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Sample records for a4 flavor model

  1. Neutrino mixing model based on an A4×Z3×Z4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ky, Nguyen Anh; Quang Vǎn, Phi; Há»`ng Vân, Nguyen Thi

    2016-11-01

    A model of a neutrino mixing with an A4×Z3×Z4 flavor symmetry is suggested. In addition to the standard model fields, the present model contains six new fields that transform under different representations of A4×Z3×Z4. The model is constructed to slightly deviate from a tribimaximal model in agreement with the current experimental data; thus, all analysis can be done in the base of the perturbation method. Within this model, as an application, a relation between the mixing angles (θ12 , θ23 , θ13 ) and the Dirac C P -violation phase (δC P) is established. This relation allows a prediction of δC P and the Jarlskog parameter (JC P). The predicted value δC P is in the 1 σ region of the global fit for both the normal and inverse neutrino mass ordering and gives JC P to be within the bound |JC P|≤0.04 . For an illustration, the model is checked numerically and gives values of the neutrino masses (of the order of 0.1 eV) and the mixing angle θ13 (about 9°) very close to the current experimental data.

  2. Model of flavor unity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.E.

    1980-12-15

    An SU(7) model is presented toward a flavor unification for known particles. The t quark is not a partner of the b quark. There are three types of neutrinos and several: so far unobserved: light detectable particles (masses <300 GeV): a doubly charged lepton T/sup - -/, a Q=-4/3 quark x, and a Q=5/3 quark y. An intermediate mass scale is a necessity and there is no problem of magnetic monopoles.

  3. New and trivial C P symmetry for extended A4 flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    The combination of νμ-ντ exchange together with C P conjugation in the neutrino sector (known as CPμ τ symmetry or μ τ reflection) is known to predict the viable pattern θ23=4 5 ° , a maximal Dirac C P phase, and trivial Majorana phases. We implement such a C P symmetry as a new C P symmetry in theories with A4 flavor. The implementation in a complete renormalizable model leads to a new form for the neutrino mass matrix that leads to further predictions: a normal hierarchical spectrum with a lightest mass and mβ β (0 ν 2 β ) of only few meV, and either ν1 or ν2 has opposite C P parity. An approximate Lμ-Lτ symmetry arises naturally and controls the flavor structure of the model. The light neutrino masses are generated by the extended seesaw mechanism with six right-handed neutrinos (RHNs). The requirement of negligible one-loop corrections to light neutrino masses, the validity of the extended seesaw approximation, and not too long-lived beyond-the-Standard-Model states to comply with big bang nucleosynthesis essentially restricts the parameters of the model to a small region: three relatively light right-handed neutrinos at the GeV scale, heavier neutrinos at the electroweak scale, and Yukawa couplings smaller than the electron Yukawa. Such small Yukawa couplings render these RHNs unobservable in terrestrial experiments.

  4. Lepton flavor violation in extra dimension models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.-F.; Ng, John N.

    2005-03-01

    Models involving large extra spatial dimension(s) have interesting predictions on lepton flavor violating processes. We consider some five-dimensional (5D) models which are related to neutrino mass generation or address the fermion masses hierarchy problem. We study the signatures in low energy experiments that can discriminate the different models. The focus is on muon-electron conversion in nuclei {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}3e processes and their {tau} counterparts. Their links with the active neutrino mass matrix are investigated. We show that in the models we discussed the branching ratio of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} like rare process is much smaller than the ones of {mu}{yields}3e like processes. This is in sharp contrast to most of the traditional wisdom based on four-dimensional (4D) gauge models. Moreover, some rare tau decays are more promising than the rare muon decays.

  5. LHCb anomaly and B physics in flavored Z' models with flavored Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Shigekami, Yoshihiro; Yu, Chaehyun

    2017-06-01

    We study an extended Standard Model with a gauged U(1 ) ' flavor symmetry, motivated not only by the fermion mass hierarchy but also by the excesses in B →K(*)l l reported by the LHCb collaborations. The U(1 ) ' charges are assigned to quarks and leptons in a flavor-dependent manner, and flavored Higgs doublets are also introduced in order to detail the Yukawa couplings at the renormalizable level. Then, the fermion mass hierarchy is realized by the vacuum alignment of the Higgs doublets. In this model, flavor-changing currents involving the gauge boson of U(1 ) ' and the scalars generated by the Higgs doublets are predicted and the observables in the B →K(*)l l process possibly deviate from the Standard Model predictions. We study the possibility that these new flavor-changing interactions can explain the excesses in the B →K(*)l l process, and we derive some predictions for the other flavor-violating processes based on the analysis. We specifically investigate the Δ F =2 processes and the other B decays: e.g., B →Xsγ and B →D(*)τ ν , where the deviations are reported by the Belle and BABAR collaborations.

  6. Detecting Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Models of Probability Summation

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Shavit, Adam Y.

    2012-01-01

    Odorants and flavorants typically contain many components. It is generally easier to detect multicomponent stimuli than to detect a single component, through either neural integration or probability summation (PS) (or both). PS assumes that the sensory effects of 2 (or more) stimulus components (e.g., gustatory and olfactory components of a flavorant) are detected in statistically independent channels, that each channel makes a separate decision whether a component is detected, and that the behavioral response depends solely on the separate decisions. Models of PS traditionally assume high thresholds for detecting each component, noise being irrelevant. The core assumptions may be adapted, however, to signal-detection theory, where noise limits detection. The present article derives predictions of high-threshold and signal-detection models of independent-decision PS in detecting gustatory–olfactory flavorants, comparing predictions in yes/no and 2-alternative forced-choice tasks using blocked and intermixed stimulus designs. The models also extend to measures of response times to suprathreshold flavorants. Predictions derived from high-threshold and signal-detection models differ markedly. Available empirical evidence on gustatory–olfactory flavor detection suggests that neither the high-threshold nor the signal-detection versions of PS can readily account for the results, which likely reflect neural integration in the flavor system. PMID:22075720

