on the role played by grand unified gauge groups.

  15. Critical flavor number of the Thirring model in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellegehausen, Björn H.; Schmidt, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    The Thirring model is a four-fermion theory with a current-current interaction and U (2 N ) chiral symmetry. It is closely related to three-dimensional QED and other models used to describe properties of graphene. In addition, it serves as a toy model to study chiral symmetry breaking. In the limit of flavor number N →1 /2 it is equivalent to the Gross-Neveu model, which shows a parity-breaking discrete phase transition. The model was already studied with different methods, including Dyson-Schwinger equations, functional renormalization group methods, and lattice simulations. Most studies agree that there is a phase transition from a symmetric phase to a spontaneously broken phase for a small number of fermion flavors, but no symmetry breaking for large N . But there is no consensus on the critical flavor number Ncr above which there is no phase transition anymore and on further details of the critical behavior. Values of N found in the literature vary between 2 and 7. All earlier lattice studies were performed with staggered fermions. Thus it is questionable if in the continuum limit the lattice model recovers the internal symmetries of the continuum model. We present new results from lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the Thirring model with SLAC fermions which exactly implement all internal symmetries of the continuum model even at finite lattice spacing. If we reformulate the model in an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra, we find, in contradiction to earlier results, that the behavior for even and odd flavor numbers is very different: for even flavor numbers, chiral and parity symmetry are always unbroken; for odd flavor numbers, parity symmetry is spontaneously broken below the critical flavor number Nircr=9 , while chiral symmetry is still unbroken.

  16. Family nonuniversal Z' models with protected flavor-changing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis, Alejandro; Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Jung, Martin; Serôdio, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    We define a new class of Z' models with neutral flavor-changing interactions at tree level in the down-quark sector. They are related in an exact way to elements of the quark mixing matrix due to an underlying flavored U(1)' gauge symmetry, rendering these models particularly predictive. The same symmetry implies lepton-flavor nonuniversal couplings, fully determined by the gauge structure of the model. Our models allow us to address presently observed deviations from the standard model and specific correlations among the new physics contributions to the Wilson coefficients C9,10' ℓ can be tested in b →s ℓ+ℓ- transitions. We furthermore predict lepton-universality violations in Z' decays, testable at the LHC.

  17. A hierarchy of models for ENSO flavors in past climates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, C.; Xie, R.; Di Nezio, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of two distinct ENSO flavors versus an ENSO continuum remains an open question. Investigating the response of ENSO diversity to past climate forcings provides a framework to approach this question. Previous work using GCMs has shown that ENSO flavors may respond differentially to mid-Holocene orbital forcing, with a significant suppression of Eastern Pacific ENSO as opposed to insensitivity of Central Pacific ENSO. Here, we employ a hierarchy of models to explore the robustness of ENSO-flavor response to orbital forcing. First, we use a modified version of the Zebiak-Cane model which simulates two ENSO modes reminiscent of ENSO flavors. We find a quasi-linear response of these two modes to orbital forcing corresponding to 6ka, 111ka, and 121ka BP in terms of growth rates, frequency and spatial pattern of SST anomalies. We then employ an Earth System Model subject only to orbital forcing to show the corresponding response in the three past climates. This investigation indicates that no extratropical influences may be required to produce such quasi-linear ENSO-flavor response to orbital forcing. Aided by paleoclimate proxies, the hierarchy of models employed here presents a paleoclimate perspective to the fundamental and elusive question of the nature and origins of ENSO diversity.

  18. Phenomenological aspects of possible vacua of a neutrino flavor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yusuke; Takagi, Kenta; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric model with discrete flavor symmetry {A}4× {Z}3. The additional scalar fields which contribute masses of leptons in the Yukawa terms are introduced in this model. We analyze their scalar potential and find that they have various vacuum structures. We show the relations among 24 different vacua and classify them into two types. We derive expressions of the lepton mixing angles, Dirac CP violating phase and Majorana phases for the two types. The model parameters which are allowed by the experimental data of the lepton mixing angles are different for each type. We also study the constraints on the model parameters which are related to Majorana phases. The different allowed regions of the model parameters for the two types are shown numerically for a given region of two combinations of the CP violating phases. Supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K05418 (T.M.). This work is also supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [No. 16J05332 (Y.S.), Nos. 24540272, 26247038, 15H01037, 16H00871, and 16H02189 (H.U.)] from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. H.O. is also supported by Hiroshima Univ. Alumni Association

  19. Radiatively induced neutrino mass model with flavor dependent gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SangJong; Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    We study a radiative seesaw model at one-loop level with a flavor dependent gauge symmetry U(1) μ - τ, in which we consider bosonic dark matter. We also analyze the constraints from lepton flavor violations, muon g - 2, relic density of dark matter, and collider physics, and carry out numerical analysis to search for allowed parameter region which satisfy all the constraints and to investigate some predictions. Furthermore we find that a simple but adhoc hypothesis induces specific two zero texture with inverse mass matrix, which provides us several predictions such as a specific pattern of Dirac CP phase.

  20. Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun

    2012-01-01

    We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the samemore » sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.« less

  1. Flavor condensates in brane models and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Tarantino, Walter

    2009-10-01

    In the context of a microscopic model of string-inspired foam, in which foamy structures are provided by brany pointlike defects (D-particles) in space-time, we discuss flavor mixing as a result of flavor nonpreserving interactions of (low-energy) fermionic stringy matter excitations with the defects. Such interactions involve splitting and capture of the matter string state by the defect, and subsequent re-emission. As a result of charge conservation, only electrically neutral matter can interact with the D-particles. Quantum fluctuations of the D-particles induce a nontrivial space-time background; in some circumstances, this could be akin to a cosmological Friedman-Robertson-Walker expanding-universe, with weak (but nonzero) particle production. Furthermore, the D-particle medium can induce an Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-type effect. We have argued previously, in the context of bosons, that the so-called flavor vacuum is the appropriate state to be used, at least for low-energy excitations, with energies/momenta up to a dynamically determined cutoff scale. Given the intriguing mass scale provided by neutrino flavor mass differences from the point of view of dark energy, we evaluate the flavor-vacuum expectation value (condensate) of the stress-energy tensor of the 1/2-spin fields with mixing in an effective-low-energy quantum field theory in this foam-induced curved space-time. We demonstrate, at late epochs of the Universe, that the fermionic vacuum condensate behaves as a fluid with negative pressure and positive energy; however, the equation of state has wfermion>-1/3 and so the contribution of the fermion-fluid flavor vacuum alone could not yield accelerating universes. Such contributions to the vacuum energy should be considered as (algebraically) additive to the flavored boson contributions, evaluated in our previous works; this should be considered as natural from (broken) target-space supersymmetry that characterizes realistic superstring

  2. Investigating the quark flavor dependence of the chiral magnetic effect with a multiphase transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; Ma, Chun-Wang; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2018-03-01

    Because the properties of the QCD phase transition and the chiral magnetic effect (CME) depend on the number of quark flavors (Nf) and quark mass, relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide a natural environment to investigate the flavor features if quark deconfinement occurs. We introduce an initial two-flavor or three-flavor dipole charge separation into a multiphase transport (AMPT) model to investigate the flavor dependence of the CME. By taking advantage of the recent ALICE data of charge azimuthal correlations with identified hadrons, we attempt to disentangle two-flavor and three-flavor CME scenarios in Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. We find that the experimental data show a certain potential to distinguish the two scenarios, therefore we further suggest to collect more data to clarify the possible flavor dependence in future experiments.

  3. Flavor perception and aroma release from model dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Lethuaut, Laurent; Weel, Koen G C; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Brossard, Chantal D

    2004-06-02

    Six model dairy desserts, with three different textures and two sucrose levels, were equally flavored with a blend of four aroma compounds [ethyl pentanoate, amyl acetate, hexanal, and (E)-2-hexenal] and evaluated by a seven person panel in order to study whether the sensory perception of the flavor and the aroma release during eating varied with the textural characteristics or the sweetness intensity of the desserts. The sensory perception was recorded by the time intensity (TI) method, while the in vivo aroma release was simultaneously measured by the MS-nose. Considering the panel as a whole, averaged flavor intensity increased with sucrose level and varied with the texture of the desserts. Depending on the aroma compound, the averaged profile of in vivo aroma release varied, but for each aroma compound, averaged aroma release showed no difference with the sucrose level and little difference with the texture of the desserts. Perceptual sweetness-aroma interactions were the main factors influencing perception whatever the texture of the desserts.

  4. Neutrino mass in flavor dependent gauged lepton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We study a neutrino model introducing an additional nontrivial gauged lepton symmetry where the neutrino masses are induced at two-loop level, while the first and second charged-leptons of the standard model are done at one-loop level. As a result of the model structure, we can predict one massless active neutrino, and there is a dark matter candidate. Then we discuss the neutrino mass matrix, muon anomalous magnetic moment, lepton flavor violations, oblique parameters, and relic density of dark matter, taking into account the experimental constraints.

  5. Lepton-flavor violating B decays in generic Z' models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Hofer, Lars; Matias, Joaquim; Nierste, Ulrich; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    LHCb has reported deviations from the Standard Model in b →s μ+μ- transitions for which a new neutral gauge boson is a prime candidate for an explanation. As this gauge boson has to couple in a flavor nonuniversal way to muons and electrons in order to explain RK, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavor is violated, especially in the light of the CMS excess in h →τ±μ∓. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavor violating modes B →K(*)τ±μ∓ , Bs→τ±μ∓ and B →K(*)μ±e∓, Bs→μ±e∓. For this purpose we consider a simplified model in which new-physics effects originate from an additional neutral gauge boson (Z') with generic couplings to quarks and leptons. The constraints from τ →3 μ , τ →μ ν ν ¯, μ →e γ , gμ-2 , semileptonic b →s μ+μ- decays, B →K(*)ν ν ¯ and Bs-B¯s mixing are examined. From these decays, we determine upper bounds on the decay rates of lepton-flavor violating B decays. Br (B →K ν ν ¯) limits the branching ratios of lepton-flavor violating B decays to be smaller than 8 ×10-5(2 ×10-5) for vectorial (left-handed) lepton couplings. However, much stronger bounds can be obtained by a combined analysis of Bs-B¯s, τ →3 μ , τ →μ ν ν ¯ and other rare decays. The bounds depend on the amount of fine-tuning among the contributions to Bs-B¯s mixing. Allowing for a fine-tuning at the percent level we find upper bounds of the order of 10-6 for branching ratios into τ μ final states, while Bs→μ±e∓ is strongly suppressed and only B →K(*)μ±e∓ can be experimentally accessible (with a branching ratio of order 10-7).

  6. Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-10-19

    In this study, a dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial) spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional) axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collectivemore » neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.« less

  7. Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Lechner, Lukas; Ackermann, Markus; Kowalski, Marek; Winter, Walter

    2017-10-01

    We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or nonstandard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow us to efficiently test and discriminate between models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.

  8. Genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse (Mus musculus) model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor preference and discrimination were examined using a two-choice feeding system and 24-h trials and the Student’s t statistic. To elimi...

  9. Identifying genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, though differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor was examined using a two-choice feeding system and the Student’s t statistic. To eliminate the confounding effect of processin...

  10. Lepton flavor violating radiative decays in EW-scale ν R model: an update

    DOE PAGES

    Hung, P. Q.; Le, Trinh; Tran, Van Que; ...

    2015-12-28

    Here, we perform an updated analysis for the one-loop induced charged lepton flavor violating radiative decays l i → l j γ in an extended mirror model. Mixing effects of the neutrinos and charged leptons constructed with a horizontal A 4 symmetry are also taken into account. Current experimental limit and projected sensitivity on the branching ratio of μ → eγ are used to constrain the parameter space of the model. Calculations of two related observables, the electric and magnetic dipole moments of the leptons, are included. Implications concerning the possible detection of mirror leptons at the LHC and themore » ILC are also discussed.« less

  11. High scale flavor alignment in two-Higgs doublet models and its phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Gori, Stefania; Haber, Howard E.; Santos, Edward

    2017-06-21

    The most general two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) includes potentially large sources of flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) that must be suppressed in order to achieve a phenomenologically viable model. The flavor alignment ansatz postulates that all Yukawa coupling matrices are diagonal when expressed in the basis of mass-eigenstate fermion fields, in which case tree-level Higgs-mediated FCNCs are eliminated. In this work, we explore models with the flavor alignment condition imposed at a very high energy scale, which results in the generation of Higgs-mediated FCNCs via renormalization group running from the high energy scale to the electroweak scale. Using the currentmore » experimental bounds on flavor changing observables, constraints are derived on the aligned 2HDM parameter space. In the favored parameter region, we analyze the implications for Higgs boson phenomenology.« less

  12. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  13. Testing minimal flavor violation in leptoquark models of the {R_K}{^{(\\ast )}} anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloni, Daniel; Dery, Avital; Frugiuele, Claudia; Nir, Yosef

    2017-11-01

    The {R_K}{^{(\\ast )}} anomaly can be explained by tree level exchange of leptoquarks. We study the consequences of subjecting these models to the principle of minimal flavor violation (MFV). We consider MFV in the linear regime, and take the charged lepton Yukawa matrix to be the only spurion that violates lepton flavor universality. We find that a combination of constraints from a variety of processes — b → sμμ, b → sττ , b → sνν, b\\overline{b}\\to τ τ and b → cτν — excludes MFV in these models.

  14. Two-flavor hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. B.; Chen, H.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2017-11-01

    We study the properties of two-flavor quark matter in the Dyson-Schwinger model and investigate the possible consequences for hybrid neutron stars, with particular regard to the two-solar-mass limit. We find that with some extreme values of the model parameters, the mass fraction of two-flavor quark matter in heavy neutron stars can be as high as 30 percent and the possible energy release during the conversion from nucleonic neutron stars to hybrid stars can reach 1052 erg. Supported by NSFC (11305144, 11475149, 11303023), Central Universities (CUGL 140609) in China, “NewCompStar,” COST Action MP1304

  15. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  16. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  17. B-meson anomalies and Higgs physics in flavored U(1)' model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Ligong; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Chan Beom

    2018-04-01

    We consider a simple extension of the Standard Model with flavor-dependent U(1)', that has been proposed to explain some of B-meson anomalies recently reported at LHCb. The U(1)' charge is chosen as a linear combination of anomaly-free B_3-L_3 and L_μ -L_τ . In this model, the flavor structure in the SM is restricted due to flavor-dependent U(1)' charges, in particular, quark mixings are induced by a small vacuum expectation value of the extra Higgs doublet. As a result, it is natural to get sizable flavor-violating Yukawa couplings of heavy Higgs bosons involving the bottom quark. In this article, we focus on the phenomenology of the Higgs sector of the model including extra Higgs doublet and singlet scalars. We impose various bounds on the extended Higgs sector from Higgs and electroweak precision data, B-meson mixings and decays as well as unitarity and stability bounds, then discuss the productions and decays of heavy Higgs bosons at the LHC.

  18. Flavor physics without flavor symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.

    2018-04-01

    We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.

  19. The eightfold way model, the SU(3)-flavor model and the medium-strong interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2015-04-01

    Lack of any baryon number in the eightfold way model, and its intrinsic presence in the SU(3)-flavor model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964. First we show that the conventional popular understanding of this puzzle is actually fundamentally wrong, and hence the problem being so old, begs urgently for resolution. In this paper we show that the issue is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation. This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in quantum chromodynamics.

  20. Hidden gauged U (1 ) model: Unifying scotogenic neutrino and flavor dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-06-01

    In both scotogenic neutrino and flavor dark matter models, the dark sector communicates with the standard model fermions via Yukawa portal couplings. We propose an economic scenario where the scotogenic neutrino and a flavored mediator share the same inert Higgs doublet and all are charged under a hidden gauged U (1 ) symmetry. The dark Z2 symmetry in the dark sector is regarded as the remnant of this hidden U (1 ) symmetry breaking. In particular, we investigate a dark U (1 )D [and also U (1 )B-L] model which unifies the scotogenic neutrino and top-flavored mediator. Thus dark tops and dark neutrinos are the standard model fermion partners, and the dark matter could be the inert Higgs or the lightest dark neutrino. We note that this model has rich collider signatures on dark tops, the inert Higgs and the Z' gauge boson. Moreover, the scalar associated to the U (1 )D [and also U (1 )B -L ] symmetry breaking could explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS recently.

  1. Three flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop and competition with nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ciminale, M.; Ippolito, N. D.; Nardulli, G.

    2008-03-01

    We study the phase diagram of the three flavor Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and, in particular, the interplay between chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement crossover. We compute chiral condensates, quark densities, and the Polyakov loop at several values of temperature and chemical potential. Moreover we investigate on the role of the Polyakov loop dynamics in the transition from nuclear matter to quark matter.

  2. Charged lepton flavor violation in a class of radiative neutrino mass generation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Talal Ahmed; Nasri, Salah

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the charged lepton flavor violating processes μ →e γ , μ →e e e ¯, and μ -e conversion in nuclei for a class of three-loop radiative neutrino mass generation models with electroweak multiplets of increasing order. We find that, because of certain cancellations among various one-loop diagrams which give the dipole and nondipole contributions in an effective μ e γ vertex and a Z-penguin contribution in an effective μ e Z vertex, the flavor violating processes μ →e γ and μ -e conversion in nuclei become highly suppressed compared to μ →e e e ¯ process. Therefore, the observation of such a pattern in LFV processes may reveal the radiative mechanism behind neutrino mass generation.

  3. Two-component duality and flavoring in the P+f model

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.W.; Jones, S.T.; Martin, A.

    We show that modern Regge fits to rising ..pi..N total cross sections sigma/sub piN/ using the Harari-Freund P+f model of diffraction are not consistent with two-component duality. If a conventional Pomeron is chosen (dominant j-plane pole plus weak cuts), the resulting f is ''dual'' to the resonances plus one-half the background. Conversely, constraining the f-pole amplitude by duality does not allow a reasonable fit to sigma/sub piN/. In contrast, the P-f identity model of diffraction is shown to satisfy a modified form of two-component duality. We show that by incorporating flavoring renormalization, the P+f picture can be made consistent withmore » duality. The unflavored P intercept is 0.91 and the flavored P intercept is 1.1. Significant absorptive j-plane cuts are also required, though these are small enough to be consistent with dominant short-range order. Thus flavoring, which is so essential in P-f identity phenomenology, seems to play a positive role in diffraction scattering generally.« less

  4. Search for charged lepton flavor violation of vector mesons in the BLMSSM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Shu-Min; Feng, Jing-Jing; Ning, Guo-Zhu; Chen, Jian-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Feng, Tai-Fu

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the charged lepton flavor violating (CLFV) decays of vector mesons V →li±lj∓ with V ∈{ϕ ,J /Ψ ,ϒ ,ρ0,ω } in the BLMSSM model. This new model is introduced as a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (SM), where local gauged baryon number B and lepton number L are considered. The numerical results indicate the BLMSSM model can produce significant contributions to such two-body CLFV decays, and the branching ratios to these CLFV processes can easily reach the present experimental upper bounds. Therefore, searching for CLFV processes of vector mesons may be an effective channel to study new physics.

  5. Model with a gauged lepton flavor SU(2) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Tsumura, Koji

    2018-05-01

    We propose a model having a gauged SU(2) symmetry associated with the second and third generations of leptons, dubbed SU(2) μτ , of which U{(1)}_{L_{μ }-L_{τ }} is an Abelian subgroup. In addition to the Standard Model fields, we introduce two types of scalar fields. One exotic scalar field is an SU(2) μτ doublet and SM singlet that develops a nonzero vacuum expectation value at presumably multi-TeV scale to completely break the SU(2) μτ symmetry, rendering three massive gauge bosons. At the same time, the other exotic scalar field, carrying electroweak as well as SU(2) μτ charges, is induced to have a nonzero vacuum expectation value as well and breaks mass degeneracy between the muon and tau. We examine how the new particles in the model contribute to the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the parameter space compliant with the Michel decays of tau.

  6. Higgs-flavon mixing and LHC phenomenology in a simplified model of broken flavor symmetry [Higgs boson physics and broken flavor symmetry - LHC phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Edmond L.; Giddings, Steven B.; Wang, Haichen

    2014-10-10

    Here, the LHC phenomenology of a low-scale gauged flavor symmetry model with inverted hierarchy is studied, through introduction of a simplified model of broken flavor symmetry. A new scalar (a flavon) and a new neutral top-philic massive gauge boson emerge with mass in the TeV range, along with a new heavy fermion associated with the standard model top quark. After checking constraints from electroweak precision observables, we investigate the influence of the model on Higgs boson physics, notably on its production cross section and decay branching fractions. Limits on the flavon φ from heavy Higgs boson searches at the LHCmore » at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. The branching fractions of the flavon are computed as a function of the flavon mass and the Higgs-flavon mixing angle. We also explore possible discovery of the flavon at 14 TeV, particularly via the φ → Z 0Z 0 decay channel in the 2ℓ2ℓ' final state, and through standard model Higgs boson pair production φ → hh in the b¯bγγ final state. We conclude that the flavon mass range up to 500 GeV could be probed down to quite small values of the Higgs-flavon mixing angle with 100 fb –1 of integrated luminosity at 14 TeV.« less

  7. Lepton flavor violating decays of B and K mesons in models with extended gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayyazuddin; Aslam, Muhammad Jamil; Lu, Cai-Dian

    2018-05-01

    Lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays are forbidden in the Standard Model (SM) and to explore them one has to go beyond it. The flavor changing neutral current induced lepton flavor conserving and LFV decays of K and B mesons is discussed in the gauge group G = SU(2)L × U(1)Y1 × SU(2)X. The lepto-quark Xμ±2/3 corresponding to gauge group SU(2)X allows the quark-lepton transitions and hence giving a framework to construct the effective Lagrangian for the LFV decays. The mass of lepto-quark mX provides a scale at which the gauge group G is broken to the SM gauge group. Using the most stringent experimental limit ℬ(KL0 → μ∓e±) < 1.7 × 10‑12, the upper bound on the effective coupling constant GX GF2 < 1.1 × 10‑10 is obtained for certain pairing of lepton and quark generations in the representation (2,2¯) of the group G. Later, the effective Lagrangian for the LFV meson decays for the gauge group G = [SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)Y1‧] × SU(2)X is constructed. Using ℬ(K‑→ π‑νν¯) = (1.7 ± 1.1) × 10‑10, the bound on the ratio of effective couplings is obtained to be GX GF2 < 10‑10. A number of decay modes are discussed which provide a promising area to test this model in the current and future particle physics experiments.

  8. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p < 0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p < 0.05) and condensed milk (p < 0.05) flavor. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  9. Genome-scale metabolic model for Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its application to the analysis of flavor formation.

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Nicolas A L; Wiersma, Anne; van de Bunt, Bert; Martens, Dirk E; Schaap, Peter J; Sijtsma, Lolke; Dos Santos, Vitor A Martins; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-10-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is a paradigm strain for lactococci used in industrial dairy fermentations. However, despite of its importance for process development, no genome-scale metabolic model has been reported thus far. Moreover, current models for other lactococci only focus on growth and sugar degradation. A metabolic model that includes nitrogen metabolism and flavor-forming pathways is instrumental for the understanding and designing new industrial applications of these lactic acid bacteria. A genome-scale, constraint-based model of the metabolism and transport in L. lactis MG1363, accounting for 518 genes, 754 reactions, and 650 metabolites, was developed and experimentally validated. Fifty-nine reactions are directly or indirectly involved in flavor formation. Flux Balance Analysis and Flux Variability Analysis were used to investigate flux distributions within the whole metabolic network. Anaerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures were used for estimating the energetic parameters. A thorough model-driven analysis showing a highly flexible nitrogen metabolism, e.g., branched-chain amino acid catabolism which coupled with the redox balance, is pivotal for the prediction of the formation of different flavor compounds. Furthermore, the model predicted the formation of volatile sulfur compounds as a result of the fermentation. These products were subsequently identified in the experimental fermentations carried out. Thus, the genome-scale metabolic model couples the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in L. lactis MG1363 with complete known catabolic pathways leading to flavor formation. The model provided valuable insights into the metabolic networks underlying flavor formation and has the potential to contribute to new developments in dairy industries and cheese-flavor research.

  10. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on presupernova models and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-07-01

    We study the resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos, which is induced by the interaction between the nonzero neutrino magnetic moment and the supernova magnetic fields, and its dependence on presupernova models. As the presupernova models, we adopt the latest ones by Woosley, Heger, and Weaver, and, further, models with both solar and zero metallicity are investigated. Since the (1-2Ye) profile of the new presupernova models, which is responsible for the RSF conversion, suddenly drops at the resonance region, the completely adiabatic RSF conversion is not realized, even if μνB0=(10-12μB)(1010 G), where B0 is the strength of the magnetic field at the surface of the iron core. In particular for the model with zero metallicity, the conversion is highly nonadiabatic in the high energy region, reflecting the (1-2Ye) profile of the model. In calculating the flavor conversion, we find that the shock wave propagation, which changes density profiles drastically, is a much more severe problem than it is for the pure Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion case. This is because the RSF effect occurs at a far deeper region than the MSW effect. To avoid the uncertainty concerning the shock propagation, we restrict our discussion to 0.5 s after the core bounce (and for more conservative discussion, 0.25 s), during which the shock wave is not expected to affect the RSF region. We also evaluate the energy spectrum at the Super-Kamiokande detector for various models using the calculated conversion probabilities, and find that it is very difficult to obtain useful information on the supernova metallicities and magnetic fields or on the neutrino magnetic moment from the supernova neutrino observation. Future prospects are also discussed.

  11. SuperLFV: An SLHA tool for lepton flavor violating observables in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Brandon

    2014-02-01

    We introduce SuperLFV, a numerical tool for calculating low-energy observables that exhibit charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). As the Large Hadron Collider and MEG, a dedicated μ+→e+γ experiment, are presently acquiring data, there is need for tools that provide rapid discrimination of models that exhibit LFV. SuperLFV accepts a spectrum file compliant with the SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA), containing the MSSM couplings and masses with complex phases at the supersymmetry breaking scale. In this manner, SuperLFV is compatible with but divorced from existing SLHA spectrum calculators that provide the low energy spectrum. Hence, input spectra are not confined to the LFV sources provided by established SLHA spectrum calculators. Input spectra may be generated by personal code or by hand, allowing for arbitrary models not supported by existing spectrum calculators.

  12. A flavor symmetry model for bilarge leptonic mixing and the lepton masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy; Seidl, Gerhart

    2002-11-01

    We present a model for leptonic mixing and the lepton masses based on flavor symmetries and higher-dimensional mass operators. The model predicts bilarge leptonic mixing (i.e., the mixing angles θ12 and θ23 are large and the mixing angle θ13 is small) and an inverted hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum. Furthermore, it approximately yields the experimental hierarchical mass spectrum of the charged leptons. The obtained values for the leptonic mixing parameters and the neutrino mass squared differences are all in agreement with atmospheric neutrino data, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution of the solar neutrino problem, and consistent with the upper bound on the reactor mixing angle. Thus, we have a large, but not close to maximal, solar mixing angle θ12, a nearly maximal atmospheric mixing angle θ23, and a small reactor mixing angle θ13. In addition, the model predicts θ 12≃ {π}/{4}-θ 13.

  13. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE PAGES

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  14. Forays in flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. Jay

    This dissertation is a summary of four works investigating questions of flavor in the Standard Model and Beyond. Drawing from the ideas of Grand Unification to unify quarks and leptons, the Seesaw Mechanism to explain the generation of neutrino masses, as well as the current data available from flavor observables, a framework called the "Flavor Ring" is introduced. Its aim is to bring as many theoretical tools to bear on the flavor puzzle of the Standard Model, providing additional constraints on Supersymmetric models of flavor which employ family symmetries. It is first applied to the Delta IW = 1/2 mass matrices of the quarks and charged leptons, where we use the additional constraints provided by the flavor ring and the family group Z7 x Z3 to perform a numerical search for phenomenologically allowed down-quark and charged lepton Yukawa matrices. Using the Seesaw Mechanism and relations from SO(10), we then consider the implications of the flavor ring framework on the DeltaIW = 0 Majorana mass M of right-handed neutrinos, and the Supersymmetric mu-mass matrix of a family of Higgs. We find a special form for M which predicts a normal hierarchy and the values of the light neutrino masses, and a mu-matrix with an incredible hierarchy of thirteen orders of magnitude. They are produced naturally by a simple underlying theory invariant under the family symmetry PSL2(7). We close with an examination of what role the additional heavy Higgs flavors may play in phenomenology, exploring a toy model where they serve as the messengers of Supersymmetry breaking.

  15. Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-09-01

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking ( liking ) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee) , milk flavor (milk) , sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness) . Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking ; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.

  16. Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking (liking) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee), milk flavor (milk), sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness). Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p’s <0.02) while coffee extract (β = −0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p’s <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data. PMID:25024507

  17. 1/Nc expansion and the spin-flavor structure of the quark interaction in the constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    We study the hierarchy of the coefficients in the 1/Nc expansion for the negative parity L=1 excited baryons from the perspective of the constituent quark model. This is related to the problem of determining the spin-flavor structure of the quark interaction. The most general two-body scalar interaction between quarks contains the spin-flavor structures t1at2a,s→1·s→2 and s→1·s→2t1at2a. We show that in the limit of a zero range interaction all these structures are matched onto the same hadronic mass operator Sc2, which gives a possible explanation for the dominance of this operator in the 1/Nc expansion for the L=1 states and implies that in this limit it is impossible to distinguish between these different spin-flavor structures. Modeling a finite range interaction through the exchange of a vector and pseudoscalar meson, we propose a test for the spin-flavor dependence of the quark forces. For the scalar part of the quark interaction, we find that both pion exchange and gluon exchange are compatible with the data.

  18. Meson properties at finite temperature in a three flavor nonlocal chiral quark model with Polyakov loop

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, G. A.; CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires; Dumm, D. Gomez

    2010-03-01

    We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with the Polyakov loop. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles and decay constants. The critical temperature is found to be T{sub c{approx_equal}}202 MeV, in better agreement with lattice results than the value recently obtained in the local SU(3) PNJL model. Itmore » is seen that above T{sub c} pseudoscalar meson masses get increased, becoming degenerate with the masses of their chiral partners. The temperatures at which this matching occurs depend on the strange quark composition of the corresponding mesons. The topological susceptibility shows a sharp decrease after the chiral transition, signalling the vanishing of the U(1){sub A} anomaly for large temperatures.« less

  19. Roles of different initial Maillard intermediates and pathways in meat flavor formation for cysteine-xylose-glycine model reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Mengyao; Fan, Mengdie; Xiao, Qunfei; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Feng

    2017-10-01

    To explore initial Maillard reaction pathways and mechanisms for maximal formation of meaty flavors in heated cysteine-xylose-glycine systems, model reactions with synthesized initial Maillard intermediates, Gly-Amadori, TTCA (2-threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids) and Cys-Amadori, were investigated. Relative relativities were characterized by spectrophotometrically monitoring the development of colorless degradation intermediates and browning reaction products. Aroma compounds formed were determined by solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS and GC-olfactometry. Gly-Amadori showed the fastest reaction followed by Cys-Amadori then TTCA. Free glycine accelerated reaction of TTCA, whereas cysteine inhibited that of Gly-Amadori due to association forming relatively stable thiazolidines. Cys-Amadori/Gly had the highest reactivity in development of both meaty flavors and brown products. TTCA/Gly favored yielding meaty flavors, whereas Gly-Amadori/Cys favored generation of brown products. Conclusively, initial formation of TTCA and pathway involving TTCA with glycine were more applicable to efficiently produce processed-meat flavorings in a cysteine-xylose-glycine system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing flavor models with ^{ {76}}Ge-based experiments on neutrinoless double-β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Matteo; Merle, Alexander; Zuber, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The physics impact of a staged approach for double-β decay experiments based on ^{ {76}}Ge is studied. The scenario considered relies on realistic time schedules envisioned by the Gerda and the Majorana collaborations, which are jointly working towards the realization of a future larger scale ^{ {76}}Ge experiment. Intermediate stages of the experiments are conceived to perform quasi background-free measurements, and different data sets can be reliably combined to maximize the physics outcome. The sensitivity for such a global analysis is presented, with focus on how neutrino flavor models can be probed already with preliminary phases of the experiments. The synergy between theory and experiment yields strong benefits for both sides: the model predictions can be used to sensibly plan the experimental stages, and results from intermediate stages can be used to constrain whole groups of theoretical scenarios. This strategy clearly generates added value to the experimental efforts, while at the same time it allows to achieve valuable physics results as early as possible.

  1. Flavor violating Higgs decays

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kopp, Joachim; Zupan, Jure

    2013-03-01

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τemore » branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.« less

  2. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    PubMed

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  4. Skew-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; ...

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  5. Flavor structure of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and transverse charge densities in the chiral quark-soliton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, António; Urbano, Diana; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the flavor decomposition of the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, based on the chiral quark-soliton model (χQSM) with symmetry-conserving quantization. We consider the rotational 1/N_c and linear strange-quark mass (ms) corrections. We discuss the results of the flavor-decomposed electromagnetic form factors in comparison with the recent experimental data. In order to see the effects of the strange quark, we compare the SU(3) results with those of SU(2). Finally, we discuss the transverse charge densities for both unpolarized and polarized nucleons. The transverse charge density inside a neutron turns out to be negative in the vicinity of the center within the SU(3) χQSM, which can be explained by the contribution of the strange quark.

  6. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  7. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Yasamichi; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2017-06-18

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixedmore » number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.« less

  8. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  9. Flavored leptogenesis with quasidegenerate neutrinos in a broken cyclic symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit; Chakraborty, Mainak; Ghosal, Ambar

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic symmetry in the neutrino sector with the type-I seesaw mechanism in the mass basis of charged leptons and right chiral neutrinos (Ni R, i =e , μ , τ ) generates a twofold degenerate light neutrino and a threefold degenerate heavy neutrino mass spectrum. Consequently, such a scheme produces vanishing one light neutrino mass squared difference and lepton asymmetry. To circumvent such an unphysical outcome, we break cyclic symmetry in the diagonal right chiral neutrino mass term by a small breaking parameter. Nonzero mass squared differences and mixing angles are generated with the help of the small breaking parameter. The smallness of the breaking parameter opens up the possibility of resonant leptogenesis. Assuming complex Yukawa couplings, we derive generalized expressions with flavor-dependent C P asymmetry parameters (ɛiα ) which are valid for the quasidegenerate as well as hierarchical mass spectrum of right-handed neutrinos. Thereafter, we set up the chain of coupled Boltzmann equations (which are flavor dependent too) which have to be solved in order to get the final lepton asymmetries. Depending upon the temperature regime, the C P asymmetries and the Boltzmann equations may also be flavor independent. As our goal is to study the enhancement of C P asymmetry due to the quasidegeneracy of right-handed neutrinos, we select only the lowest allowed (by neutrino oscillation data) value of the breaking parameter (and other corresponding Lagrangian parameters) and estimate the baryon asymmetry parameter YB. The experimental constraint of YB introduces a bound on right-handed neutrino mass which remained unrestricted by neutrino oscillation data.

  10. Lung Toxicity of Condensed Aerosol from E-CIG Liquids: Influence of the Flavor and the In Vitro Model Used

    PubMed Central

    Bengalli, Rossella; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo; Mantecca, Paride

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer). This suggests that more experimental evidences are needed to support the regulatory frameworks. The present study aims to contribute in this field by testing the effects of condensed aerosols (CAs) from three main e-liquid categories (tobacco, mint, and cinnamon as food-related flavor), with (18 mg/mL) or without nicotine. Two in vitro models, represented by a monoculture of human epithelial alveolar cells and a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture of alveolar and lung microvascular endothelial cells were used. Cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and alveolar-blood barrier (ABB) integrity were investigated as inhalation toxicity endpoints. Results showed that nicotine itself had almost no influence on the modulation of the toxicity response, while flavor composition did have. The cell viability was significantly decreased in monoculture and ABB after exposure to the mints and cinnamon CAs. The barrier integrity was significantly affected in the ABB after exposure to cytotoxic CAs. With the exception of the significant IL-8 release in the monoculture after Cinnamon exposure, no increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and MCP-1) release was observed. These findings point out that multiple assays with different in vitro models are able to discriminate the acute inhalation toxicity of CAs from liquids with different flavors, providing the

  11. Lung Toxicity of Condensed Aerosol from E-CIG Liquids: Influence of the Flavor and the In Vitro Model Used.

    PubMed

    Bengalli, Rossella; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo; Mantecca, Paride

    2017-10-20

    The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer). This suggests that more experimental evidences are needed to support the regulatory frameworks. The present study aims to contribute in this field by testing the effects of condensed aerosols (CAs) from three main e-liquid categories (tobacco, mint, and cinnamon as food-related flavor), with (18 mg/mL) or without nicotine. Two in vitro models, represented by a monoculture of human epithelial alveolar cells and a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture of alveolar and lung microvascular endothelial cells were used. Cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and alveolar-blood barrier (ABB) integrity were investigated as inhalation toxicity endpoints. Results showed that nicotine itself had almost no influence on the modulation of the toxicity response, while flavor composition did have. The cell viability was significantly decreased in monoculture and ABB after exposure to the mints and cinnamon CAs. The barrier integrity was significantly affected in the ABB after exposure to cytotoxic CAs. With the exception of the significant IL-8 release in the monoculture after Cinnamon exposure, no increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and MCP-1) release was observed. These findings point out that multiple assays with different in vitro models are able to discriminate the acute inhalation toxicity of CAs from liquids with different flavors, providing the

  12. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; ...

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z 3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general,more » however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  13. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z 3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general,more » however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  14. Parametrization of a nonlocal chiral quark model in the instantaneous three-flavor case. Basic formulas and tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorian, H.