  7. Sterile particles from the flavor gauge model of masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Our motivation is to study a dynamics which has the ambition to underlie models of the electroweak symmetry breaking via the condensation of known fermions. The right-handed neutrinos and the seesaw mechanism are necessary ingredients for viability of this scenario. The existence of right-handed neutrinos follows from theoretical consistence of a model based on dynamical flavor gauge symmetry breaking. The model is defined by a particular flavor representation setting of electroweakly charged fermions. Only finite number of versions of the model exists. They differ by the number and the flavor structure of the right-handed neutrino sector. We choose for inspection one of them, the non-minimal version with right-handed neutrinos in one sextet and four anti-triplet flavor representations. We show that a Majorana pairing of the sextet right-handed neutrinos is responsible for the flavor symmetry breaking and for the seesaw pattern of the neutrino mass matrix. The dynamically generated neutrino mass matrix spontaneously breaks the lepton number and the chiral sterility symmetry of the right-handed neutrino sector. As a result, a spectrum of majorons, neutrino composites, manifests. We study main characteristics of both massive sterile neutrinos and majorons.

  8. Flavor asymmetry of sea quarks in the unquenched quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, E.; Bijker, R.

    2010-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is studied in the framework of the unquenched quark model in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu-bar, dd-bar, and ss-bar) are taken into account via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, quark-antiquark creation mechanism. The inclusion of the qq-bar pairs leads to an excess of d-bar over u-bar, in agreement with the experimental data for the proton. In addition, the results for the flavor asymmetry of all ground-state octet and decuplet baryons are presented. The isospin symmetry leads to simple relations among the flavor asymmetries of octet and decuplet baryons. The flavor asymmetry of the {Sigma}{sup +} hyperon is predicted to be very similar to that of the proton and much larger than that for the {Xi}{sup 0} hyperon. A comparison with other approaches shows large differences in the predictions for the flavor asymmetries of the hyperons.

  9. Discrete flavor symmetries and models of neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio

    2010-07-15

    Application of non-Abelian finite groups to the theory of neutrino masses and mixing is reviewed, which is strongly suggested by the agreement of the tribimaximal (TB) mixing pattern with experiment. After summarizing the motivation and the formalism, concrete models based on A{sub 4}, S{sub 4}, and other finite groups, and their phenomenological implications are discussed, including lepton flavor violating processes, leptogenesis, and the extension to quarks. As an alternative to TB mixing application of discrete flavor symmetries to quark-lepton complementarity and bimaximal mixing is also considered.

  10. Lepton flavor violating higgs decays in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ün, Cem Salih; Hammad, Ahmed; Khalil, Shaaban

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported the first signal of Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) Higgs decay into τ and µ leptons. Standard Model forbids such processes at the renormalizable level because of lepton flavor symmetry. On the other hand, many extensions of the Standard Model do not exhibit such a symmetry and the models beyond the Standard Model (BSM) yield such processes. Hence, any signal for LFV processes can be interpreted as a direct probe for the BSM models. In this work, we consider LFV Higgs boson decays in a class of supersymmetric models including minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM (MSSM), Supersymmetric Type I Seesaw, and U(1)B-L extended MSSM supplied with the inverse seesaw mechanism for non-zero neutrino masses.

  11. Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun

    2012-01-01

    We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the same sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.

  12. Flavor condensates in brane models and dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Tarantino, Walter

    2009-10-15

    In the context of a microscopic model of string-inspired foam, in which foamy structures are provided by brany pointlike defects (D-particles) in space-time, we discuss flavor mixing as a result of flavor nonpreserving interactions of (low-energy) fermionic stringy matter excitations with the defects. Such interactions involve splitting and capture of the matter string state by the defect, and subsequent re-emission. As a result of charge conservation, only electrically neutral matter can interact with the D-particles. Quantum fluctuations of the D-particles induce a nontrivial space-time background; in some circumstances, this could be akin to a cosmological Friedman-Robertson-Walker expanding-universe, with weak (but nonzero) particle production. Furthermore, the D-particle medium can induce an Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-type effect. We have argued previously, in the context of bosons, that the so-called flavor vacuum is the appropriate state to be used, at least for low-energy excitations, with energies/momenta up to a dynamically determined cutoff scale. Given the intriguing mass scale provided by neutrino flavor mass differences from the point of view of dark energy, we evaluate the flavor-vacuum expectation value (condensate) of the stress-energy tensor of the 1/2-spin fields with mixing in an effective-low-energy quantum field theory in this foam-induced curved space-time. We demonstrate, at late epochs of the Universe, that the fermionic vacuum condensate behaves as a fluid with negative pressure and positive energy; however, the equation of state has w{sub fermion}>-1/3 and so the contribution of the fermion-fluid flavor vacuum alone could not yield accelerating universes. Such contributions to the vacuum energy should be considered as (algebraically) additive to the flavored boson contributions, evaluated in our previous works; this should be considered as natural from (broken) target-space supersymmetry that characterizes realistic superstring

  13. Flavor content of the nucleon in an unquenched quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Santopinto, E.

    2009-04-20

    We discuss the flavor content of the nucleon in an unquenched quark model in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu-bar, dd-bar and ss-bar) are taken into account in an explicit form. It is shown that the inclusion of qq-bar pairs leads to an excess of d-bar over u-bar quarks in the proton and to a large contribution of orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton.

  14. Supersymmetric lepton flavor violation in low-scale seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilakovac, Amon; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2009-11-01

    We study a new supersymmetric mechanism for lepton flavor violation in μ and τ decays and μ→e conversion in nuclei, within a minimal extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with low-mass heavy singlet neutrinos and sneutrinos. We find that the decays μ→eγ, τ→eγ and τ→μγ are forbidden in the supersymmetric limit of the theory, whereas other processes, such as μ→eee, μ→e conversion, τ→eee and τ→eμμ, are allowed and can be dramatically enhanced several orders of magnitude above the observable level by potentially large neutrino Yukawa coupling effects. The profound implications of supersymmetric lepton flavor violation for present and future experiments are discussed.