    2007-05-01

    We describe the basic formulation of the parametrization scheme for the instantaneous nonlocal chiral quark model in the three-flavor case. We choose to discuss the Gaussian, Lorentzian-type, Woods-Saxon, and sharp cutoff (NJL) functional forms of the momentum dependence for the form factor of the separable interaction. The four parameters, light and strange quark masses and coupling strength (G S) and range of the interaction (Λ), have been fixed by the same phenomenological inputs: pion and kaon masses and the pion decay constant and light quark mass in vacuum. The Woods-Saxon and Lorentzian-type form factors are suitable for an interpolation between sharp cutoff and soft momentum dependence. Results are tabulated for applications in models of hadron structure and quark matter at finite temperatures and chemical potentials, where separable models have been proven successfully.

  15. Scalar flavor changing neutral currents and rare top quark decays in a two Higgs doublet model 'for the top quark'

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Itzhak; Physics Department, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000; Eilam, Gad

    2008-06-01

    In the so-called two Higgs doublet model for the top quark (T2HDM), first suggested by Das and Kao, the top quark receives a special status, which endows it with a naturally large mass, and also potentially gives rise to large flavor changing neutral currents only in the up-quark sector. In this paper, we calculate the branching ratio for the rare decays t{yields}ch and h{yields}tc (h is a neutral Higgs scalar) in the T2HDM, at tree level and at 1-loop when it exceeds the tree level. We compare our results to predictions from other versions of 2HDM's and find that themore » scalar flavor changing neutral currents in the T2HDM can play a significant role in these decays. In particular, the 1-loop mediated decays can be significantly enhanced in the T2HDM compared with the 2HDM of types I and II, in some instances reaching BR{approx}10{sup -4}, which is within the detectable level at the LHC.« less

  16. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences. Design. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups by the second week of life. One group was assigned to be fed a milk-based formula (Enfamil), whereas another was assigned to be fed (Nutramigen), a particularly unpleasant-tasting protein hydrolysate formula. The remaining groups were assigned to be fed Nutramigen for 3 months and Enfamil for 4 months; the timing of exposure differed between the groups. After 7 months of exposure, infants were videotaped on 3 separate days while feeding, in counterbalanced order, Enfamil, Nutramigen, and Alimentum, a novel hydrolysate formula. Results. For each of the 4 interrelated measures of behavior (intake, duration of formula feeding, facial expressions, and mothers’ judgments of infant acceptance), previous exposure to Nutramigen significantly enhanced subsequent acceptance of both Nutramigen and Alimentum. Seven months of exposure led to greater acceptance than did 3 months. Conclusions. The bases for clinical difficulties in introducing hydrolysate formulas during older infancy are clarified in this study. More broadly, variation in formula flavor provided a useful model for demonstrating experimentally the effects of long-term exposure differences on later acceptance. Such early variation, under more species-typical circumstances (eg, via exposure to different flavors in amniotic fluid and mothers’ milk), may underlie individual differences in food acceptability throughout the life span. Pediatrics 2004;113:840–845; protein hydrolysate, formula, taste, flavor, infants, programming, development, nutrition. PMID:15060236

  17. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation.

  18. Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Abhijit R; Raghunathan, Anuradha; Venkatesh, K V

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is a combined process of saccharification of a renewable bioresource and fermentation process to produce products, such as lactic acid and ethanol. Recently, SSF has been extensively used to convert various sources of cellulose and starch into fermentative products. Here, we present a study on production of buttery flavors, namely diacetyl and acetoin, by growing Lactobacillus rhamnosus on a starch medium containing the enzyme glucoamylase. We further develop a structured kinetics for the SSF process, which includes enzyme and growth kinetics. The model was used to simulate the effect of pH and temperature on the SSF process so as to obtain optimum operating conditions. The model was experimentally verified by conducting SSF using an initial starch concentration of 100 g/L. The study demonstrated that the developed kinetic was able to suggest strategies for improved productivities. The developed model was able to accurately predict the enhanced productivity of flavors in a three stage process with intermittent addition of starch. Experimental and simulations demonstrated that citrate addition can also lead to enhanced productivity of flavors. The developed optimal model for SSF was able to capture the dynamics of SSF in batch mode as well as in a three stage process. The structured kinetics was also able to quantify the effect of multiple substrates present in the medium. The study demonstrated that structured kinetic models can be used in the future for design and optimization of SSF as a batch or a fed-batch process.

  19. Improving bounds on flavor changing vertices in the two Higgs doublet model from B^0-bar{B}^0 mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. A.; Martinez, R.; Sandoval, C. E.

    2006-05-01

    We find some constraints on the flavor changing vertices of the two Higgs doublet model, from the {Δ}M_{B_{text{d}}} measurement. Although bounds from this observable have already been considered, this paper takes into account the role of a new operator not included previously, as well as the vertices ξ_{bb}, ξ_{tc} and ξ_{sb}. Using the Cheng Sher parametrization, we find that for a relatively light charged Higgs boson (200 300 GeV), we obtain \\vertλ_{tt}\\vertlesssim1, while the parameter λ_{bb} could have values up to about 50. In addition, we use bounds for λ_{tt} and λ_{bb} obtained from B^0rightarrow X_sγ at next to leading order, and study the case where the only vanishing vertex factors are the ones involving quarks from the first family. We obtain that {Δ} M_{B_{text{d}}} is not sensitive to the change of the parameter λ_{sb}, while \\vertλ_{tc}\\vertlesssim1.

  20. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh; Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, H. Cavid Av. 33, Baku

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if itmore » mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.« less

  1. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle ``massless'' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ~ mt/mb ~ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ``massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  2. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  3. Experimental and modeling studies showing the effect of lipid type and level on flavor release from milk-based liquid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Deborah D; Pollien, Philippe; Watzke, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study two key parameters of the lipid phase that influence flavor release-lipid level and lipid type-and to relate the results to a mass balance partition coefficient-based mathematical model. Release of 10 volatile compounds from milk-based emulsions at 10, 25, and 50 degrees C was monitored by 1-min headspace sampling with a solid-phase microextraction fiber, followed by GC-MS analysis. As compared to the observations for milk fat, changing to a lipophilic lipid (medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) and adding a monoglyceride-based surfactant did not influence the volatiles release. However, increasing the solid fat content was found to increase the release. At 25 degrees C, and even more so at 10 degrees C, concurrent with an increase in their solid fat content, hydrogenated palm fat emulsions showed increased flavor release over that observed for emulsions made with coconut oil, coconut oil with surfactant, milk fat, and MCT. However, at 50 degrees C, when hydrogenated palm fat emulsions had zero solid fat content, there was no difference in flavor release from that observed for milk fat emulsions. Varying milk fat at nine levels between 0 and 4.5% showed a systematic dependence of the release on the lipid level, dependent on compound lipophilicity. Close correlations were found between the experimental and model predictions with lipid level and percent liquid lipid as variables.

  4. Lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huai-Ke; Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    We explore lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis, driven by C P -violation in leptonic Yukawa sector, using the τ -μ system in the two Higgs doublet model as an example. This setup generically yields, together with the flavor-changing decay h →τ μ , a tree-level Jarlskog invariant that can drive dynamical generation of baryon asymmetry during a first-order electroweak phase transition and results in C P -violating effects in the decay h →τ τ . We find that the observed baryon asymmetry can be generated in parameter space compatible with current experimental results for the decays h →τ μ , h →τ τ , and τ →μ γ , as well as the present bound on the electric dipole moment of the electron. The baryon asymmetry generated is intrinsically correlated with the C P -violating decay h →τ τ and the flavor-changing decay h →τ μ , which thus may serve as "smoking guns" to test lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis.

  5. Chaos in a 4D dissipative nonlinear fermionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    Gursey Model is the only possible 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear self-coupled spinor term. It has been assumed to be similar to the Heisenberg's nonlinear generalization of Dirac's equation, as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles. Gursey Model admits particle-like solutions for the derived classical field equations and these solutions are instantonic in character. In this paper, the dynamical nature of damped and forced Gursey Nonlinear Differential Equations System (GNDES) are studied in order to get more information on spinor type instantons. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by constructing the bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré sections. Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum graphs of GNDES are also constructed to characterize the chaotic behavior.

  6. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3) χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. Thismore » framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3) χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z 3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.« less

  7. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3) χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. Thismore » framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3) χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z 3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.« less

  8. BPHZ renormalization in configuration space for the A4-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottel, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments for BPHZ renormalization performed in configuration space are reviewed and applied to the model of a scalar quantum field with quartic self-interaction. An extension of the results regarding the short-distance expansion and the Zimmermann identity is shown for a normal product, which is quadratic in the field operator. The realization of the equation of motion is computed for the interacting field and the relation to parametric differential equations is indicated.

  9. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  10. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    PubMed

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages.

  11. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  12. Probing lepton flavor violation signal via γ γ →l¯ilj in the left-right twin Higgs model at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Li; Wang, Fei; Xie, Kuan; Guo, Xiao-Fei

    2017-08-01

    To explain the small neutrino masses, heavy Majorana neutrinos are introduced in the left-right twin Higgs model. The heavy neutrinos—together with the charged scalars and the heavy gauge bosons—may contribute large mixings between the neutrinos and the charged leptons, which may induce some distinct lepton-flavor-violating processes. We check ℓ¯iℓj (i ,j =e ,μ ,τ ,i ≠j ) production in γ γ collisions in the left-right twin Higgs model, and find that the production rates may be large in some specific parameter space. In optimal cases, it is even possible to detect them with reasonable kinematical cuts. We also show that these collisions can effectively constrain the model parameters—such as the Higgs vacuum expectation value, the right-handed neutrino mass, etc.—and may serve as a sensitive probe of this new physics model.

  13. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Flavor Physics with Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Daping; Fermilab/MILC Collaborations Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Standard Model has been a very good description of the subatomic particle physics. In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model in the context of flavor physics, it is important to sharpen our probes using some gold-plated processes (such as B rare decays), which requires the knowledge of the input parameters, such as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements and other nonperturbative quantities, with sufficient precision. Lattice QCD is so far the only first-principle method which could compute these quantities with competitive and systematically improvable precision using the state of the art simulation techniques. I will discuss the recent progress of lattice QCD calculations on some of these nonpurturbative quantities and their applications in flavor physics. I will also discuss the implications and future perspectives of these calculations in flavor physics.

  15. Flavor physics and CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  16. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Nk, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet; Nagpal, Rashmi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-04

    Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and fragrances, it is valuable to have a repository of flavor molecules, their natural sources, physicochemical properties, and sensory responses. FlavorDB (http://cosylab.iiitd.edu.in/flavordb) comprises of 25,595 flavor molecules representing an array of tastes and odors. Among these 2254 molecules are associated with 936 natural ingredients belonging to 34 categories. The dynamic, user-friendly interface of the resource facilitates exploration of flavor molecules for divergent applications: finding molecules matching a desired flavor or structure; exploring molecules of an ingredient; discovering novel food pairings; finding the molecular essence of food ingredients; associating chemical features with a flavor and more. Data-driven studies based on FlavorDB can pave the way for an improved understanding of flavor mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; NK, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet; Nagpal, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and fragrances, it is valuable to have a repository of flavor molecules, their natural sources, physicochemical properties, and sensory responses. FlavorDB (http://cosylab.iiitd.edu.in/flavordb) comprises of 25,595 flavor molecules representing an array of tastes and odors. Among these 2254 molecules are associated with 936 natural ingredients belonging to 34 categories. The dynamic, user-friendly interface of the resource facilitates exploration of flavor molecules for divergent applications: finding molecules matching a desired flavor or structure; exploring molecules of an ingredient; discovering novel food pairings; finding the molecular essence of food ingredients; associating chemical features with a flavor and more. Data-driven studies based on FlavorDB can pave the way for an improved understanding of flavor mechanisms. PMID:29059383

  18. Pregnane X receptor- and CYP3A4-humanized mouse models and their applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a pivotal nuclear receptor modulating xenobiotic metabolism primarily through its regulation of CYP3A4, the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism in humans. Due to the marked species differences in ligand recognition by PXR, PXR-humanized (hPXR) mice, and mice expressing human PXR and CYP3A4 (Tg3A4/hPXR) were established. hPXR and Tg3A4/hPXR mice are valuable models for investigating the role of PXR in xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity, in lipid, bile acid and steroid hormone homeostasis, and in the control of inflammation. PMID:21091656

  19. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.; Silva, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSWmore » solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  20. Lepton flavor violation induced by dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Ferreira, C. P.; Goertz, Florian; Guzzo, M. M.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Santos, A. C. O.

    2018-04-01

    Guided by gauge principles we discuss a predictive and falsifiable UV complete model where the Dirac fermion that accounts for the cold dark matter abundance in our Universe induces the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays μ →e γ and μ →e e e as well as μ -e conversion. We explore the interplay between direct dark matter detection, relic density, collider probes and lepton flavor violation to conclusively show that one may have a viable dark matter candidate yielding flavor violation signatures that can be probed in the upcoming experiments. In fact, keeping the dark matter mass at the TeV scale, a sizable LFV signal is possible, while reproducing the correct dark matter relic density and meeting limits from direct-detection experiments.

  1. Flavored tobacco product use among U.S. young adults.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Richardson, Amanda; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2013-04-01

    Passage of the U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 led to a ban on the sale of flavored cigarettes, largely because of studies showing targeting of these products to youth and young adults. There are no current restrictions on the marketing or sale of noncigarette or new nontraditional smokeless tobacco products (such as snus and dissolvable products), which are available in more than 45 flavors. To determine the prevalence of flavored tobacco use, dual use of flavored and menthol tobacco products, and sociodemographic predictors of flavored tobacco product use in young adults aged 18-34 years (N=4196). The current study utilizes data from Legacy's Young Adult Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample collected in January 2012. Data were analyzed using Stata IC 11.0 in June 2012. Overall, 18.5% of tobacco users report using flavored products, and dual use of menthol and flavored product use ranged from 1% (nicotine products) to 72% (chewing tobacco). In a multivariable model controlling for menthol use, younger adults were more likely to use flavored tobacco products (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.14, 3.11), and those with a high school education had decreased use of flavored products (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.32, 0.97). Differences in use may be due to the continued targeted advertising of flavored products to young adults and minorities. Those most likely to use flavored products are also those most at risk of developing established tobacco-use patterns that persist through their lifetime. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coactivation of Gustatory and Olfactory Signals in Flavor Perception

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Wang, Miao-Fen

    2010-01-01

    It is easier to detect mixtures of gustatory and olfactory flavorants than to detect either component alone. But does the detection of mixtures exceed the level predicted by probability summation, assuming independent detection of each component? To answer this question, we measured simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of one of 3 flavorants (sucrose [gustatory], citral [olfactory], sucrose–citral mixture) or water, presented into the mouth by a computer-operated, automated flow system. Subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 nonwater stimuli. Responses to the mixtures were faster (RTs smaller) than predicted by a model of probability summation of independently detected signals, suggesting positive coactivation (integration) of gustation and retronasal olfaction in flavor perception. Evidence for integration appeared mainly in the fastest 60% of the responses, indicating that integration arises relatively early in flavor processing. Results were similar when the 3 possible flavorants, and water, were interleaved within the same session (experimental condition), and when each flavorant was interleaved with water only (control conditions). This outcome suggests that subjects did not attend selectively to one flavor component or the other in the experimental condition and further supports the conclusion that (late) decisional or attentional strategies do not exert a large influence on the gustatory–olfactory flavor integration. PMID:20032112

  3. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [retention of flavor during freeze drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The retention of flavor during freeze drying was studied with model systems. Mechanisms by which flavor retention phenomena is explained were developed and process conditions specified so that flavor retention is optimized. The literature is reviewed and results of studies of the flavor retention behavior of a number of real food products, including both liquid and solid foods are evaluated. Process parameters predicted by the mechanisms to be of greatest significance are freezing rate, initial solids content, and conditions which result in maintenance of sample structure. Flavor quality for the real food showed the same behavior relative to process conditions as predicted by the mechanisms based on model system studies.

  4. Trainable structure-activity relationship model for virtual screening of CYP3A4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Dapkunas, Justas; Sazonovas, Andrius; Japertas, Pranas

    2010-11-01

    A new structure-activity relationship model predicting the probability for a compound to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 has been developed using data for >800 compounds from various literature sources and tested on PubChem screening data. Novel GALAS (Global, Adjusted Locally According to Similarity) modeling methodology has been used, which is a combination of baseline global QSAR model and local similarity based corrections. GALAS modeling method allows forecasting the reliability of prediction thus defining the model applicability domain. For compounds within this domain the statistical results of the final model approach the data consistency between experimental data from literature and PubChem datasets with the overall accuracy of 89%. However, the original model is applicable only for less than a half of PubChem database. Since the similarity correction procedure of GALAS modeling method allows straightforward model training, the possibility to expand the applicability domain has been investigated. Experimental data from PubChem dataset served as an example of in-house high-throughput screening data. The model successfully adapted itself to both data classified using the same and different IC₅₀ threshold compared with the training set. In addition, adjustment of the CYP3A4 inhibition model to compounds with a novel chemical scaffold has been demonstrated. The reported GALAS model is proposed as a useful tool for virtual screening of compounds for possible drug-drug interactions even prior to the actual synthesis.

  5. Signals from flavor changing scalar currents at the future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, D.; Reina, L.; Soni, A.

    1996-11-22

    We present a general phenomenological analysis of a class of Two Higgs Doublet Models with Flavor Changing Neutral Currents arising at the tree level. The existing constraints mainly affect the couplings of the first two generations of quarks, leaving the possibility for non negligible Flavor Changing couplings of the top quark open. The next generation of lepton and hadron colliders will offer the right environment to study the physics of the top quark and to unravel the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this context we discuss some interesting signals from Flavor Changing Scalar Neutral Currents.

  6. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-04-08

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. μ → 3e, τ → eμμ, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6σ deviation of the muon g-2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale ⁺e ⁻ colliders.more » We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  7. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. μ → 3e, τ → eμμ, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6σ deviation of the muon g-2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale ⁺e ⁻ colliders.more » We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  8. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  9. Dark matter with flavor symmetry and its collider signature

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ernest; Natale, Alexander

    2014-11-20

    The notion that dark matter and standard-model matter are connected through flavor implies a generic collider signature of the type . We discuss the theoretical basis of this proposal and its verifiability at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Fierz-complete NJL model study. II. Toward the fixed-point and phase structure of hot and dense two-flavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are often employed as low-energy models for the theory of the strong interaction to analyze its phase structure at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. In particular, at low temperature and large chemical potential, where the application of fully first-principles approaches is currently difficult at best, this class of models still plays a prominent role in guiding our understanding of the dynamics of dense strong-interaction matter. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two massless quark flavors and study its renormalization group flow and fixed-point structure at leading order of the derivative expansion of the effective action. Sum rules for the various four-quark couplings then allow us to monitor the strength of the breaking of the axial UA(1 ) symmetry close to and above the phase boundary. We find that the dynamics in the ten-dimensional Fierz-complete space of four-quark couplings can only be reduced to a one-dimensional space associated with the scalar-pseudoscalar coupling in the strict large-Nc limit. Still, the interacting fixed point associated with this one-dimensional subspace appears to govern the dynamics at small quark chemical potential even beyond the large-Nc limit. At large chemical potential, corrections beyond the large-Nc limit become important, and the dynamics is dominated by diquarks, favoring the formation of a chirally symmetric diquark condensate. In this regime, our study suggests that the phase boundary is shifted to higher temperatures when a Fierz-complete set of four-quark interactions is considered.

  11. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.

    2017-05-01

    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995<|c_h|<1. We have analyzed a more general diagonalization of gauge boson mass matrices, then we show that the ratio of the tangents of the W-W' and Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.

  12. Violation of lepton flavor and lepton flavor universality in rare kaon decays

    DOE PAGES

    Crivellin, Andreas; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Hoferichter, Martin; ...

    2016-04-29

    Here, recent anomalies in the decays of B mesons and the Higgs boson provide hints towards lepton flavor (universality) violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We observe that four-fermion operators which can explain the B-physics anomalies have corresponding analogs in the kaon sector, and we analyze their impact on K→πℓℓ' and K→ℓℓ' decays (ℓ=μ,e). For these processes, we note the corresponding physics opportunities at the NA62 experiment. In particular, assuming minimal flavor violation, we comment on the required improvements in sensitivity necessary to test the B-physics anomalies in the kaon sector.

  13. a Heavy Higgs Boson from Flavor and Electroweak Symmetry Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2005-08-01

    We present a unified picture of flavor and electroweak symmetry breaking based on a nonlinear sigma model spontaneously broken at the TeV scale. Flavor and Higgs bosons arise as pseudo-Goldstone modes. Explicit collective symmetry breaking yields stable vacuum expectation values and masses protected at one loop by the little-Higgs mechanism. The coupling to the fermions generates well-definite mass textures--according to a U(1) global flavor symmetry--that correctly reproduce the mass hierarchies and mixings of quarks and leptons. The model is more constrained than usual little-Higgs models because of bounds on weak and flavor physics. The main experimental signatures testable at the LHC are a rather large mass mh0 = 317 ± 80 GeV for the (lightest) Higgs boson.

  14. A4 flavour model for Dirac neutrinos: Type I and inverse seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Karmakar, Biswajit

    2018-05-01

    We propose two different seesaw models namely, type I and inverse seesaw to realise light Dirac neutrinos within the framework of A4 discrete flavour symmetry. The additional fields and their transformations under the flavour symmetries are chosen in such a way that naturally predicts the hierarchies of different elements of the seesaw mass matrices in these two types of seesaw mechanisms. For generic choices of flavon alignments, both the models predict normal hierarchical light neutrino masses with the atmospheric mixing angle in the lower octant. Apart from predicting interesting correlations between different neutrino parameters as well as between neutrino and model parameters, the model also predicts the leptonic Dirac CP phase to lie in a specific range - π / 3 to π / 3. While the type I seesaw model predicts smaller values of absolute neutrino mass, the inverse seesaw predictions for the absolute neutrino masses can saturate the cosmological upper bound on sum of absolute neutrino masses for certain choices of model parameters.

  15. Heavy flavor at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, S.

    2016-07-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider have pioneered and established the role of hadron collisions in exploring flavor physics through a broad program that continues to offer competitive results. I report on latest results in the flavor sector obtained using the whole CDF and D0 data sets corresponding to {˜}10{ fb-1} of integrated luminosity; including B-mesons spectroscopy and production asymmetries, flavor specific decay bottom-strange mesons lifetime. I also present measurements of direct and indirect CP violation in bottom and charm meson decays.

  16. Flavorful Z‧ signatures at LHC and ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Long; Okada, Nobuchika

    2008-10-01

    There are lots of new physics models which predict an extra neutral gauge boson, referred as Z‧-boson. In a certain class of these new physics models, the Z‧-boson has flavor-dependent couplings with the fermions in the Standard Model (SM). Based on a simple model in which couplings of the SM fermions in the third generation with the Z‧-boson are different from those of the corresponding fermions in the first two generations, we study the signatures of Z‧-boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). We show that at the LHC, the Z‧-boson with mass around 1 TeV can be produced through the Drell-Yan processes and its dilepton decay modes provide us clean signatures not only for the resonant production of Z‧-boson but also for flavor-dependences of the production cross sections. We also study fermion pair productions at the ILC involving the virtual Z‧-boson exchange. Even though the center-of-energy of the ILC is much lower than a Z‧-boson mass, the angular distributions and the forward-backward asymmetries of fermion pair productions show not only sizable deviations from the SM predictions but also significant flavor-dependences.

  17. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in big bang cosmology is re-examined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid.

  18. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by volume...

  19. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by volume...

  20. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by volume...

  1. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by volume...

  2. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by volume...

  3. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic flavor...

  4. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic flavor...

  5. Comparison between male and female rats in a model of self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage: Behavioral and neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Contini, Andrea; Sanna, Fabrizio; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2018-05-15

    The existence of sex differences was studied in a rat model of operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB), which possesses strong reinforcing properties and is avidly consumed by rats. Whether these differences occurred concomitantly to changes in extracellular dopamine in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens, was assessed by intracerebral microdialysis. Male, ovariectomized and intact female rats showed similar self-administration profiles, with minor differences in both acquisition and maintenance phases. Intact females self-administered larger amounts of CFB, when expressed per body weight, than males and ovariectomized females, in spite of similar values of lever-responding, latency to the first lever-response and consumption efficiency (a measure of rat's licking effectiveness) in males, ovariectomized and intact females and no difference in breakpoint value and number of lever-responses emerged when males, ovariectomized and intact females were exposed to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed a slight but significant increase in dopamine activity in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of male rats when compared to intact female rats during CFB self-administration. The above differences may be caused by the hormonal (mainly estradiol) fluctuations that occur during the estrus cycle in intact females. Accordingly, in intact females CFB self-administration and dopamine activity were found to fluctuate across the estrus cycle, with lower parameters of CFB self-administration and lower dopamine activity in the Proestrus and Estrus phases vs. the Metestrus and Diestrus phases of the cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A 4-Week Model of House Dust Mite (HDM) Induced Allergic Airways Inflammation with Airway Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Woo, L N; Guo, W Y; Wang, X; Young, A; Salehi, S; Hin, A; Zhang, Y; Scott, J A; Chow, C W

    2018-05-02

    Animal models of allergic airways inflammation are useful tools in studying the pathogenesis of asthma and potential therapeutic interventions. The different allergic airways inflammation models available to date employ varying doses, frequency, duration and types of allergen, which lead to the development of different features of asthma; showing varying degrees of airways inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airways remodeling. Models that also exhibit airway remodeling, a key feature of asthma, in addition to AHR and airway inflammation typically require 5-12 weeks to develop. In this report, we describe a 4-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation, and compare the phenotypic features of two different doses of HDM exposures (10 µg and 25 µg) for 5 days/week with a well-characterized 8-week chronic HDM model. We found that 4 weeks of intranasal HDM (25 µg in 35 µl saline; 5 days/week) resulted in AHR, airway inflammation and airway remodeling that were comparable to the 8-week model. We conclude that this new 4-week HDM model is another useful tool in studies of human asthma that offers advantages of shorter duration for development and decreased costs when compared to other models that require longer durations of exposure (5-12 weeks) to develop.

  7. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  8. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Curwin, Brian D.; Deddens, Jim A.; McKernan, Lauralynn T.

    2015-01-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25–3124 ppb and 15–172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous. PMID:25052692

  9. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-09-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kähler potential obeys the underlying S3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kähler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale.

  10. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In themore » past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.« less

  11. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas

    2017-08-01

    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  12. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, G.; Kim, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  13. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette–Related Information: Social Media Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-01-01

    Background Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette–related information propagation on social media. Methods We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette–related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post’s frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette–related information propagation. Results We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette–related information propagation, indicating the users’ tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor–related factors were associated with information propagation. Conclusions Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette–related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users’ lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette–related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. PMID:29572202

  14. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette-Related Information: Social Media Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-03-23

    Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post's frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette-related information propagation. We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette-related information propagation, indicating the users' tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor-related factors were associated with information propagation. Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette-related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users' lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette-related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. ©Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  15. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; ...

    2016-12-30

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarksmore » can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H ± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.« less

  16. Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.

    2007-12-01

    This work focuses on the use of temperature responsive gels (TRGs) (polymeric hydrogels with a large temperature-dependent change in volume) for flavor retention at cooking temperatures. Specifically, we have studied a gel with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that swells at low temperatures and collapses at high temperatures. In the collapsed state, the polymer acts as a transport barrier, keeping the volatile flavors inside. An encapsulation system was designed to utilize the solution (phase separation) behavior of a temperature responsive gel. The gel morphology was understood and diffusive properties were tailored through morphology manipulation. Heterogeneous and homogeneous gels were processed by understanding the effect of temperature on gel morphology. A morphology model was developed linking bulk diffusive properties to molecular morphology. Flavor was encapsulated within the gel and the emulsifying capability was determined. The capsules responded to temperature similarly to the pure polymer. The release kinetcs were compared to commercial gelatin capsules and the temperature responsive polymer took longer to release.

  17. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  18. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  19. Identification of Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Effects of Linguistic Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, using different ranges and numbers of stimuli, examined how linguistic labels affect the identification of flavor mixtures containing different proportions of sucrose (gustatory flavorant) and citral (olfactory flavorant). Both experiments asked subjects to identify each stimulus as having either “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus.” In one condition, no labels preceded the flavor stimuli. In another condition, each flavor stimulus followed a label, either SUGAR or CITRUS, which, the subjects were informed, usually though not always named the stronger flavor component; that is, the labels were probabilistically valid. The results of both experiments showed that the labels systematically modified the identification responses: Subjects responded “sugar” or “citrus” more often when the flavor stimulus followed the corresponding label, SUGAR or CITRUS. But the labels hardly affected overall accuracy of identification. Accuracy was possibly limited, however, by both the confusability of the flavor stimuli per se and the way that confusability could limit the opportunity to discern the probabilistic associations between labels and individual flavor stimuli. We describe the results in terms of a decision-theoretic model, in which labels induce shifts in response criteria governing the identification responses, or possibly effect changes in the sensory representations of the flavorants themselves. PMID:23329730

  20. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  1. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  2. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and...

  3. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and...

  4. To Flavor or Not to Flavor Extemporaneous Omeprazole Liquid.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Monica C; Taglieri, Catherine A; Kerr, Stephen G

    2017-01-01

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used to treat the symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcers, excess stomach acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and to control the gastric side effects of various drugs. The approved dosage forms in the U.S. are powder in compounding kits, delayed-release granules for oral suspension, oral delayed-release tablets, and oral delayed-release capsules. An extemporaneously compounded unsweetened oral liquid method, published in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, was found to be commonly used by pharmacists. This project investigated the robustness of the compendium omeprazole high-performance liquid chromatographic assay in evaluating an oral liquid made from commercial delayed-release pellets, the potency of extemporaneously compounded solutions having a 1.125% v/v flavored versus unflavored samples stored at controlled cold temperatures at different time points, and examining the absorption spectrum of the flavoring agent. As part of the study, stability-indication testing was also conducted. The studies indicate that the chromatographic area under the plasma concentration-time curve of both study groups remained over 90% of the label claim during the follow-up period. The flavor did not significantly impact the pH of the oral liquid. This study further identified (1) an increase in resilient foam formation in the flavored liquid, potentially hindering dosing accuracy, (2) omeprazole is oxidized easily by 3% hydrogen peroxide, and (3) flavoring agent absorbs in an ultraviolet visible spectroscopy spectral range often used in assay detectors for quantification of drug molecules, and could interfere with assay protocols of the same. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  5. Idealized Experiments for Optimizing Model Parameters Using a 4D-Variational Method in an Intermediate Coupled Model of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chuan; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Wu, Xinrong; Sun, Jichang

    2018-04-01

    Large biases exist in real-time ENSO prediction, which can be attributed to uncertainties in initial conditions and model parameters. Previously, a 4D variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system was developed for an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and used to improve ENSO modeling through optimized initial conditions. In this paper, this system is further applied to optimize model parameters. In the ICM used, one important process for ENSO is related to the anomalous temperature of subsurface water entrained into the mixed layer ( T e), which is empirically and explicitly related to sea level (SL) variation. The strength of the thermocline effect on SST (referred to simply as "the thermocline effect") is represented by an introduced parameter, α Te. A numerical procedure is developed to optimize this model parameter through the 4D-Var assimilation of SST data in a twin experiment context with an idealized setting. Experiments having their initial condition optimized only, and having their initial condition plus this additional model parameter optimized, are compared. It is shown that ENSO evolution can be more effectively recovered by including the additional optimization of this parameter in ENSO modeling. The demonstrated feasibility of optimizing model parameters and initial conditions together through the 4D-Var method provides a modeling platform for ENSO studies. Further applications of the 4D-Var data assimilation system implemented in the ICM are also discussed.

  6. Single-flavor CSL phase in compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, David; Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna; Sandin, Fredrik

    2008-08-29

    We suggest a scenario where the three light quark flavors are sequentially deconfined under increasing pressure in cold asymmetric nuclear matter as, e.g., in neutron stars. The basis for our analysis is a chiral quark matter model of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type with diquark pairing in the spin-1 single flavor (CSL), spin-0 two flavor (2SC) and three flavor (CFL) channels. We find that nucleon dissociation sets in at about the saturation density, n{sub 0}, when the down-quark Fermi sea is populated (d-quark dripline) due to the flavor asymmetry induced by {beta}-equilibrium and charge neutrality. At about 3n{sub 0} u-quarks appear andmore » a two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) phase is formed. The s-quark Fermi sea is populated only at still higher baryon density, when the quark chemical potential is of the order of the dynamically generated strange quark mass. We construct two different hybrid equations of state (EoS) using the Dirac-Brueckner Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach and the EoS by Shen et al. in the nuclear matter sector. The corresponding hybrid star sequences have maximum masses of, respectively, 2.1 and 2.0 M{sub {center_dot}}. Two- and three-flavor quark-matter phases exist only in gravitationally unstable hybrid star solutions in the DBHF case, while the Shen-based EoS produce stable configurations with a 2SC phase component in the core of massive stars. Nucleon dissociation due to d-quark drip at the crust-core boundary fulfills basic criteria for a deep crustal heating process which is required to explain superbusts as well as cooling of X-ray transients.« less

  7. Sequential deconfinement of quark flavors in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna; Sandin, F.

    2009-12-15

    A scenario is suggested in which the three light quark flavors are sequentially deconfined under increasing pressure in cold asymmetric nuclear matter as found, for example, in neutron stars. The basis for this analysis is a chiral quark matter model of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type with diquark pairing in the spin-1 single-flavor, spin-0 two-flavor, and three-flavor channels. Nucleon dissociation sets in at about the saturation density, n{sub 0}, when the down-quark Fermi sea is populated (d-quark drip line) because of the flavor asymmetry induced by {beta} equilibrium and charge neutrality. At about 3n{sub 0}, u-quarks appear and a two-flavor color superconductingmore » (2SC) phase is formed. The s-quark Fermi sea is populated only at still higher baryon density, when the quark chemical potential is of the order of the dynamically generated strange quark mass. Two different hybrid equations of state (EOSs) are constructed using the Dirac-Brueckner Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach and the EOS of Shen et al.[H. Shen, H. Toki, K. Oyamatsu, and K. Sumiyoshi, Nucl. Phys. A637, 435 (1998)] in the nuclear matter sector. The corresponding hybrid star sequences have maximum masses of 2.1 and 2.0 M{sub {center_dot}}, respectively. Two- and three-flavor quark-matter phases exist only in gravitationally unstable hybrid star solutions in the DBHF case, whereas the Shen-based EOSs produce stable configurations with a 2SC phase component in the core of massive stars. Nucleon dissociation via d-quark drip could act as a deep crustal heating process, which apparently is required to explain superbursts and cooling of x-ray transients.« less

  8. Precision Light Flavor Physics from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David

    In this thesis we present three distinct contributions to the study of light flavor physics using the techniques of lattice QCD. These results are arranged into four self-contained papers. The first two papers concern global fits of the quark mass, lattice spacing, and finite volume dependence of the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants, computed in a series of lattice QCD simulations, to partially quenched SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory (chiPT). These fits determine a subset of the low energy constants of chiral perturbation theory -- in some cases with increased precision, and in other cases for the first time -- which, once determined, can be used to compute other observables and amplitudes in chiPT. We also use our formalism to self-consistently probe the behavior of the (asymptotic) chiral expansion as a function of the quark masses by repeating the fits with different subsets of the data. The third paper concerns the first lattice QCD calculation of the semileptonic K0 → pi-l +nul ( Kl3) form factor at vanishing momentum transfer, f+Kpi(0), with physical mass domain wall quarks. The value of this form factor can be combined with a Standard Model analysis of the experimentally measured K0 → pi -l+nu l decay rate to extract a precise value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element Vus, and to test unitarity of the CKM matrix. We also discuss lattice calculations of the pion and kaon decay constants, which can be used to extract Vud through an analogous Standard Model analysis of experimental constraints on leptonic pion and kaon decays. The final paper explores the recently proposed exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA). This algorithm has been shown to drastically reduce the memory footprint required to simulate single quark flavors on the lattice relative to the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, while also offering modest O(20%) speed-ups. We independently derive the exact one flavor action, explore its

  9. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and C P -violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified, where a strongly coupled conformal field theory is achieved after SUSY is softly broken. The defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and tau production at the LHC, accompanied by large missing energy. Also, direct detection signals of dark matter may be more challenging to find than in conventional SUSY scenarios.

  10. Mice acquire flavor preferences during shipping.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Alarcón, Laura K; Byerly, Erica A; Doman, Samantha A

    2005-11-15

    Vigorous motion can cause rodents to develop flavor aversions and show other signs of malaise. We tested whether a flavor aversion could be induced by shipping mice from an animal breeder to a test site. Boxes of 12 male C57BL/6J mice were shipped approximately 950 km from Bar Harbor, ME to Philadelphia, PA by truck. For some boxes, the gel provided for hydration was flavored with almond and for others it was flavored with banana. After the journey, the mice were individually housed and allowed to recover for 5 days. They then received a choice between the two flavors of gel. Contrary to expectations, mice preferred the flavor they had previously ingested during shipping. Controls given flavored gel under similar conditions but while stationary did not show a preference. These results suggest that mice find shipping or its sequelae pleasurable. If mice are travel sick this must be inconsequential relative to other components of the shipping experience.