  15. Lepton-flavor violating B decays in generic Z' models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Hofer, Lars; Matias, Joaquim; Nierste, Ulrich; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    LHCb has reported deviations from the Standard Model in b →s μ+μ- transitions for which a new neutral gauge boson is a prime candidate for an explanation. As this gauge boson has to couple in a flavor nonuniversal way to muons and electrons in order to explain RK, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavor is violated, especially in the light of the CMS excess in h →τ±μ∓. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavor violating modes B →K(*)τ±μ∓ , Bs→τ±μ∓ and B →K(*)μ±e∓, Bs→μ±e∓. For this purpose we consider a simplified model in which new-physics effects originate from an additional neutral gauge boson (Z') with generic couplings to quarks and leptons. The constraints from τ →3 μ , τ →μ ν ν ¯, μ →e γ , gμ-2 , semileptonic b →s μ+μ- decays, B →K(*)ν ν ¯ and Bs-B¯s mixing are examined. From these decays, we determine upper bounds on the decay rates of lepton-flavor violating B decays. Br (B →K ν ν ¯) limits the branching ratios of lepton-flavor violating B decays to be smaller than 8 ×10-5(2 ×10-5) for vectorial (left-handed) lepton couplings. However, much stronger bounds can be obtained by a combined analysis of Bs-B¯s, τ →3 μ , τ →μ ν ν ¯ and other rare decays. The bounds depend on the amount of fine-tuning among the contributions to Bs-B¯s mixing. Allowing for a fine-tuning at the percent level we find upper bounds of the order of 10-6 for branching ratios into τ μ final states, while Bs→μ±e∓ is strongly suppressed and only B →K(*)μ±e∓ can be experimentally accessible (with a branching ratio of order 10-7).

  16. S3 flavor symmetry in 3-3-1 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, P. V.; Long, H. N.; Nam, C. H.; Vien, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    We propose two 3-3-1 models (with either neutral fermions or right-handed neutrinos) based on S3 flavor symmetry responsible for fermion masses and mixings. The models can be distinguished upon the new charge embedding (L) relevant to lepton number. The neutrino small masses can be given via a cooperation of type I and type II seesaw mechanisms. The latest data on neutrino oscillation can be fitted provided that the flavor symmetry is broken via two different directions S3→Z2 and S3→Z3 (or equivalently in the sequel S3→Z2→{Identity}), in which the second direction is due to a scalar triplet and another antisextet as small perturbation. In addition, breaking of either lepton parity in the model with neutral fermions or lepton number in the model with right-handed neutrinos must be happened due to the L-violating scalar potential. The TeV seesaw scale can be naturally recognized in the former model. The degenerate masses of fermion pairs (μ,τ), (c,t) and (s,b) are, respectively, separated due to the S3→Z3 breaking.

  17. On Direct Verification of Warped Hierarchy-and-FlavorModels

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.; Soni, Amarjit; /Brookhaven

    2007-10-15

    We consider direct experimental verification of warped models, based on the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario, that explain gauge and flavor hierarchies, assuming that the gauge fields and fermions of the Standard Model (SM) propagate in the 5D bulk. Most studies have focused on the bosonic Kaluza Klein (KK) signatures and indicate that discovering gauge KK modes is likely possible, yet challenging, while graviton KK modes are unlikely to be accessible at the LHC, even with a luminosity upgrade. We show that direct evidence for bulk SM fermions, i.e. their KK modes, is likely also beyond the reach of a luminosity-upgraded LHC. Thus, neither the spin-2 KK graviton, the most distinct RS signal, nor the KK SM fermions, direct evidence for bulk flavor, seem to be within the reach of the LHC. We then consider hadron colliders with vs. = 21, 28, and 60 TeV. We find that discovering the first KK modes of SM fermions and the graviton typically requires the Next Hadron Collider (NHC) with {radical}s {approx} 60 TeV and O(1) ab-1 of integrated luminosity. If the LHC yields hints of these warped models, establishing that Nature is described by them, or their 4D CFT duals, requires an NHC-class machine in the post-LHC experimental program.

  18. Direct verification of warped hierarchy-and-flavor models

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Soni, Amarjit; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2008-02-01

    We consider direct experimental verification of warped models, based on the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario, that explain gauge and flavor hierarchies, assuming that the gauge fields and fermions of the standard model (SM) propagate in the 5D bulk. Most studies have focused on the bosonic Kaluza-Klein (KK) signatures and indicate that discovering gauge KK modes is likely possible, yet challenging, while graviton KK modes are unlikely to be accessible at the CERN LHC, even with a luminosity upgrade. We show that direct evidence for bulk SM fermions, i.e. their KK modes, is likely also beyond the reach of a luminosity-upgraded LHC. Thus, neither the spin-2 KK graviton, the most distinct RS signal, nor the KK SM fermions, direct evidence for bulk flavor, seem to be within the reach of the LHC. We then consider hadron colliders with {radical}(s)=21, 28, and 60 TeV. We find that discovering the first KK modes of SM fermions and the graviton typically requires the Next Hadron Collider (NHC) with {radical}(s){approx_equal}60 TeV and O(1) ab{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. If the LHC yields hints of these warped models, establishing that nature is described by them, or their 4D conformal field theory duals, requires an NHC-class machine in the post-LHC experimental program.

  19. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  20. Sea quark flavor asymmetry of hadrons in statistical balance model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bin; Zhang Yongjun

    2010-10-01

    We suggested a Monte Carlo approach to simulate a kinetic equilibrium ensemble, and proved the equivalence to the linear equations method on equilibrium. With the convenience of the numerical method, we introduced variable splitting rates representing the details of the dynamics as model parameters which were not considered in previous works. The dependence on model parameters was studied, and it was found that the sea quark flavor asymmetry weakly depends on model parameters. It reflects the statistics principle, contributes the dominant part of the asymmetry, and the effect caused by details of the dynamics is small. We also applied the Monte Carlo approach of the statistical model to predict the theoretical sea quark asymmetries in kaons, octet baryons {Sigma}, {Xi}, and {Delta} baryons, even in exotic pentaquark states.

  1. Scalar mesons in three-flavor linear sigma models

    SciTech Connect

    Deirdre Black; Amir H. Fariborz; Sherif Moussa; Salah Nasri; Joseph Schrechter

    2001-09-01

    The three flavor linear sigma model is studied in order to understand the role of possible light scalar mesons in the pi-pi, pi-K and pi-eta elastic scattering channels. The K-matrix prescription is used to unitarize tree-level amplitudes and, with a sufficiently general model, we obtain reasonable ts to the experimental data. The effect of unitarization is very important and leads to the emergence of a nonet of light scalars, with masses below 1 GeV. We compare with a scattering treatment using a more general non-linear sigma model approach and also comment upon how our results t in with the scalar meson puzzle. The latter involves a preliminary investigation of possible mixing between scalar nonets.

  2. Flavor independence and the dual superconducting model of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Baker, Ball, and Zachariasen (BBZ) have developed an elegant formulation of the dual superconducting model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which allows one to use the field equations to eliminate the gluon and Higgs degrees of freedom and thus to express the interaction between quarks as an effective potential. Carrying out an expansion in inverse powers of the constituent quark masses, these authors succeeded in identifying the central part, the spin-dependent part, and the leading relativistic corrections to the central potential. The potential offers a good account of the energies and splittings of charmonium and the upsilon system. Since all of the flavor dependence of the interaction is presumed to enter through the constituent masses, it is possible to test the potential in other systems. Logical candidates are the heavy B-flavor charmed system and the heavy-light systems, which should be more sensitive to the relativistic corrections. Lattice gauge calculations furnish an additional point of contact for the components of the BBZ potential. Some preliminary calculations of the energies of B and D mesons are presented and the challenge of agreement with experiment is discussed. The spinless Salpeter equation is used to account for the effects of relativistic kinematics. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Flavor independence and the dual superconducting model of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulcher, Lewis P.

    1998-01-01

    Baker, Ball, and Zachariasen (BBZ) have developed an elegant formulation of the dual superconducting model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which allows one to use the field equations to eliminate the gluon and Higgs degrees of freedom and thus to express the interaction between quarks as an effective potential. Carrying out an expansion in inverse powers of the constituent quark masses, these authors succeeded in identifying the central part, the spin-dependent part, and the leading relativistic corrections to the central potential. The potential offers a good account of the energies and splittings of charmonium and the upsilon system. Since all of the flavor dependence of the interaction is presumed to enter through the constituent masses, it is possible to test the potential in other systems. Logical candidates are the heavy B-flavor charmed system and the heavy-light systems, which should be more sensitive to the relativistic corrections. Lattice gauge calculations furnish an additional point of contact for the components of the BBZ potential. Some preliminary calculations of the energies of B and D mesons are presented and the challenge of agreement with experiment is discussed. The spinless Salpeter equation is used to account for the effects of relativistic kinematics.

  4. Generating functional for the Green’s functions of a two-flavor bosonic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Jizba, P.; Smaldone, L.

    2017-08-01

    We examine a simple two-flavor scalar model with a non-diagonal mass matrix. We argue that the conventional definition of the QFT partition function does not allow to evaluate the Green’s functions with respect to the flavor vacuum as it favors only the mass vacuum. By using functional-integral techniques, we derive new generating functional for Green’s functions on the flavor vacuum.

  5. Impact of future lepton flavor violation measurements in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Pierce, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Working within the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we compare current bounds from quark flavor changing processes with current and upcoming bounds on lepton flavor violation. We assume supersymmetry breaking approximately respects C P invariance. Under the further assumption that flavor violating insertions in the quark and lepton scalar masses are comparable, we explore when lepton flavor violation provides the strongest probe of new physics. We quote results both for spectra with all superpartners near the TeV scale and where scalars are multi-TeV. Constraints from quark flavor changing neutral currents are in many cases already stronger than those expected from future lepton flavor violation bounds, but large regions of parameter space remain where the latter could provide a discovery mode for supersymmetry.

  6. Flavor democracy in standard models at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1993-10-01

    It is possible that the standard model (SM) is replaced around some transition energy Λ by a new, possibly Higgsless, "flavor gauge theory" such that the Yukawa (running) parameters of SM at E ˜ Λ show up an (approximate) flavor democracy (FD). We investigate the latter possibility by studying the renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of SM with one and two Higgs doublets, by evolving them from given physical values at low energies ( E ⋍ 1 GeV) to Λ (˜ Λpole) and comparing the resulting fermion masses and CKM matrix elements at E ⋍ Λ for various mtphy and ratios νu/ νd of vacuum expectation values. We find that the minimal SM and the closely related SM with two Higgs doublets (type I) show increasing deviation from FD when energy is increased, but that SM with two Higgs doublets (type II) clearly tends to FD with increasing energy—in both the quark and the leptonic sector (q-q and l- l FD). Furthermore, we find within the type-II model that, for Λpole ≪ ΛPlack, mtphy can be less than 200 GeV in most cases of chosen νu/ νd. Under the assumption that also the corresponding Yukawa couplings in the quark and the leptonic sector at E ⋍ Λ are equal ( l-q FD), we derive estimates of bounds on masses of top quark and tau-neutrino, which are compatible with experimental bounds.

  7. Lepton Flavor Violation in Predictive SUSY-GUT Models

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Chen, Mu-Chun; /UC, Irvine

    2008-02-01

    There have been many theoretical models constructed which aim to explain the neutrino masses and mixing patterns. While many of the models will be eliminated once more accurate determinations of the mixing parameters, especially sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}, are obtained, charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments are able to differentiate even further among the models. In this paper, they investigate various rare LFV processes, such as {ell}{sub i} {yields} {ell}{sub j} + {gamma} and {mu} - e conversion, in five predictive SUSY SO(10) models and their allowed soft SUSY breaking parameter space in the constrained minimal SUSY standard model (CMSSM). Utilizing the WMAP dark matter constraints, they obtain lower bounds on the branching ratios of these rare processes and find that at least three of the five models they consider give rise to predictions for {mu} {yields} e + {gamma} that will be tested by the MEG collaboration at PSI. in addition, the next generation {mu} - e conversion experiment has sensitivity to the predictions of all five models, making it an even more robust way to test these models. While generic studies have emphasized the dependence of the branching ratios of these rare processes on the reactor neutrino angle, {theta}{sub 13}, and the mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino, M{sub 3}, they find very massive M{sub 3} is more significant than large {theta}{sub 13} in leading to branching ratios near to the present upper limits.