  11. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral B sB s meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent B s flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: B s → D sπ(ππ) and B s → D slv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristicsmore » of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B + and B 0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B 0 oscillation frequency yields Δm d = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps -1. The search for B s oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D 2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb -1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps -1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the B s meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the B s samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps -1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps -1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of B s mixing beyond the standard model expectation. They show also that the improved knowledge of Δm s has a considerable impact on constraining the CKM matrix elements.« less

  12. Identification of SNPs, QTLs, and dominant markers associated with wheat flavor using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain foods are well known to provide important nutrients in the human diet; however, consumer acceptance can be hindered by the flavor, aroma, and texture of whole wheat products. Flavor differences among wheat varieties have been observed, but are still little understood. A lab mouse model s...

  13. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  14. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flavorful leptoquarks at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Nišandžić, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    B -physics data and flavor symmetries suggest that leptoquarks can have masses as low as a few O (TeV ) , predominantly decay to third generation quarks, and highlight p p →b μ μ signatures from single production and p p →b b μ μ from pair production. Abandoning flavor symmetries could allow for inverted quark hierarchies and cause sizable p p →j μ μ and j j μ μ cross sections, induced by second generation couplings. Final states with leptons other than muons including lepton flavor violation (LFV) ones can also arise. The corresponding couplings can also be probed by precision studies of the B →(Xs,K*,ϕ )e e distribution and LFV searches in B -decays. We demonstrate sensitivity in single leptoquark production for the large hadron collider (LHC) and extrapolate to the high luminosity LHC. Exploration of the bulk of the parameter space requires a hadron collider beyond the reach of the LHC, with b -identification capabilities.

  16. A double transgenic mouse model expressing human pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaochao; Cheung, Connie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Shah, Yatrik M.; Wang, Ting; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the most abundant human P450 in liver, participates in the metabolism of ∼50% of clinically used drugs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is the major activator of CYP3A4 transcription. However, due to species differences in response to PXR ligands, it is problematic to use rodents to assess CYP3A4 regulation and function. The generation of double transgenic mice expressing human PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) would provide a means to this problem. In the current study, a TgCYP3A4/hPXR mouse model was generated by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in Pxr-null mice. In TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice, CYP3A4 was strongly induced by rifampicin, a human-specific PXR ligand, but not by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile, a rodent-specific PXR ligand. Consistent with CYP3A expression, hepatic CYP3A activity increased ∼five-fold in TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice pretreated with rifampicin. Most anti-human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors are CYP3A substrates and their interactions with rifamycins are a source of major concern in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By using TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice, human PXR-CYP3A4 mediated rifampicin-protease inhibitor interactions were recapitulated, as the metabolic stability of amprenavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir decreased 52%, 53%, and 99% respectively in the liver microsomes of TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice pretreated with rifampicin. In vivo, rifampicin pretreatment resulted in ∼80% decrease in the area under serum amprenavir concentration-time curve in TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice. These results suggest that the TgCYP3A4/hPXR mouse model could serve as a useful tool for studies on CYP3A4 transcription and function in vivo. PMID:18799805

  17. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  18. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of coherent nonlinear neutrino flavor transformation in the supernova environment: Correlated neutrino trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Fuller, George M.; Carlson, J.; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2006-11-01

    We present results of large-scale numerical simulations of the evolution of neutrino and antineutrino flavors in the region above the late-time post-supernova-explosion proto-neutron star. Our calculations are the first to allow explicit flavor evolution histories on different neutrino trajectories and to self-consistently couple flavor development on these trajectories through forward scattering-induced quantum coupling. Employing the atmospheric-scale neutrino mass-squared difference (|δm2|≃3×10-3eV2) and values of θ13 allowed by current bounds, we find transformation of neutrino and antineutrino flavors over broad ranges of energy and luminosity in roughly the “bi-polar” collective mode. We find that this large-scale flavor conversion, largely driven by the flavor off-diagonal neutrino-neutrino forward scattering potential, sets in much closer to the proto-neutron star than simple estimates based on flavor-diagonal potentials and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein evolution would indicate. In turn, this suggests that models of r-process nucleosynthesis sited in the neutrino-driven wind could be affected substantially by active-active neutrino flavor mixing, even with the small measured neutrino mass-squared differences.

  20. Flavor effects at the MeV and TeV scales

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, P. A. N., E-mail: pedro.machado@uam.es

    2016-06-21

    We provide a renormalizable model which encompasses a light Z′, at the O(100 MeV) scale with non trivial flavor structure. The Z′ can mix both with the photon by kinetic mixing and with the Z by mass mixing, exhibiting a rich low energy phenomenology. We emphasize the importance of considering the complete model, contemplating the scalar sector as well as the gauge sector. The model can satisfy all flavor constraints from quark and charged lepton flavor and still lead to observable non standard neutrino oscillation results.

  1. Update on flavoring-induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Holden, Van K; Hines, Stella E

    2016-03-01

    Since the initial report of bronchiolitis obliterans in microwave popcorn workers, exposures to flavoring substances have been identified in a variety of food and flavor manufacturing facilities and in the consumer market. Attempts to decrease the risk of lung disease have included the use of flavoring substitutes; however, these chemicals may cause similar injury. This article reviews recent flavoring exposures and data on the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and surveillance of flavoring-induced lung disease. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures have occurred in food production facilities that make cookies, cereal, chocolate, and coffee. Airborne levels often exceed proposed occupational exposure limits. Cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans in heavy popcorn consumers have also been reported. New data demonstrate the presence of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in flavored nicotine liquids used in electronic nicotine delivery systems. Diacetyl substitutes cause similar peri-bronchiolar fibrotic lesions in animal studies. Their use may continue to place workers at risk for flavoring-induced lung disease, which may present in forms beyond that of fixed airflow obstruction, contributing to delays in identifying and treating patients with flavoring-induced lung disease. Engineering controls, medical surveillance and personal protective equipment can limit flavorings exposure and risk for lung disease.

  2. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my handwritten notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that some may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  3. Ibrutinib Dosing Strategies Based on Interaction Potential of CYP3A4 Perpetrators Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, L; Snoeys, J; De Jong, J; Sukbuntherng, J; Mannaert, E; Monshouwer, M

    2016-11-01

    Based on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics and potential sensitivity towards CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a physiologically based pharmacokinetic approach was developed to mechanistically describe DDI with various CYP3A4 perpetrators in healthy men under fasting conditions. These models were verified using clinical data for ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) and used to prospectively predict and confirm the inducing effect of rifampin (strong CYP3A4 inducer); DDIs with mild (fluvoxamine, azithromycin) and moderate inhibitors (diltiazem, voriconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, erythromycin), and moderate (efavirenz) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (carbamazepine), were also predicted. Ketoconazole increased ibrutinib area under the curve (AUC) by 24-fold, while rifampin decreased ibrutinib AUC by 10-fold; coadministration of ibrutinib with strong inhibitors or inducers should be avoided. The ibrutinib dose should be reduced to 140 mg (quarter of maximal prescribed dose) when coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors so that exposures remain within observed ranges at therapeutic doses. Thus, dose recommendations for CYP3A4 perpetrator use during ibrutinib treatment were developed and approved for labeling. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Lepton flavor universality violation without new sources of quark flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Soreq, Yotam; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-01

    We show that new physics models without new flavor violating interactions can explain the recent anomalies in the b →s ℓ+ℓ- transitions. The b →s ℓ+ℓ- arises from a Z' penguin which automatically predicts the V -A structure for the quark currents in the effective operators. This framework can either be realized in a renormalizable U (1 )' setup or be due to new strongly interacting dynamics. The dimuon resonance searches at the LHC are becoming sensitive to this scenario since the Z' is relatively light, and could well be discovered in future searches by ATLAS and CMS.

  5. Prospecting for new physics in the Higgs and flavor sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady

    We explore two directions in beyond the standard model physics: dark matter model building and probing new sources of CP violation. In dark matter model building, we consider two scenarios where the stability of dark matter derives from the flavor symmetries of the standard model. The first model contains a flavor singlet dark matter candidate whose couplings to the visible sector are proportional to the flavor breaking parameters. This leads to a metastable dark matter with TeV scale mediators. In the second model, we consider a fully gauged SU(3) 3 flavor model with a flavor triplet dark matter. Consequently, the dark matter multiplet is charged while the standard model fields are neutral under a remnant Z 3 which ensures dark matter stability. We show that a Dirac fermion dark matter with radiative splitting in the multiplet must have a mass in the range [0:5; 5] TeV in order to satisfy all experimental constraints. We then turn our attention to Higgs portal dark matter and investigate the possibility of obtaining bounds on the up, down, and strange quark Yukawa couplings. If Higgs portal dark matter is discovered, we find that direct detection rates are insensitive to vanishing light quark Yukawa couplings. We then review flavor models and give the expected enhancement or suppression of the Yukawa couplings in those models. Finally, in the last two chapters, we develop techniques for probing CP violation in the Higgs coupling to photons and in rare radiative decays of B mesons. While theoretically clean, we find that these methods are not practical with current and planned detectors. However, these techniques can be useful with a dedicated detector (e.g., a gaseous TPC). In the case of radiative B meson decay B 0 → (K* → Kππ) γ, the techniques we develop also allow the extraction of the photon polarization fraction which is sensitive to new physics contributions since, in the standard model, the right(left) handed polarization fraction is of O( Λ QCD

  6. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  7. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for bothmore » models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry. - Highlights: • We developed a breathing human lung CFD model based on 4D-dynamic CT images. • The 4DCT-based breathing lung model is able to capture lung relative hysteresis. • A new boundary condition for lung model based on one static CT image was proposed. • The difference between lung models based on 4D and static CT images was quantified.« less

  8. Simulation of spatiotemporal CT data sets using a 4D MRI-based lung motion model.

    PubMed

    Marx, Mirko; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Handels, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Four-dimensional CT imaging is widely used to account for motion-related effects during radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients. However, 4D CT often contains motion artifacts, cannot be used to measure motion variability, and leads to higher dose exposure. In this article, we propose using 4D MRI to acquire motion information for the radiotherapy planning process. From the 4D MRI images, we derive a time-continuous model of the average patient-specific respiratory motion, which is then applied to simulate 4D CT data based on a static 3D CT. The idea of the motion model is to represent the average lung motion over a respiratory cycle by cyclic B-spline curves. The model generation consists of motion field estimation in the 4D MRI data by nonlinear registration, assigning respiratory phases to the motion fields, and applying a B-spline approximation on a voxel-by-voxel basis to describe the average voxel motion over a breathing cycle. To simulate a patient-specific 4D CT based on a static CT of the patient, a multi-modal registration strategy is introduced to transfer the motion model from MRI to the static CT coordinates. Differences between model-based estimated and measured motion vectors are on average 1.39 mm for amplitude-based binning of the 4D MRI data of three patients. In addition, the MRI-to-CT registration strategy is shown to be suitable for the model transformation. The application of our 4D MRI-based motion model for simulating 4D CT images provides advantages over standard 4D CT (less motion artifacts, radiation-free). This makes it interesting for radiotherapy planning.

  9. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-12-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry.

  10. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-01-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry. PMID:28260811

  11. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  12. Managing summertime off-flavors in catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in channel catfish ponds often contain blue-green algae that produce musty or earthy odors. The odorous compounds are absorbed by fish across their gills and deposited in fatty tissues, giving fish undesirable “off-flavors.” When fish are declared off-flavored by proc...

  13. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  14. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, p<0.001) and cigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, p<0.001), cigars (34%, p<0.001), and pipes (55%, p<0.001), implying substitution toward the remaining legal flavored tobacco products. Despite increases in some forms of tobacco, overall there was a 6% (p<0.001) reduction in the probability of using any tobacco. The results suggest the 2009 flavored cigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overexpression of CYP3A4 in a COLO 205 Colon Cancer Stem Cell Model in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Liedauer, Richard; Ausch, Christoph; Thalhammer, Theresia; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) seem to constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that escape from chemotherapy and cause recurrent disease. Low proliferation rates, protection in a stem cell niche and overexpression of drug resistance proteins are considered to confer chemoresistance. We established an in vitro colon CSC-like model using the COLO 205 cell line, which revealed transiently increased expression of CD133 when transferred to serum-free stem cell culture medium. Assessment of global gene expression of COLO 205 cells under these conditions identified a set of upregulated genes including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), as confirmed by real-time qPCR. ALDH1A1 is a CSC marker for certain tumor entities and confers resistance to cyclophosphamide. CYP3A4 is expressed in liver and colon and its overexpression seems particularly relevant in colon cancer, since it inactivates irinotecan and other xenobiotics, such as taxols and vinca alkaloids. In conclusion, this COLO 205 model provides evidence for CD133 induction concomitant with overexpression of CYP3A4, which, together with ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2) and others, may have a role in chemoresistant colon CSCs and a negative impact on disease-free survival in colon cancer patients. PMID:24212669

  16. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Seco, Joao; Mishra, Pankaj; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  17. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basismore » DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  18. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Jérémy; Auvray, Malika; Lafraire, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i) the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii) the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic). We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms) and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and beverage cognition

  19. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages.

    PubMed

    Roque, Jérémy; Auvray, Malika; Lafraire, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers' preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i) the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii) the top-down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top-down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic). We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor . In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms) and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and beverage cognition.

  20. The structure of motion in a 4-component galaxy mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caranicolas, N. D.

    1996-03-01

    We use a composite galaxy model consisting of a disk-halo, bulge, nucleus and dark-halo components in order to investigate the motion of stars in ther-z plane. It is observed that high angular momentum stars move in regular orbits. The majority of orbits are box orbits. There are also banana-like orbits. For a given value of energy, only a fraction of the low angular momentum stars — those going near the nucleus — show chaotic motion while the rest move in regular orbits. Again one observes the above two kinds of orbits. In addition to the above one can also see orbits with the characteristics of the 2/3 and 3/4 resonance. It is also shown that, in the absence of the bulge component, the area of chaotic motion in the surface of section increases, significantly. This suggests that a larger number of low angular momentum stars are in chaotic orbits in galaxies with massive nuclei and no bulge components.

  1. The association between flavor labeling and flavor recall ability in children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Zuckerman, Matthew D; Cardinal, Tiffany; Kaciroti, Niko

    2005-09-01

    This study sought to determine if the ability to label a flavor is associated with an improved ability to recall having tasted the flavor in preschool-aged children. A total of 120 3- to 6-year-old English-speaking children tasted and labeled 20 different flavors, blinded to color. Children's labels for the flavors were scored for consistency and accuracy. Recall for having tasted the flavor was tested. Both labeling ability and recall ability improved rapidly between the ages of 3 and 6 years in this cohort. Regression analysis indicated that independent of the child's age, consistent accurate labeling was positively associated with recall ability. Higher maternal education was an independent and marginal contributor to greater recall ability. The combination of consistent and accurate labeling, age, and maternal education accounted for 28% of the variance in flavor recall ability. Consistent but inaccurate labeling alone contributed little to the variance in flavor recall ability. We conclude from these findings that children's ability to recall having tasted a flavor develops rapidly during the preschool age range and that improved recall ability is associated with the ability to consistently and accurately label the flavor. We conclude that language mediates memory for flavors in young children.

  2. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Myeongho; Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Hee Young; Tran, Dinh Nam; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF). Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg), propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg), and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh). All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles. PMID:28208728

  3. Impact of flavor attributes on consumer liking of Swiss cheese.

    PubMed

    Liggett, R E; Drake, M A; Delwiche, J F

    2008-02-01

    Although Swiss cheese is growing in popularity, no research has examined what flavor characteristics consumers desire in Swiss cheese, which was the main objective of this study. To this end, a large group of commercially available Swiss-type cheeses (10 domestic Swiss cheeses, 4 domestic Baby Swiss cheeses, and one imported Swiss Emmenthal) were assessed both by 12 trained panelists for flavor and feeling factors and by 101 consumers for overall liking. In addition, a separate panel of 24 consumers rated the same cheeses for dissimilarity. On the basis of liking ratings, the 101 consumers were segmented by cluster analysis into 2 groups: nondistinguishers (n = 40) and varying responders (n = 61). Partial least squares regression, a statistical modeling technique that relates 2 data sets (in this case, a set of descriptive analysis data and a set of consumer liking data), was used to determine which flavor attributes assessed by the trained panel were important variables in overall liking of the cheeses for the varying responders. The model explained 93% of the liking variance on 3 normally distributed components and had 49% predictability. Diacetyl, whey, milk fat, and umami were found to be drivers of liking, whereas cabbage, cooked, and vinegar were drivers of disliking. Nutty flavor was not particularly important to liking and it was present in only 2 of the cheeses. The dissimilarity ratings were combined with the liking ratings of both segments and analyzed by probabilistic multidimensional scaling. The ideals of each segment completely overlapped, with the variance of the varying responders being smaller than the variance of the non-distinguishers. This model indicated that the Baby Swiss cheeses were closer to the consumers' ideals than were the other cheeses. Taken together, the 2 models suggest that the partial least squares regression failed to capture one or more attributes that contribute to consumer acceptance, although the descriptive analysis of

  4. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  5. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  6. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  7. School children's consumption of lower-calorie flavored milk: a plate waste study.

    PubMed

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K; Stickle, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    During January 2011, the US Department of Agriculture issued proposed regulations with substantial changes to nutrition standards for school foods and beverages to improve the healthfulness of school meals. Milk availability is limited to fat-free or 1% white milk and fat-free flavored milk. Most elementary school students choose flavored milk. Milk processors are lowering the calories provided by flavored milks by reducing the fat and/or added sugars content. Milk is an important source of shortfall nutrients; thus, it is important to know how children accept these new milks. Four schools in the northeast and south serving lower-calorie flavored milk (≤150 kcal/8 oz) were selected for a quasi-experimental plate waste study. Five control schools serving standard flavored milk (>150 kcal/8 oz) were enrolled from the same regions. During May and June 2010, flavored milk cartons were collected from 793 third- to fifth-grade students after lunch and individually weighed to determine consumption. Overall, students consumed an average of 5.52±0.10 oz flavored milk. Students consumed an average of 5.88±0.12 oz standard flavored milk (n=497) compared with an average of 4.92±0.17 oz lower-calorie flavored milk (n=296). Using linear mixed models, we found that children drinking standard milk were more likely to consume >7 oz, although the difference was not significant (P=0.09). After adjusting for group differences in socioeconomic status, region, and sex, no differences in consumption were detected (P=0.29). Because none of these milks were in full compliance with proposed regulations, milk consumption should be further monitored. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    PubMed

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated to...

  10. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated to...

  11. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated to...

  12. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  13. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  14. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  15. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  16. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated to...

  17. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  18. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated to...

  19. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  20. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is...

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  2. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  3. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from which...

  4. Exotic Higgs boson decay modes as a harbinger of S{sub 3} flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Leser, Philipp; Paes, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Discrete symmetries employed to explain flavor mixing and mass hierarchies can be associated with an enlarged scalar sector which might lead to exotic Higgs decay modes. In this paper, we explore such a possibility in a scenario with S{sub 3} flavor symmetry which requires three scalar SU(2) doublets. The spectrum is fixed by minimizing the scalar potential, and we observe that the symmetry of the model leads to tantalizing Higgs decay modes potentially observable at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  6. Exotic Leptons. Higgs, Flavor and Collider Phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela

    2014-01-15

    We study extensions of the standard model by one generation of vector-like leptons with non-standard hypercharges, which allow for a sizable modification of the h → γγ decay rate for new lepton masses in the 300 GeV-1 TeV range. We also analyze vacuum stability implications for different hypercharges. Effects in h → Zγ are typically much smaller than in h → γγ, but distinct among the considered hypercharge assignments. Non-standard hypercharges constrain or entirely forbid possible mixing operators with standard model leptons. As a consequence, the leading contributions to the experimentally strongly constrained electric dipole moments of standard model fermionsmore » are only generated at the two loop level by the new CP violating sources of the considered setups. Furthermore, we derive the bounds from dipole moments, electro-weak precision observables and lepton flavor violating processes, and discuss their implications. Finally, we examine the production and decay channels of the vector-like leptons at the LHC, and find that signatures with multiple light leptons or taus are already probing interesting regions of parameter space.« less

  7. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  8. A Flavorful Factoring of the Strong CP Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Howe, Kiel

    Motivated by the intimate connection between the strong CP problem and the flavor structure of the Standard Model, we present a flavor model that revives and extends the classicmore » $${m_u=0}$$ solution to the strong CP problem. QCD is embedded into a $$SU(3)_1\\times SU(3)_2 \\times SU(3)_3$$ gauge group, with each generation of quarks charged under the respective $SU(3)$. The non-zero value of the up-quark Yukawa coupling (along with the strange quark and bottom-quark Yukawas) is generated by contributions from small instantons at a new scale $$M \\gg \\Lambda_{QCD}$$. The Higgsing of $$SU(3)^3\\to SU(3)_c$$ allows dimension-5 operators that generate the Standard Model flavor structure and can be completed in a simple renormalizable theory. The smallness of the third generation mixing angles can naturally emerge in this picture, and is connected to the smallness of threshold corrections to $$\\bar\\theta$$. Remarkably, $$\\bar\\theta$$ is essentially fixed by the measured quark masses and mixings, and is estimated to be close to the current experimental bound and well within reach of the next generation of neutron and proton EDM experiments.« less

  9. Using a 4D-Variational Method to Optimize Model Parameters in an Intermediate Coupled Model of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Zhang, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    Large biases exist in real-time ENSO prediction, which is attributed to uncertainties in initial conditions and model parameters. Previously, a four dimentional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system was developed for an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and used to improve ENSO modeling through optimized initial conditions. In this paper, this system is further applied to optimize model parameters. In the ICM used, one important process for ENSO is related to the anomalous temperature of subsurface water entrained into the mixed layer (Te), which is empirically and explicitly related to sea level (SL) variation, written as Te=αTe×FTe (SL). The introduced parameter, αTe, represents the strength of the thermocline effect on sea surface temperature (SST; referred as the thermocline effect). A numerical procedure is developed to optimize this model parameter through the 4D-Var assimilation of SST data in a twin experiment context with an idealized setting. Experiments having initial condition optimized only and having initial condition plus this additional model parameter optimized both are compared. It is shown that ENSO evolution can be more effectively recovered by including the additional optimization of this parameter in ENSO modeling. The demonstrated feasibility of optimizing model parameter and initial condition together through the 4D-Var method provides a modeling platform for ENSO studies. Further applications of the 4D-Var data assimilation system implemented in the ICM are also discussed.

  10. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-06-19

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO₂, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  12. The role of top in heavy flavor physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of the massive top quark on heavy flavor transitions are explored. We review the generation of quark masses and mixings and the determination techniques, and present the status of the elements of the weak mixing matrix. Purely leptonic decays of heavy mesons are briefly summarized. We present a general introduction to flavor changing neutral currents and an extensive summary of radiative and other rare decay modes. The physics of neutral meson mixing is reviewed and applied to each meson system. We describe the phenomenology of CP violation and how it may be measured in meson decays. Standard Modelmore » predictions are given in each case and the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model are also discussed. Throughout, we contrast these transitions in the K and B meson systems to those in the D meson and top-quark sectors.« less

  13. An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature.

    PubMed

    Krüsemann, Erna Johanna Zegerina; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-18

    E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. The search was conducted in May 2017 using PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords included terms associated with e-cigarettes, flavors, liking, learning, and wanting in articles. Results were independently screened and reviewed. Flavor categories used in the articles reviewed were extracted. Searches yielded 386 unique articles of which 28 were included. Forty-three main flavor categories were reported in these articles (e.g., tobacco, menthol, mint, fruit, bakery/dessert, alcohol, nuts, spice, candy, coffee/tea, beverages, chocolate, sweet flavors, vanilla, unflavored). Flavor classifications of e-liquids in literature showed similarities and differences across studies. Our proposed e-liquid flavor wheel contains 13 main categories and 90 subcategories, which summarize flavor categories from literature to find a shared vocabulary. For classification of e-liquids using our flavor wheel, marketing descriptions should be used. We have proposed a flavor wheel for classification of e-liquids. Further research is needed to test the flavor wheels' empirical value. Consistently classifying e-liquid flavors using our flavor wheel in research (e.g., experimental, marketing, or qualitative studies) minimizes interpretation differences and increases comparability of results. We reviewed e-liquid flavors and flavor categories used in research. A large variation in the naming of flavor categories was found and e-liquid flavors were not consistently classified. We developed an e-liquid flavor wheel

  14. Suppression of Self-Induced Flavor Conversion in the Supernova Accretion Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikas, Srdjan; Raffelt, Georg G.; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos can strongly modify the flavor-dependent fluxes. We perform a linearized flavor stability analysis with accretion-phase matter profiles of a 15M⊙ spherically symmetric model and corresponding neutrino fluxes. We use realistic energy and angle distributions, the latter deviating strongly from quasi-isotropic emission, thus accounting for both multiangle and multienergy effects. For our matter and neutrino density profile we always find stable conditions: flavor conversions are limited to the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In this case one may distinguish the neutrino mass hierarchy in a SN neutrino signal if the mixing angle θ13 is as large as suggested by recent experiments.

  15. Suppression of self-induced flavor conversion in the supernova accretion phase.

    PubMed

    Sarikas, Srdjan; Raffelt, Georg G; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2012-02-10

    Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos can strongly modify the flavor-dependent fluxes. We perform a linearized flavor stability analysis with accretion-phase matter profiles of a 15M[symbol: see text] spherically symmetric model and corresponding neutrino fluxes. We use realistic energy and angle distributions, the latter deviating strongly from quasi-isotropic emission, thus accounting for both multiangle and multienergy effects. For our matter and neutrino density profile we always find stable conditions: flavor conversions are limited to the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In this case one may distinguish the neutrino mass hierarchy in a SN neutrino signal if the mixing angle θ13 is as large as suggested by recent experiments.

  16. New approach to flavor symmetry and an extended naturalness principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    A class of nonsupersymmetric extensions of the standard model is proposed in which there is a multiplicity of light scalar doublets in a multiplet of a nonabelian family group with the standard model Higgs doublet. Anthropic tuning makes the latter light, and consequently the other scalar doublets remain light because of the family symmetry. The family symmetry greatly constrains the pattern of flavor-changing neutral-current interactions (FCNC) and p decay operators coming from scalar-exchange. Such models show that useful constraints on model-building can come from an extended naturalness principle when the electroweak scale is anthropically tuned.

  17. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Model based on GRID-derived descriptors for estimating CYP3A4 enzyme stability of potential drug candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivori, Patrizia; Zamora, Ismael; Speed, Bill; Orrenius, Christian; Poggesi, Italo

    2004-03-01

    A number of computational approaches are being proposed for an early optimization of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) properties to increase the success rate in drug discovery. The present study describes the development of an in silico model able to estimate, from the three-dimensional structure of a molecule, the stability of a compound with respect to the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme activity. Stability data were obtained by measuring the amount of unchanged compound remaining after a standardized incubation with human cDNA-expressed CYP3A4. The computational method transforms the three-dimensional molecular interaction fields (MIFs) generated from the molecular structure into descriptors (VolSurf and Almond procedures). The descriptors were correlated to the experimental metabolic stability classes by a partial least squares discriminant procedure. The model was trained using a set of 1800 compounds from the Pharmacia collection and was validated using two test sets: the first one including 825 compounds from the Pharmacia collection and the second one consisting of 20 known drugs. This model correctly predicted 75% of the first and 85% of the second test set and showed a precision above 86% to correctly select metabolically stable compounds. The model appears a valuable tool in the design of virtual libraries to bias the selection toward more stable compounds. Abbreviations: ADME - absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; CYP - cytochrome P450; MIFs - molecular interaction fields; HTS - high throughput screening; DDI - drug-drug interactions; 3D - three-dimensional; PCA - principal components analysis; CPCA - consensus principal components analysis; PLS - partial least squares; PLSD - partial least squares discriminant; GRIND - grid independent descriptors; GRID - software originally created and developed by Professor Peter Goodford.

  19. Minimal color-flavor-locked-nuclear interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark; Rajagopal, Krishna; Reddy, Sanjay; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-10-01

    At nuclear matter density, electrically neutral strongly interacting matter in weak equilibrium is made of neutrons, protons, and electrons. At sufficiently high density, such matter is made of up, down, and strange quarks in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase, with no electrons. As a function of increasing density (or, perhaps, increasing depth in a compact star) other phases may intervene between these two phases, which are guaranteed to be present. The simplest possibility, however, is a single first order phase transition between CFL and nuclear matter. Such a transition, in space, could take place either through a mixed phase region or at a single sharp interface with electron-free CFL and electron-rich nuclear matter in stable contact. Here we construct a model for such an interface. It is characterized by a region of separated charge, similar to an inversion layer at a metal-insulator boundary. On the CFL side, the charged boundary layer is dominated by a condensate of negative kaons. We then consider the energetics of the mixed phase alternative. We find that the mixed phase will occur only if the nuclear-CFL surface tension is significantly smaller than dimensional analysis would indicate.

  20. Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Emily S.; Parikh, Roshan; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments presented oral mixtures containing different proportions of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and an olfactory flavorant, either citral (Experiment 1) or lemon (Experiment 2). In 4 different sessions of each experiment, subjects identified each mixture as “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus/lemon” or rated the perceived intensities of the sweet and citrus components. Different sessions also presented the mixtures in different contexts, with mixtures containing relatively high concentrations of sucrose or citral/lemon presented more often (skew sucrose or skew citral/lemon). As expected, in both experiments, varying stimulus context affected both identification and perceived intensity: Skewing to sucrose versus citral/lemon decreased the probability of identifying the stimuli as “mostly sugar” and reduced the ratings of sweet intensity relative to citrus intensity. Across both contextual conditions of both experiments, flavor identification associated closely with the ratio of the perceived sweet and citrus intensities. The results accord with a model, extrapolated from signal-detection theory, in which sensory events are represented as multisensory–multidimensional distributions in perceptual space. Changing stimulus context can shift the locations of the distributions relative to response criteria, Decision rules guide judgments based on both sensory events and criteria, these rules not necessarily being identical in tasks of identification and intensity rating. PMID:26830499

  1. Lepton-flavor universality limits in warped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Quirós, Mariano; Salas, Lindber

    2017-10-01

    We explore the limits on lepton-flavor universality (LFU) violation in theories where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In those theories, LFU violation, in fermion interaction with Kaluza-Klein modes of gauge bosons, is provided ab initio when different flavors of fermions are differently localized along the extra dimension. As this fact arises from the mass pattern of quarks and leptons, LFU violation is natural in this class of theories. We analyze the experimental data pointing toward LFU violation, as well as the most relevant electroweak and flavor observables, and the LFU tests in the μ /e and τ /μ sectors. We find agreement with RK(*) and RD(*) data at 95% C.L., provided the third-generation left-handed fermions are composite (0.14 Model prediction.

  2. Open Heavy Flavor and Quarkonia Results at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2017-12-01

    RHIC experiments carry out a comprehensive physics program which studies open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The discovery at RHIC of large high-pT suppression and flow of electrons from heavy quarks flavors have altered our view of the hot and dense matter formed in central Au + Au collisions at GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. In recent years, the RHIC experiments upgraded the detectors; (1) PHENIX Collaboration installed silicon vertex tracker (VTX) at mid-rapidity region and forward silicon vertex tracker (FVTX) at the forward rapidity region, and (2) STAR Collaboration installed the heavy flavor tracker (HFT) and the muon telescope detector (MTD) both at the mid-rapidity region. With these new upgrades, both experiments have collected large data samples. These new detectors enhance the capability of heavy flavor measurements via precision tracking. The PHENIX experiments established measurements of ψ(1S) and ψ(2S) production as a function of system size, p + p, p + Al, p + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at GeV. In p/3He + A collisions at forward rapidity, we observe no difference in the ψ(2S)/ψ(1S) ratio relative to p + p collisions. At backward rapidity, where the comoving particle density is higher, we find that the ψ(2S) is preferentially suppressed by a factor of two. STAR Collaboration presents the first J/ψ and ϒ measurements in the di-muon decay channel in Au + Au collisions at GeV at mid-rapidity at RHIC. We observe clear J/ψ RAA suppression and qualitatively well described by transport models simultaneously accounting for dissociation and regeneration processes.

  3. Open Heavy Flavor and Quarkonia Results at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, Rachid

    RHIC experiments carry out a comprehensive physics program which studies open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The discovery at RHIC of large high-pT suppression and flow of electrons from heavy quarks flavors have altered our view of the hot and dense matter formed in central Au + Au collisions at √S NN = 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. In recent years, the RHIC experiments upgraded the detectors; (1) PHENIX Collaboration installed silicon vertex tracker (VTX) at mid-rapidity region and forward silicon vertexmore » tracker (FVTX) at the forward rapidity region, and (2) STAR Collaboration installed the heavy flavor tracker (HFT) and the muon telescope detector (MTD) both at the mid-rapidity region. With these new upgrades, both experiments have collected large data samples. These new detectors enhance the capability of heavy flavor measurements via precision tracking. The PHENIX experiments established measurements of ψ(1S) and ψ(2S) production as a function of system size, p + p, p + Al, p + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at √S NN = 200 GeV. In p/ 3He + A collisions at forward rapidity, we observe no difference in the ψ(2S)/ψ(1S) ratio relative to p + p collisions. At backward rapidity, where the comoving particle density is higher, we find that the ψ(2S) is preferentially suppressed by a factor of two. STAR Collaboration presents the first J/ψ and Υ measurements in the di-muon decay channel in Au + Au collisions at GeV at mid-rapidity at RHIC. Here, we observe clear J/ψ RAA suppression and qualitatively well described by transport models simultaneously accounting for dissociation and regeneration processes.« less

  4. Open Heavy Flavor and Quarkonia Results at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2017-12-05

    RHIC experiments carry out a comprehensive physics program which studies open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The discovery at RHIC of large high-pT suppression and flow of electrons from heavy quarks flavors have altered our view of the hot and dense matter formed in central Au + Au collisions at √S NN = 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. In recent years, the RHIC experiments upgraded the detectors; (1) PHENIX Collaboration installed silicon vertex tracker (VTX) at mid-rapidity region and forward silicon vertexmore » tracker (FVTX) at the forward rapidity region, and (2) STAR Collaboration installed the heavy flavor tracker (HFT) and the muon telescope detector (MTD) both at the mid-rapidity region. With these new upgrades, both experiments have collected large data samples. These new detectors enhance the capability of heavy flavor measurements via precision tracking. The PHENIX experiments established measurements of ψ(1S) and ψ(2S) production as a function of system size, p + p, p + Al, p + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at √S NN = 200 GeV. In p/ 3He + A collisions at forward rapidity, we observe no difference in the ψ(2S)/ψ(1S) ratio relative to p + p collisions. At backward rapidity, where the comoving particle density is higher, we find that the ψ(2S) is preferentially suppressed by a factor of two. STAR Collaboration presents the first J/ψ and Υ measurements in the di-muon decay channel in Au + Au collisions at GeV at mid-rapidity at RHIC. Here, we observe clear J/ψ RAA suppression and qualitatively well described by transport models simultaneously accounting for dissociation and regeneration processes.« less

  5. Nicotine concentrations with electronic cigarette use: effects of sex and flavor.

    PubMed

    Oncken, Cheryl A; Litt, Mark D; McLaughlin, Lynn D; Burki, Nausherwan A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when using a popular e-cigarette and 18 mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations. We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5 min ad libitum. Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after the onset of e-cigarette use. Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5 min by 4 ng/mL at the first laboratory session (p < .01) and by 5.1 ng/mL at the second laboratory session (p < .01). Combining sessions, there were no main effects of sex or preferred flavor (based on smoking history) on changes in nicotine concentrations. After adding preferred flavor, sex, and visit order to the model, there was a significant preferred flavor by sex interaction (p < .01), such that women who received nonpreferred flavors had lower nicotine concentrations and rated their e-cigarette as less likeable (p < .01). We found nicotine concentrations significantly increase after e-cigarette use for 5 min, and flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with e-cigarette use in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Validity of BMI-Based Body Fat Equations in Men and Women: A 4-Compartment Model Comparison.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Fedewa, Michael V; Snarr, Ronald L; Kliszczewicz, Brian M; Park, Kyung-Shin

    2018-01-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Bishop, PA, Fedewa, MV, Snarr, RL, Kliszczewicz, BM, and Park, K-S. Validity of BMI-based body fat equations in men and women: a 4-compartment model comparison. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 121-129, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare body mass index (BMI)-based body fat percentage (BF%) equations and skinfolds with a 4-compartment (4C) model in men and women. One hundred thirty adults (63 women and 67 men) volunteered to participate (age = 23 ± 5 years). BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height squared (m). BF% was predicted with the BMI-based equations of Jackson et al. (BMIJA), Deurenberg et al. (BMIDE), Gallagher et al. (BMIGA), Zanovec et al. (BMIZA), Womersley and Durnin (BMIWO), and from 7-site skinfolds using the generalized skinfold equation of Jackson et al. (SF7JP). The 4C model BF% was the criterion and derived from underwater weighing for body volume, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral content, and bioimpedance spectroscopy for total body water. The constant error (CE) was not significantly different for BMIZA compared with the 4C model (p = 0.74, CE = -0.2%). However, BMIJA, BMIDE, BMIGA, and BMIWO produced significantly higher mean values than the 4C model (all p < 0.001, CEs = 1.8-3.2%), whereas SF7JP was significantly lower (p < 0.001, CE = -4.8%). The standard error of estimate ranged from 3.4 (SF7JP) to 6.4% (BMIJA) while the total error varied from 6.0 (SF7JP) to 7.3% (BMIJA). The 95% limits of agreement were the smallest for SF7JP (±7.2%) and widest for BMIJA (±13.5%). Although the BMI-based equations produced similar group mean values as the 4C model, SF7JP produced the smallest individual errors. Therefore, SF7JP is recommended over the BMI-based equations, but practitioners should consider the associated CE.