  8. Constraining RS Models by Future Flavor and Collider Measurements: A Snowmass Whitepaper

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Bauer, Martin; Goertz, Florian; Lee, Seung J.; Vecchi, Luca; Wang, Lian-Tao; Yu, Felix

    2013-10-03

    Randall-Sundrum models are models of quark flavor, because they explain the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings in terms of order one localization parameters of extra dimensional wavefunctions. The same small numbers which generate the light quark masses suppress contributions to flavor violating tree level amplitudes. In this note we update universal constraints from electroweak precision parameters and demonstrate how future measurements of flavor violation in ultra rare decay channels of Kaons and B mesons will constrain the parameter space of this type of models. We show how collider signatures are correlated with these flavor measurements and compute projected limits for direct searches at the 14 TeV LHC run, a 14 TeV LHC luminosity upgrade, a 33 TeV LHC energy upgrade, and a potential 100 TeV machine. We further discuss the effects of a warped model of leptons in future measurements of lepton flavor violation.

  9. Genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse (Mus musculus) model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor preference and discrimination were examined using a two-choice feeding system and 24-h trials and the Student’s t statistic. To elimi...

  10. Identifying genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, though differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor was examined using a two-choice feeding system and the Student’s t statistic. To eliminate the confounding effect of processin...

  11. Neutrino phenomenology and scalar Dark Matter with A4 flavor symmetry in Inverse and type II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ananya; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2016-12-01

    We present a TeV scale seesaw mechanism for exploring the dark matter and neutrino phenomenology in the light of recent neutrino and cosmology data. A different realization of the Inverse seesaw (ISS) mechanism with A4 flavor symmetry is being implemented as a leading contribution to the light neutrino mass matrix which usually gives rise to vanishing reactor mixing angle θ13. Using a non-diagonal form of Dirac neutrino mass matrix and 3σ values of mass square differences we parameterize the neutrino mass matrix in terms of Dirac Yukawa coupling "y". We then use type II seesaw as a perturbation which turns out to be active to have a non-vanishing reactor mixing angle without much disturbing the other neutrino oscillation parameters. Then we constrain a common parameter space satisfying the non-zero θ13, Yukawa coupling and the relic abundance of dark matter. Contributions of neutrinoless double beta decay are also included for standard as well as non-standard interaction. This study may have relevance in future neutrino and Dark Matter experiments.

  12. Seesaw model and two zero flavor neutrino texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasuè, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    In the two zero flavor neutrino mass matrix scheme with nonvanishing Majorana effective mass Mee for the neutrinoless double beta decay, four textures are compatible with observed data. We obtain the complete list of the possible textures of four zero Dirac neutrino mass matrix mD in the seesaw mechanism providing these four flavor neutrino textures. Explicit analytical analysis of mD turns out to provide the relation of mD ∝Mee.

  13. Random matrix model for chiral and color-flavor locking condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2012-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of a chiral random matrix model with three quark flavors at finite temperature and chemical potential, taking the chiral and diquark condensates as independent order parameters. Fixing the ratio of the coupling strengths in the quark-antiquark and quark-quark channels applying the Fierz transformation, we find that the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase is realized at large chemical potential, while the ordinary chirally broken phase appears in the region with small chemical potential. We investigate responses of the phases by changing small quark masses in the cases with three equal-mass flavors and with 2+1 flavors. In the case with three equal-mass flavors, we find that the finite masses make the CFL phase transition line move to the higher-density region. In the case with 2+1 flavors, we find the two-flavor color-superconducting phase at the medium-density region as a result of the finite asymmetry between the flavors, as well as the CFL phase at the higher-density region.

  14. Experimental constraints on the neutrino oscillations and a simple model of three-flavor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Raczka, P.A.; Szymacha, A. ); Tatur, S. )

    1994-02-01

    A simple model of neutrino mixing is considered which contains only one right-handed neutrino field coupled, via the mass term, to the three usual left-handed fields. This is the simplest model that allows for three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The existing experimental limits on the neutrino oscillations are used to obtain constraints on the two free-mixing parameters of the model. A specific sum rule relating the oscillation probabilities of different flavors is derived.

  15. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuki, H.; Ciminale, M.; Gatto, R.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.

    2008-04-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density, the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external colored field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality, one has then to allow nonvanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark matter phase diagram in (T,ms2/μ)-plane is affected by imposing neutrality and by including the Polyakov-loop dynamics. Although these two effects are correlated in a nonlinear way, the impact of the Polyakov loop turns out to be significant in the T direction, while imposing neutrality brings a remarkable effect in the ms2/μ direction. In particular, we find a novel unlocking transition, when the temperature is increased, even in the chiral SU(3) limit. We clarify how and why this is possible once the dynamics of the colored Polyakov loop is taken into account. Also we succeed in giving an analytic expression for Tc for the transition from two-flavor pairing (2SC) to unpaired quark matter in the presence of the Polyakov loop.

  16. High scale flavor alignment in two-Higgs doublet models and its phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Stefania; Haber, Howard E.; Santos, Edward

    2017-06-01

    The most general two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) includes potentially large sources of flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) that must be suppressed in order to achieve a phenomenologically viable model. The flavor alignment ansatz postulates that all Yukawa coupling matrices are diagonal when expressed in the basis of mass-eigenstate fermion fields, in which case tree-level Higgs-mediated FCNCs are eliminated. In this work, we explore models with the flavor alignment condition imposed at a very high energy scale, which results in the generation of Higgs-mediated FCNCs via renormalization group running from the high energy scale to the electroweak scale. Using the current experimental bounds on flavor changing observables, constraints are derived on the aligned 2HDM parameter space. In the favored parameter region, we analyze the implications for Higgs boson phenomenology.

  17. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Flavor production among 12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strains may have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production. PMID:22950022

  18. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model.

    PubMed

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-06-01

    Flavor production among 12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strains may have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production.

  19. Charged lepton flavor violation in supersymmetric low-scale seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilakovac, Amon; Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Popov, Luka

    2013-03-01

    We study charged lepton flavor violation in low-scale seesaw models of minimal supergravity, which realize large neutrino Yukawa couplings thanks to approximate lepton-number symmetries. There are two dominant sources of lepton flavor violation in such models. The first source originates from the usual soft supersymmetry-breaking sector, whilst the second one is entirely supersymmetric and comes from the supersymmetric neutrino Yukawa sector. Within the framework of minimal supergravity, we consider both sources of lepton flavor violation, soft and supersymmetric, and calculate a number of possible lepton-flavor-violating transitions, such as the photonic decays of muons and taus, μ→eγ, τ→eγ and τ→μγ, their neutrinoless three-body decays, μ→eee, τ→eee, τ→μμμ, τ→eeμ and τ→eμμ, and the coherent μ→e conversion in nuclei. After taking into account the exclusion bounds placed by present experiments of lepton flavor violation, we derive combined theoretical limits on the universal heavy Majorana mass scale mN and the light-to-heavy neutrino mixings. Supersymmetric low-scale seesaw models offer distinct correlated predictions for lepton-flavor-violating signatures, which might be discovered in current and projected experiments, such as MEG, COMET/PRISM, Mu2e, super-BELLE and LHCb.

  20. Towards a holographic model of color-flavor locking phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hashimoto, Koji; Matsuura, Shunji

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate a holographic realization of color-flavor locking phase, using mathcal{N} = 4 SU( N c ) SYM coupled to mathcal{N} = 2 N f fundamental hypermultiplets as an example. The gravity dual consists of N c D3-branes and N f D7-branes with world volume gauge field representing the baryon density. Treating a small number Ñ c subset N c of D3-branes as Yang-Mills instantons on the D7-branes, we consider possible potential(s) on their moduli space or equivalently the Higgs branch. We show that a non-trivial potential can be generated by including the backreaction of the baryonic density on the D7-branes, this dynamically drives the instantons (= D3-branes) into dissolution. We interpret this as a color-flavor locking since the size of the instanton is the squark vev, and study the symmetry breaking patterns. Extending to finite temperature setup, we demonstrate that color-flavor locking persists, and the thermal effect provides additional structures in the phase diagram.

  1. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  2. Thermodynamics of a three-flavor nonlocal Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    SciTech Connect

    Hell, T.; Roessner, S.; Cristoforetti, M.; Weise, W.

    2010-04-01

    The present work generalizes a nonlocal version of the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model to the case of three active quark flavors, with inclusion of the axial U(1) anomaly. Gluon dynamics is incorporated through a gluonic background field, expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop. The thermodynamics of the nonlocal PNJL model accounts for both chiral and deconfinement transitions. Our results obtained in mean-field approximation are compared to lattice QCD results for N{sub f}=2+1 quark flavors. Additional pionic and kaonic contributions to the pressure are calculated in random phase approximation. Finally, this nonlocal three-flavor PNJL model is applied to the finite density region of the QCD phase diagram. It is confirmed that the existence and location of a critical point in this phase diagram depend sensitively on the strength of the axial U(1) breaking interaction.

  3. Flavor and Higgs Physics in Randall-Sundrum Models

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.

    2009-04-20

    We want to evaluate the three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays, i.e. h{sup 0}{yields}cW{sup -}b-bar, which could compete with the two-body decays h{sup 0}{yields}bb-bar, cc-bar, {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}, below the threshold for the mode h{sup 0}{yields}ct-bar. Here we evaluate the mode h{sup 0}{yields}ct-bar; this mode would require m{sub h{sup 0}}>m{sub t}+m{sub c}, which may be in conflict with Electro-Weak precision tests. We work within the Randall-Sundrum set up, which is known to offer an alternative solution to the hierarchy problem.

  4. Heavy neutrinos and lepton flavor violation in left-right symmetric models at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. P.; Deppisch, F. F.; Kittel, O.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2012-09-01

    We discuss lepton flavor violating processes induced in the production and decay of heavy right-handed neutrinos at the LHC. Such particles appear in left-right symmetrical extensions of the standard model as the messengers of neutrino mass generation, and can have masses at the TeV scale. We determine the expected sensitivity on the right-handed neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the right-handed gauge boson and heavy neutrino masses. By comparing the sensitivity of the LHC with that of searches for low energy lepton flavor violating processes, we identify favorable areas of the parameter space to explore the complementarity between lepton flavor violating at low and high energies.

  5. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  6. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  7. W / Z + heavy flavor production and the standard model Higgs searches at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.Y.; /UC, Riverside

    2004-08-01

    Searches for the Standard Model Higgs in WH and H {yields} WW channels by CDF and D0 collaborations are presented. The preliminary results are based on < 180 pb{sup -1} of data analyzed by each experiment. Important backgrounds to Higgs searches, such as heavy flavor production in association with massive vector bosons (W and Z) are studied in the process.

  8. Delayed thresholds and heavy-flavor production in the dual parton model

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Sukhatme, U.; Tan, C.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that the two-chain structure of the cut Pomeron in the dual parton model for low-p/sub T/ multiparticle production provides a natural explanation for the phenomenon of delayed thresholds for heavy-flavor production in proton-proton collisions.

  9. Role of two-flavor color superconductor pairing in a three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with axial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, H.; Buballa, M.

    2010-11-01

    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is studied within a three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which contains the coupling between chiral and diquark condensates through the axial anomaly. Our results show that it is essential to include the two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) phase in the analysis. While this is expected for realistic strange-quark masses, we find that even for equal up, down, and strange bare quark masses 2SC pairing can be favored due to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking by the axial anomaly. This can lead to a rich phase structure, including BCS- and Bose-Einstein condensate-like 2SC and color-flavor locked phases and new endpoints. On the other hand, the low-temperature critical endpoint, which was found earlier in the same model without 2SC pairing, is almost removed from the phase diagram and cannot be reached from the low-density chirally broken phase without crossing a preceding first-order phase boundary. For physical quark masses no additional critical endpoint is found.