  7. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  8. Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Timothy G; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Marks, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: "umami" quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory-olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Flavorings and Perceived Harm and Addictiveness of E-cigarettes among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Pérez, Adriana; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students’ tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601). We used weighted logistic regression models to investigate the relationship between perceptions of harm and addictiveness and e-cigarette use, including the use of flavored and non-flavored e-cigarettes. Results Compared to youth who did not use e-cigarettes, ever and current e-cigarette users had higher odds of reporting that e-cigarettes were “not at all harmful” to health and “not at all addictive.” Ever and current e-cigarette users had higher odds of reporting that flavored e-cigarettes were “less harmful” than non-flavored e-cigarettes, compared to youth who did not use e-cigarettes. Conclusions These findings warrant attention given that nicotine is an addictive substance whose effects on the adolescent brain are potentially negative. Youth e-cigarette users perceived lower harm from flavored e-cigarettes, which is worrisome given emerging research documenting harmful constituents in certain e-cigarette flavorings. PMID:27722185

  10. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    PubMed

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Flavor Preferences Conditioned by Dietary Glutamate123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular basis of umami taste and its appetitive qualities has been greatly aided by studies in laboratory rodents. This review describes methods for testing responses to the prototypical umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rodents. Two techniques, forced exposure to MSG and 2-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations, were used to evaluate the responses to the taste of umami itself, and 2 other methods used oral or postoral MSG to modify the responses to other flavors. Intake and preference for MSG are enhanced in mice by experience with MSG and with other nutrients with positive postoral effects. In addition, flavor preferences are enhanced in mice and rats by gastric or intestinal MSG infusions via an associative learning process. Even mice with an impaired or absent ability to taste MSG can learn to prefer a flavor added to an MSG solution, supporting the notion that glutamate acts postorally. The more complex flavor of dashi seasoning, which includes umami substances (inosinate, glutamate), is attractive to rodents, but dashi does not condition flavor preferences. Details of the postoral glutamate detection process and the nature of the signal involved in learned preferences are still uncertain but probably involve gastric or intestinal sensors or both and vagal transmission. Some findings suggest that postoral glutamate effects may enhance food preferences in humans, but this requires further study. PMID:27422522

  12. Flavor Preferences Conditioned by Dietary Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of the molecular basis of umami taste and its appetitive qualities has been greatly aided by studies in laboratory rodents. This review describes methods for testing responses to the prototypical umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rodents. Two techniques, forced exposure to MSG and 2-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations, were used to evaluate the responses to the taste of umami itself, and 2 other methods used oral or postoral MSG to modify the responses to other flavors. Intake and preference for MSG are enhanced in mice by experience with MSG and with other nutrients with positive postoral effects. In addition, flavor preferences are enhanced in mice and rats by gastric or intestinal MSG infusions via an associative learning process. Even mice with an impaired or absent ability to taste MSG can learn to prefer a flavor added to an MSG solution, supporting the notion that glutamate acts postorally. The more complex flavor of dashi seasoning, which includes umami substances (inosinate, glutamate), is attractive to rodents, but dashi does not condition flavor preferences. Details of the postoral glutamate detection process and the nature of the signal involved in learned preferences are still uncertain but probably involve gastric or intestinal sensors or both and vagal transmission. Some findings suggest that postoral glutamate effects may enhance food preferences in humans, but this requires further study. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  14. Flavor Perception in Human Infants: Development and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Gary K.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Foods people consume impact on their health in many ways. In particular, excess intake of salty, sweet and fatty foods and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables have been related to many diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The flavor of a food determines its acceptability and modulates intake. It is thus critical to understand the factors that influence flavor preferences in humans. Aim: To outline several of the important factors that shape flavor preferences in humans. Methods We review a series of studies, mainly from our laboratories, on the important role of early experiences with flavors on subsequent flavor preference and food intake. Results and Conclusions: Some taste preferences and aversions (e.g. liking for sweet, salty and umami; disliking for bitter) are innately organized, although early experiences can modify their expression. In utero events may impact on later taste and flavor preferences and modulate intake of nutrients. Both before and after birth, humans are exposed to a bewildering variety of flavors that influence subsequent liking and choice. Fetuses are exposed to flavors in amniotic fluid modulating preferences later in life and flavor learning continues after birth. Experience with flavors that are bitter, sour or have umami characteristics, as well as volatile flavors such as carrot and garlic, occurs through flavorings in breast milk, infant formula and early foods. These early experiences mold long-term food and flavor preferences which can impact upon later health. PMID:21389721

  15. Preferences and Perceptions of Flavored Hookah Tobacco among US Women.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Stroud, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    We assessed preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored waterpipe (hookah) tobacco (HT) among women of reproductive age in the United States. A convenience sample of women 18-44 years of age (N = 238; mean age = 28; 74% white) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete a survey assessing preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored HT. Of the women who had ever used hookah (62%), most (82%) used hookah sweetened with fruit flavors. Preferences for hookah flavors were statistically different between flavors such that women overall preferred sweet flavors (fruits, candy or other sweets, chocolate) versus other flavors (menthol/mint, clove/spice, alcohol, other beverages, tobacco/unflavored). Perceptions of general or pregnancy-related harmfulness did not differ between flavors. Sweet flavors (fruits, candy or other sweets, chocolate) were perceived to be less harsh than tobacco/unflavored hookah among women who had ever used hookah. Flavor preferences (but not perceptions of harmfulness or harshness) predicted intentions to use flavored HT in the future. Sweet flavored tobacco is preferred and used by reproductive-age women. Prohibiting flavorings in HT will likely lessen the appeal of smoking hookah to protect the health of women and children.

  16. New vector-like fermions and flavor physics

    DOE PAGES

    Ishiwata, Koji; Ligeti, Zoltan; Wise, Mark B.

    2015-10-06

    We study renormalizable extensions of the standard model that contain vector-like fermions in a (single) complex representation of the standard model gauge group. There are 11 models where the vector-like fermions Yukawa couple to the standard model fermions via the Higgs field. These models do not introduce additional fine-tunings. They can lead to, and are constrained by, a number of different flavor-changing processes involving leptons and quarks, as well as direct searches. An interesting feature of the models with strongly interacting vector-like fermions is that constraints from neutral meson mixings (apart from CP violation inmore » $$ {K}^0-{\\overline{K}}^0 $$ mixing) are not sensitive to higher scales than other flavor-changing neutral-current processes. We identify order 1/(4πM) 2 (where M is the vector-like fermion mass) one-loop contributions to the coefficients of the four-quark operators for meson mixing, that are not suppressed by standard model quark masses and/or mixing angles.« less

  17. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6

    PubMed Central

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland‐Yeo, K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug‐drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0–1.7‐fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  18. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter...

  19. Heavy and light flavor jet quenching at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shanshan; Luo, Tan; Qin, Guang-You

    The Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled to hydrodynamical background is extended to include transport of both light partons and heavy quarks through the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The LBT model includes both elastic and inelastic medium-interaction of both primary jet shower partons and thermal recoil partons within perturbative QCD (pQCD). It is shown to simultaneously describe the experimental data on heavy and light flavor hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions for different centralities at RHIC and LHC energies. More detailed investigations within the LBT model illustrate the importance of both initial parton spectra and the shapes of fragmentation functions on the difference between the nuclear modifications of light and heavy flavor hadrons. Finally, the dependence of the jet quenching parametermore » $$\\hat{q}$$ on medium temperature and jet flavor is quantitatively extracted.« less

  20. Heavy and light flavor jet quenching at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Luo, Tan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2018-02-01

    The Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled to hydrodynamical background is extended to include transport of both light partons and heavy quarks through the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The LBT model includes both elastic and inelastic medium-interaction of both primary jet shower partons and thermal recoil partons within perturbative QCD (pQCD). It is shown to simultaneously describe the experimental data on heavy and light flavor hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions for different centralities at RHIC and LHC energies. More detailed investigations within the LBT model illustrate the importance of both initial parton spectra and the shapes of fragmentation functions on the difference between the nuclear modifications of light and heavy flavor hadrons. The dependence of the jet quenching parameter q ˆ on medium temperature and jet flavor is quantitatively extracted.

  1. Heavy and light flavor jet quenching at RHIC and LHC energies

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Shanshan; Luo, Tan; Qin, Guang-You; ...

    2017-12-14

    The Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled to hydrodynamical background is extended to include transport of both light partons and heavy quarks through the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The LBT model includes both elastic and inelastic medium-interaction of both primary jet shower partons and thermal recoil partons within perturbative QCD (pQCD). It is shown to simultaneously describe the experimental data on heavy and light flavor hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions for different centralities at RHIC and LHC energies. More detailed investigations within the LBT model illustrate the importance of both initial parton spectra and the shapes of fragmentation functions on the difference between the nuclear modifications of light and heavy flavor hadrons. Finally, the dependence of the jet quenching parametermore » $$\\hat{q}$$ on medium temperature and jet flavor is quantitatively extracted.« less

  2. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  3. Peanut flavor compounds from amino acid precursors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investigations to determine the chemical compounds responsible for peanut flavor have traditionally depended on the analysis of volatile compounds. The more recent field of the study of metabolomics provides new tools and approaches for the determination of chemical compounds that are lost, created...

  4. Precursors of chicken flavor. II. Identification of key flavor precursors using sensory methods.

    PubMed

    Aliani, Michel; Farmer, Linda J

    2005-08-10

    Sensory evaluation was used to identify flavor precursors that are critical for flavor development in cooked chicken. Among the potential flavor precursors studied (thiamin, inosine 5'-monophosphate, ribose, ribose-5-phosphate, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate), ribose appears most important for chicken aroma. An elevated concentration (added or natural) of only 2-4-fold the natural concentration gives an increase in the selected aroma and flavor attributes of cooked chicken meat. Assessment of the volatile odor compounds by gas chromatography-odor assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that ribose increased odors described as "roasted" and "chicken" and that the changes in odor due to additional ribose are probably caused by elevated concentrations of compounds such as 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 3-methylthiopropanal.

  5. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  6. The effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-07-01

    Flavor is one of the key factors that can limit the application and shelf life of dried dairy ingredients. Many off-flavors are caused during ingredient manufacture that carry through into ingredient applications and decrease consumer acceptance. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder (WMP). Whole milk powder was produced from standardized pasteurized whole milk that was evaporated to 50% solids (wt/wt), homogenized in 2 stages with varying pressures (0/0, 5.5/1.4, 11.0/2.8, or 16.5/4.3 MPa), and spray dried. Whole milk powder was evaluated at 0, 3, and 6 mo of storage at 21°C. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Volatile compounds were analyzed by sorptive stir bar extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fat globule size in condensed whole milk and particle size of powders were measured by laser diffraction. Surface free fat, inner free fat, and encapsulated fat of WMP were measured by solvent extractions. Phospholipid content was measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering. Furosine in WMP was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Increased homogenization pressure decreased cardboard and painty flavors, volatile lipid oxidation compound concentrations, fat globule size in condensed milk, surface free fat, and inner free fat in WMP. Encapsulated fat increased and phospholipid-to-encapsulated fat ratio decreased with higher homogenization pressure. Surface free fat in powders increased cardboard flavor and lipid oxidation. These results indicate that off-flavors were decreased with increased homogenization pressures in WMP due to the decrease in free fat. To decrease off-flavor intensities in WMP, manufacturers should carefully evaluate these parameters during ingredient manufacture. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  7. Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Potineni, Rajesh V; Peterson, Devin G

    2008-05-14

    The influence of flavor solvent [triacetin (TA), propylene glycol (PG), medium chained triglycerides (MCT), or no flavor solvent (NFS)] on the flavor release profile, the textural properties, and the sensory perception of a sugar-free chewing gum was investigated. Time course analysis of the exhaled breath and saliva during chewing gum mastication indicated that flavor solvent addition or type did not influence the aroma release profile; however, the sorbitol release rate was statistically lower for the TA formulated sample in comparison to those with PG, MCT, or NFS. Sensory time-intensity analysis also indicated that the TA formulated sample was statistically lower in perceived sweetness intensity, in comparison with the other chewing gum samples, and also had lower cinnamon-like aroma intensity, presumably due to an interaction between sweetness intensity on aroma perception. Measurement of the chewing gum macroscopic texture by compression analysis during consumption was not correlated to the unique flavor release properties of the TA-chewing gum. However, a relationship between gum base plasticity and retention of sugar alcohol during mastication was proposed to explain the different flavor properties of the TA sample.

  8. Self-induced conversion in dense neutrino gases: Pendulum in flavor space

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik; Raffelt, Georg G.

    Neutrino-neutrino interactions can lead to collective flavor conversion effects in supernovae and in the early universe. We demonstrate that the case of bipolar oscillations, where a dense gas of neutrinos and antineutrinos in equal numbers completely converts from one flavor to another even if the mixing angle is small, is equivalent to a pendulum in flavor space. Bipolar flavor conversion corresponds to the swinging of the pendulum, which begins in an unstable upright position (the initial flavor), and passes through momentarily the vertically downward position (the other flavor) in the course of its motion. The time scale to complete onemore » cycle of oscillation depends logarithmically on the vacuum mixing angle. Likewise, the presence of an ordinary medium can be shown analytically to contribute to a logarithmic increase in the bipolar conversion period. We further find that a more complex (and realistic) system of unequal numbers of neutrinos and antineutrinos is analogous to a spinning top subject to a torque. This analogy easily explains how such a system can oscillate in both the bipolar and the synchronized mode, depending on the neutrino density and the size of the neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry. Our simple model applies strictly only to isotropic neutrino gasses. In more general cases, and especially for neutrinos streaming from a supernova core, different modes couple to each other with unequal strength, an effect that can lead to kinematical decoherence in flavor space rather than collective oscillations. The exact circumstances under which collective oscillations occur in nonisotropic media remain to be understood.« less

  9. The qqqqq components and hidden flavor contributions to the baryon magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect

    An, C. S.; Li, Q. B.; Riska, D. O.

    2006-11-15

    The contributions from the qqqqq components to the magnetic moments of the octet as well as the {delta}{sup ++} and {omega}{sup -} decuplet baryons are calculated for the configurations that are expected to have the lowest energy if the hyperfine interaction depends on both spin and flavor. The contributions from the uu,dd, and the ss components are given separately. It is shown that addition of qqqqq admixtures to the ground state baryons can improve the overall description of the magnetic moments of the baryon octet and decuplet in the quark model without SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking, beyond that of themore » different constituent masses of the strange and light-flavor quarks. The explicit flavor (and spin) wave functions for all the possible configurations of the qqqqq components with light and strange qq pairs are given for the baryon octet and decuplet. Admixtures of {approx}10% of the qqqqq configuration where the flavor-spin symmetry is [4]{sub FS}[22]{sub F}[22]{sub S}, which is likely to have the lowest energy, in particular reduces the deviation from the empirical values of the magnetic moments {sigma}{sup -} and the {xi}{sup 0} compared with the static qqq quark model.« less

  10. Unified, flavor symmetric explanation for the tt asymmetry and Wjj excess at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ann E.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Okui, Takemichi

    2011-11-01

    We present a simple, perturbative, and renormalizable model with a flavor symmetry which can explain both the tt forward-backward asymmetry and the bump feature present in the dijet mass distribution of the W+jj sample in the range 120-160 GeV that was recently reported by the CDF collaboration. The flavor symmetry not only ensures the flavor/CP safety of the model, but also relates the two anomalies unambiguously. It predicts a comparable forward-backward asymmetry in cc. The forward-backward asymmetry in bb is, however, small. A bump in the dijet mass distribution in Z+jj sample is also predicted but with a suppressed crossmore » section.« less

  11. Improved longitudinal gray and white matter atrophy assessment via application of a 4-dimensional hidden Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Michael G; Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-04-15

    SIENA and similar techniques have demonstrated the utility of performing "direct" measurements as opposed to post-hoc comparison of cross-sectional data for the measurement of whole brain (WB) atrophy over time. However, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy are now widely recognized as important components of neurological disease progression, and are being actively evaluated as secondary endpoints in clinical trials. Direct measures of GM/WM change with advantages similar to SIENA have been lacking. We created a robust and easily-implemented method for direct longitudinal analysis of GM/WM atrophy, SIENAX multi-time-point (SIENAX-MTP). We built on the basic halfway-registration and mask composition components of SIENA to improve the raw output of FMRIB's FAST tissue segmentation tool. In addition, we created LFAST, a modified version of FAST incorporating a 4th dimension in its hidden Markov random field model in order to directly represent time. The method was validated by scan-rescan, simulation, comparison with SIENA, and two clinical effect size comparisons. All validation approaches demonstrated improved longitudinal precision with the proposed SIENAX-MTP method compared to SIENAX. For GM, simulation showed better correlation with experimental volume changes (r=0.992 vs. 0.941), scan-rescan showed lower standard deviations (3.8% vs. 8.4%), correlation with SIENA was more robust (r=0.70 vs. 0.53), and effect sizes were improved by up to 68%. Statistical power estimates indicated a potential drop of 55% in the number of subjects required to detect the same treatment effect with SIENAX-MTP vs. SIENAX. The proposed direct GM/WM method significantly improves on the standard SIENAX technique by trading a small amount of bias for a large reduction in variance, and may provide more precise data and additional statistical power in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lepton flavor violating B meson decays via a scalar leptoquark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Suchismita; Mohanta, Rukmani

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of scalar leptoquarks in the lepton flavor violating B meson decays induced by the flavor-changing transitions b →q li+lj- with q =s , d . In the standard model, these transitions are extremely rare as they are either two-loop suppressed or proceed via box diagrams with tiny neutrino masses in the loop. However, in the leptoquark model, they can occur at tree level and are expected to have significantly large branching ratios. The leptoquark parameter space is constrained using the experimental limits on the branching ratios of Bq→l+l- processes. Using such constrained parameter space, we predict the branching ratios of LFV semileptonic B meson decays, such as B+→K+(π+)li+lj-, B+→(K*+,ρ+)li+lj-, and Bs→ϕ li+lj-, which are found to be within the experimental reach of LHCb and the upcoming Belle II experiments. We also investigate the rare leptonic KL ,S→μ+μ-(e+e-) and KL→μ∓e± decays in the leptoquark model.

  13. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    PubMed

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter – Spreading the Appeal of Flavors

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Soto, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social media platforms are used by tobacco companies to promote products. This study examines message content on Twitter from e-cigarette brands and determines if messages about flavors are more likely than non-flavor messages to be passed along to other viewers. Methods We examined Twitter data from 2 e-cigarette brands and identified messages that contained terms related to e-cigarette flavors. Results Flavor-related posts were retweeted at a significantly higher rate by e-cigarette brands (p = .04) and other Twitter users (p < .01) than non-flavor posts. Conclusions E-cigarette brands and other Twitter users pay attention to flavor-related posts and retweet them often. These findings suggest flavors continue to be an attractive characteristic and their marketing should be monitored closely. PMID:27853734

  15. Effect of New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Katori, Teppei; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-10-16

    Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools for investigating the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this Letter, we perform the first general new physics study on ultrahigh energy neutrino flavor content by introducing effective operators. We find that, at the current limits on these operators, new physics terms cause maximal effects on the flavor content; however, the flavor content on the Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content on the Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  16. Flavored Tobacco Product Use in Youth and Adults: Findings From the First Wave of the PATH Study (2013-2014).

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Ambrose, Bridget K; Cummings, K Michael; Stanton, Cassandra A; Rose, Shyanika W; Feirman, Shari P; Tworek, Cindy; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cohn, Amy M; Conway, Kevin P; Niaura, Raymond S; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013-2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use. Current flavored (including menthol) tobacco product use was highest in youth (80%, aged 12-17 years); and young adult tobacco users (73%, aged 18-24 years); and lowest in older adult tobacco users aged ≥65 years (29%). Flavor was a primary reason for using a given tobacco product, particularly among youth. Eighty-one percent of youth and 86% of young adult ever tobacco users reported that their first product was flavored versus 54% of adults aged ≥25 years. In multivariable models, reporting that one's first tobacco product was flavored was associated with a 13% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among youth ever tobacco users and a 32% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among adult ever users. These results add to the evidence base that flavored tobacco products may attract young users and serve as starter products to regular tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of cigarillo packaging elements on young adult perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Lazard, Allison J; Kim, KyungSu; Queen, Tara L; Avishai, Aya; Boynton, Marcella H; Sheeran, Paschal J; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-01-01

    Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal. A web-based experiment was conducted among young adults. Participants viewed three randomly selected cigarillo packs, varying on pack flavor descriptor, color, type, branding, and warning-totaling 180 pack images. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of pack elements on product perceptions. A total of 2,664 current, ever, and never little cigar and cigarillo users participated. Cigarillo packs with a flavor descriptor were perceived as having a more favorable taste (β = 0.21, p < .001) and smell (β = 0.14, p < .001) compared to packs with no flavor descriptor. Compared to packs with no color, pink and purple packs were more likely to be perceived as containing a flavor (β = 0.11, p < .001), and were rated more favorably on taste (β = 0.17, p < .001), smell (β = 0.15, p < .001), and appeal (β = 0.16, p < .001). While warnings on packs decreased favorable perceptions of product taste (pictorial: β = -0.07, p = .03) and smell (text-only: β = -0.08, p = .01; pictorial: β = -0.09, p = .007), warnings did not moderate the effects of flavor descriptor or color. To our knowledge, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that cigarillo packaging alters consumers' cognitive responses, and warnings on packs do not suffice to overcome the effects of product packaging. The findings support efforts at federal, state, and local levels to prohibit flavor descriptors and their associated product flavoring in non-cigarette products such as cigarillos, along with new data that supports restrictions on flavor cues and colors.

  18. The effect of cigarillo packaging elements on young adult perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Leah M.; Lazard, Allison J.; Kim, KyungSu; Queen, Tara L.; Avishai, Aya; Boynton, Marcella H.; Sheeran, Paschal J.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal. Methods A web-based experiment was conducted among young adults. Participants viewed three randomly selected cigarillo packs, varying on pack flavor descriptor, color, type, branding, and warning—totaling 180 pack images. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of pack elements on product perceptions. Results A total of 2,664 current, ever, and never little cigar and cigarillo users participated. Cigarillo packs with a flavor descriptor were perceived as having a more favorable taste (β = 0.21, p < .001) and smell (β = 0.14, p < .001) compared to packs with no flavor descriptor. Compared to packs with no color, pink and purple packs were more likely to be perceived as containing a flavor (β = 0.11, p < .001), and were rated more favorably on taste (β = 0.17, p < .001), smell (β = 0.15, p < .001), and appeal (β = 0.16, p < .001). While warnings on packs decreased favorable perceptions of product taste (pictorial: β = -0.07, p = .03) and smell (text-only: β = -0.08, p = .01; pictorial: β = -0.09, p = .007), warnings did not moderate the effects of flavor descriptor or color. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that cigarillo packaging alters consumers’ cognitive responses, and warnings on packs do not suffice to overcome the effects of product packaging. The findings support efforts at federal, state, and local levels to prohibit flavor descriptors and their associated product flavoring in non-cigarette products such as cigarillos, along with new data that supports restrictions on flavor cues and colors. PMID:29672604

  19. An fMRI study on the influence of sommeliers' expertise on the integration of flavor

    PubMed Central

    Pazart, Lionel; Comte, Alexandre; Magnin, Eloi; Millot, Jean-Louis; Moulin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Flavors guide consumers' choice of foodstuffs, preferring those that they like and meet their needs, and dismissing those for which they have a conditioned aversion. Flavor affects the learning and consumption of foods and drinks; what is already well-known is favored and what is new is apprehended. The flavor of foodstuffs is also crucial in explaining some eating behaviors such as overconsumption. The “blind” taste test of wine is a good model for assessing the ability of people to convert mouth feelings into flavor. To determine the relative importance of memory and sensory capabilities, we present the results of an fMRI neuro-imaging study involving 10 experts and 10 matched control subjects using wine as a stimulus in a blind taste test, focusing primarily on the assessment of flavor integration. The results revealed activations in the brain areas involved in sensory integration, both in experts and control subjects (insula, frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala). However, experts were mainly characterized by a more immediate and targeted sensory reaction to wine stimulation with an economic mechanism reducing effort than control subjects. Wine experts showed brainstem and left-hemispheric activations in the hippocampal and parahippocampal formations and the temporal pole, whereas control subjects showed activations in different associative cortices, predominantly in the right hemisphere. These results also confirm that wine experts work simultaneously on sensory quality assessment and on label recognition of wine. PMID:25360093

  20. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S.; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G.,more » 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function

  1. Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

    PubMed

    Fedan, J S; Dowdy, J A; Fedan, K B; Hubbs, A F

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  2. The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Sembower, Mark A; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gerlach, Karen K; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p < .0001) and for each flavor (most p values < .0001). Teen interest did not vary by flavor (p = .75), but adult interest did (p < .0001). Past-30-day adult e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p < .0001). The e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Strange mechanics of the neutrino flavor pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Lucas; Fuller, George M.

    2018-01-01

    We identify in the flavor transformation of astrophysical neutrinos a new class of phenomena, a common outcome of which is the suppression of flavor conversion. Appealing to the equivalence between a bipolar neutrino system and a gyroscopic pendulum, we find that these phenomena have rather striking interpretations in the mechanical picture: in one instance, the gyroscopic pendulum initially precesses in one direction, then comes to a halt and begins to precess in the opposite direction—a counterintuitive behavior that we analogize to the motion of a toy known as a rattleback. We analyze these behaviors in the early Universe, wherein a chance connection to sterile neutrino dark matter emerges, and we briefly suggest how they might manifest in compact-object environments.

  4. Effective theory of flavor for Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-10-03

    We consider two copies of the Standard Model, interchanged by an exact parity symmetry, P. The observed fermion mass hierarchy is described by suppression factors ϵ more » $$n_i$$ for charged fermion i, as can arise in Froggatt-Nielsen and extra-dimensional theories of flavor. The corresponding flavor factors in the mirror sector are ϵ' $$n_i$$, so that spontaneous breaking of the parity P arises from a single parameter ϵ'/ϵ, yielding a tightly constrained version of Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs, introduced in our previous paper. Models are studied for simple values of n i, including in particular one with SU(5)-compatibility, that describe the observed fermion mass hierarchy. The entire mirror quark and charged lepton spectrum is broadly predicted in terms of ϵ'/ϵ, as are the mirror QCD scale and the decoupling temperature between the two sectors. Helium-, hydrogen- and neutron-like mirror dark matter candidates are constrained by self-scattering and relic ionization. Lastly, in each case, the allowed parameter space can be fully probed by proposed direct detection experiments. Correlated predictions are made as well for the Higgs signal strength and the amount of dark radiation.« less

  5. Effective theory of flavor for Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-10-01

    We consider two copies of the Standard Model, interchanged by an exact parity symmetry, P. The observed fermion mass hierarchy is described by suppression factors ɛ^{n_i} for charged fermion i, as can arise in Froggatt-Nielsen and extra-dimensional theories of flavor. The corresponding flavor factors in the mirror sector are ɛ^' {n}_i} , so that spontaneous breaking of the parity P arises from a single parameter ɛ'/ɛ, yielding a tightly constrained version of Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs, introduced in our previous paper. Models are studied for simple values of n i , including in particular one with SU(5)-compatibility, that describe the observed fermion mass hierarchy. The entire mirror quark and charged lepton spectrum is broadly predicted in terms of ɛ'/ɛ, as are the mirror QCD scale and the decoupling temperature between the two sectors. Helium-, hydrogen- and neutron-like mirror dark matter candidates are constrained by self-scattering and relic ionization. In each case, the allowed parameter space can be fully probed by proposed direct detection experiments. Correlated predictions are made as well for the Higgs signal strength and the amount of dark radiation.

  6. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  7. Neutrino flavor evolution in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the flavor evolution of neutrinos emitted from the disklike remnant (hereafter called "neutrino disk") of a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. We specifically follow the neutrinos emitted from the center of the disk, along the polar axis perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We carried out two-flavor simulations using a variety of different possible initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra and, for comparison, three-flavor simulations in specific cases. In all simulations, the normal neutrino mass hierarchy was used. The flavor evolution was found to be highly dependent on the initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra; in particular, we found two broad classes of results depending on the sign of the initial net electron neutrino lepton number (i.e., the number of neutrinos minus the number of antineutrinos). In the antineutrino-dominated case, we found that the matter-neutrino resonance effect dominates, consistent with previous results, whereas in the neutrino-dominated case, a bipolar spectral swap develops. The neutrino-dominated conditions required for this latter result have been realized, e.g., in a BNS merger simulation that employs the "DD2" equation of state for neutron star matter [Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044019]. For this case, in addition to the swap at low energies, a collective Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism generates a high-energy electron neutrino tail. The enhanced population of high-energy electron neutrinos in this scenario could have implications for the prospects of r -process nucleosynthesis in the material ejected outside the plane of the neutrino disk.

  8. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  9. Flavored Dark Matter and the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Batell, Brian; Hooper, Dan

    Thermal relic dark matter particles with a mass of 31-40 GeV and that dominantly annihilate to bottom quarks have been shown to provide an excellent description of the excess gamma rays observed from the center of the Milky Way. Flavored dark matter provides a well-motivated framework in which the dark matter can dominantly couple to bottom quarks in a flavor-safe manner. We propose a phenomenologically viable model of bottom flavored dark matter that can account for the spectral shape and normalization of the gamma-ray excess while naturally suppressing the elastic scattering cross sections probed by direct detection experiments. This modelmore » will be definitively tested with increased exposure at LUX and with data from the upcoming high-energy run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).« less

  10. D-Meson Mixing in 2+1-Flavor Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chia Cheng; Bouchard, C. M.; El-Khadra, A. X.

    We present results for neutral D-meson mixing in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD. We compute the matrix elements for all five operators that contribute to D mixing at short distances, including those that only arise beyond the Standard Model. Our results have an uncertainty similar to those of the ETM collaboration (with 2 and with 2+1+1 flavors). This work shares many features with a recent publication on B mixing and with ongoing work on heavy-light decay constants from the Fermilab Lattice and MILC Collaborations.

  11. Flavored Anesthetic Masks for Inhalational Induction in Children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aakriti; Mathew, Preethy Joseph; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor. Anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) in the pre-op room and during inhalational induction. Mask acceptance was graded by Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The cost-effectiveness of flavored anesthetic masks was compared to that of commercially available pre-scented masks. The baseline anxiety in the two groups was comparable. The number of children demonstrating high levels of anxiety at anesthetic induction was similar in flavored and non-flavored mask groups (p 0.45). The compliance to mask induction was also equally good (p 0.99). The authors found significant difference in the cost of flavored mask (INR 56.45 per mask) as compared to commercially available pre-scented masks (INR 660 per mask). The authors observed a placebo effect that reduced the pre-op anxiety in the control group which probably made the quality of induction equivalent with flavored and non-flavored masks. Therefore, using a flavored anesthetic mask is cost-effective than using a commercially available pre-scented mask.

  12. Nucleon Charges from 2+1+1-flavor HISQ and 2+1-flavor clover lattices

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Rajan

    2016-07-24

    Precise estimates of the nucleon charges g A, g S and g T are needed in many phenomenological analyses of SM and BSM physics. In this talk, we present results from two sets of calculations using clover fermions on 9 ensembles of 2+1+1-flavor HISQ and 4 ensembles of 2+1-flavor clover lattices. In addition, we show that high statistics can be obtained cost-effectively using the truncated solver method with bias correction and the coherent source sequential propagator technique. By performing simulations at 4–5 values of the source-sink separation t sep, we demonstrate control over excited-state contamination using 2- and 3-state fits.more » Using the high-precision 2+1+1-flavor data, we perform a simultaneous fit in a, M π and M πL to obtain our final results for the charges.« less

  13. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J.R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3 = 17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25–50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. PMID:24007741

  14. Single- or multi-flavor Kondo effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Kai-He; Berakdar, Jamal

    2010-06-01

    Based on the tight-binding formalism, we investigate the Anderson and the Kondo model for an adatom magnetic impurity above graphene. Different impurity positions are analyzed. Employing a partial-wave representation we study the nature of the coupling between the impurity and the conducting electrons. The components from the two Dirac points are mixed while interacting with the impurity. Two configurations are considered explicitly: the adatom is above one atom (ADA), the other case is the adatom above the center the honeycomb (ADC). For ADA the impurity is coupled with one flavor for both A and B sublattice and both Dirac points. For ADC the impurity couples with multi-flavor states for a spinor state of the impurity. We show, explicitly for a 3d magnetic atom, dz2, (dxz,dyz), and (dx2- y2,dxy) couple respectively with the Γ1, Γ5(E1), and Γ6(E2) representations (reps) of C6v group in ADC case. The bases for these reps of graphene are also derived explicitly. For ADA we calculate the Kondo temperature.

  15. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Flavors and Risk: Perceptions of Flavors in Little Cigars and Cigarillos Among U.S. Adults, 2015.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Amy L; Sterling, Kymberle L; Majeed, Ban A; Jones, Dina M; Eriksen, Michael P

    2017-06-28

    Flavored little cigars, cigarillos, and filtered cigars (LCCs) are popular and pose unique health risks. This study explored risk perceptions of flavors in LCCs and the relationship between perceptions and use among U.S. adults. Data were from the 2015 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 6,051 adults, conducted online, August-September, 2015. The analytic sample consisted of 5,105 adults aware of LCCs and 2,174 who had ever used any type of LCCs. Just over half of adults reported flavors in LCCs as "very" or "somewhat" risky, while more than one-third of adults reported they didn't know the risks of flavors in LCCs. Younger adults, males, and users of any LCCs were more likely than older adults, females and non-users, respectively, to perceive LCC flavors as less risky. Those who perceived LCC flavors as "not at all risky" or "a little risky" were roughly twice as likely to have ever used flavored LCCs compared to those who reported not knowing the risks (AOR=2.07, 95% CI=1.16, 3.69 and AOR=1.96, 95% CI=1.26, 3.06). Those who reported LCC flavors as "very risky" were also more likely to have ever used flavored LCCs than those who reported not knowing the risks (AOR=1.50, 95% CI=1.13, 1.98). Though the proportion of adults assigning low risk to flavors in LCCs is small, these adults are more likely to use flavored LCCs. The association of use with risk perceptions of flavors in LCCs should be addressed in health risk campaigns. Flavored LCCs are popular, particularly among young adults. While understanding the impact of flavors is an FDA research priority, little is currently known about perceptions of risk associated with flavors in LCCs. This study explores the nature of risk perceptions of flavors in LCCs, and the relationship between perceptions and flavored LCC use. We conclude that perception of risk of flavors in LCCs is related to use of these products, particularly perception of less risk. Considering the

  17. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture.

    PubMed

    Krause, A J; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Dean, L L; Drake, M A

    2008-02-01

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. Fresh butter was obtained on 2 occasions from 2 facilities in 113-g sticks and 4-kg bulk blocks (2 facilities, 2 package forms). Butters were placed into both frozen (-20 degrees C) and refrigerated storage (5 degrees C). Frozen butters were sampled after 0, 6, 12, 15, and 24 mo; refrigerated butters were sampled after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mo. Every 3 mo, oxidative stability index (OSI) and descriptive sensory analysis (texture, flavor, and color) were conducted. Every 6 mo, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFV), fatty acid profiling, vane, instrumental color, and oil turbidity were examined. A mixed-model ANOVA was conducted to characterize the effects of storage time, temperature, and package type. Storage time, temperature, and package type affected butter flavor, OSI, PV, and FFV. Refrigerated butter quarters exhibited refrigerator/stale off-flavors concurrent with increased levels of oxidation (lower oxidative stability and higher PV and FFV) within 6 mo of refrigerated storage, and similar trends were observed for refrigerated bulk butter after 9 mo. Off-flavors were not evident in frozen butters until 12 or 18 mo for quarters and bulk butters, respectively. Off-flavors in frozen butters were not correlated with instrumental oxidation measurements. Because butter is such a desirable fat source in terms of flavor and textural properties, it is important that manufacturers understand how long their product can be stored before negative attributes develop.

  18. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino masses. Numerically, they are found typically much larger, and not necessarily correlated with, Jarlskog-like invariants. Finally, the formalism is adapted to deal with a third class of flavor structures, sensitive to the flavored U (1) phases, and used to study the impact of the strong CP-violating interaction and the interplay between the neutrino Majorana phases and possible baryon and/or lepton number violating interactions.

  19. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; The Keihanshin Consortium for Fostering the Next Generation of Global Leaders in Research

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cellsmore » were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.« less

  20. D-foam-induced flavor condensates and breaking of supersymmetry in free Wess-Zumino fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Tarantino, Walter

    2011-08-01

    Recently [N. E. Mavromatos and S. Sarkar, New J. Phys. 10, 073009 (2008) NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/7/073009; N. E. Mavromatos, S. Sarkar, and W. Tarantino, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084046 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084046], we argued that a particular model of string-inspired quantum space-time foam (D-foam) may induce oscillations and mixing among flavored particles. As a result, rather than the mass-eigenstate vacuum, the correct ground state to describe the underlying dynamics is the flavor vacuum, proposed some time ago by Blasone and Vitiello as a description of quantum field theories with mixing. At the microscopic level, the breaking of target-space supersymmetry is induced in our space-time foam model by the relative transverse motion of brane defects. Motivated by these results, we show that the flavor vacuum, introduced through an inequivalent representation of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations, provides a vehicle for the breaking of supersymmetry at a low-energy effective field-theory level; on considering the flavor-vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and comparing with the form of a perfect relativistic fluid, it is found that the bosonic sector contributes as dark energy while the fermion contribution is like dust. This indicates a strong and novel breaking of supersymmetry, of a nonperturbative nature, which may characterize the low-energy field theory of certain quantum-gravity models.