  10. Tribimaximal mixing and Cabibbo angle in S{sub 4} flavor model with supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimori, Hajime; Saga, Kouta; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2010-06-01

    We present a flavor model of quarks and leptons with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry S{sub 4} in the framework of the SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory. Three generations of 5-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 3 of S{sub 4} while the first and second generations of 10-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 2 of S{sub 4}, and the third generation of 10-plet is assigned to 1 of S{sub 4}. Right-handed neutrinos are also assigned to 2 for the first and second generations and 1{sup '} for the third generation. We predict the Cabibbo angle as well as the tribimaximal mixing of neutrino flavors. We also predict the nonvanishing U{sub e3} of the neutrino flavor mixing due to higher dimensional mass operators. Our predicted Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles and the CP violation are consistent with experimental values. We also study supersymmetry breaking terms in the slepton sector. Our model leads to smaller values of flavor changing neutral currents than the present experimental bounds.

  11. Minimal flavor violation in the minimal U(1)B-L model and resonant leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the resonant leptogenesis scenario in the minimally U(1)B-L extended standard model with minimal flavor violation. In our model, the U(1)B-L gauge symmetry is broken at the TeV scale and standard model singlet neutrinos gain Majorana masses of order TeV. In addition, we introduce a flavor symmetry on the singlet neutrinos at a scale higher than TeV. The flavor symmetry is explicitly broken by the neutrino Dirac Yukawa coupling, which induces splittings in the singlet neutrino Majorana masses at lower scales through renormalization group evolutions. We call this setup minimal flavor violation. The mass splittings are proportional to the tiny Dirac Yukawa coupling, and hence they automatically enhance the CP asymmetry parameter necessary for the resonant leptogenesis mechanism. In this paper, we calculate the baryon number yield by solving the Boltzmann equations, including the effects of U(1)B-L gauge boson that also has TeV scale mass and causes washing-out of the singlet neutrinos in the course of thermal leptogenesis. The Dirac Yukawa coupling for neutrinos is fixed in terms of neutrino oscillation data and an arbitrary 3×3 complex-valued orthogonal matrix. We show that the right amount of baryon number asymmetry can be achieved through thermal leptogenesis in the context of the minimal flavor violation with singlet neutrinos and U(1)B-L gauge boson at the TeV scale. These particles can be discovered at the LHC in the near future.

  12. The eightfold way model, the SU(3)-flavor model and the medium-strong interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2015-04-01

    Lack of any baryon number in the eightfold way model, and its intrinsic presence in the SU(3)-flavor model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964. First we show that the conventional popular understanding of this puzzle is actually fundamentally wrong, and hence the problem being so old, begs urgently for resolution. In this paper we show that the issue is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation. This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Lepton flavor changing Higgs decays in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Aguila, Francisco; Ametller, Lluis; Illana, Jose Ignacio; Santiago, Jose; Talavera, Pere; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    We calculate loop induced lepton flavor violating Higgs decays in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. We find that a finite amplitude is obtained only when all contributions from the T-odd lepton sector are included. This is in contrast to lepton flavor violating processes mediated by gauge bosons where the partners of the right-handed mirror leptons can be decoupled from the spectrum. These partners are necessary to cancel the divergence in the Higgs mass introduced by the mirror leptons but are otherwise unnecessary and assumed to be decoupled in previous phenomenological studies. Further-more, as we emphasize, including the partner leptons in the spectrum also introduces a new source of lepton flavor violation via their couplings to the physical pseudo-Goldstone electroweak triplet scalar. Although this extra source also affects lepton flavor changing gauge transitions, it decouples from these amplitudes in the limit of heavy mass for the partner leptons. We find that the corresponding Higgs branching ratio into taus and muons can be as large as ˜ 0.2 × 10-6 for T-odd masses of the order a few TeV, a demanding challenge even for the high luminosity LHC.

  14. An explicit SU(12) family and flavor unification model with natural fermion masses and mixings

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2012-07-01

    We present an SU(12) unification model with three light chiral families, avoiding any external flavor symmetries. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and mixings is explained by higher dimensional Yukawa interactions involving Higgs bosons that contain SU(5) singlet fields with VEVs about 50 times smaller than the SU(12) unification scale. The presented model has been analyzed in detail and found to be in very good agreement with the observed quark and lepton masses and mixings.

  15. Hidden gauged U (1 ) model: Unifying scotogenic neutrino and flavor dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-06-01

    In both scotogenic neutrino and flavor dark matter models, the dark sector communicates with the standard model fermions via Yukawa portal couplings. We propose an economic scenario where the scotogenic neutrino and a flavored mediator share the same inert Higgs doublet and all are charged under a hidden gauged U (1 ) symmetry. The dark Z2 symmetry in the dark sector is regarded as the remnant of this hidden U (1 ) symmetry breaking. In particular, we investigate a dark U (1 )D [and also U (1 )B-L] model which unifies the scotogenic neutrino and top-flavored mediator. Thus dark tops and dark neutrinos are the standard model fermion partners, and the dark matter could be the inert Higgs or the lightest dark neutrino. We note that this model has rich collider signatures on dark tops, the inert Higgs and the Z' gauge boson. Moreover, the scalar associated to the U (1 )D [and also U (1 )B -L ] symmetry breaking could explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS recently.

  16. Minimal models of loop-induced lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Carlos; Capdevilla, Rodolfo M.; Delgado, Antonio; Martin, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The LHC has recently reported a slight excess in the h →τ μ channel. If this lepton flavor violating (LFV) decay is confirmed, an extension of the standard model (SM) will be required to explain it. In this paper we investigate two different possibilities to accommodate such a LFV process: the first scenario is based on flavor off-diagonal A terms in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the second is a model where the Higgs boson couples to new vectorlike fermions that couple to the SM leptons through a LFV four-fermion interaction. In the supersymmetric model, we find that the sizes of the A terms needed to accommodate the h →τ μ excess are in conflict with charge- and color-breaking vacuum constraints. In the second model, the excess can be successfully explained while satisfying all other flavor constraints, with order-one couplings, vectorlike fermion masses as low as 15 TeV, and a UV scale higher than 35 TeV.