  1. Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Jia, Tuo

    2017-09-01

    We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by introducing a magnetic field on the flavor brane. Taking into account their backreaction, we re-solve type IIA supergravity in the presence of a magnetic field. Our calculation shows that the gravitational solutions are magnetically dependent and analytic both in the bubble (confined) and black brane (deconfined) case. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, and also in the Veneziano limit. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in an external magnetic field are discussed by using our confined backreaction solution holographically. We also investigate the thermodynamics and holographic renormalization of this model in both phases by our solution. Since the backreaction of the magnetic field is considered in our gravitational solution, it allows us to study the Hawking-Page transition with flavors and colors of this model in the presence of the magnetic field. Finally we therefore obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with the lattice QCD result, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement or chirally broken symmetry by the magnetic field.

  2. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    PubMed

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Elementary and middle school children's acceptance of lower calorie flavored milk as measured by milk shipment and participation in the National School Lunch Program.

    PubMed

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-03-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new nutrition standards for school meals include sweeping changes setting upper limits on calories served and limit milk offerings to low fat or fat-free and, if flavored, only fat-free. Milk processors are lowering the calories in flavored milks. As changes to milk impact school lunch participation and milk consumption, it is important to know the impact of these modifications. Elementary and middle schools from 17 public school districts that changed from standard flavored milk (160-180 kcal/8 oz) to lower calorie flavored milk (140-150 kcal/8 oz) between 2008 and 2009 were enrolled. Milk shipment and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation rates were collected for 3 time periods over 12 months (pre-reformulation, at the time of reformulation, and after reformulation). Linear mixed models were used with adjustments for free/reduced meal eligibility. No changes were seen in shipment of flavored milk or all milk, including unflavored. The NSLP participation rates dropped when lower calorie flavored milk was first offered, but recovered over time. While school children appear to accept lower calorie flavored milk, further monitoring is warranted as most of the flavored milks offered were not fat-free as was required by USDA as of fall 2012. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  4. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient statement...

  5. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient statement...

  6. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient statement...

  7. Teen use of flavored tobacco products in new york city.

    PubMed

    Farley, Shannon M; Seoh, Hannah; Sacks, Rachel; Johns, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Teen use of flavored tobacco products is a concern. Menthol cigarettes have been found to influence teen smoking; however, less is known about the association between teen use of other flavored tobacco products, such as cigars and dip, and cigarette smoking. The New York City 2010 Special Communities Putting Prevention to Work Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (N = 1,800 aged 13-17 years) were analyzed to examine the association between ever trying flavored tobacco products and current smoking, after we adjusted for demographics and ever-use of menthol cigarettes. Twenty percent of teens reported ever trying flavored tobacco products; youth who were current smokers (58%) were more likely to have tried flavored tobacco products than youth who were not current smokers (16%). Controlling for menthol cigarette use, teens who had ever tried flavored tobacco products were nearly 3 times more likely to be current smokers than those who had never tried flavored tobacco products (odds ratio = 2.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.47-4.98). Ever trying flavored tobacco products was strongly associated with current smoking among teens. The findings from this study suggest that regulations prohibiting sales of flavored tobacco products could decrease youth smoking. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Flavor lexicon for sensory descriptive profiling of different rice types.

    PubMed

    Limpawattana, M; Shewfelt, R L

    2010-05-01

    Rice flavor is a significant factor in determining quality and consumer acceptability as exemplified by scented rice, which is highly favored and commands a price premium. Sensory descriptive analysis has primarily been performed to assess rice flavor characteristics, but these studies feature only a limited lexicon for characterizing specific flavors or the range of flavor types is limited. This study was undertaken to establish a descriptive lexicon with reference standards for describing the flavor properties of a broad spectrum of rice types and use the developed lexicon to characterize which sensory attributes are most important in rice flavor quality. A rice flavor lexicon consisting of 24 descriptive notes was developed and expanded by 8 trained sensory panelists to characterize the flavor of cooked rice differing in terms of forms, types, and specialty (n = 36). Of these 24 descriptive terms, 19 were aromatic notes and 5 were fundamental tastes and oral feeling factors. Eighteen aromatic terms were significantly present in most rice samples whereas some descriptors exhibited unique characteristics of a specific-rice type. Subsequent multivariate analysis indicated that 18 descriptive terms were required to fully understand the characteristics of rice flavor in greater details. This lexicon covered a wider range of rice samples than in the previous studies and will facilitate targeting the characteristic notes important to rice processors as well as producers.

  9. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Collective three-flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol

    2008-06-01

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos emitted from a core collapse supernova interact among themselves, giving rise to collective flavor conversion effects that are significant near the neutrinosphere. We develop a formalism to analyze these collective effects in the complete three-flavor framework. It naturally generalizes the spin-precession analogy to three flavors and is capable of analytically describing phenomena like vacuum/Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations, synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations, and spectral split. Using the formalism, we demonstrate that the flavor conversions may be “factorized” into two-flavor oscillations with hierarchical frequencies. We explicitly show how the three-flavor solution may be constructed by combining two-flavor solutions. For a typical supernova density profile, we identify an approximate separation of regions where distinctly different flavor conversion mechanisms operate, and demonstrate the interplay between collective and MSW effects. We pictorialize our results in terms of the “e3-e8 triangle” diagram, which is a tool that can be used to visualize three-neutrino flavor conversions in general, and offers insights into the analysis of the collective effects in particular.

  11. Correlates of current menthol cigarette and flavored other tobacco product use among U.S. young adults.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C; Williams, Valerie F; Richardson, Amanda; Pearson, Jennifer L; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Flavored and menthol tobacco products are particularly appealing to young adults. However, little is known about factors associated with their use in this population. To examine characteristics associated with using menthol cigarettes, flavored other tobacco products (OTP), and flavored e-cigarettes among young adults. Using a nationally representative online sample of young adults (n=4239) from the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, mutually exclusive groups were created from the subset of current tobacco users (N=1037) for users of menthol cigarettes (N=311; 30%), non-menthol cigarettes (N=426; 41%), flavored OTP only users (N=114; 11%), and non-flavored OTP only users (N=186; 18%) to examine factors of being in any one group. Data were collected in July 2012. In the full multivariable model, significant correlates of current menthol cigarette use were female gender (AOR=2.08), Black race (AOR=5.31), other race (AOR=2.72), Hispanic ethnicity (AOR=2.46) and self-identifying as a smoker, social smoker, or occasional smoker (AOR=10.42). Significant correlates of current flavored OTP use were younger age (18-24; AOR=3.50), self-identifying as a smoker, social smoker, or occasional smoker (AOR=30) and generalized anxiety (AOR=0.30). This study highlights female gender, Blacks/other race/Hispanics, smokers, social smokers and sexual minorities as correlates of menthol cigarette use and younger age as a predictor of flavored OTP use. Restricting access to flavored tobacco products may be one intervention to help slow the tobacco epidemic, particularly among many of the most vulnerable groups-young women and racial and/or ethnic minorities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The Most Natural Tobacco Used: A Qualitative Investigation of Young Adult Smokers' Risk Perceptions of Flavored Little Cigars and Cigarillos.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-05-01

    Flavored little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking prevalence rate is increasing among young adults; little is known about their comprehension of its risks. To inform tobacco control regulatory policy and prevention methods, we explored young adult smokers' risk perceptions of flavored LCC products and its use. Purposive samples (n = 90) of African American, Hispanic, and white young adults who self-identified as dual (smoked ≥ 1 LCC and cigarette in past 30 days) and cigarette-only (≥1 cigarette in past 30 days) smokers participated in 12 audiotaped focus groups and a semi-structured interview conducted in the Southeastern United States. Participants discussed their experiences smoking flavored LCCs and perceived health risks of smoking flavored LCCs. A brief survey was administered to characterize participants. The participants had a mean age of 25.1 years (SD = 4.5), were majority male (53.1%), and were 60.0% African American, 29.5% white, and 17.5% Hispanic. Along with health risks and addiction, three major themes emerged as underlying contributors of risk perceptions: affect, participants' smoking practices (amount smoked and inhalation), and beliefs about the components of LCCs (including flavoring and filters). Participants' reported intention to smoke flavored LCCs with its tobacco or as blunts (filled with marijuana) also influenced perceptions. Flavored LCCs were viewed along a continuum of risks compared to cigarettes and blunt smoking. Our study revealed dimensions that were important for the formation of risk perceptions about flavored LCCs. A multidimensional conceptual model and a measure of risk perceptions that is inclusive of these dimensions should be developed and examined for LCC use patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Heavy Flavor Production and Spectroscopy with CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palni, Prabhakar; CDF Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Using data from pp¯ collisions at √{s}=1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron, we present three recent results on heavy flavor production: an observation of the excited resonance state Λb*0 in its fully reconstructed decay mode to Λb0π+π-, a study of quark fragmentation using kaons produced in association with prompt Ds±/D± mesons, and the measurement of angular distributions of muons from ϒ(1S,2S,3S) decays in both the Collins-Soper and the s-channel helicity frames.

  14. A 4D global respiratory motion model of the thorax based on CT images: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Hadi; Gilles, Marlene; Pan, Tinsu; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2018-05-17

    Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modeling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalized motion modeling required patient-specific four-dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose. The goal of this work was to develop a global respiratory motion model capable of relating external patient surface motion to internal structure motion without the need for a patient-specific 4D CT acquisition. The proposed global model is based on principal component analysis and can be adjusted to a given patient anatomy using only one or two static CT images in conjunction with a respiratory synchronized patient external surface motion. It is based on the relation between the internal motion described using deformation fields obtained by registering 4D CT images and patient surface maps obtained either from optical imaging devices or extracted from CT image-based patient skin segmentation. 4D CT images of six patients were used to generate the global motion model which was validated by adapting it on four different patients having skin segmented surfaces and two other patients having time of flight camera acquired surfaces. The reproducibility of the proposed model was also assessed on two patients with two 4D CT series acquired within 2 weeks of each other. Profile comparison shows the efficacy of the global respiratory motion model and an improvement while using two CT images in order to adapt the model. This was confirmed by the correlation coefficient with a mean correlation of 0.9 and 0.95 while using one or two CT images respectively and when comparing acquired to model generated 4D CT images. For the four patients with segmented

  15. Mechanisms of toxicity and biomarkers of flavoring and flavor enhancing chemicals in emerging tobacco and non-tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjot; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-05-15

    Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs. In this review, we have discussed the in vitro and in vivo data on toxicity of flavoring chemicals in lung cells. We have further discussed the common flavoring agents, such as diacetyl and menthol, currently available detection methods, and the toxicological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and DNA damage in cells, mice, and humans. Finally, we present potential biomarkers that could be utilized for future risk assessment. This review provides crucial parameters important for evaluation of risk associated with flavoring agents and flavoring enhancers used in tobacco products and ENDS. Future studies can be designed to address the potential toxicity of inhaled flavorings and their biomarkers in users as well as in chronic exposure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  17. In Silico Analysis of the Association Relationship between Neuroprotection and Flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on the mGluRs

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liansheng; Chen, Yankun; Zhao, Bowen; Gu, Yu; Huo, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Gongyu

    2018-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are known as both synaptic receptors and taste receptors. This feature is highly similar to the Property and Flavor theory of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has the pharmacological effect and flavor. In this study, six ligand based pharmacophore (LBP) models, seven homology modeling models, and fourteen molecular docking models of mGluRs were built based on orthosteric and allosteric sites to screening potential compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD). Based on the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, TCMs of compounds and their flavors were traced and listed. According to the tracing result, we found that the TCMs of the compounds which bound to orthosteric sites of mGluRs are highly correlated to a sweet flavor, while the allosteric site corresponds to a bitter flavor. Meanwhile, the pharmacological effects of TCMs with highly frequent flavors were further analyzed. We found that those TCMs play a neuroprotective role through the efficiencies of detumescence, promoting blood circulation, analgesic effect, and so on. This study provides a guide for developing new neuroprotective drugs from TCMs which target mGluRs. Moreover, it is the first study to present a novel approach to discuss the association relationship between flavor and the neuroprotective mechanism of TCM based on mGluRs. PMID:29320397

  18. North Atlantic SST Patterns and NAO Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, E.; Rahmstorf, S.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    North Atlantic SST variability results from the interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) drives changes in SST patterns but is also driven by them on certain time-scales. These interactions are not very well understood and might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Paleo reconstructions indicate a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in recent decades leading to a pronounced cold anomaly ("cold blob") in the North Atlantic (Rahmstorf et al., 2015). The latter may favor NAO to be in its negative mode. In this work, sea surface temperature (SST) patterns are studied in relation to NAO variations, with the aim of discovering preferred states and understanding their interactions. SST patterns are analyzed with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), a clustering technique that helps identify different spatial patterns and their temporal evolution. NAO flavors refer to different longitudinal positions and tilts of the NAO action centers, also defined with SOMs. This way the limitations of the basic, index-based, NAO-definition are overcome, and the method handles different spatially shapes associated with NAO. Preliminary results show the existence of preferred combinations of SSTs and NAO flavors, which in turn affect weather and climate of Europe and North America. The possible influence of the cold blob on European weather is discussed.

  19. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  20. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-03-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.

  1. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations. PMID:24594634

  2. A 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Wekerle, Claudia; Danilov, Sergey; Wang, Xuezhu; Jung, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of developing a global modeling system which can facilitate modeling studies on Arctic Ocean and high- to midlatitude linkage, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by the multi-resolution Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM). To explore the value of using high horizontal resolution for Arctic Ocean modeling, we use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 km vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer, in terms of both Atlantic Water (AW) mean state and variability. The deepening and thickening bias of the AW layer, a common issue found in coarse-resolution simulations, is significantly alleviated by using higher resolution. The topographic steering of the AW is stronger and the seasonal and interannual temperature variability along the ocean bottom topography is enhanced in the high-resolution simulation. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the narrow straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The representation of CAA throughflow not only influences the release of water masses through the other gateways but also the circulation pathways inside the Arctic Ocean. However, the mean state and variability of Arctic freshwater content and the variability of freshwater transport through the Arctic gateways appear not to be very sensitive to the increase in resolution employed here. By highlighting the issues that are independent of model resolution, we address that other efforts including the improvement of parameterizations are still required.

  3. Lattice QCD with two dynamical flavors of domain wall fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Y.; Blum, T.; Christ, N.; Dawson, C.; Hashimoto, K.; Izubuchi, T.; Laiho, J. W.; Levkova, L.; Lin, M.; Mawhinney, R.; Noaki, J.; Ohta, S.; Orginos, K.; Soni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from the first large-scale study of two-flavor QCD using domain wall fermions (DWF), a chirally symmetric fermion formulation which has been proven to be very effective in the quenched approximation. We work on lattices of size 163×32, with a lattice cutoff of a-1≈1.7GeV and dynamical (or sea) quark masses in the range mstrange/2≲msea≲mstrange. After discussing the algorithmic and implementation issues involved in simulating dynamical DWF, we report on the low-lying hadron spectrum, decay constants, static quark potential, and the important kaon weak matrix element describing indirect CP violation in the standard model, BK. In the latter case we include the effect of nondegenerate quark masses (ms≠mu=md), finding BKM Smacr (2GeV)=0.495(18).

  4. Multiple critical endpoints in magnetized three flavor quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Márcio; Costa, Pedro; Providência, Constança

    2018-01-01

    The magnetized phase diagram for three-flavor quark matter is studied within the Polyakov extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The order parameters are analyzed with special emphasis on the strange quark condensate. We show that the presence of an external magnetic field induces several critical endpoints (CEPs) in the strange sector, which arise due to the multiple phase transitions that the strange quark undergoes. The spinodal and binodal regions of the phase transitions are shown to increase with external magnetic field strength. The influence of strong magnetic fields on the isentropic trajectories around the several CEPs is analyzed. A focusing effect is observed on the region towards the CEPs that are related with the strange quark phase transitions. Compared to the chiral transitions, the deconfinement transition turns out to be less sensitive to the external magnetic field and the crossover nature is preserved over the whole phase diagram.

  5. Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computedmore » either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.« less

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: International Flavors & Fragrances Incorporated in Union Beach, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    International Flavors & Fragrances was located at 800 Rose Lane in Union Beach, New Jersey. International Flavors & Fragrances (IFF) manufactured specialty organic flavors and fragrances at this site from 1951 until the plant closed in 1997. It is adjacent

  7. A Mechanism-Based Model for the Prediction of the Metabolic Sites of Steroids Mediated by Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-Ru; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jia-Yue; Man, Hui-Zi; Jia, Yan; Yang, Ling

    2015-06-30

    Early prediction of xenobiotic metabolism is essential for drug discovery and development. As the most important human drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A4 has a large active cavity and metabolizes a broad spectrum of substrates. The poor substrate specificity of CYP3A4 makes it a huge challenge to predict the metabolic site(s) on its substrates. This study aimed to develop a mechanism-based prediction model based on two key parameters, including the binding conformation and the reaction activity of ligands, which could reveal the process of real metabolic reaction(s) and the site(s) of modification. The newly established model was applied to predict the metabolic site(s) of steroids; a class of CYP3A4-preferred substrates. 38 steroids and 12 non-steroids were randomly divided into training and test sets. Two major metabolic reactions, including aliphatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation, were involved in this study. At least one of the top three predicted metabolic sites was validated by the experimental data. The overall accuracy for the training and test were 82.14% and 86.36%, respectively. In summary, a mechanism-based prediction model was established for the first time, which could be used to predict the metabolic site(s) of CYP3A4 on steroids with high predictive accuracy.

  8. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  9. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  10. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and spice-flavoring substance. (b) The microcapsules... listed in paragraphs (a) (1) and (4) of this section may be used only for encapsulating authorized spice... for use to ensure heating to temperatures which will melt the wax to release the spice-flavoring...

  11. Off-flavors in salmonids raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers of aquaculture products will typically verify the flavor quality of their product by sensory evaluation (flavor testing) before harvesting the crop for market. “Off-flavors” detected in the product may require holding the fish in a purging system containing fresh, clean water to depurate ...

  12. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and spice-flavoring substance. (b) The microcapsules... listed in paragraphs (a) (1) and (4) of this section may be used only for encapsulating authorized spice... for use to ensure heating to temperatures which will melt the wax to release the spice-flavoring...

  13. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193 Section 133.193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  14. Heavy flavor results at RHIC - A comparative overview

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Xin

    2012-01-01

    I review the latest heavy flavor measurements at RHIC experiments. Measurements from RHIC together with preliminary results from LHC offer us an opportunity to systematically study the sQGP medium properties. In the end, I will outlook a prospective future on precision heavy flavor measurements with detector upgrades at RHIC.

  15. Flavor structure of Λ baryons from lattice QCD: From strange to charm quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Takahashi, Toru T.; Oka, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    We study Λ baryons of spin-parity 1/2± with either a strange or charm valence quark in full 2 +1 flavor lattice QCD. Multiple S U (3 ) singlet and octet operators are employed to generate the desired single baryon states on the lattice. Via the variational method, the couplings of these states to the different operators provide information about the flavor structure of the Λ baryons. We make use of the gauge configurations of the PACS-CS Collaboration and chirally extrapolate the results for the masses and S U (3 ) flavor components to the physical point. We furthermore gradually change the hopping parameter of the heaviest quark from strange to charm to study how the properties of the Λ baryons evolve as a function of the heavy quark mass. It is found that the baryon energy levels increase almost linearly with the quark mass. Meanwhile, the flavor structure of most of the states remains stable, with the exception of the lowest 1/2- state, which changes from a flavor singlet Λ to a Λc state with singlet and octet components of comparable size. Finally, we discuss whether our findings can be interpreted with the help of a simple quark model and find that the negative-parity Λc states can be naturally explained as diquark excitations of the light u and d quarks. On the other hand, the quark-model picture does not appear to be adequate for the negative-parity Λ states, suggesting the importance of other degrees of freedom to describe them.

  16. The breaking of flavor democracy in the quark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Di

    2017-09-01

    The democracy of quark flavors is a well-motivated flavor symmetry, but it must be properly broken in order to explain the observed quark mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. We reconstruct the texture of flavor democracy breaking and evaluate its strength in a novel way, by assuming a parallelism between the Q=+2/3 and Q=-1/3 quark sectors and using a nontrivial parametrization of the flavor mixing matrix. Some phenomenological implications of such democratic quark mass matrices, including their variations in the hierarchy basis and their evolution from the electroweak scale to a super-high energy scale, are also discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375207) and National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834300)

  17. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-02

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 μM cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 μM naringin and 3 μM morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6β-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions.

  18. TRANSFECTED MDCK CELL LINE WITH ENHANCED EXPRESSION OF CYP3A4 AND P-GLYCOPROTEIN AS A MODEL TO STUDY THEIR ROLE IN DRUG TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drugs of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 μM cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 μM naringin and 3 μM morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be ten and three fold lower in MMC as compared to WT and MDCKMDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased fivefold in presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCKMDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in WT in presence of naringin. The permeability increased three fold in presence of morphine which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6β-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes towards drug-drug interactions. PMID:22676443

  19. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model

    PubMed Central

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Methods: Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20–65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20–24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53–65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Results: Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P < .001). Between hindfoot/tibia, there was a significant difference for all parameters except for motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Conclusion: Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects. PMID:28858109

  20. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P < .001). Between hindfoot/tibia, there was a significant difference for all parameters except for motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.

  1. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2018-01-01

    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  2. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  3. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    PubMed

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  4. PHENIX results on open heavy flavor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachiya, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    PHENIX measures the open heavy flavor productions in p + p, Cu+Au, and Au+Au collisions at = 200 and 510 GeV using the silicon tracking detectors for mid- and forward rapidities. In Au+Au collisions, the nuclear modification of single electrons from bottom and charm hadron decays are measured for minimum bias and most central collisions. It is found that bottoms are less suppressed than charms in pT=3-5 GeV/c and charms in most central collisions are more suppressed than that in minimum bias collisions. In p + p and Cu+Au collisions, J/ψ from B meson decays are measured at forward and backward rapidities. The nuclear modification of B mesons in Cu+Au collisions is consistent with unity.

  5. Three flavor neutrino oscillations in matter: Flavor diagonal potentials, the adiabatic basis, and the CP phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the three neutrino flavor evolution problem with general, flavor-diagonal, matter potentials and a fully parametrized mixing matrix that includes CP violation, and derive expressions for the eigenvalues, mixing angles, and phases. We demonstrate that, in the limit that the mu and tau potentials are equal, the eigenvalues and matter mixing angles θ˜12 and θ˜13 are independent of the CP phase, although θ˜23 does have CP dependence. Since we are interested in developing a framework that can be used for S matrix calculations of neutrino flavor transformation, it is useful to work in a basis that contains only off-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian. We derive the “nonadiabaticity” parameters that appear in the Hamiltonian in this basis. We then introduce the neutrino S matrix, derive its evolution equation and the integral solution. We find that this new Hamiltonian, and therefore the S matrix, in the limit that the μ and τ neutrino potentials are the same, is independent of both θ˜23 and the CP violating phase. In this limit, any CP violation in the flavor basis can only be introduced via the rotation matrices, and so effects which derive from the CP phase are then straightforward to determine. We then show explicitly that the electron neutrino and electron antineutrino survival probability is independent of the CP phase in this limit. Conversely, if the CP phase is nonzero and mu and tau matter potentials are not equal, then the electron neutrino survival probability cannot be independent of the CP phase.

  6. Flavor-Intensity Perception: Effects of Stimulus Context

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulus context affects judgments of intensity of both gustatory and olfactory flavors, and the contextual effects are modality-specific. Does context also exert separate effects on the gustatory and olfactory components of flavor mixtures? To answer this question, in each of 4 experiments, subjects rated the perceived intensity of 16 mixtures constructed by combining 4 concentrations of the gustatory flavorant sucrose with 4 concentrations of the retronasal olfactory flavorant citral. In 1 contextual condition of each experiment, concentrations of sucrose were relatively high and those of citral low; in the other condition, the relative concentrations of sucrose and citral reversed. There were 2 main results: First, consistent with earlier findings, in 5 of the 8 conditions, the ratings were consistent with linear addition of perceived sucrose and citral; departures from additivity appeared, however, in 3 conditions where the relative concentrations of citral were high. Second, changes in context produced contrast (adaptation-like changes) in perceived intensity: The contribution to perceived intensity of a given concentration of a flavorant was smaller when the contextual concentrations of that flavorant were high rather than low. A notable exception was the absence of contextual effects on the perceived intensity of near-threshold citral. These findings suggest that the contextual effects may arise separately in the gustatory and olfactory channels, prior to the integration of perceived flavor intensity. PMID:21930139

  7. Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric monosodium glutamate in mice.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) solutions has been shown to reinforce preferences for MSG and for MSG-paired flavors in mice. These effects appear to have a strong postoral component, such that MSG detected in the gut is associated with concurrently consumed flavors. Two experiments investigated postoral MSG reward by infusing 400mM MSG intragastrically (IG) to C57BL/6 mice as they consumed a conditioned stimulus (CS+) flavor. An alternate CS- flavor was paired with IG water. In Experiment 1, the grape and cherry CS flavors were unsweetened, and intakes and preferences for the CS+ flavor were modest. Experiment 2 attempted to generate stronger preferences by adding 0.05% saccharin to the CS flavors. Sweet taste did enhance intakes during training and testing but did not significantly increase percent CS+ intake or persistence of the preference. However, only conditioning with the sweet CS+ resulted in the mice expressing a preference for oral MSG in an initial choice test with water. These findings extend recent studies demonstrating postoral MSG conditioning in rats.

  8. Flavor preferences conditioned by oral monosodium glutamate in mice.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    The prototypic umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) reinforces preferences for its own flavor, as well as preferences for flavors associated with it, by conditioning processes. Mice of 3 inbred strains (C57BL/6J (B6), 129P3/J, and FVB/NJ) and 2 taste-knockout (KO) groups derived from the B6 lineage were initially indifferent to 200mM MSG, but this evaluation was altered by forced exposure to MSG. B6 and KO mice acquired an MSG preference, 129 mice remained indifferent, and FVB mice avoided MSG. The shifts in preference imply a postoral basis for MSG effects, suggesting that it could produce preferences for associated flavors. New mice were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS+) flavor mixed in 200mM MSG and a CS- flavor in water. Similar to the parent B6 strain, mice missing the T1r3 element of an umami receptor or the downstream signaling component Trpm5 learned to prefer the CS+ flavor and subsequently showed similar preferences for MSG in an ascending concentration series. Consistent with their responses to forced exposure, the 129 strain did not acquire a significant CS+ preference, and the FVB strain avoided the CS+ flavor. The 129 and FVB strains showed little attraction in the ascending MSG concentration series. Together, these data indicate that the postoral effects of MSG can modulate responses to its own and MSG-paired flavors. The basis for strain differences in the responses to MSG is not certain, but the taste-signaling elements T1r3 and Trpm5, which are also present in the gut, are not required for mediation of this flavor learning.

  9. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Bagrow, James P.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-12-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  10. Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Other Risk Factors for Using Higher-Nicotine/Tar-Yield (Regular Full-Flavor) Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Redner, Ryan; Priest, Jeff S; Bunn, Janice Y

    2017-11-07

    Use of machine-estimated higher nicotine/tar yield (regular full-flavor) cigarettes is associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence. The present study examined risk factors for using full-flavor versus other cigarette types, including socioeconomic disadvantage and other risk factors for tobacco use or tobacco-related adverse health impacts. Associations between use of full-flavor cigarettes and risk of nicotine dependence were also examined. Data were obtained from nationally representative samples of adult cigarette smokers from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree modeling were used to examine associations between use of full-flavor cigarettes and educational attainment, poverty, race/ethnicity, age, sex, mental illness, alcohol abuse/dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence. Logistic regression was used to examine risk for nicotine dependence. Each of these risk factors except alcohol abuse/dependence independently predicted increased odds of using full-flavor cigarettes (p < .001), with lower educational attainment the strongest predictor, followed by poverty, male sex, younger age, minority race/ethnicity, mental illness, and drug abuse/dependence, respectively. Use of full-flavor cigarettes was associated with increased odds of nicotine dependence within each of these risk factor groupings (p < .01). Cart modeling identified how prevalence of full-flavor cigarette use can vary from a low of 25% to a high of 66% corresponding to differing combinations of these independent risk factors. Use of full-flavor cigarettes is overrepresented in socioeconomically disadvantaged and other vulnerable populations, and associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence. Greater regulation of this cigarette type may be warranted. Greater regulation of commercially available Regular Full-Flavor Cigarettes may be warranted. Use of this type of cigarette is overrepresented in

  11. Flavored gauge mediation with discrete non-Abelian symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Garon, Todd S.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the model building and phenomenology of flavored gauge-mediation models of supersymmetry breaking in which the electroweak Higgs doublets and the S U (2 ) messenger doublets are connected by a discrete non-Abelian symmetry. The embedding of the Higgs and messenger fields into representations of this non-Abelian Higgs-messenger symmetry results in specific relations between the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and the messenger-matter Yukawa interactions. Taking the concrete example of an S3 Higgs-messenger symmetry, we demonstrate that, while the minimal implementation of this scenario suffers from a severe μ /Bμ problem that is well known from ordinary gauge mediation, expanding the Higgs-messenger field content allows for the possibility that μ and Bμ can be separately tuned, allowing for the possibility of phenomenologically viable models of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We construct toy examples of this type that are consistent with the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass.

  12. Identification and in silico prediction of metabolites of the model compound, tebufenozide by human CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Shirotani, Naoki; Togawa, Moe; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Matsui, Masayoshi; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Mikata, Kazuki; Nishioka, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Akamatsu, Miki

    2015-10-15

    The metabolites of tebufenozide, a model compound, formed by the yeast-expressed human CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were identified to clarify the substrate recognition mechanism of the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. We then determined whether tebufenozide metabolites may be predicted in silico. Hydrogen abstraction energies were calculated with the density functional theory method B3LYP/6-31G(∗). A docking simulation was performed using FRED software. Several alkyl sites of tebufenozide were hydroxylated by CYP3A4 whereas only one site was modified by CYP2C19. The accessibility of each site of tebufenozide to the reaction center of CYP enzymes and the susceptibility of each hydrogen atom for metabolism by CYP enzymes were evaluated by a docking simulation and hydrogen abstraction energy estimation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flavor revolution at IceCube horizons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Paggi, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The highest-energy neutrino events identified so far were detected by the IceCube telescope between May and November 2013. Most of these events (21 out of 28) are cascade showers whose flux exhibits sharp hardening with respect to other lower-energy atmospheric neutrino components. These events suggest an injection of extraterrestrial neutrinos, mostly νe and ντ, making cascades. According to the IceCube consortium, a (10.63.6+5.0) component of these events must be a trace of expected downward muons and/or atmospheric neutrinos (mostly dominated by muon tracks). This implies that nearly all of the muon tracks observed (at least 6 of the 7) must be themselves of atmospheric origin. Therefore, the remaining 16-18 extraterrestrial events must be of mostly electron or tau flavor (or rare neutral current (NC) events). The probability of this scenario is very low (approx. 0.1-0.5%). This νμνbarμ paucity paradox cannot be solved if some or even all of the events are induced by terrestrially prompted charm signals, because the probability of this scenario is still less than 1.31%. The paradox might be solved if nearly all of the 28 events originate from extraterrestrial sources arriving in decoherent states. At first sight a partial flavor solution may arise if the highest-energy events at Eν > 60 TeV (17 showers vs 4 muon tracks) are mostly of extraterrestrial origin. However, this still leaves the problem of the earlier 30-60-TeV energy region, for which the eight showers and three tracks are in more in tension with most atmospheric neutrino signals, by a sharp difference at TeV energy ruled (as shown by Deep Core data) by 10 over one neutrino (muon) events over showers. This puzzling (fast) transition from an atmospheric νμνbarμ flux at TeV to tens of TeV has deep consequences: more abundant 10-TeV extraterrestrial neutrino maps may provide a better insight into astronomical clustering and sky anisotropy. In addition, counting of vertical vs horizontal

  14. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Fang, Yiming; Wu, Guiping; Tan, Lehe

    2015-10-09

    Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58%±0.05% and 3.48%±0.10%, respectively) than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09%±0.14% and 3.21%±0.15%, respectively). Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  15. Control of Maillard-type off-flavor development in ultrahigh-temperature-processed bovine milk by phenolic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidou, Smaro; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-08-13

    The application of phenolic compounds to suppress Maillard chemistry and off-flavor development in ultrahigh-termperature (UHT)-processed milk during processing and storage was investigated. Five phenolic compounds were examined for structure-reactivity relationships (catechin, genistein, daidzein, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). The levels of key transient Maillard reaction (MR) intermediates (reactive carbonyl species) and select off-flavor markers (methional, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) were quantified by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/ToF, respectively. The addition of phenolic compounds prior to UHT processing significantly reduced the concentration of MR intermediates and related off-flavor compounds compared to a control sample (p < 0.05). All phenolic compounds demonstrated unique structure reactivity and, notably, those with a more activated A-ring for aromatic electrophilic substitution (catechin, genistein, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) showed the strongest suppression effect on the off-flavor markers and reactive carbonyl species. Sensory studies were in agreement with the analytical data. The cooked flavor intensity was rated lower for the recombination model samples of the catechin-treated UHT milk compared to the control UHT milk. Additionally, consumer acceptability studies showed catechin-treated UHT milk to have significantly higher liking scores when compared the control sample (Fisher's LSD = 0.728).

  16. Detection of off-flavor in catfish using a conducting polymer electronic-nose technology

    Treesearch

    Alphus D Wilson; Charisse Oberle; Daniel F. Oberle

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by...

  17. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate from the system. If volatile fruit-flavor concentrate containing more...

  18. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate from the system. If volatile fruit-flavor concentrate containing more...

  19. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate from the system. If volatile fruit-flavor concentrate containing more...

  20. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate from the system. If volatile fruit-flavor concentrate containing more...

  1. 27 CFR 24.113 - Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Operations Application § 24.113 Description of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. Each applicant intending to produce volatile fruit-flavor concentrate shall include on the TTB F 5120.25 application a step... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate from the system. If volatile fruit-flavor concentrate containing more...

  2. Exploration of enzyme-ligand interactions in CYP2D6 & 3A4 homology models and crystal structures using a novel computational approach.

    PubMed

    Kjellander, Britta; Masimirembwa, Collen M; Zamora, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    New crystal structures of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 have recently been reported, and in this study, we wanted to compare them with previously used homology models with respect to predictions of site of metabolism and ligand-enzyme interactions. The data set consisted of a family of synthetic opioid analgesics with the aim to cover both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as most of these compounds are metabolized by both isoforms. The program MetaSite was used for the site of metabolism predictions, and the results were validated by experimental assessment of the major metabolites formed with recombinant CYP450s. This was made on a selection of 14 compounds in the data set. The prediction rates for MetaSite were 79-100% except for the CYP3A4 homology model, which picked the correct site in half of the cases. Despite differences in orientation of some important amino acids in the active sites, the MetaSite-predicted sites were the same for the different structures, with the exception of the CYP3A4 homology model. Further exploration of interactions with ligands was done by docking substrates/inhibitors in the different structures with the docking program GLUE. To address the challenge in interpreting patterns of enzyme-ligand interactions for the large number of different docking poses, a new computational tool to handle the results from the dockings was developed, in which the output highlights the relative importance of amino acids in CYP450-substrate/inhibitor interactions. The method is based on calculations of the interaction energies for each pose with the surrounding amino acids. For the CYP3A4 structures, this method was compared with consensus principal component analysis (CPCA), a commonly used method for structural comparison to evaluate the usefulness of the new method. The results from the two methods were comparable with each other, and the highlighted amino acids resemble those that were identified to have a different orientation in the compared structures. The new

  3. 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Dukes, Edmond Craig

    Partial support for participation for students and postdocs who wished to attend to give poster presentations at the 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV 2016) in Charlottesville, VA.

  4. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  5. Helicity evolution at small x : Flavor singlet and nonsinglet observables

    SciTech Connect

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    We extend our earlier results for the quark helicity evolution at small x to derive the small-x asymptotics of the flavor singlet and flavor nonsinglet quark helicity TMDs and PDFs and of the g 1 structure function. In the flavor singlet case we rederive the evolution equations obtained in our previous paper on the subject, performing additional cross-checks of our results. In the flavor nonsinglet case we construct new small-x evolution equations by employing the large-N c limit. Here, all evolution equations resum double-logarithmic powers of α sln 2(1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the single-logarithmic powers of αmore » sln(1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects.« less

  6. Helicity evolution at small x : Flavor singlet and nonsinglet observables

    DOE PAGES

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2017-01-30

    We extend our earlier results for the quark helicity evolution at small x to derive the small-x asymptotics of the flavor singlet and flavor nonsinglet quark helicity TMDs and PDFs and of the g 1 structure function. In the flavor singlet case we rederive the evolution equations obtained in our previous paper on the subject, performing additional cross-checks of our results. In the flavor nonsinglet case we construct new small-x evolution equations by employing the large-N c limit. Here, all evolution equations resum double-logarithmic powers of α sln 2(1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the single-logarithmic powers of αmore » sln(1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects.« less

  7. 27 CFR 26.50a - Verification of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50a Verification of eligible flavors. (a) Any person who, after...

  8. 27 CFR 26.50a - Verification of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50a Verification of eligible flavors. (a) Any person who, after...

  9. 27 CFR 26.50a - Verification of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50a Verification of eligible flavors. (a) Any person who, after...

  10. 27 CFR 26.50a - Verification of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50a Verification of eligible flavors. (a) Any person who, after...

  11. 27 CFR 26.50a - Verification of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.50a Verification of eligible flavors. (a) Any person who, after...

  12. Development of non-sweet, flavored food cubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Food cubes exhibit flavor and quality stability for periods of four weeks in 100 deg F environment. They are suitable for field rations, emergency rations or snacks and should interest the food processing industry.

  13. Can oral rehydration solution be safely flavored at home?

    PubMed

    Nijssen-Jordan, C

    1997-12-01

    To determine the concentration of sodium, potassium, glucose, and osmolality of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) which have been flavored with varying amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, apple juice, or orange juice. Descriptive. Alberta Children's Hospital Chemistry Laboratory. None. Addition of varying amounts of flavoring easily available in all households to commercially available unsweetened ORS. Concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, and osmolality. Addition of fruit juices or flavor powders to commercially produced ORS does alter the electrolyte content and osmolality. When limited amounts of flavoring or juice is added, the osmolality of the solution approaches iso-osmolality. Small amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, and apple or orange juice can be added to oral rehydration solutions without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality.

  14. Triggering collective oscillations by three-flavor effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene

    2010-04-01

    Collective flavor transformations in supernovae, caused by neutrino-neutrino interactions, are essentially a two-flavor phenomenon driven by the atmospheric mass difference and the small mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. In the two-flavor approximation, the initial evolution depends logarithmically on {theta}{sub 13} and the system remains trapped in an unstable fixed point for {theta}{sub 13}=0. However, any effect breaking exact {nu}{sub {mu}-{nu}{tau}}equivalence triggers the conversion. Such three-flavor perturbations include radiative corrections to weak interactions, small differences between the {nu}{sub {mu}}and {nu}{sub {tau}}fluxes, or nonstandard interactions. Therefore, extremely small values of {theta}{sub 13} are in practice equivalent, the fate of the system depending onlymore » on the neutrino spectra and their mass ordering.« less

  15. Nonstandard neutrino self-interactions in a supernova and fast flavor conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Amol; Sen, Manibrata

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of nonstandard self-interactions (NSSI) of neutrinos streaming out of a core-collapse supernova. We show that with NSSI, the standard linear stability analysis gives rise to linearly as well as exponentially growing solutions. For a two-box spectrum, we demonstrate analytically that flavor-preserving NSSI lead to a suppression of bipolar collective oscillations. In the intersecting four-beam model, we show that flavor-violating NSSI can lead to fast oscillations even when the angle between the neutrino and antineutrino beams is obtuse, which is forbidden in the standard model. This leads to the new possibility of fast oscillations in a two-beam system with opposing neutrino-antineutrino fluxes, even in the absence of any spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we solve the full nonlinear equations of motion in the four-beam model numerically, and explore the interplay of fast and slow flavor conversions in the long-time behavior, in the presence of NSSI.

  16. Flavors in the soup: An overview of heavy-flavored jet energy loss at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kurt E.

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, along with the first ever measurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at √s NN =5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at √s = 2.76 TeV. Measurements of b-jet and c-jet spectra are compared to pp data at √s = 2.76 TeV and to PYTHIA predictions at both 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. We observe a centrality-dependent suppression for b-jets in PbPb and a result that is consistent with PYTHIA for both charm and bottom jets in pPb collisions.

  17. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt; Haas, F.; Bret, A.

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  18. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian; Bagrow, James; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    We construct and investigate a flavor network capturing the chemical similarity between the culinary ingredients. We found that Western cuisines have a statistically significant tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, in line with the food pairing hypothesis used by some chefs and molecular gastronmists. By contrast, East Asian cuisine tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. We identify key ingredients in each cuisine that help us to explore the differences and similarities between regional cuisines.

  19. Flavors of Chaos in the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganis, Kleomenis

    2016-10-01

    The asteroid belt is a natural laboratory for studying chaos, as a large fraction of asteroids actually reside on chaotic orbits. Numerous studies over the past 25 years have unveiled a multitude of dynamical chaos-generating mechanisms, operating on different time-scales and dominating over different regions of the belt. In fact, the distribution of chaotic asteroids in orbital space can be largely understood as the outcome of the combined action of resonant gravitational perturbations and the Yarkovsky effect - two topics on which Paolo Farinella has made an outstanding contribution! - notwithstanding the fact that the different "flavors" of chaos can give rise to a wide range of outcomes, from fast escape (e.g. to NEA space) to slow (~100s My) macroscopic diffusion (e.g. spreading of families) and strange, stable-looking, chaotic orbits (ultra-slow diffusion). In this talk I am going to present an overview of these mechanisms, presenting both analytical and numerical results, and their role in understanding the long-term evolution and stability of individual bodies, asteroid groups and families.

  20. Simple picture for neutrino flavor transformation in supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Fuller, George M.; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2007-10-01

    We can understand many recently discovered features of flavor evolution in dense, self-coupled supernova neutrino and antineutrino systems with a simple, physical scheme consisting of two quasistatic solutions. One solution closely resembles the conventional, adiabatic single-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism, in that neutrinos and antineutrinos remain in mass eigenstates as they evolve in flavor space. The other solution is analogous to the regular precession of a gyroscopic pendulum in flavor space, and has been discussed extensively in recent works. Results of recent numerical studies are best explained with combinations of these solutions in the following general scenario: (1) Near the neutrino sphere, the MSW-like many-body solution obtains. (2) Depending on neutrino vacuum mixing parameters, luminosities, energy spectra, and the matter density profile, collective flavor transformation in the nutation mode develops and drives neutrinos away from the MSW-like evolution and toward regular precession. (3) Neutrino and antineutrino flavors roughly evolve according to the regular precession solution until neutrino densities are low. In the late stage of the precession solution, a stepwise swapping develops in the energy spectra of νe and νμ/ντ. We also discuss some subtle points regarding adiabaticity in flavor transformation in dense-neutrino systems.

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Renewable Hepatic Cell Model for Prediction of Clinical CYP3A4 Induction Using a Correlation-Based Relative Induction Score Approach.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rongjun; Li, Feng; Parikh, Sweta; Cao, Li; Cooper, Kirsten L; Hong, Yulong; Liu, Jin; Faris, Ronald A; Li, Daochuan; Wang, Hongbing

    2017-02-01

    Metabolism enzyme induction-mediated drug-drug interactions need to be carefully characterized in vitro for drug candidates to predict in vivo safety risk and therapeutic efficiency. Currently, both the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency recommend using primary human hepatocytes as the gold standard in vitro test system for studying the induction potential of candidate drugs on cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2B6. However, primary human hepatocytes are known to bear inherent limitations such as limited supply and large lot-to-lot variations, which result in an experimental burden to qualify new lots. To overcome these shortcomings, a renewable source of human hepatocytes (i.e., Corning HepatoCells) was developed from primary human hepatocytes and was evaluated for in vitro CYP3A4 induction using methods well established by the pharmaceutical industry. HepatoCells have shown mature hepatocyte-like morphology and demonstrated primary hepatocyte-like response to prototypical inducers of all three CYP enzymes with excellent consistency. Importantly, HepatoCells retain a phenobarbital-responsive nuclear translocation of human constitutive androstane receptor from the cytoplasm, characteristic to primary hepatocytes. To validate HepatoCells as a useful tool to predict potential clinical relevant CYP3A4 induction, we tested three different lots of HepatoCells with a group of clinical strong, moderate/weak CYP3A4 inducers, and noninducers. A relative induction score calibration curve-based approach was used for prediction. HepatoCells showed accurate prediction comparable to primary human hepatocytes. Together, these results demonstrate that Corning HepatoCells is a reliable in vitro model for drug-drug interaction studies during the early phase of drug testing. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  2. Network geometry with flavor: From complexity to quantum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Network geometry is attracting increasing attention because it has a wide range of applications, ranging from data mining to routing protocols in the Internet. At the same time advances in the understanding of the geometrical properties of networks are essential for further progress in quantum gravity. In network geometry, simplicial complexes describing the interaction between two or more nodes play a special role. In fact these structures can be used to discretize a geometrical d -dimensional space, and for this reason they have already been widely used in quantum gravity. Here we introduce the network geometry with flavor s =-1 ,0 ,1 (NGF) describing simplicial complexes defined in arbitrary dimension d and evolving by a nonequilibrium dynamics. The NGF can generate discrete geometries of different natures, ranging from chains and higher-dimensional manifolds to scale-free networks with small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution, and nontrivial community structure. The NGF admits as limiting cases both the Bianconi-Barabási models for complex networks, the stochastic Apollonian network, and the recently introduced model for complex quantum network manifolds. The thermodynamic properties of NGF reveal that NGF obeys a generalized area law opening a new scenario for formulating its coarse-grained limit. The structure of NGF is strongly dependent on the dimensionality d . In d =1 NGFs grow complex networks for which the preferential attachment mechanism is necessary in order to obtain a scale-free degree distribution. Instead, for NGF with dimension d >1 it is not necessary to have an explicit preferential attachment rule to generate scale-free topologies. We also show that NGF admits a quantum mechanical description in terms of associated quantum network states. Quantum network states evolve by a Markovian dynamics and a quantum network state at time t encodes all possible NGF evolutions up to time t . Interestingly the NGF remains fully classical but

  3. Network geometry with flavor: From complexity to quantum geometry.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Network geometry is attracting increasing attention because it has a wide range of applications, ranging from data mining to routing protocols in the Internet. At the same time advances in the understanding of the geometrical properties of networks are essential for further progress in quantum gravity. In network geometry, simplicial complexes describing the interaction between two or more nodes play a special role. In fact these structures can be used to discretize a geometrical d-dimensional space, and for this reason they have already been widely used in quantum gravity. Here we introduce the network geometry with flavor s=-1,0,1 (NGF) describing simplicial complexes defined in arbitrary dimension d and evolving by a nonequilibrium dynamics. The NGF can generate discrete geometries of different natures, ranging from chains and higher-dimensional manifolds to scale-free networks with small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution, and nontrivial community structure. The NGF admits as limiting cases both the Bianconi-Barabási models for complex networks, the stochastic Apollonian network, and the recently introduced model for complex quantum network manifolds. The thermodynamic properties of NGF reveal that NGF obeys a generalized area law opening a new scenario for formulating its coarse-grained limit. The structure of NGF is strongly dependent on the dimensionality d. In d=1 NGFs grow complex networks for which the preferential attachment mechanism is necessary in order to obtain a scale-free degree distribution. Instead, for NGF with dimension d>1 it is not necessary to have an explicit preferential attachment rule to generate scale-free topologies. We also show that NGF admits a quantum mechanical description in terms of associated quantum network states. Quantum network states evolve by a Markovian dynamics and a quantum network state at time t encodes all possible NGF evolutions up to time t. Interestingly the NGF remains fully classical but its

  4. SU(2) Flavor Asymmetry of the Proton Sea in Chiral Effective Theory

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, J. R.; Sato Gonzalez, Nobuo; Melnitchouk, Wally

    We refine the computation of themore » $$\\bar{d}$$ - $$\\bar{u}$$ flavor asymmetry in the proton sea with a complementary effort to reveal the dynamics of pion exchange in high-energy processes. In particular, we discuss the efficacy of pion exchange models to simultaneously describe leading neutron electroproduction at HERA along with the $$\\bar{d}$$ - $$\\bar{u}$$ flavor asymmetry in the proton. A detailed χ 2 analysis of the ZEUS and H1 data, when combined with constraints on the pion flux from Drell-Yan data, allows regions of applicability of one-pion exchange to be delineated. Based on the fit results, we also address a possible estimate for leading proton structure functions in upcoming tagged deep-inelastic scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab on the deuteron with forward protons.« less

  5. 125 GeV Higgs decay with lepton flavor violation in the μνSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Bin; Feng, Tai-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Min; Yan, Yu-Li; Sun, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the CMS and ATLAS collaborations have reported direct searches for the 125 GeV Higgs decay with lepton flavor violation, h → μτ. In this work, we analyze the signal of the lepton flavour violating (LFV) Higgs decay h → μτ in the μ from ν Supersymmetric Standard Model (μνSSM) with slepton flavor mixing. Simultaneously, we consider the constraints from the LFV decay τ → μγ, the muon anomalous magnetic dipole moment and the lightest Higgs mass around 125 GeV. Supported by Major Project of NNSFC (11535002) and NNSFC (11275036, 11647120), the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF131CJ1), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei province (A2013201277, A2016201010, A2016201069), Hebei Key Lab of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, and Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project

  6. Orientation to determine quality attributes of flavoring excipients containing volatile molecules.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Florian E; Pein, Miriam; Thommes, Markus

    2015-06-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients containing volatile odor-active molecules can be used in pharmaceutical development to increase patients' compliance. However, capturing the molecular composition of these odor-active substances is challenging. Therefore, guidance for the analytical investigation of these excipients should be developed. Using a model flavor, lead molecules were chosen and a gas chromatographic method was validated according to pharmaceutical guidelines. Changes during storage as well as batch homogeneity and conformity were investigated. The knowledge gained could be used to understand molecular differences between batches caused by aging. A suitable attempt to capture the volatile molecular composition of flavoring substance was presented and the found results could be used for the determination and interpretation of quality attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lepton Flavor Violation Induced by a Neutral Scalar at Future Lepton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2018-06-01

    Many new physics scenarios beyond standard model often necessitate the existence of a (light) neutral scalar H , which might couple to the charged leptons in a flavor violating way, while evading all existing constraints. We show that such scalars could be effectively produced at future lepton colliders, either on shell or off shell depending on their mass, and induce lepton flavor violating (LFV) signals, i.e., e+e-→ℓα±ℓβ∓(+H ) with α ≠β . We find that a large parameter space of the scalar mass and the LFV couplings can be probed well beyond the current low-energy constraints in the lepton sector. In particular, a scalar-loop induced explanation of the long-standing muon g -2 anomaly can be directly tested in the on-shell mode.

  8. Processing yields and meat flavor of broilers fed a mixture of narasin and nicarbazin as an anticoccidial agent.

    PubMed

    Peng, I C; Larsen, J E; Stadelman, W J; Jones, D J; Tonkinson, L V

    1987-08-01

    Processed yields (percent hot carcass) and cooked meat flavor of broilers fed 100 ppm of an anticoccidial agent (a mixture of 50 ppm narasin and 50 ppm nicarbazin) were compared with yields of birds fed a ration without the anticoccidial agent. Broilers were processed at 7 wk of age (49 days) after a 4-day withdrawal from the anticoccidial agent for the treated birds. The flavor of meat was evaluated by a 12-member sensory panel. Meat was either deep fat-fried or oven roasted. Sensory evaluations were made on freshly cooked samples and on cooked meat refrigerated for 24 h and reheated. The anticoccidial agent did not produce a difference (P greater than .05) in the hot carcass yields of the broilers as compared with control birds fed the nonmedicated diet. Analyses of triangle test data for flavor evaluations by two statistical methods indicated that there were no detectable differences (P greater than .05) in flavor between broilers fed the anticoccidial agent in the diet and those fed the control diet.

  9. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    2018-04-01

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μ b = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the freedom in choosing the position of the HFMP. We demonstrate that by choosing a sufficiently large HFMP, which could be as large as 10 times the mass of the heavy quark, one can achieve the following improvements: 1) above the HFMP the size of missing power corrections O(m) is restricted by the value of μ b and, therefore, the error associated with their omission can be made negligible; 2) additional prescriptions for the definition of cross-sections are not required; 3) the resummation accuracy is maintained and 4) contrary to the common lore we find that the discontinuity of α s and pdfs across thresholds leads to improved continuity in predictions for observables. We have considered a large set of proton-proton and electron-proton collider processes, many through NNLO QCD, that demonstrate the broad applicability of our proposal.

  10. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata; Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com

    2017-02-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra ofmore » ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.« less

  11. Searches for Light- and Heavy-flavor Three-jet Resonances in proton-proton Collisions with the CMS Detector at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A search for three-jet hadronic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy has been conducted by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb -1. The search method is modelindependent. Events are selected that contain a large number of jets with high transverse momentum. An ensemble of jets is used to extract a new possible signal from copious QCD background. Event selection is optimized using a benchmark model where supersymmetric gluinos are pair-produced and each of the gluinos decays exclusively into three jets. Two scenarios of this decay are considered denoted by the RPV couplings λ'' 112 and λ'' 113 or λ'' 223. The first coupling allows for gluinos to decay into only light-flavor jets, while the latter two allow decays into one heavy-flavor and two light-flavor jets. No significant deviation is found between the selected events and the expected standard model multijet and tmore » $$\\bar{t}$$ background. For gluinos decaying through 00 112, masses below 650 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level. The search including heavy-flavor jets in the final state with the couplings λ'' 113 or λ'' 223 is the first of its kind. Gluinos decaying into one heavy-flavor and two light-flavor jets are excluded for masses between 200 and 835 GeV.« less

  12. Photo-consistency registration of a 4D cardiac motion model to endoscopic video for image guidance of robotic coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Eddie

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper is registration of a 4D preoperative motion model of the heart to the video view of the patient through the intraoperative endoscope. The heart motion is cyclical and can be modelled using multiple reconstructions of cardiac gated coronary CT. We propose the use of photoconsistency between the two views through the da Vinci endoscope to align to the preoperative heart surface model from CT. The temporal alignment from the video to the CT model could in principle be obtained from the ECG signal. We propose averaging of the photoconsistency over the cardiac cycle to improve the registration compared to a single view. Though there is considerable motion of the heart, after correct temporal alignment we suggest that the remaining motion should be close to rigid. Results are presented for simulated renderings and for real video of a beating heart phantom. We found much smoother sections at the minimum when using multiple phases for the registration, furthermore convergence was found to be better when more phases are used.

  13. Searching for axionlike particles in flavor-changing neutral current processes [A new flavor of searches for axion-like particles

    DOE PAGES

    Izaguirre, Eder; Lin, Tongyan; Shuve, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Here, we propose new searches for axion-like particles (ALPs) produced in flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) processes. This proposal exploits the often-overlooked coupling of ALPs to W ± bosons, leading to FCNC production of ALPs even in the absence of a direct coupling to fermions. Our proposed searches for resonant ALP production in decays such as B→K(*)a, a→γγ, and K→πa, a→γγ could greatly improve upon the current sensitivity to ALP couplings to standard model particles. Finally, we also determine analogous constraints and discovery prospects for invisibly decaying ALPs.

  14. Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Weisbrod, Robert M; Feng, Bihua; Bastin, Reena; Tuttle, Shawn T; Holbrook, Monica; Baker, Gregory; Robertson, Rose Marie; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-06-14

    Use of alternative tobacco products including electronic cigarettes is rapidly rising. The wide variety of flavored tobacco products available is of great appeal to smokers and youth. The flavorings added to tobacco products have been deemed safe for ingestion, but the cardiovascular health effects are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 9 flavors on vascular endothelial cell function. Freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use nonmenthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production compared with endothelial cells from nonsmoking participants. Treatment of endothelial cells isolated from nonsmoking participants with either menthol (0.01 mmol/L) or eugenol (0.01 mmol/L) decreased A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production. To further evaluate the effects of flavoring compounds on endothelial cell phenotype, commercially available human aortic endothelial cells were incubated with vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, dimethylpyrazine, diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, eucalyptol, and acetylpyrazine (0.1-100 mmol/L) for 90 minutes. Cell death, reactive oxygen species production, expression of the proinflammatory marker IL-6 (interleukin-6), and nitric oxide production were measured. Cell death and reactive oxygen species production were induced only at high concentrations unlikely to be achieved in vivo. Lower concentrations of selected flavors (vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and acetylpyridine) induced both inflammation and impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Our data suggest that short-term exposure of endothelial cells to flavoring compounds used in tobacco products have adverse effects on endothelial cell phenotype that may have relevance to cardiovascular toxicity. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A call for new physics: The muon anomalous magnetic moment and lepton flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Platscher, Moritz; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2018-02-01

    We review how the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g - 2) and the quest for lepton flavor violation are intimately correlated. Indeed the decay μ → eγ is induced by the same amplitude for different choices of in- and outgoing leptons. In this work, we try to address some intriguing questions such as: Which hierarchy in the charged lepton sector one should have in order to reconcile possible signals coming simultaneously from g - 2and lepton flavor violation? What can we learn if the g - 2anomaly is confirmed by the upcoming flagship experiments at FERMILAB and J-PARC, and no signal is seen in the decay μ → eγin the foreseeable future? On the other hand, if the μ → eγdecay is seen in the upcoming years, do we need to necessarily observe a signal also in g - 2?. In this attempt, we generally study the correlation between these observables in a detailed analysis of simplified models. We derive master integrals and fully analytical and exact expressions for both phenomena, and address other flavor violating signals. We investigate under which conditions the observations can be made compatible and discuss their implications. Lastly, we discuss in this context several extensions of the SM, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, Left-Right symmetric model, B- L model, scotogenic model, two Higgs doublet model, Zee-Babu model, 331 model, and Lμ -Lτ, dark photon, seesaw models type I, II and III, and also address the interplay with μ → eee decay and μ- e conversion.

  16. 3-flavor oscillations with current and future reactor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have been a crucial tool for our understanding of neutrinos. The disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors has firmly established that neutrino flavor oscillates, and that neutrinos consequently have mass. The current generation of precision measurements rely on some of the world's most intense reactor facilities to demonstrate that the electron antineutrino mixes with the third antineutrino mass eigenstate (v3-). Accurate measurements of antineutrino energies robustly determine the tiny difference between the masses-squared of the v3- state and the two more closely-spaced v1- and v2- states. These results have given us a much clearer picture of neutrino mass and mixing, yet at the same time open major questions about how to account for these small but non-zero masses in or beyond the Standard Model. These observations have also opened the door for a new generation of experiments which aim to measure the ordering of neutrino masses and search for potential violation of CP symmetry by neutrinos. I will provide a brief overview of this exciting field. Work supported under DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  17. Saltiness enhancement by the characteristic flavor of dried bonito stock.

    PubMed

    Manabe, M

    2008-08-01

    There is a pressing need for the development of ways of preparing palatable salt-reduced foods to reduce the salt intake of the Japanese population. The salt-reducing effect of the characteristic flavors other than umami of dried bonito stock, which is widely used in everyday Japanese food, was examined by sensory evaluation. In the 1st sensory evaluation, the effect was evaluated in a model solution. The saltiness of 0.80% NaCl solution was equivalent to that of 0.12% monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution containing 0.81% NaCl and dried bonito stock containing 0.68% NaCl. Saltiness enhancement could not be found when MSG solution was used, but was found with 6% dried bonito stock. The 2nd evaluation examined whether the effect was valid for 2 everyday Japanese foods--traditional Japanese clear soup (sumashi-jiru) and steamed egg custard (tamagodoufu). Although enhancement of saltiness by dried bonito stock could not be clearly demonstrated in the soup, a change in NaCl concentration within 15% did not affect the palatability of the soup. However, dried bonito stock not only enhanced the saltiness but also improved the palatability of steamed egg custard. These findings are expected to be useful for improving the palatability of salt-reduced food.

  18. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  19. Flavor dependence of the pion and kaon form factors and parton distribution functions

    DOE PAGES

    Hutauruk, Parada T. P.; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-09-01

    The separate quark flavor contributions to the pion and kaon valence quark distribution functions are studied, along with the corresponding electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. The calculations are made using the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio with proper-time regularization. Both the pion and kaon form factors and the valence quark distribution functions reproduce many features of the available empirical data. The larger mass of the strange quark naturally explains the empirical fact that the ratio u(K) + (x)/u(pi) + (x) drops below unity at large x, with a value of approximately Mmore » $$2\\atop{u}$$/Ms$$2\\atop{s}$$ as x → 1. With regard to the elastic form factors we report a large flavor dependence, with the u-quark contribution to the kaon form factor being an order of magnitude smaller than that of the s-quark at large Q 2, which may be a sensitive measure of confinement effects in QCD. Surprisingly though, the total K + and π + form factors differ by only 10%. Lastly, in general we find that flavor breaking effects are typically around 20%.« less

  20. Flavor dependence of the pion and kaon form factors and parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutauruk, Parada T. P.; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.

    The separate quark flavor contributions to the pion and kaon valence quark distribution functions are studied, along with the corresponding electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. The calculations are made using the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio with proper-time regularization. Both the pion and kaon form factors and the valence quark distribution functions reproduce many features of the available empirical data. The larger mass of the strange quark naturally explains the empirical fact that the ratio u(K) + (x)/u(pi) + (x) drops below unity at large x, with a value of approximately Mmore » $$2\\atop{u}$$/Ms$$2\\atop{s}$$ as x → 1. With regard to the elastic form factors we report a large flavor dependence, with the u-quark contribution to the kaon form factor being an order of magnitude smaller than that of the s-quark at large Q 2, which may be a sensitive measure of confinement effects in QCD. Surprisingly though, the total K + and π + form factors differ by only 10%. Lastly, in general we find that flavor breaking effects are typically around 20%.« less

  1. Threshold and flavor effects in the renormalization group equations of the MSSM. II. Dimensionful couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, Andrew D.; Tata, Xerxes

    2009-02-01

    We reexamine the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGEs) for the dimensionful parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with broken supersymmetry, allowing for arbitrary flavor structure of the soft SUSY-breaking parameters. We include threshold effects by evaluating the β-functions in a sequence of (nonsupersymmetric) effective theories with heavy particles decoupled at the scale of their mass. We present the most general form for high-scale, soft SUSY-breaking parameters that obtains if we assume that the supersymmetry-breaking mechanism does not introduce new intergenerational couplings. This form, possibly amended to allow additional sources of flavor-violation, serves as a boundary condition for solving the RGEs for the dimensionful MSSM parameters. We then present illustrative examples of numerical solutions to the RGEs. We find that in a SUSY grand unified theory with the scale of SUSY scalars split from that of gauginos and higgsinos, the gaugino mass unification condition may be violated by O(10%). As another illustration, we show that in mSUGRA, the rate for the flavor-violating ttilde 1→c Ztilde 1 decay obtained using the complete RGE solution is smaller than that obtained using the commonly used “single-step” integration of the RGEs by a factor 10-25, and so may qualitatively change expectations for topologies from top-squark pair production at colliders. Together with the RGEs for dimensionless couplings presented in a companion paper, the RGEs in Appendix 2 of this paper form a complete set of one-loop MSSM RGEs that include threshold and flavor-effects necessary for two-loop accuracy.

  2. Broken S 3L×S 3R flavor symmetry and leptonic CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Zong-guo; Yang, Xing-hua; Zhou, Shun

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the canonical seesaw model, we present a simple but viable scenario to explicitly break an S 3L×S 3R flavor symmetry in the leptonic sector. It turns out that the leptonic flavor mixing matrix is completely determined by the mass ratios of the charged leptons (i.e., m e/m μ and m μ/m τ) and those of light neutrinos (i.e., m 1/m 2 and m 2/m 3). The latest global-fit results of the three neutrino mixing angles {θ 12, θ 13, θ 23} and two neutrino mass-squared differences at the 3σ level are used to constrain the parameter space of {m 1/m 2,m 2/m 3}. The predictions for the mass spectrum and flavor mixing are highlighted: (1) the neutrino mass spectrum shows a hierarchical pattern and a normal ordering, e.g., m 1≈2.2 meV, m 2≈8.8 meV and m 3≈52.7 meV (2) only the first octant of θ 23 is allowed, namely, 41.8°≲θ 23≲43.3° (3) the Dirac CP-violating phase δ≈-22° deviates significantly from the maximal value -90°. All these predictions are ready to be tested in ongoing and forthcoming neutrino oscillation experiments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry can be explained via resonant leptogenesis, including the individual lepton-flavor effects. In our scenario, leptonic CP violation at low- and high-energy scales is closely connected. Supported by NNSFC (11325525), National Recruitment Program for Young Professionals and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  3. Perceptions and Experiences with Flavored Non-Menthol Tobacco Products: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Osman, Amira; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-03-23

    Although a few countries have banned flavored cigarettes (except menthol), flavors in most tobacco products remain unregulated across the globe. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining perceptions of and experiences with flavored non-menthol tobacco products. Of 20 studies on flavored tobacco products included in our qualitative systematic review, 10 examined hookah, six examined e-cigarettes, two examined little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), and three examined other tobacco products, including cigarettes. The majority of studies, regardless of product type, reported positive perceptions of flavored tobacco products, particularly among young adults and adolescents. In six studies that assessed perceptions of harm (including hookah, LCCs, and other flavored tobacco products), participants believed flavored tobacco products to be less harmful than cigarettes. In studies that examined the role of flavors in experimentation and/or initiation (including three studies on e-cigarettes, one hookah study and one LCC study), participants mentioned flavors as specifically leading to their experimentation and/or initiation of flavored tobacco products. Given that many countries have not yet banned flavors in tobacco products, these findings add to existing research on why individuals use flavored tobacco products and how they perceive harm in flavored tobacco products, providing further support for banning non-menthol flavors in most tobacco products.

  4. Perceptions and Experiences with Flavored Non-Menthol Tobacco Products: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Osman, Amira; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2017-01-01

    Although a few countries have banned flavored cigarettes (except menthol), flavors in most tobacco products remain unregulated across the globe. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining perceptions of and experiences with flavored non-menthol tobacco products. Of 20 studies on flavored tobacco products included in our qualitative systematic review, 10 examined hookah, six examined e-cigarettes, two examined little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), and three examined other tobacco products, including cigarettes. The majority of studies, regardless of product type, reported positive perceptions of flavored tobacco products, particularly among young adults and adolescents. In six studies that assessed perceptions of harm (including hookah, LCCs, and other flavored tobacco products), participants believed flavored tobacco products to be less harmful than cigarettes. In studies that examined the role of flavors in experimentation and/or initiation (including three studies on e-cigarettes, one hookah study and one LCC study), participants mentioned flavors as specifically leading to their experimentation and/or initiation of flavored tobacco products. Given that many countries have not yet banned flavors in tobacco products, these findings add to existing research on why individuals use flavored tobacco products and how they perceive harm in flavored tobacco products, providing further support for banning non-menthol flavors in most tobacco products. PMID:28333107

  5. Estimation of the site of wheezes in pulmonary emphysema: airflow simulation study by the use of A 4D lung model.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Hiroko; Cok, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious lung sounds in pulmonary emphysema, wheezes, are continuous musical sounds during expiration with 400 Hz or more. The textbook tells that expiratory airflow limitation in emphysema occurs at the peripheral airways and that wheezes are generated there. We have recently proposed a novel hypothesis based on image analysis and theoretical consideration that expiratory airflow limitation in emphysema occurs at the intra-mediastinal airway (trachea, main bronchi, and right lobar bronchi) due to compression by overinflated lungs. We performed expiratory airflow simulation by the use of a 4D finite element lung model, and found periodical vortex release with 300-900 Hz at the end of protrusion of the the tracheal posterior wall. Relationship between the peak frequency of pressure fluctuation and airflow velocity was in agreement with Strahal's law either in normal or emphysematous condition. Contrarily, airflow simulation in a small bronchus (1.5 mm in diameter) indicated no apparent periodic vortex release.

  6. Sterile neutrinos and flavor ratios in IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Wang, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: vbrdar@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: jkopp@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: xiaowang@uni-mainz.de

    2017-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full globalmore » fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neutrinos from dark matter decay may require analyzing the flavor composition as a function of neutrino energy.« less

  7. Flavoring Chemicals and Aldehydes in E-Cigarette Emissions.

    PubMed

    Klager, Skylar; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Christiani, David C; Lu, Quan; Allen, Joseph G

    2017-09-19

    Regulations on e-cigarettes in the U.S. do not provide guidelines on the chemical content of e-cigarette liquids. We evaluated emissions of aldehydes and flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette vapor under typical usage conditions. We selected 24 e-cigarette flavors from the top selling disposable e-cigarette brands. E-cigarettes were connected to a pump drawing air for two second puffs with sixty-second intervals between puffs. The vapor was analyzed for the presence of aldehydes using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector and for the presence of flavoring chemicals with gas chromatography and an electron capture detector. All e-cigarette emissions tested contained at least one aldehyde and/or flavoring chemical on either the FEMA "High Priority Chemicals" or FDA Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents lists when sampled at typical usage conditions. Diacetyl, a known respiratory hazard, along with acetoin, were the most prevalent of the flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette vapor, being found in more than 60% of samples. The presence of propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were correlated, corroborating previous work suggesting thermal degradation as a pathway for aldehyde generation in e-cigarette vapors. Median formaldehyde concentrations of 626 μg/m 3 in e-cigarette vapor exceed the ACGIH maximum concentrations allowable for workers of 370 μg/m 3 .

  8. Flavor structure in F-theory compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hirotaka; Kawano, Teruhiko; Tsuchiya, Yoichi; Watari, Taizan

    2010-08-01

    F-theory is one of frameworks in string theory where supersymmetric grand unification is accommodated, and all the Yukawa couplings and Majorana masses of righthanded neutrinos are generated. Yukawa couplings of charged fermions are generated at codimension-3 singularities, and a contribution from a given singularity point is known to be approximately rank 1. Thus, the approximate rank of Yukawa matrices in low-energy effective theory of generic F-theory compactifications are minimum of either the number of generations N gen = 3 or the number of singularity points of certain types. If there is a geometry with only one E 6 type point and one D 6 type point over the entire 7-brane for SU(5) gauge fields, F-theory compactified on such a geometry would reproduce approximately rank-1 Yukawa matrices in the real world. We found, however, that there is no such geometry. Thus, it is a problem how to generate hierarchical Yukawa eigenvalues in F-theory compactifications. A solution in the literature so far is to take an appropriate factorization limit. In this article, we propose an alternative solution to the hierarchical structure problem (which requires to tune some parameters) by studying how zero mode wavefunctions depend on complex structure moduli. In this solution, the N gen × N gen CKM matrix is predicted to have only N gen entries of order unity without an extra tuning of parameters, and the lepton flavor anarchy is predicted for the lepton mixing matrix. The hierarchy among the Yukawa eigenvalues of the down-type and charged lepton sector is predicted to be smaller than that of the up-type sector, and the Majorana masses of left-handed neutrinos generated through the see-saw mechanism have small hierarchy. All of these predictions agree with what we observe in the real world. We also obtained a precise description of zero mode wavefunctions near the E 6 type singularity points, where the up-type Yukawa couplings are generated.

  9. SU(3) group structure of strange flavor hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2015-01-01

    We provide the isoscalar factors of the SU(3) Clebsch-Gordan series 8⊗ 35 which are extensions of the previous works of de Swart, McNamee and Chilton and play practical roles in current ongoing strange flavor hadron physics research. To this end, we pedagogically study the SU(3) Lie algebra, its spin symmetries, and its eigenvalues for irreducible representations. We also evaluate the values of the Wigner D functions related to the isoscalar factors; these functions are immediately applicable to strange flavor hadron phenomenology. Exploiting these SU(3) group properties associated with the spin symmetries, we investigate the decuplet-to-octet transition magnetic moments and the baryon octet and decuplet magnetic moments in the flavor symmetric limit to construct the Coleman-Glashow-type sum rules.

  10. Isovector and flavor-diagonal charges of the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Jang, Yong-Chull; Lin, Huey-Wen; Yoon, Boram

    2018-03-01

    We present an update on the status of the calculations of isovector and flavor-diagonal charges of the nucleon. The calculations of the isovector charges are being done using ten 2+1+1-flavor HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration covering the range of lattice spacings a ≈ 0.12, 0.09, 0.06 fm and pion masses Mπ ≈ 310, 220, 130 MeV. Excited-states contamination is controlled by using four-state fits to two-point correlators and three-states fits to the three-point correlators. The calculations of the disconnected diagrams needed to estimate flavor-diagonal charges are being done on a subset of six ensembles using the stocastic method. Final results are obtained using a simultaneous fit in M2π, the lattice spacing a and the finite volume parameter MπL keeping only the leading order corrections.

  11. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Bagrow, James P.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice. PMID:22355711

  12. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  13. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    DOE PAGES

    Johns, Lucas Andrew; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; ...

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1–3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν- or ν¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examinemore » our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Lastly, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.« less

  14. Neutrino flavor transformation in the lepton-asymmetric universe

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Lucas Andrew; Mina, Mattia; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    We investigate neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe in the presence of a lepton asymmetry, focusing on a two-flavor system with 1–3 mixing parameters. We identify five distinct regimes that emerge in an approximate treatment neglecting collisions as the initial lepton asymmetry at high temperature is varied from values comparable to current constraints on the lepton number down to values at which the neutrino-neutrino forward-scattering potential is negligible. The characteristic phenomena occurring in these regimes are (1) large synchronized oscillations, (2) minimal flavor transformation, (3) asymmetric (ν- or ν¯-only) MSW, (4) partial MSW, and (5) symmetric MSW. We examinemore » our numerical results in the framework of adiabaticity, and we illustrate how they are modified by collisional damping. Lastly, we point out the existence of matter-neutrino resonances in the early Universe and show that they suffer from nonadiabaticity.« less

  15. PHENIX Measurements of Heavy Flavor in Small Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    The study of heavy flavor production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is a sensitive probe of the hot and dense matter created in such collisions. Installation of silicon vertex detectors in the PHENIX experiment, and increased performance of the BNL RHIC collider allowed collection of large amount of data on heavy flavor production in small colliding systems. In this talk we will present recent PHENIX results on open heavy flavor and quarkonia production in p+p, p+A, d+A, and He3+A colliding systems in a broad rapidity range, and discuss how these measurements help us to better understand all stages of nuclear collisions at high energy.

  16. Extended investigation of the twelve-flavor β-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Zoltán; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nógrádi, Dániel; Wong, Chik Him

    2018-04-01

    We report new results from high precision analysis of an important BSM gauge theory with twelve massless fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The range of the renormalized gauge coupling is extended from our earlier work [1] to probe the existence of an infrared fixed point (IRFP) in the β-function reported at two different locations, originally in [2] and at a new location in [3]. We find no evidence for the IRFP of the β-function in the extended range of the renormalized gauge coupling, in disagreement with [2,3]. New arguments to guard the existence of the IRFP remain unconvincing [4], including recent claims of an IRFP with ten massless fermion flavors [5,6] which we also rule out. Predictions of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β-function for general flavor number are discussed in this context.

  17. Supernova neutrino three-flavor evolution with dominant collective effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, Gianluigi; Marrone, Antonio; Tamborra, Irene

    2009-04-15

    Neutrino and antineutrino fluxes from a core-collapse galactic supernova are studied, within a representative three-flavor scenario with inverted mass hierarchy and tiny 1-3 mixing. The initial flavor evolution is dominated by collective self-interaction effects, which are computed in a full three-family framework along an averaged radial trajectory. During the whole time span considered (t = 1-20 s), neutrino and antineutrino spectral splits emerge as dominant features in the energy domain for the final, observable fluxes. The main results can be useful for SN event rate simulations in specific detectors. Some minor or unobservable three-family features (e.g., related to the muonic-tauonicmore » flavor sector), as well as observable effects due to variations in the spectral input, are also discussed for completeness.« less

  18. Zygosaccharomyces bailii Is a Potential Producer of Various Flavor Compounds in Chinese Maotai-Flavor Liquor Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Rubing; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a common yeast in various food fermentations. Understanding the metabolic properties and genetic mechanisms of Z. bailii is important for its industrial applications. Fermentation characteristics of Z. bailii MT15 from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation were studied. Z. bailii MT15 produced various flavor compounds, including 19 alcohols, six acids, three esters, three ketones, and two aldehydes. Moreover, production of acids and aldehydes were increased by 110 and 41%, respectively, at 37°C (the maximum temperature in liquor fermentation) compared with that at 30°C, indicating its excellent flavor productivity. Z. bailii MT15 is a diploid with genome size of 20.19 Mb. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 12 genes related to amino acid transport were significantly up-regulated (2.41- to 5.11-fold) at 37°C. Moreover, genes ARO8, ARO9, and ALDH4 involved in amino acid metabolism also showed higher expression levels (>1.71-fold) at 37°C. Increased substrate supply and a vigorous metabolism might be beneficial for the increased production of acids and aldehydes at 37°C. This work revealed the potential contribution of Z. bailii to various flavor compounds in food fermentation, and produced insights into the metabolic mechanisms of Z. bailii in flavor production. PMID:29312273

  19. The effect of toothpicks containing flavoring and flavoring plus jambu extract (spilanthol) to promote salivation in patients -diagnosed with opioid-induced dry mouth (xerostomia).

    PubMed

    Davis, Bennet; Davis, Kathy; Bigelow, Sandy; Healey, Patricia

    To determine if the use of toothpicks infused with flavoring and flavoring plus the food additive spilanthol (Xerosticks™) improve saliva flow in people with opioid-induced dry mouth. Time series, nonrandomized, double-blind within-subject design. Private practice/academic multidisciplinary pain and palliative care clinic. Ten subjects with opioid-induced dry mouth were recruited, and all finished the study. Salivary flow and pH were measured consecutively at baseline, following use of a mango-flavored toothpick, and again after use of a mango-flavored toothpick infused with spilanthol. Salivary flow rates and saliva pH were compared between flavored and baseline, between flavored + spilanthol and baseline, and between the flavored and flavored + spilanthol. Mouthfeel of each toothpick was assessed using the Bluestone Mouthfeel Questionnaire. The primary measure was salivary flow, and the secondary measures were salivary pH and mouthfeel. Saliva flow increased 440 percent over baseline with use of a flavored toothpick and 628 percent over baseline with similarly flavored toothpicks infused with spilanthol, and these differences are significant (p = 0.00002). Saliva pH increased with both toothpicks (p = 0.04). The addition of spilanthol produced a greater increase in salivary flow (p = 0.05) compared to control toothpicks with flavoring alone. Furthermore, addition of spilanthol improved the "mouthfeel" of the toothpick (p = 0.00001). Toothpicks infused with either flavoring or flavoring plus spilanthol are likely to be an effective remedy for opioid-induced dry mouth. Addition of spilanthol may improve effectiveness over flavoring alone and may be better ac-cepted because spilanthol appears to improve mouthfeel.

  20. Domain wall fermion QCD with the exact one flavor algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.; Kelly, C.; Mawhinney, R. D.

    Lattice QCD calculations including the effects of one or more nondegenerate sea quark flavors are conventionally performed using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, which computes the square root of the determinant ofmore » $${\\mathcal{D}}^{\\dagger{}}\\mathcal{D}$$, where $$\\mathcal{D}$$ is the Dirac operator. The special case of two degenerate quark flavors with the same mass is described directly by the determinant of $${\\mathcal{D}}^{\\dagger{}}\\mathcal{D}$$—in particular, no square root is necessary—enabling a variety of algorithmic developments, which have driven down the cost of simulating the light (up and down) quarks in the isospin-symmetric limit of equal masses. As a result, the relative cost of single quark flavors—such as the strange or charm—computed with RHMC has become more expensive. This problem is even more severe in the context of our measurements of the $$\\mathrm{{\\Delta}}I=1/2$$ $$K{\\rightarrow}{\\pi}{\\pi}$$ matrix elements on lattice ensembles with $G$-parity boundary conditions, since $G$-parity is associated with a doubling of the number of quark flavors described by $$\\mathcal{D}$$ , and thus RHMC is needed for the isospin-symmetric light quarks as well. In this paper we report on our implementation of the exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA) introduced by the TWQCD Collaboration for simulations including single flavors of domain wall quarks. We have developed a new preconditioner for the EOFA Dirac equation, which both reduces the cost of solving the Dirac equation and allows us to reuse the bulk of our existing high-performance code. Coupling these improvements with careful tuning of our integrator, the time per accepted trajectory in the production of our $2+1$ flavor $G$-parity ensembles with physical pion and kaon masses has been decreased by a factor of 4.2.« less

  1. Domain wall fermion QCD with the exact one flavor algorithm

    DOE PAGES

    Jung, C.; Kelly, C.; Mawhinney, R. D.; ...

    2018-03-13

    Lattice QCD calculations including the effects of one or more nondegenerate sea quark flavors are conventionally performed using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, which computes the square root of the determinant ofmore » $${\\mathcal{D}}^{\\dagger{}}\\mathcal{D}$$, where $$\\mathcal{D}$$ is the Dirac operator. The special case of two degenerate quark flavors with the same mass is described directly by the determinant of $${\\mathcal{D}}^{\\dagger{}}\\mathcal{D}$$—in particular, no square root is necessary—enabling a variety of algorithmic developments, which have driven down the cost of simulating the light (up and down) quarks in the isospin-symmetric limit of equal masses. As a result, the relative cost of single quark flavors—such as the strange or charm—computed with RHMC has become more expensive. This problem is even more severe in the context of our measurements of the $$\\mathrm{{\\Delta}}I=1/2$$ $$K{\\rightarrow}{\\pi}{\\pi}$$ matrix elements on lattice ensembles with $G$-parity boundary conditions, since $G$-parity is associated with a doubling of the number of quark flavors described by $$\\mathcal{D}$$ , and thus RHMC is needed for the isospin-symmetric light quarks as well. In this paper we report on our implementation of the exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA) introduced by the TWQCD Collaboration for simulations including single flavors of domain wall quarks. We have developed a new preconditioner for the EOFA Dirac equation, which both reduces the cost of solving the Dirac equation and allows us to reuse the bulk of our existing high-performance code. Coupling these improvements with careful tuning of our integrator, the time per accepted trajectory in the production of our $2+1$ flavor $G$-parity ensembles with physical pion and kaon masses has been decreased by a factor of 4.2.« less

  2. Domain wall fermion QCD with the exact one flavor algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Kelly, C.; Mawhinney, R. D.; Murphy, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Lattice QCD calculations including the effects of one or more nondegenerate sea quark flavors are conventionally performed using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, which computes the square root of the determinant of D†D , where D is the Dirac operator. The special case of two degenerate quark flavors with the same mass is described directly by the determinant of D†D —in particular, no square root is necessary—enabling a variety of algorithmic developments, which have driven down the cost of simulating the light (up and down) quarks in the isospin-symmetric limit of equal masses. As a result, the relative cost of single quark flavors—such as the strange or charm—computed with RHMC has become more expensive. This problem is even more severe in the context of our measurements of the Δ I =1 /2 K →π π matrix elements on lattice ensembles with G -parity boundary conditions, since G -parity is associated with a doubling of the number of quark flavors described by D , and thus RHMC is needed for the isospin-symmetric light quarks as well. In this paper we report on our implementation of the exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA) introduced by the TWQCD Collaboration for simulations including single flavors of domain wall quarks. We have developed a new preconditioner for the EOFA Dirac equation, which both reduces the cost of solving the Dirac equation and allows us to reuse the bulk of our existing high-performance code. Coupling these improvements with careful tuning of our integrator, the time per accepted trajectory in the production of our 2 +1 flavor G -parity ensembles with physical pion and kaon masses has been decreased by a factor of 4.2.

  3. Potential of gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-oaTOFMS) in flavor research.

    PubMed

    Fay, Laurent B; Newton, Anthony; Simian, Hervé; Robert, Fabien; Douce, David; Hancock, Peter; Green, Martin; Blank, Imre

    2003-04-23

    Gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-oaTOFMS) is an emerging technique offering a straightforward access to a resolving power up to 7000. This paper deals with the use of GC-oaTOFMS to identify the flavor components of a complex seafood flavor extract and to quantify furanones formed in model Maillard reactions. A seafood extract was selected as a representative example for complex food flavors and was previously analyzed using GC-quadrupole MS, leaving several molecules unidentified. GC-oaTOFMS analysis was focused on these unknowns to evaluate its potential in flavor research, particularly for determining exact masses. N-Methyldithiodimethylamine, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and tetrahydro-2,4-dimethyl-4H-pyrrolo[2,1-d]-1,3,5-dithiazine were successfully identified on the basis of the precise mass determination of their molecular ions and their major fragments. A second set of experiments was performed to test the capabilities of the GC-oaTOFMS for quantification. Calibration curves were found to be linear over a dynamic range of 10(3) for the quantification of furanones. The quantitative data obtained using GC-oaTOFMS confirmed earlier results that the formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was favored in the xylose/glycine model reaction and 2(or 5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone in the xylose/alanine model reaction. It was concluded that GC-oaTOFMS may become a powerful analytical tool for the flavor chemist for both identification and quantification purposes, the latter in particular when combined with stable isotope dilution assay.

  4. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed.

  5. Selective adsorption of flavor-active components on hydrophobic resins.

    PubMed

    Saffarionpour, Shima; Sevillano, David Mendez; Van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Noordman, T Reinoud; Brouwer, Eric; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-12-09

    This work aims to propose an optimum resin that can be used in industrial adsorption process for tuning flavor-active components or removal of ethanol for producing an alcohol-free beer. A procedure is reported for selective adsorption of volatile aroma components from water/ethanol mixtures on synthetic hydrophobic resins. High throughput 96-well microtiter-plates batch uptake experimentation is applied for screening resins for adsorption of esters (i.e. isoamyl acetate, and ethyl acetate), higher alcohols (i.e. isoamyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol), a diketone (diacetyl) and ethanol. The miniaturized batch uptake method is adapted for adsorption of volatile components, and validated with column breakthrough analysis. The results of single-component adsorption tests on Sepabeads SP20-SS are expressed in single-component Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models and multi-component versions of Langmuir and Sips models are applied for expressing multi-component adsorption results obtained on several tested resins. The adsorption parameters are regressed and the selectivity over ethanol is calculated for each tested component and tested resin. Resin scores for four different scenarios of selective adsorption of esters, higher alcohols, diacetyl, and ethanol are obtained. The optimal resin for adsorption of esters is Sepabeads SP20-SS with resin score of 87% and for selective removal of higher alcohols, XAD16N, and XAD4 from Amberlite resin series are proposed with scores of 80 and 74% respectively. For adsorption of diacetyl, XAD16N and XAD4 resins with score of 86% are the optimum choice and Sepabeads SP2MGS and XAD761 resins showed the highest affinity towards ethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenomenology of flavorful composite vector bosons in light of B anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Shinya; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Watanabe, Ryoutaro

    2017-08-01

    We analyze the flavor structure of composite vector bosons arising in a model of vectorlike technicolor — often called hypercolor (HC) — with eight flavors that form a one-family content of HC fermions. Dynamics of the composite vector bosons, referred to as HC ρ in this paper, are formulated together with HC pions by the hidden local symmetry (HLS), in a way analogous to QCD vector mesons. Then coupling properties to the standard model (SM) fermions, which respect the HLS gauge symmetry, are described in a way that couplings of the HC ρs to the left-handed SM quarks and leptons are given by a well-defined setup as taking the flavor mixing structures into account. Under the present scenario, we discuss significant bounds on the model from electroweak precision tests, flavor physics, and collider physics. We also try to address B anomalies in processes such as B → K (∗) μ + μ - and B\\to {D}^{(\\ast )}τ\\overline{ν} , recently reported by LHCb, Belle, (ATLAS, and CMS in part). Then we find that the present model can account for the anomaly in B → K (∗) μ + μ - consistently with the other constraints while it predicts no significant deviations in B\\to {D}^{(\\ast )}τ\\overline{ν} ν from the SM, which can be examined in the future Belle II experiment. The former is archived with the form C 9 = - C 10 of the Wilson coefficients for effective operators of b → sμ + μ -, which has been favored by the recent experimental data. We also investigate current and future experimental limits at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and see that possible collider signals come from dijet and ditau, or dimuon resonant searches for the present scenario with TeV mass range. To conclude, the present b → sμ + μ - anomaly is likely to imply discovery of new vector bosons in the ditau or dimuon channel in the context of the HC ρ model. Our model can be considered as a UV completion of conventional U(1)' models.

  7. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Aaron M.; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O’Sullivan, Orla; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Claesson, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides. Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to

  8. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides . Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand

  9. Current Status and Future Perspectives in Flavor Research: Highlights of the 11th Wartburg Symposium on Flavor Chemistry & Biology.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Krautwurst, Dietmar; Schieberle, Peter

    2018-03-14

    The 11th Wartburg Symposium on Flavor Chemistry & Biology, held at the hotel "Auf der Wartburg" in Eisenach, Germany, from June 21 to 24 in 2016, offered a venue for global exchange on cutting-edge research in chemistry and biology of odor and taste. The focus areas were (1) functional flavor genomics and biotechnology, (2) flavor generation and precursors, (3) new approaches and precursors, (4) new approaches and technologies, (5) new molecules and structure/activity relationships, (6) food-borne bioactives and chemosensory health prevention, and (7) chemosensory reception, processing, and perception. Selected from more than 250 applicants, 160 distinguished scientists and rising stars from academia and industry from 24 countries participated in this multidisciplinary event. This special issue comprises a selection of 33 papers from oral presentations and poster contributions and is prefaced by this symposium introduction to carve out essential achievements in odor and taste chemistry and to share future research perspectives.

  10. Cancer associated fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis by modulating the tumor immune microenvironment in a 4T1 murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Liao, Debbie; Luo, Yunping; Markowitz, Dorothy; Xiang, Rong; Reisfeld, Ralph A

    2009-11-23

    Local inflammation associated with solid tumors commonly results from factors released by tumor cells and the tumor stroma, and promotes tumor progression. Cancer associated fibroblasts comprise a majority of the cells found in tumor stroma and are appealing targets for cancer therapy. Here, our aim was to determine the efficacy of targeting cancer associated fibroblasts for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. We demonstrate that cancer associated fibroblasts are key modulators of immune polarization in the tumor microenvironment of a 4T1 murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Elimination of cancer associated fibroblasts in vivo by a DNA vaccine targeted to fibroblast activation protein results in a shift of the immune microenvironment from a Th2 to Th1 polarization. This shift is characterized by increased protein expression of IL-2 and IL-7, suppressed recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells, T regulatory cells, and decreased tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, the vaccine improved anti-metastatic effects of doxorubicin chemotherapy and enhanced suppression of IL-6 and IL-4 protein expression while increasing recruitment of dendritic cells and CD8(+) T cells. Treatment with the combination therapy also reduced tumor-associated Vegf, Pdgfc, and GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that cancer associated fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis through their role as key modulators of immune polarization in the tumor microenvironment and are valid targets for therapy of metastatic breast cancer.

  11. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...

  12. Integrable open spin chains from flavored ABJM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; He, Song; Wu, Jun-Bao; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhu, Meng-Qi

    2017-08-01

    We compute the two-loop anomalous dimension matrix in the scalar sector of planar N=3 flavored ABJM theory. Using coordinate Bethe ansatz, we obtain the reflection matrices and confirm that the boundary Yang-Baxter equations are satisfied. This establishes the integrability of this theory in the scalar sector at the two-loop order.

  13. How the axial anomaly controls flavor mixing among mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Koenigstein, Adrian; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that, because of the axial anomaly in QCD, mesons with JP=0- are close to S U (3 )V eigenstates; the η'(958 ) meson is largely a singlet, and the η meson an octet. In contrast, states with JP=1- are flavor diagonal; e.g., the ϕ (1020 ) is almost pure s ¯s . Using effective Lagrangians, we show how this generalizes to states with higher spin, assuming that they can be classified according to the unbroken chiral symmetry of Gfl=S U (3 )L×S U (3 )R. We construct effective Lagrangians from terms invariant under Gfl and introduce the concept of hetero- and homochiral multiplets. Because of the axial anomaly, only terms invariant under the Z (3 )A subgroup of the axial U (1 )A enter. For heterochiral multiplets, which begin with that including the η and η'(958 ), there are Z (3 )A invariant terms with low mass dimension which cause states to mix according to S U (3 )V flavor. For homochiral multiplets, which begin with that including the ϕ (1020 ), there are no Z (3 )A invariant terms with low mass dimension, and so states are diagonal in flavor. In this way, we predict the flavor mixing for the heterochiral multiplet with spin 1 as well as for hetero- and homochiral multiplets with spin 2 and spin 3.

  14. Increasing total cross sections and flavoring of Pomeron in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Chung-I.

    A unified treatment of both the elastic and inelastic hadronic production is presented from the viewpoint of a topological expansion of nonperturbative QCD. The phenomenon of increasing total cross sections is examined and its relation to the flavoring of Pomeron is clarified. 12 refs.

  15. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the following components: component and limitations Succinylated gelatin—Not to exceed 15 percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and flavoring oil. Succinic acid content of the gelatin is 4.5... coacervate of gum arabic and gelatin. n-Octyl alcohol—As a defoamer. (4) In lieu of the components listed in...

  16. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitations Succinylated gelatin—Not to exceed 15 percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and flavoring oil. Succinic acid content of the gelatin is 4.5 to 5.5 percent. Arabinogalactan—Complying with § 172... Glutaraldehyde—As cross-linking agent for insolubilizing a coacervate of gum arabic and gelatin. n-Octyl alcohol...

  17. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... limitations Succinylated gelatin—Not to exceed 15 percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and flavoring oil. Succinic acid content of the gelatin is 4.5 to 5.5 percent. Arabinogalactan—Complying with § 172... Glutaraldehyde—As cross-linking agent for insolubilizing a coacervate of gum arabic and gelatin. n-Octyl alcohol...

  18. Fund Balances: What Flavors and How Many Scoops Are Appropriate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1986-01-01

    Just as ice cream comes in many flavors for different tastes, fund balances need to be reserved and designated to meet school district plans and commitments. This article examines accounting principles and other issues determining the segregation and size of a school district's fund balance, a legally restricted reserve that can affect the…

  19. Researchers Argue Boredom May Be "A Flavor of Stress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Students may say a teacher's lesson is boring, a researcher says, when frustration is really what they feel. While boredom is a perennial student complaint, emerging research shows it is more than students' not feeling entertained, but rather a "flavor of stress" that can interfere with their ability to learn and even their health. An…

  20. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  1. Constraining astrophysical neutrino flavor composition from leptonic unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xun-Jie; He, Hong-Jian; Rodejohann, Werner, E-mail: xunjie.xu@gmail.com, E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-12-01

    The recent IceCube observation of ultra-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has begun the era of neutrino astronomy. In this work, using the unitarity of leptonic mixing matrix, we derive nontrivial unitarity constraints on the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos detected by IceCube. Applying leptonic unitarity triangles, we deduce these unitarity bounds from geometrical conditions, such as triangular inequalities. These new bounds generally hold for three flavor neutrinos, and are independent of any experimental input or the pattern of lepton mixing. We apply our unitarity bounds to derive general constraints on the flavor compositions for three types of astrophysical neutrino sources (and theirmore » general mixture), and compare them with the IceCube measurements. Furthermore, we prove that for any sources without ν{sub τ} neutrinos, a detected ν{sub μ} flux ratio < 1/4 will require the initial flavor composition with more ν{sub e} neutrinos than ν{sub μ} neutrinos.« less

  2. Review of physics results from the Tevatron: Heavy flavor physics

    DOE PAGES

    Lewis, Jonathan; van Kooten, Rick

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we present a review of heavy flavor physics results from the CDF and DØ Collaborations operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A summary of results from Run 1 is included, but we concentrate on legacy results of charm and b physics from Run 2, including results up to Summer 2014.

  3. Providing information about a flavor to preschoolers: effects on liking and memory for having tasted it.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Cardinal, Tiffany M

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to determine if providing affectively positive information about a flavor to preschool-aged children during tasting will increase recognition of and liking for the flavor and if the recognition and liking are associated. Forty-six 3- to 6-year-old children tasted 10 flavors: 5 presented with affectively positive information and 5 without. The 10 flavors were then presented again interspersed with 10 distracter flavors. Children reported whether they had tasted the flavor previously and provided hedonic ratings for each flavor. Children's ability to remember having tasted a flavor was greater when the flavor was presented with affectively positive information than without in children throughout the age range of 3-6 years. In children younger than 4.5 years, the provision of information had no effect on hedonic rating, whereas in older children, the provision of information was associated with greater hedonic ratings. We conclude that providing affectively positive information to children about a flavor can increase their ability to recognize the flavor as previously tasted and increases hedonic rating of the flavor in children older than 4.5 years.

  4. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  5. Statistical approaches to optimize detection of MIB off-flavor in aquaculture raised channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The catfish industry prides itself on preventing inadvertent sale of off-flavor fish. Typically, several fish are taste tested over several weeks before pond harvest to confirm good fish flavor quality. We collected several data sets of analytically measured off-flavor concentrations in catfish to...

  6. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  7. An Investigation Into the Differences in Bone Density and Body Composition Measurements Between 2 GE Lunar Densitometers and Their Comparison to a 4-Component Model.

    PubMed

    Watson, Laura P E; Venables, Michelle C; Murgatroyd, Peter R

    We describe a study to assess the precision of the GE Lunar iDXA and the agreement between the iDXA and GE Lunar Prodigy densitometers for the measurement of regional- and total-body bone and body composition in normal to obese healthy adults. We compare the whole-body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measurements by a 4-component (4-C) model. Sixty-nine participants, aged 37 ± 12 yr, with a body mass index of 26.2 ± 5.1 kg/cm 2 , were measured once on the Prodigy and twice on the iDXA. The 4-C model estimated fat mass from body mass, total body water by deuterium dilution, body volume by air displacement plethysmography, and bone mass by DXA. Agreements between measurements made on the 2 instruments and by the 4-C model were analyzed by Bland-Altman and linear regression analyses. Where appropriate, translational cross-calibration equations were derived. Differences between DXA software versions were investigated. iDXA precision was less than 2% of the measured value for all regional- and whole-body bone and body composition measurements with the exception of arm fat mass (2.28%). We found significant differences between iDXA and Prodigy (p < 0.05) whole-body and regional bone, fat mass (FM), and lean mass, with the exception of hip bone mass, area and density, and spine area. Compared to iDXA, Prodigy overestimated FM and underestimated lean mass. However, compared to 4-C, iDXA showed a smaller bias and narrower limits of agreement than Prodigy. No significant differences between software versions in FM estimations existed. Our results demonstrate excellent iDXA precision. However, significant differences exist between the 2 GE Lunar instruments, Prodigy and iDXA measurement values. A divergence from the reference 4-C observations remains in FM estimations made by DXA even following the recent advances in technology. Further studies are particularly warranted in individuals with large FM contents. Copyright © 2017. Published

  8. Flavor and chiral stability of lemon-flavored hard tea during storage.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Qian, YanPing L; Qian, Michael C

    2018-01-15

    Flavor stability of hard tea beverage was investigated over eight weeks of storage. The volatile compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and two-dimensional GC-MS. Quantitative analysis showed that the concentrations of linalool, citronellol, geranial, neral, geraniol, and nerol decreased dramatically during storage, whereas α-terpineol showed an increasing trend during storage. Heart-cut two-dimensional GC-MS (2D-GC-MS) chirality analysis showed that (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(-)-α-terpineol and (S)-(-)-4-terpineol dominated in the fresh hard tea samples, however, the configuration changed during storage for the terpene alcohols. The storage conditions did not change the configuration of limonene. A conversion of (R)-(-)-linalool to (S)-(+) form was observed during storage. Both (S)-α-terpineol and (S)-4-terpineol dominated at beginning of the storage, but (R)-(+)-α-terpineol became dominated after storage, suggested in addition to isomerization from (S)-α-terpineol, other precursors could also generate α-terpineol with (R)-isomer preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-07

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter.

  10. Lepton-Flavor-Dependent Angular Analysis of B→K^{*}ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}.

    PubMed

    Wehle, S; Niebuhr, C; Yashchenko, S; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Al Said, S; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Aziz, T; Babu, V; Bakich, A M; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Bartel, W; Behera, P; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chang, P; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dash, N; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grzymkowska, O; Guido, E; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hedges, M T; Hou, W-S; Hsu, C-L; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Inguglia, G; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Jeon, H B; Jin, Y; Joffe, D; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kaliyar, A B; Kang, K H; Karyan, G; Katrenko, P; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J B; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kinoshita, K; Koch, L; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Kotchetkov, D; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kulasiri, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Li, C H; Li, L; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lubej, M; Luo, T; Masuda, M; Matsuda, T; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mori, T; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Nath, K J; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Ono, H; Onuki, Y; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, C-S; Park, C W; Park, H; Paul, S; Pesántez, L; Piilonen, L E; Pulvermacher, C; Rauch, J; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schlüter, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seino, Y; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Seong, I S; Sevior, M E; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Sinha, R; Solovieva, E; Starič, M; Strube, J F; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Takizawa, M; Tamponi, U; Tenchini, F; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Waheed, E; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Widmann, E; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamamoto, H; Yamashita, Y; Ye, H; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhukova, V; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, M; Zupanc, A

    2017-03-17

    We present a measurement of angular observables and a test of lepton flavor universality in the B→K^{*}ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-} decay, where ℓ is either e or μ. The analysis is performed on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 711  fb^{-1} containing 772×10^{6} BB[over ¯] pairs, collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider KEKB. The result is consistent with standard model (SM) expectations, where the largest discrepancy from a SM prediction is observed in the muon modes with a local significance of 2.6σ.

  11. The use of diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) and related flavoring substances as flavorings added to foods-Workplace safety issues.

    PubMed

    Hallagan, John B

    2017-08-01

    In 2001, staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) as a "marker" of exposure in a microwave popcorn manufacturing facility in which workers developed severe respiratory illness. Subsequent investigations identified additional workers in food and flavor manufacturing facilities also with severe respiratory illness. The flavor industry, NIOSH, and federal and state regulators conducted significant programs to address workplace safety concerns related to the manufacture of flavors and foods containing added flavors. These programs, initiated in 2001, continue today. Key to the success of these programs is understanding what flavors added to foods are and how they are manufactured, how they are incorporated into foods, the specific characteristics of diacetyl and related flavoring substances, and what actions may be taken to assure the safest workplaces possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A systematic review of consumer preference for e-cigarette attributes: Flavor, nicotine strength, and type

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Objective Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. Method A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. Results 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Conclusion Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol

  14. A systematic review of consumer preference for e-cigarette attributes: Flavor, nicotine strength, and type.

    PubMed

    Zare, Samane; Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol flavor and nicotine strength.

  15. Flavor and flavor chemistry differences among milks processed by high-temperature, short-time pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y; Benoist, D M; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2018-05-01

    Typical high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization encompasses a lower heat treatment and shorter refrigerated shelf life compared with ultra-pasteurization (UP) achieved by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). A greater understanding of the effect of different heat treatments on flavor and flavor chemistry of milk is required to characterize, understand, and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the flavor and volatile compound profiles of milk subjected to HTST, DSI-UP, or IND-UP using sensory and instrumental techniques. Raw skim and raw standardized 2% fat milks (50 L each) were processed in triplicate and pasteurized at 78°C for 15 s (HTST) or 140°C for 2.3 s by DSI-UP or IND-UP. Milks were cooled and stored at 4°C, then analyzed at d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Sensory attributes were determined using a trained panel, and aroma active compounds were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction or stir bar sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and gas chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry. The UP milks had distinct cooked and sulfur flavors compared with HTST milks. The HTST milks had less diversity in aroma active compounds compared with UP milks. Flavor intensity of all milks decreased by d 14 of storage. Aroma active compound profiles were affected by heat treatment and storage time in both skim and 2% milk. High-impact aroma active compounds were hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional in DSI-UP and 2 and 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-aminoacetophenone, benzaldehyde, and dimethyl sulfide in IND-UP. These results provide a foundation knowledge of the effect of heat treatments on flavor development and differences in sensory quality of UP milks. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Search for dark matter produced in association with heavy-flavor quark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}= 13\\,\\text{TeV} $$

    DOE PAGES

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...

    2017-12-08

    A search is presented for an excess of events with heavy-flavor quark pairs (tt¯ and bb¯) and a large imbalance in transverse momentum in data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb –1 collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations are observed with respect to standard model predictions. The results are used in the first interpretation of dark matter production in tt¯ and bb¯ final states in a simplified model. This analysis is also the first to perform a statistical combination of searchesmore » for dark matter produced with different heavy-flavor final states. Lastly, the combination provides exclusions that are stronger than those achieved with individual heavy-flavor final states.« less

  17. Search for dark matter produced in association with heavy-flavor quark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}= 13\\,\\text{TeV} $$

    SciTech Connect

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.

    A search is presented for an excess of events with heavy-flavor quark pairs (tt¯ and bb¯) and a large imbalance in transverse momentum in data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb –1 collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations are observed with respect to standard model predictions. The results are used in the first interpretation of dark matter production in tt¯ and bb¯ final states in a simplified model. This analysis is also the first to perform a statistical combination of searchesmore » for dark matter produced with different heavy-flavor final states. Lastly, the combination provides exclusions that are stronger than those achieved with individual heavy-flavor final states.« less

  18. Search for dark matter produced in association with heavy-flavor quark pairs in proton-proton collisions at √{s}= 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Shumeiko, N.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Zeid, S. Abu; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Marono, M. Vidal; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Teles, P. Rebello; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Costa, E. M. Da; Silveira, G. G. Da; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Herrera, C. Mora; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; De Araujo, F. Torres Da Silva; Pereira, A. Vilela; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Abad, D. Romero; Vargas, J. C. Ruiz; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Hernández, C. F. González; Alvarez, J. D. Ruiz; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Jarrin, E. Carrera; Assran, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mahrous, A.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Leiton, A. G. 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Rezaei; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badoer, S.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Benettoni, M.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; De Oliveira, A. Carvalho Antunes; Checchia, P.; Manzano, P. De Castro; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Braghieri, A.; Fallavollita, F.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Solestizi, L. Alunni; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. 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V.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Polikarpov, S.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Maestre, J. Alcaraz; Luna, M. Barrio; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Cruz, B. De La; Peris, A. Delgado; Del Valle, A. Escalante; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Lopez, O. Gonzalez; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; De Martino, E. Navarro; Yzquierdo, A. Pérez-Calero; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Olmeda, A. Quintario; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Menendez, J. Fernandez; Caballero, I. Gonzalez; Fernández, J. R. González; Cortezon, E. Palencia; Cruz, S. Sanchez; Andrés, I. Suárez; Vischia, P.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Quero, B. Chazin; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Virto, A. Lopez; Marco, J.; Rivero, C. Martinez; Matorras, F.; Gomez, J. Piedra; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. 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F.; De Cosa, A.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Yang, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Moya, M. Miñano; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. F.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Topaksu, A. Kayis; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Nasr-storey, S. Seif El; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Acosta, M. Vazquez; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Burns, D.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Shirazi, S. M. A. Ghiasi; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Della Porta, G. Zevi; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Sevilla, M. Franco; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; De Sá, R. Lopes; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Gonzalez, I. D. Sandoval; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; De Lima, R. Teixeira; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Semova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Anampa, K. Hurtado; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Benaglia, A.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Espinosa, T. A. Gómez; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Elayavalli, R. Kunnawalkam; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Hernandez, A. Castaneda; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-12-01

    A search is presented for an excess of events with heavy-flavor quark pairs ({t}\\overline{{t}} and {b} \\overline{{b}} ) and a large imbalance in transverse momentum in data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb^{-1} collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations are observed with respect to standard model predictions. The results are used in the first interpretation of dark matter production in {t}\\overline{{t}} and {b} \\overline{{b}} final states in a simplified model. This analysis is also the first to perform a statistical combination of searches for dark matter produced with different heavy-flavor final states. The combination provides exclusions that are stronger than those achieved with individual heavy-flavor final states.

  19. Effective lepton flavor violating H ℓiℓj vertex from right-handed neutrinos within the mass insertion approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arganda, E.; Herrero, M. J.; Marcano, X.; Morales, R.; Szynkman, A.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present a new computation of the lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays that are generated radiatively to one-loop from heavy right-handed neutrinos. We work within the context of the inverse seesaw model with three νR and three extra singlets X , but the results could be generalized to other low scale seesaw models. The novelty of our computation is that it uses a completely different method by means of the mass insertion approximation which works with the electroweak interaction states instead of the usual 9 physical neutrino mass eigenstates of the inverse seesaw model. This method also allows us to write the analytical results explicitly in terms of the most relevant model parameters, that are the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix Yν and the right-handed mass matrix MR, which is very convenient for a phenomenological analysis. This Yν matrix, being generically nondiagonal in flavor space, is the only one responsible for the induced charged lepton flavor violating processes of our interest. We perform the calculation of the decay amplitude up to order O (Yν2+Yν4). We also study numerically the goodness of the mass insertion approximation results. In the last part we present the computation of the relevant one-loop effective vertex H ℓiℓj for the lepton flavor violating Higgs decay which is derived from a large MR mass expansion of the form factors. We believe that our simple formula found for this effective vertex can be of interest for other researchers who wish to estimate the H →ℓiℓ¯j rates in a fast way in terms of their own preferred input values for the relevant model parameters Yν and MR.

  20. Flavor non-universal gauge interactions and anomalies in B-meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by flavor non-universality and anomalies in semi-leptonic B-meson decays, we present a general and systematic discussion about how to construct anomaly-free U(1)‧ gauge theories based on an extended standard model with only three right-handed neutrinos. If all standard model fermions are vector-like under this new gauge symmetry, the most general family non-universal charge assignments, (a,b,c) for three-generation quarks and (d,e,f) for leptons, need satisfy just one condition to be anomaly-free, 3(a+b+c) = - (d+e+f). Any assignment can be linear combinations of five independent anomaly-free solutions. We also illustrate how such models can generally lead to flavor-changing interactions and easily resolve the anomalies in B-meson decays. Probes with {{B}}{s} - {{\\bar B}}{s} mixing, decay into τ ±, dilepton and dijet searches at colliders are also discussed. Supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Innovative Areas (16H06490)

  1. Lepton flavor violating Z' explanation of the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Chen, Chien-Yi; Dev, P. S. Bhupal; ...

    2016-09-28

    Here, we discuss a minimal solution to the long-standing (g-2) μ anomaly in a simple extension of the Standard Model with an extra Z' vector boson that has only flavor off-diagonal couplings to the second and third generation of leptons, i.e. μ, τ, ν μ, ν τ, and their antiparticles. A simplified model realization, as well as various collider and low-energy constraints on this model, are discussed. We find that the (g-2) μ -favored region for a Z' lighter than the tau lepton is totally excluded, while a heavier Z' solution is still allowed. Some testable implications of this scenariomore » in future experiments, such as lepton-flavor universality-violating tau decays at Belle 2, and a new four-lepton signature involving same-sign di-muons and di-taus at HL-LHC and FCC-ee, are pointed out. A characteristic resonant absorption feature in the high-energy neutrino spectrum might also be observed by neutrino telescopes like IceCube and KM3NeT.« less

  2. Lepton flavor violating Z' explanation of the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Chen, Chien-Yi; Dev, P. S. Bhupal

    Here, we discuss a minimal solution to the long-standing (g-2) μ anomaly in a simple extension of the Standard Model with an extra Z' vector boson that has only flavor off-diagonal couplings to the second and third generation of leptons, i.e. μ, τ, ν μ, ν τ, and their antiparticles. A simplified model realization, as well as various collider and low-energy constraints on this model, are discussed. We find that the (g-2) μ -favored region for a Z' lighter than the tau lepton is totally excluded, while a heavier Z' solution is still allowed. Some testable implications of this scenariomore » in future experiments, such as lepton-flavor universality-violating tau decays at Belle 2, and a new four-lepton signature involving same-sign di-muons and di-taus at HL-LHC and FCC-ee, are pointed out. A characteristic resonant absorption feature in the high-energy neutrino spectrum might also be observed by neutrino telescopes like IceCube and KM3NeT.« less

  3. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    PubMed

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P < 0.001). The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1-3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  4. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  5. Heavy flavor decay of Zγ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Harrington-Taber

    2013-01-01

    Diboson production is an important and frequently measured parameter of the Standard Model. This analysis considers the previously neglected pmore » $$\\bar{p}$$ →Z γ→ b$$\\bar{b}$$ channel, as measured at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Using the entire Tevatron Run II dataset, the measured result is consistent with Standard Model predictions, but the statistical error associated with this method of measurement limits the strength of this correlation.« less

  6. Combining chemoinformatics with bioinformatics: in silico prediction of bacterial flavor-forming pathways by a chemical systems biology approach "reverse pathway engineering".

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjin; Bienfait, Bruno; Sacher, Oliver; Gasteiger, Johann; Siezen, Roland J; Nauta, Arjen; Geurts, Jan M W

    2014-01-01

    The incompleteness of genome-scale metabolic models is a major bottleneck for systems biology approaches, which are based on large numbers of metabolites as identified and quantified by metabolomics. Many of the revealed secondary metabolites and/or their derivatives, such as flavor compounds, are non-essential in metabolism, and many of their synthesis pathways are unknown. In this study, we describe a novel approach, Reverse Pathway Engineering (RPE), which combines chemoinformatics and bioinformatics analyses, to predict the "missing links" between compounds of interest and their possible metabolic precursors by providing plausible chemical and/or enzymatic reactions. We demonstrate the added-value of the approach by using flavor-forming pathways in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as an example. Established metabolic routes leading to the formation of flavor compounds from leucine were successfully replicated. Novel reactions involved in flavor formation, i.e. the conversion of alpha-hydroxy-isocaproate to 3-methylbutanoic acid and the synthesis of dimethyl sulfide, as well as the involved enzymes were successfully predicted. These new insights into the flavor-formation mechanisms in LAB can have a significant impact on improving the control of aroma formation in fermented food products. Since the input reaction databases and compounds are highly flexible, the RPE approach can be easily extended to a broad spectrum of applications, amongst others health/disease biomarker discovery as well as synthetic biology.

  7. Changes in preferences of gestating heifers fed untreated or ammoniated straw in different flavors.

    PubMed

    Atwood, S B; Provenza, F D; Wiedmeier, R D; Banner, R E

    2001-12-01

    We determined how a food's flavor and digestibility, along with an animal's recent experiences, influenced food preference and intake. In three experiments, pregnant heifers were fed a basal ration (7.75 kg/animal) of alfalfa, barley, corn silage, and a vitamin/mineral supplement from 1500 to 2200. Exp. 1 determined the influence of recent exposure to flavored straw. Animals were divided into two groups (n = 16/group) and fed either untreated or ammoniated straw with digestibilities of 43 and 58%, respectively. Within each group, half of the heifers were fed maple-flavored straw and the other half were fed coconut-flavored straw from 1100 one day to 0900 the next day, with no base ration. We then offered straw in both flavors from 1000 to 1200 for the next 5 d. Animals fed maple-flavored straw for 1 d generally preferred coconut- over maple-flavored straw for the next 5 d, whereas animals previously fed coconut-flavored straw preferred maple-flavored straw (P < 0.001). The change in preference was stronger when animals were fed untreated compared with ammoniated straw. Experiments 2 and 3 determined the influence of offering straw in different flavors, either in sequence (Exp. 2) or simultaneously (Exp. 3). In Exp. 2, we offered heifers (n = 16) straw in three flavors (maple from 0900 to 1100, coconut from 1100 to 1300, and unflavored from 1300 to 1500) and compared their intake with that of heifers (n = 16) offered unflavored straw throughout the day. In Exp. 3, we compared intake of heifers (n = 16) simultaneously offered straw in three flavors (coconut, maple, and unflavored) with that of heifers (n = 16) offered only unflavored straw from 1000 to 1500. In both experiments, straw intake and preference differed between heifers offered straw in a variety of flavors as opposed to only unflavored straw (P < 0.05), but animals fed a variety of flavors did not consistently eat more than those fed only one flavor. During a post-trial preference test, heifers previously

  8. Charmless B→PP decays using flavor SU(3) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Suprun, Denis A.

    2004-08-01

    The decays of B mesons to a pair of charmless pseudoscalar (P) mesons are analyzed within a framework of flavor SU(3). Symmetry breaking is taken into account in tree (T) amplitudes through ratios of decay constants; exact SU(3) is assumed elsewhere. Acceptable fits to B→ππ and B→Kπ branching ratios and CP asymmetries are obtained with tree, color-suppressed (C), penguin (P), and electroweak penguin (PEW) amplitudes. Crucial additional terms for describing processes involving η and η' include a large flavor-singlet penguin amplitude (S) as proposed earlier and a penguin amplitude Ptu associated with intermediate t and u quarks. For the B+→π+η' mode a term Stu associated with intermediate t and u quarks also may be needed. Values of the weak phase γ are obtained consistent with an earlier analysis of B→VP decays, where V denotes a vector meson, and with other analyses of CKM parameters.

  9. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human-food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human-food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

  10. Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

  11. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Meng -Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong -Zhong

    2015-11-17

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino for-ward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mecha-nism. As a result, we find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absentmore » for the inverted hierarchy.« less

  12. Staggered fermions, zero modes, and flavor-singlet mesons

    DOE PAGES

    Donald, Gordon C; Davies, Christine T.H.; Follana, Eduardo; ...

    2011-09-12

    We examine the taste structure of eigenvectors of the staggered-fermion Dirac operator. We derive a set of conditions on the eigenvectors of modes with small eigenvalues (near-zero modes), such that staggered fermions reproduce the 't Hooft vertex in the continuum limit. We also show that, assuming these conditions, the correlators of flavor-singlet mesons are free of contributions singular in 1/m, where m is the quark mass. This conclusion holds also when a single flavor of sea quark is represented by the fourth root of the staggered-fermion determinant. We then test numerically, using the HISQ action, whether these conditions hold onmore » realistic lattice gauge fields. We find that the needed structure does indeed emerge.« less

  13. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors at Nt=6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Claude; Ogilvie, Michael C.; Degrand, Thomas A.; Detar, Carleton; Gottlieb, Steven; Krasnitz, Alex; Sugar, R. L.; Toussaint, D.

    1992-05-01

    The first results of numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor are presented. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks at Nt=6 with masses of 0.15T and 0.075T (0.025 and 0.0125 in lattice units) in order to locate the crossover from the low-temperature regime of ordinary hadronic matter to the high-temperature chirally symmetric regime. As with other recent two-flavor simulations, these calculations are insufficient to distinguish between a rapid crossover and a true phase transition. The phase transition is either absent or feeble at this quark mass. An improved estimate of the crossover temperature in physical units is given and results are presented for the hadronic screening lengths in both the high- and low-temperature regimes.

  14. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human–food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences. PMID:29441030

  15. Flux and Hall states in ABJM with dynamical flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Lippert, Matthew; Ramallo, Alfonso V.; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    We study the physics of probe D6-branes with quantized internal worldvolume flux in the ABJM background with unquenched massless flavors. This flux breaks parity in the (2+1)-dimensional gauge theory and allows quantum Hall states. Parity breaking is also explicitly demonstrated via the helicity dependence of the meson spectrum. We obtain general expressions for the conductivities, both in the gapped Minkowski embeddings and in the compressible black hole ones. These conductivities depend on the flux and contain a contribution from the dynamical flavors which can be regarded as an effect of intrinsic disorder due to quantum fluctuations of the fundamentals. We present an explicit, analytic family of supersymmetric solutions with nonzero charge density, electric, and magnetic fields.

  16. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  17. Lepton-flavor universality violation in R K and {R}_{D{_{(\\ast )}}} from warped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, Eugenio; Quirós, Mariano; Salas, Lindber

    2017-07-01

    Some anomalies in the processes b → sℓℓ ( ℓ = μ, e) and b\\to cℓ {\\overline{ν}}_{ℓ } ( ℓ = τ, μ, e), in particular in the observables R K and {R}_{D{_{(\\ast )}}} , have been found by the BaBar, LHCb and Belle collaborations, leading to a possible lepton flavor universality violation. If these anomalies were confirmed they would inevitably lead to physics beyond the Standard Model. In this paper we try to accommodate the present anomalies in an extra dimensional theory, solving the naturalness problem of the Standard Model by means of a warped metric with a strong conformality violation near the infra-red brane. The R K anomaly can be accommodated provided that the left-handed bottom quark and muon lepton have some degree of compositeness in the dual theory. The theory is consistent with all electroweak and flavor observables, and with all direct searches of Kaluza-Klein electroweak gauge bosons and gluons. The fermion spectrum, and fermion mixing angles, can be reproduced by mostly elementary right-handed bottom quarks, and tau and muon leptons. Moreover the {R}_{D{_{(\\ast )}}} anomaly requires a strong degree of compositeness for the left-handed tau leptons, which turns out to be in tension with experimental data on the {g}_{τ_L}^Z coupling, possibly unless some degree of fine-tuning is introduced in the fixing of the CKM matrix.

  18. Lepton universality violation with lepton flavor conservation in B-meson decays

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso, R.; Grinstein, B.; Camalich, J. Martin

    2015-10-28

    Anomalies in semileptonic B-meson decays present interesting patterns that might be revealing the shape of the new physics to come. Under the assumption that neutrino and charged lepton mass terms are the only sources of flavor violation and given the hierarchy between the two, we find that charged lepton universality violation without charged lepton flavor violation naturally arises. This can account for a deficit of B + → K + μμ over B + → K + ee decays with new physics coupled predominantly to muons and a new physics scale of a few TeV. A generic prediction of thismore » scenario is a large enhacement of tauonic B decay rates that, in particular, could accommodate an excess in B → D (*) τ ν. For the most part, the study is carried out in an effective field theory framework with an underlying SU(2) L × U(1) Y symmetry that emphasizes the model-independent correlations between low- and high-energy observables. As an example, a connection between B-decays and top physics is pointed out. To complement the discussion, all possible (spin 0 and 1) leptoquark models are matched to the low-energy field theory so that the effective analysis can be used to survey these candidates for new physics.« less

  19. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    PubMed

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Top quark decays with flavor violation in the B-LSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Lei; Feng, Tai-Fu; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Ning, Guo-Zhu; Yang, Xiu-Yi

    2018-06-01

    The decays of top quark t→ cγ ,t→ cg,t→ cZ,t→ ch are extremely rare processes in the standard model (SM). The predictions on the corresponding branching ratios in the SM are too small to be detected in the future, hence any measurable signal for the processes at the LHC is a smoking gun for new physics. In the extension of minimal supersymmetric standard model with an additional local U(1)_B {-}L gauge symmetry (B-LSSM), new gauge interaction and new flavor changing interaction affect the theoretical evaluations on corresponding branching ratios of those processes. In this work, we analyze those processes in the B-LSSM, under a minimal flavor violating assumption for the soft breaking terms. Considering the constraints from updated experimental data, the numerical results imply Br(t→ cγ )˜ 5× 10^{-7}, Br(t→ cg)˜ 2× 10^{-6}, Br(t→ cZ)˜ 4× 10^{-7} and Br(t→ ch)˜ 3× 10^{-9} in our chosen parameter space. Simultaneously, new gauge coupling constants g_{_B},g_{_{YB}} in the B-LSSM can also affect the numerical results of Br(t→ cγ ,cg,cZ,ch).

  1. Setting the scale for the CLS 2 + 1 flavor ensembles

    DOE PAGES

    Bruno, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Schaefer, Stefan

    2017-04-12

    Here, we present measurements of a combination of the decay constants of the light pseudoscalar mesons and the gradient flow scale t 0 , which allow us to set the scale of the lattices generated by CLS with 2 + 1 flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions. Furthermore, we correct for mistunings of the quark masses by measuring the derivatives of observables with respect to the bare quark masses.

  2. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors of quarks[1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIMD lattice Computations (MILC) Collaboration

    We present results of numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks and of Wilson quarks on 6 × 12 3 lattices in order to study the crossover from the low temperature hadronic regime to the high temperature regime. We investigate the properties of the objects whose exchange gives static screening lengths be reconstructing their correlated quark-antiquark structure.

  3. Axial, scalar, and tensor charges of the nucleon from 2 + 1 + 1 -flavor lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Cohen, Saul D.; ...

    2016-09-19

    Here, we present results for the isovector axial, scalar, and tensor charges g u–d A, g u–d S, and g u–d T of the nucleon needed to probe the Standard Model and novel physics. The axial charge is a fundamental parameter describing the weak interactions of nucleons. The scalar and tensor charges probe novel interactions at the TeV scale in neutron and nuclear β-decays, and the flavor-diagonal tensor charges g u T, g d T, and g s T are needed to quantify the contribution of the quark electric dipole moment (EDM) to the neutron EDM. The lattice-QCD calculations weremore » done using nine ensembles of gauge configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration using the highly improved staggered quarks action with 2+1+1 dynamical flavors. These ensembles span three lattice spacings a ≈ 0.06,0.09, and 0.12 fm and light-quark masses corresponding to the pion masses M π ≈ 135, 225, and 315 MeV. High-statistics estimates on five ensembles using the all-mode-averaging method allow us to quantify all systematic uncertainties and perform a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, lattice volume, and light-quark masses for the connected contributions. Our final estimates, in the ¯MS scheme at 2 GeV, of the isovector charges are g u–d A = 1.195(33)(20), g u–d S = 0.97(12)(6), and g u–d T = 0.987(51)(20). The first error includes statistical and all systematic uncertainties except that due to the extrapolation Ansatz, which is given by the second error estimate. Combining our estimate for gu–dS with the difference of light quarks masses (m d–m u) QCD = 2.67(35) MeV given by the Flavor Lattice Average Group, we obtain (M N – M P) QCD = 2.59(49) MeV. Estimates of the connected part of the flavor-diagonal tensor charges of the proton are g u T = 0.792(42) and g d T = –0.194(14). Combining our new estimates with precision low-energy experiments, we present updated constraints on novel scalar and tensor interactions, ε S,T, at the TeV scale.« less

  4. [Neurophysiological effect of flavor and caffeine added to toothpaste].

    PubMed

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Hosoya, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that tooth brushing can be used for active resting as a fatigue-reducing method. In this study, we focused on toothpaste, aiming at increasing the fatigue-reducing effect of tooth brushing. Flavoring and caffeine were added to toothpaste, and their effects were investigated employing the Flicker value, event-related potential P300, and mood scale. Thirteen healthy male and female adults (6 males and 7 females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 28.2 +/- 6.5 yr) performed a 25-minute calculation task using a personal computer, brushed their teeth using the toothpaste, and then repeated the calculation task. The P300 peak latency was significantly shortened after tooth brushing with the toothpaste containing flavoring and caffeine, compared to that after brushing with toothpaste containing no additives (p<0.01), and prolongation of the P300 peak latency after the calculation task was significantly inhibited (p<0.01). In addition, the accuracy of the calculation task tended to increase (p<0.1). Regarding the mood scale, "general fatigue" decreased (p<0.1), "lassitude" was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and "feeling of being refreshed" and "feeling of clear-headedness" were significantly increased (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). These findings suggest the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste with added flavoring and caffeine as a fatigue-reducing method.

  5. Flavor and Acceptance of Roasted California Almonds During Accelerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Lillian M; King, Ellena S; Chapman, Dawn; Byrnes, Nadia; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2018-02-07

    Monitoring oxidative flavor changes in almonds is possible only if the chemical and sensory profile during roasting and storage is first established. Herein, almonds roasted at two different temperatures (115 and 152 °C) were stored at 39 °C for 0 to 12 months and were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, descriptive analysis, and consumer hedonic analysis. Volatile profiles, descriptive sensory profiles, and consumer hedonic scores were analyzed for predictive relationships. Descriptive attributes involving Roasted and Nutty as well as consumer liking were highest in fresh almonds, while flavors typically associated with oxidative rancidity such as Cardboard, Painty/Solvent, Soapy, and Total Oxidized increased during storage. Compounds most important for predicting rancidity-related attributes were lipid oxidation products, including pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal. Consumer liking was best predicted by similar compounds to those predicting Clean Nutty flavor, including Maillard reaction products such as 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpyrazine, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine.

  6. Flavor changing neutral currents involving heavy quarks with four generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2006-07-01

    We study various flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) involving heavy quarks in the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation. After imposing B→Xsγ, B→Xsl+l- and Z→bbar b constraints, we find Script B(Z→sbar b+bar sb) can be enhanced by an order of magnitude to 10-7, while t→cZ,cH decays can reach 10-6, which are orders of magnitude higher than three generation SM. However, these rates are still not observable for the near future. With the era of Large Hadron Collider approaching, we focus on FCNC decays involving fourth generation b' and t' quarks. We calculate the rates for loop induced FCNC decays b'→bZ, bH, bg, bγ, as well as t'→tZ, tH, tg, tγ. If |Vcb'| is of order |Vcb| simeq 0.04, tree level b'→cW decay would dominate, posing a challenge since b-tagging is less effective. For |Vcb'| << |Vcb|, b'→tW would tend to dominate, while b'→t'W* could also open for heavier b', leading to the possibility of quadruple-W signals via b'bar b'→bbar bW+W-W+W-. The FCNC b'→bZ,bH decays could still dominate if mb' is just above 200 GeV. For the case of t', in general t'→bW would be dominant, hence it behaves like a heavy top. For both b' and t', except for the intriguing light b' case, FCNC decays are typically in the 10-4-10-2 range, and are quite detectable at the LHC. For a possible future International Linear Collider, we find the associated production of FCNC e+e-→bbar s, tbar c are below sensitivity, while e+e-→b'bar b and t'bar t can be better probed. Tevatron Run-II can still probe the lighter b' or t' scenario. LHC would either discover the fourth generation and measure the FCNC rates, or rule out the fourth generation conclusively. If discovered, the ILC can study the b' or t' decay modes in detail.

  7. Learned Preference for a Hedonically Negative Flavor Is Observed after Pairings with Positive Post-Ingestion Consequences Rather than with a Palatable Flavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Felisa; Garcia-Burgos, David; de Brugada, Isabel; Gil, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments, thirsty rats consumed a compound of sucrose and a non-preferred flavor. In Experiment 1, a conditioned preference was observed in the experimental group when animals were tested both thirsty and hungry, but not when they were tested just thirsty. Animals in the control group, which experienced the flavor and the sucrose…

  8. BOUNDS ON LEPTON FLAVOR CHANGING CURRENTS AND THE SOLAR NEUTRINO PUZZLE:. Bounds on Lepton Flavor Changing Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    degl'Innocenti, Scilla; Ricci, Barbara

    We present a phenomenological analysis of a lepton flavor changing current, considering the case of interactions among leptons which change the neutrino flavor and are diagonal in the charged lepton sector. In the case of νe↔νµ transition, we derive a bound on the vector coupling constant GV≤0.16 GF from experimental data on νµ-e scattering. For a transition νe↔νx, from (anti) νe-e scattering experiments and from the analysis of advanced stellar evolutionary phases, we find GV≤0.55 GF. We discuss the compatibility of these data with a possible explanation of the solar neutrino puzzle. We also analyze how the present bounds can be improved in future long baseline neutrino experiments and atmospheric neutrino detectors.

  9. Measurement of WW and WZ production in the lepton plus heavy flavor jets final state at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Sandra

    We present the CDF measurement of the diboson WW and WZ production cross section in a final state consistent with leptonic W decay and jets originating from heavy flavor quarks, based on the full Tevatron Run II dataset. The analysis of the di–jet invariant mass spectrum allows the observation of 3.7 sigma evidence for the combined production processes of either WW or WZ bosons. The different heavy flavor decay pattern of the W and Z bosons and the analysis of the secondary–decay vertex properties allow to independently measure the WW and WZ production cross section in a hadronic final state.more » The measured cross sections are consistent with the standard model predictions and correspond to signal significances of 2.9 and 2.1 sigma for WW and WZ production, respectively.« less

  10. Search for top-quark production via flavor-changing neutral currents in W+1 jet events at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-04-17

    We report on a search for the non-standard-model process u(c) + g --> t using pp[over ] collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector corresponding to 2.2 fb;{-1}. The candidate events are classified as signal-like or backgroundlike by an artificial neural network. The observed discriminant distribution yields no evidence for flavor-changing neutral current top-quark production, resulting in an upper limit on the production cross section sigma(u(c) + g --> t) < 1.8 pb at the 95% C.L. Using theoretical predictions we convert the cross section limit to upper limits on flavor-changing neutral current branching ratios: B(t --> u + g) < 3.9 x 10;{-4} and B(t --> c + g) < 5.7 x 10;{-3}.

  11. Search for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.

    The results of a search for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays t to Zq in events with a topology compatible with the decay chain t t-bar to Wb + Zq to ell nu b + ell ell q are presented. The search is performed with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The observed number of events agrees with the standard model prediction and no evidence for flavor changing neutral currents in top quarkmore » decays is found. A t to Zq branching fraction greater than 0.21% is excluded at the 95% confidence level.« less

  12. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  13. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    PubMed

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  14. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  15. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  16. A 4DVAR System for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model. Part 1: System Description and Assimilation of Synthetic Observations in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Shulman et al. 2007 ); and river discharge (Morey et al. 2003) and river plume modeling (Liu et al. 2009); and in modeling air–sea interactions through...coupling with atmospheric models (Pullen et al. 2006, 2007 ). Other applications include particle transport (Haza et al. 2007 ; Schroeder et al. 2011...consortium assimila- tion experiments ( Stammer et al. 2002), and a similar sys- tem was built for the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS;Moore et al

  17. Furfuryl ethyl ether: important aging flavor and a new marker for the storage conditions of beer.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Daenen, Luk; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-03-24

    Recently, it was reported that furfuryl ethyl ether is an important flavor compound indicative of beer storage and aging conditions. A study of the reaction mechanism indicates that furfuryl ethyl ether is most likely formed by protonation of furfuryl alcohol or furfuryl acetate followed by S(N)2-substitution of the leaving group by the nucleophilic ethanol. For the reaction in beer, a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics was derived. A close correlation was found between the values predicted by the kinetic model and the actual furfuryl ethyl ether concentration evolution during storage of beer. Furthermore, 10 commercial beers of different types, aged during 4 years in natural conditions, were analyzed, and it was found that the furfuryl ethyl ether flavor threshold was largely exceeded in each type of beer. In these natural aging conditions, lower pH, darker color, and higher alcohol content were factors that enhanced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. On the other hand, sulfite clearly reduced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. All results show that the furfuryl ethyl ether concentration is an excellent time-temperature integrator for beer storage.

  18. The twelve-flavor β-function and dilaton tests of the sextet scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nogradi, Daniel; Him Wong, Chik

    2018-03-01

    We discuss near-conformal gauge theories beyond the standard model (BSM) where interesting results on the twelve-flavor β-function of massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group and dilaton tests of the light scalar with two massless fermions in the two-index symmetric tensor (sextet) representation can be viewed as parts of the same BSM paradigm under investigation. The clear trend in the decreasing size of β-functions at fixed renormalized gauge coupling is interpreted as a first indicator how the conformal window (CW) is approached in correlation with emergent near-conformal light scalars. BSM model building close to the CW will be influenced by differing expectations on the properties of the emergent light 0++ scalar either as a σ-particle of chiral symmetry breaking (ΧS B), or as a dilaton of scale symmetry breaking. The twelve-flavor β-function emerges as closest to the CW, perhaps near-conformal, or perhaps with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) at some unexplored strong coupling inside the CW. It is premature to speculate on dilaton properties of the twelveflavor model since the near-conformal realization remains an open question. However, it is interesting and important to investigate dilaton tests of the light sextet scalar whose β-function is closest to the CW in the symmetry breaking phase and emerges as the leading candidate for dilaton tests of the light scalar. We report results from high precision analysis of the twelve-flavor β-function [1] refuting its published IRFP [2, 3]. We present our objections to recent claims [4, 5] for non-universal behavior of staggered fermions used in our analysis. We also report our first analysis of dilaton tests of the light 0++ scalar in the sextet model and comment on related post-conference developments. The dilaton test is the main thrust of this conference contribution including presentation #405 on the nf = 12 β-function and presentation #260 on dilaton tests of the

  19. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean‐Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy‐two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. PMID:27861864

  20. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Molly; Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  1. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Muthumalage, Thivanka; Prinz, Melanie; Ansah, Kwadwo O; Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production. Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2',7'dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media. Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H 2 O 2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the treatments

  2. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Muthumalage, Thivanka; Prinz, Melanie; Ansah, Kwadwo O.; Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K.; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-01-01

    Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production. Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2′,7′dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media. Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H2O2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the treatments with

  3. Summary of the BIOMOVS A4 scenario: Testing models of the air-pasture-cow milk pathway using Chernobyl fallout data

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Koehler, H.

    1996-08-01

    A unique opportunity to test dose assessment models arose after the Chernobyl reactor accident. During the passage of the contaminated plume, concentrations of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in air, pasture, and cow`s milk were collected at various sites in the northern hemisphere. Afterwards, contaminated pasture and milk samples were analyzed over time. Under the auspices of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS), data from 13 sites for {sup 131}I and 10 sites for {sup 137}Cs were used to test model predictions for the air-pasture-cow milk pathway. Calculations were submitted for 23 models, 10 of which were quasi-steady state. Themore » others were time-dependent. Daily predictions and predictions of time-integrated concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in pasture grass and milk for six months post-accident were calculated and compared with observed data. Testing against data from several locations over time for several steps in the air-to-milk pathway resulted in a better understanding of important processes and how they should be modeled. This model testing exercise showed both the strengths and weaknesses of the models and revealed the importance of testing all parts of dose assessment models whenever possible. 19 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  4. Pion structure function from leading neutron electroproduction and SU(2) flavor asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, Joshua R.; Sato Gonzalez, Nobuo; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2016-03-01

    We examine the efficacy of pion exchange models to simultaneously describe leading neutron electroproduction at HERA and themore » $$\\bar{d}-\\bar{u}$$ flavor asymmetry in the proton. A detailed $$\\chi^2$$ analysis of the ZEUS and H1 cross sections, when combined with constraints on the pion flux from Drell-Yan data, allows regions of applicability of one-pion exchange to be delineated. The analysis disfavors several models of the pion flux used in the literature, and yields an improved extraction of the pion structure function and its uncertainties at parton momentum fractions in the pion of $$4 \\times 10^{-4} \\lesssim x_\\pi \\lesssim 0.05$$ at a scale of $Q^2$=10 GeV$^2$. Based on the fit results, we provide estimates for leading proton structure functions in upcoming tagged deep-inelastic scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab on the deuteron with forward protons.« less

  5. Broken flavor 2↔3 symmetry and phenomenological approach for universal quark and lepton mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Koichi; Nishiura, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenological approach for the universal mass matrix model with a broken flavor 2↔3 symmetry is explored by introducing the 2↔3 antisymmetric parts of mass matrices for quarks and charged leptons. We present explicit texture components of the mass matrices, which are consistent with all the neutrino oscillation experiments and quark mixing data. The mass matrices have a common structure for quarks and leptons, while the large lepton mixings and the small quark mixings are derived with no fine-tuning due to the difference of the phase factors. The model predicts a value 2.4×10-3 for the lepton mixing matrix element square |U13|2, and also ⟨mν⟩=(0.89-1.4)×10-4eV for the averaged neutrino mass which appears in the neutrinoless double beta decay.

  6. New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Pauly, John L; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have recently introduced a proliferation of exotic brands featuring candylike flavors. We reviewed internal tobacco industry documents and patents to assess the role of flavored cigarettes in the targeting of young smokers. This research revealed the development of flavor delivery technologies hidden from consumers and public health professionals, including the use of a plastic pellet placed in the cigarette filter. These findings raise concerns as to the potential added health risks associated with using new flavored tobacco products, and they underscore the need for effective assessment and monitoring of tobacco products.

  7. Influence of feed flavors and nursery diet complexity on preweaning and nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Tokach, M D; Derouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2010-12-01

    In Exp. 1, 50 sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of adding a feed flavor to the creep diet on the proportion of pigs consuming creep feed ("eaters") and preweaning performance. Sows were blocked according to parity and date of farrowing and allotted to 2 experimental treatments: 1) litters fed a creep diet with no flavor (negative control) or 2) negative control diet with the feed flavor (Luctarom) included at 1,500 mg/kg. Both creep diets contained 1.0% chromic oxide and were offered ad libitum from d 18 until weaning at d 21. Adding flavor to the creep diet did not (P > 0.41) affect weaning weights, total BW gain, ADG, total creep feed intake, daily creep feed intake, or the proportion of creep feed eaters in whole litters. In Exp. 2, 480 weanling pigs (6.58 ± 0.41 kg; 20 ± 2 d) from Exp. 1 were randomly selected by preweaning treatment group, blocked by initial BW, and allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design to determine the interactive effects of preweaning exposure to flavor (exposed vs. unexposed), nursery diet complexity (complex vs. simple), and flavor addition to nursery diets (with vs. without flavor). Each treatment had 10 replications (pens) with 6 pigs per pen. Diets with flavor were supplemented with the flavor at 1,500 mg/kg in phase 1 diets and 1,000 mg/kg in phase 2 diets. A tendency for a 3-way interaction for ADG from d 5 to 10 (P = 0.10), 10 to 28 (P = 0.09), and 0 to 28 (P = 0.06) was observed. Postweaning ADG of pigs exposed to flavor in creep feed and fed flavored complex diets in the nursery was greater than pigs in any other treatment combination. Increasing diet complexity improved (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI during both postweaning phases. Adding flavor to creep feed had no effect on G:F (P > 0.34) and pig BW (P > 0.45) in both postweaning periods. Adding flavor to starter diets tended to improve ADFI (P = 0.06) during d 0 to 5. In conclusion, adding flavor to the creep feed did not affect

  8. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, Alistair; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.

  9. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  10. Determination of a Degradation Constant for CYP3A4 by Direct Suppression of mRNA in a Novel Human Hepatocyte Model, HepatoPac.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Diane; Zhou, Jin; Tweedie, Donald J

    2015-09-01

    Accurate determination of rates of de novo synthesis and degradation of cytochrome P450s (P450s) has been challenging. There is a high degree of variability in the multiple published values of turnover for specific P450s that is likely exacerbated by differences in methodologies. For CYP3A4, reported half-life values range from 10 to 140 hours. An accurate value for kdeg has been identified as a major limitation for prediction of drug interactions involving mechanism-based inhibition and/or induction. Estimation of P450 half-life from in vitro test systems, such as human hepatocytes, is complicated by differential decreased enzyme function over culture time, attenuation of the impact of enzyme loss through inclusion of glucocorticoids in media, and viability limitations over long-term culture times. HepatoPac overcomes some of these challenges by providing extended stability of enzymes (2.5 weeks in our hands). As such it is a unique tool for studying rates of enzyme degradation achieved through modulation of enzyme levels. CYP3A4 mRNA levels were rapidly depleted by >90% using either small interfering RNA or addition of interleukin-6, which allowed an estimation of the degradation rate constant for CYP3A protein over an incubation time of 96 hours. The degradation rate constant of 0.0240 ± 0.005 hour(-1) was reproducible in hepatocytes from five different human donors. These donors also reflected the overall population with respect to CYP3A5 genotype. This methodology can be applied to additional enzymes and may provide a more accurate in vitro derived kdeg value for predicting clinical drug-drug interaction outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Physical results from 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz,E.E.

    2008-07-14

    We review recent results for the chiral behavior of meson masses and decay constants and the determination of the light quark masses by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations. We find that one-loop SU(2) chiral perturbation theory represents the behavior of our lattice data better than one-loop SU(3) chiral perturbation theory in both the pion and kaon sectors. The simulations have been performed using the Iwasaki gauge action at two different lattice spacings with the physical spatial volume held approximately fixed at (2.7fm){sup 3}. The Domain Wall fermion formulation was used for the 2+1 dynamical quark flavors: two (mass degenerate) lightmore » flavors with masses as light as roughly 1/5 the mass of the physical strange quark mass and one heavier quark flavor at approximately the value of the physical strange quark mass, On the ensembles generated with the coarser lattice spacing, we obtain for the physical average up- and down-quark and strange quark masses m{sub ud}{sup {ovr MS}} (2 GeV) = 3.72(0.16){sub stat}(0.33){sub ren}(0.18){sub syst}MeV and m{sub s}{sup {ovr MS}} (2 GeV) = 107.3(4.4){sub stat}(9.7){sub ren}(4.9){sub syst} MeV, respectively, while they find for the pion and kaon decay constants f{sub {pi}} = 124.1(3.6){sub stat}(6.9){sub syst}MeV, f{sub K} = 149.6(3.6){sub stat}(6.3){sub syst} MeV. The analysis for the finer lattice spacing has not been fully completed yet, but we already present some first (preliminary) results.« less

  12. Differential imprints of different ENSO flavors in global patterns of seasonal precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Siegmund, Jonatan F.; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-04-01

    interlinkages between ENSO phases and droughts as well as extremely wet seasons depend crucially on the specific type of El Nino and La Nina event, highlighting the importance of correctly attributing the corresponding flavors when aiming to anticipate the likelihood of precipitation extremes. Straightforward upcoming extensions of the present work will address the imprints of ENSO types and flavors on extremes at different time scales that can be found in other relevant climate variables such as air temperature or more complex drought indices, as well as an assessment of the representation of the empirically found statistical relationships in contemporary climate models operated in hindcast as well as RCP scenario modes. M. Wiedermann, A. Radebach, J.F. Donges, J. Kurths, R.V. Donner: A climate network-based index to discriminate different types of El Nino and La Nina. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 069119 (2016) J.F. Donges, C.-F. Schleussner, J.F. Siegmund, R.V. Donner: Event coincidence analysis for quantifying statistical interrelationships between event time series - On the role of extreme flood events as possible drivers of epidemics. European Physical Journal - Special Topics, 225(3), 471-487 (2016)

  13. Flavor-changing Z decays: A window to ultraheavy quarks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, V.; Weiler, T.; Laermann, E.; Schmitt, I.; Zerwas, P. M.

    1983-02-01

    We study flavor-changing Z decays into quarks, Z-->Q+q¯, in the standard SU(2)×U(1) theory with sequential generations. Such decays occur in higher-order electroweak interactions, with a probability growing as the fourth power of the mass of the heaviest (virtual) quark mediating the transition. With the possible exception of Z-->bs¯, these decay modes are generally very rare in the three-generation scheme. However, with four generations Z-->b'b¯ is observable if the t' mass is a few hundred GeV. Such decay modes could thus provide a glimpse of the ultraheavy-quark spectrum.

  14. Flavor and taste of lansoprazole strawberry-flavored delayed-release oral suspension preferred over ranitidine peppermint-flavored oral syrup: in children aged between 5-11 years.

    PubMed

    Tolia, Vasundhara; Johnston, Gary; Stolle, Julie; Lee, Chang

    2004-01-01

    To compare the flavor and taste preference of two acid-inhibitory therapies in healthy children aged between 5-11 years. A single-site, single-blind, taste test trial was conducted in which 111 children participated after parental consent. One teaspoonful (5 mL) of lansoprazole delayed-release oral suspension (strawberry-flavored) and ranitidine oral syrup (peppermint-flavored) were provided to each child with a 10-minute break between samples. Children tasted the sample, swished it in their mouth for 10 seconds, and then expectorated the sample. Spring water and crackers were used to clear the palate between samples. After each sampling, children were observed for facial expressions and asked to rate their degree of liking of each sample based on a 5-point facial hedonic scale (5=like it very much, 1=dislike it very much). Likes, dislikes, and product preference were recorded. Of the 56 female and 54 male children who tasted both samples, 95% (105/110) preferred lansoprazole. Taste and flavor were the most often cited reasons for preferring lansoprazole (61 and 17 children, respectively) while three children preferred the flavor of ranitidine oral syrup. Lansoprazole received a higher mean liking rating compared with ranitidine (mean liking scores of 4.1 and 2.2, respectively). There was no significant difference in the preference for lansoprazole between age groups and gender with the degree of liking scores ranging between 3.5-4.4. Forty-two children disliked the texture of the lansoprazole oral suspension, citing the granules (31/110), thickness (7/110), or consistency/texture (4/110), specifically. After sampling both products, 95% of children preferred the flavor and taste of the strawberry-flavored lansoprazole delayed-release oral suspension compared with the peppermint-flavored ranitidine oral syrup.

  15. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more “codable”, then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  16. Effect of flavoring chemicals on free radical formation in electronic cigarette aerosols.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Zachary T; Goel, Reema; Reilly, Samantha M; Elias, Ryan J; Silakov, Alexey; Foulds, Jonathan; Muscat, Joshua; Richie, John P

    2018-05-20

    Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants. We investigated the effects of different flavorants on free radical production in e-cigarette aerosols. Free radicals generated from 49 commercially available e-liquid flavors were captured and analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The flavorant composition of each e-liquid was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). Radical production was correlated with flavorant abundance. Ten compounds were identified and analyzed for their impact on free radical generation. Nearly half of the flavors modulated free radical generation. Flavorants with strong correlations included β-damascone, δ-tetradecalactone, γ-decalactone, citral, dipentene, ethyl maltol, ethyl vanillin, ethyl vanillin PG acetal, linalool, and piperonal. Dipentene, ethyl maltol, citral, linalool, and piperonal promoted radical formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethyl vanillin inhibited the radical formation in a concentration dependent manner. Free radical production was closely linked with the capacity to oxidize biologically-relevant lipids. Our results suggest that flavoring agents play an important role in either enhancing or inhibiting the production of free radicals in flavored e-cigarette aerosols. This information is important for developing regulatory strategies aimed at reducing potential harm from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

    PubMed

    Croijmans, Ilja; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too.

  18. Anisotropic D3-D5 black holes with unquenched flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penín, José Manuel; Ramallo, Alfonso V.; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    We construct a black hole geometry generated by the intersection of N c color D3- branes and N f flavor D5-branes along a 2+1 dimensional subspace. Working in the Veneziano limit in which N f is large and distributing homogeneously the D5-branes in the