  17. Flavor-changing decays of the top quark in 5D warped models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel; Xoxocotzi, Reyna

    2016-08-01

    We study flavor-changing neutral current decays of the top quark in the context of general warped extra dimensions, where the five-dimensional (5D) metric is slightly modified from 5D anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ). These models address the Planck-electroweak hierarchies of the Standard Model and can obey all the low-energy flavor bounds and electroweak precision tests, while allowing the scale of new physics to be at the TeV level, and thus within the reach of the LHC at Run II. We perform the calculation of these exotic top decay rates for the case of a bulk Higgs, and thus include in particular the effect of the additional Kaluza-Klein (KK) Higgs modes running in the loops, along with the usual KK fermions and KK gluons.

  18. Neutrinos and lepton flavor violation in the left-right twin Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Asmaa; Hidalgo, Irene

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the lepton sector of the left-right twin Higgs model. This model offers an alternative way to solve the 'little hierarchy' problem of the standard model. We show that one can achieve an effective seesaw to explain the origin of neutrino masses and that this model can accommodate the observed neutrino masses and mixings. We have also studied the lepton flavor violation process l{sub i}{yields}l{sub j}{gamma} and discussed how the experimental bound from these branching ratios constrains the scale of symmetry breaking of this twin Higgs model.

  19. as the flavor symmetry in a non-minimal SUSY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Izquierdo, J. C.; González-Canales, F.; Mondragon, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present a non-minimal renormalizable SUSY model, with extended Higgs sector and right-handed neutrinos, where the flavor sector exhibits a flavor symmetry. We analyzed the simplest version of this model, in which R-parity is conserved and the right-handed neutrino masses in the flavor doublet are considered with and without degeneracy. We find the generic form of the mass matrices both in the quark and lepton sectors. We reproduce, according to current data, the mixing in the CKM matrix. In the leptonic sector, in the general case where the right-handed neutrino masses are not degenerate, we find that the values for the solar, atmospheric, and reactor mixing angles are in very good agreement with the experimental data, both for a normal and an inverted hierarchy. In the particular case where the right-handed neutrinos masses are degenerate, the model predicts a strong inverted hierarchy spectrum and a sum rule among the neutrino masses. In this case the atmospheric and solar angles are in very good agreement with experimental data, and the reactor one is different from zero, albeit too small (). This value constitutes a lower bound for in the general case. We also find the range of the values for the neutrino masses in each case.

  20. Flavor changing neutral currents in the 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, Richard H.; Giraldo, Yithsbey; Ponce, William A.

    2009-12-01

    Flavor changing neutral currents coming from a new nonuniversal neutral gauge boson and from the nonunitary quark mixing matrix for the SU(3){sub c} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} model with right-handed neutrinos are studied. By imposing as experimental constraints the measured values of the 3x3 quark mixing matrix, the neutral meson mixing, and bounds and measured values for direct flavor changing neutral current processes, the largest mixing of the known quarks with the exotic ones can be established, with new sources of flavor changing neutral currents being identified. Our main result is that for a |V{sub tb}| value smaller than 1, large rates of rare top decays such as t{yields}c{gamma}, t{yields}cZ, and t{yields}cg (where g stands for the gluon field) are obtained; but if |V{sub tb}|{approx}1 the model can survive present experimental limits only if the mass of the new neutral gauge bosons becomes larger that 10 TeV.

  1. Altered ENSO flavors during the mid-Holocene revealed by model-proxy synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, C.; Di Nezio, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The great majority of paleoclimate records from the eastern Pacific suggest a drastic reduction in ENSO variability during the mid-Holocene (around 6 ka BP). However, new coral records from the central Pacific challenge this notion; they show that changes in mid-Holocene ENSO variability lie within the range of variability seen in the Late Holocene. Using a combination of proxy records, modern observations, and climate model simulations we show that conflicting evidence from the east and the central Pacific could be explained by a differential response of the so-called ENSO flavors (Central and Eastern Pacific ENSO) to orbital forcing. We first re-interpret the proxy records based on their location: we argue that eastern Pacific proxies record solely the impact of EP ENSO events on sea surface temperature and precipitation, while western Pacific coral records most likely capture their influence on sea surface salinity. The central Pacific is more complex since CP and EP events have an impact there via temperature and salinity respectively. Aided by a quantitative method that combines observed patterns of variance we show that the proxies are consistent with a large reduction in ENSO's EP flavor and a not so dramatic increase in the CP flavor. These results are in agreement with climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene, which indeed show a large reduction in the frequency of EP events, and a small increase in the frequency of CP events in response to orbital forcing.

  2. Flavor-changing top-charm associated productions at the ILC in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanju; Lu Gongru; Wang Xuelei

    2011-04-01

    The littlest Higgs model with T parity has new flavor-changing couplings with the standard model quarks, which do not suffer strong constraints from electroweak precision data. So these flavor-changing interactions may enhance the cross sections of some flavor-changing neutral-current processes. In this work, we study the flavor-changing top-charm associated productions via the e{sup -}{gamma} collision at the ILC. We find that the cross sections are sensitive to the mirror quark masses. With reasonable values of the parameters, the cross sections may reach the detectable level and provide useful information about the relevant parameters in the littlest Higgs model with T parity, especially in setting an upper limit on the mirror quark masses.

  3. Tau and muon lepton flavor violations in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Toru; Okada, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2011-03-01

    Lepton flavor violation in {tau} and {mu} processes is studied in the littlest Higgs model with T parity. We consider various asymmetries defined in polarized {tau} and {mu} decays. Correlations among branching ratios and asymmetries are shown in the following lepton flavor violation processes: {mu}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}{gamma}, {mu}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -}, {mu}{sup -}A{yields}e{sup -}A (A=Al, Ti, Au, and Pb), {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{gamma}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}P (P={pi}{sup 0}, {eta} and {eta}{sup '}), {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}V (V={rho}{sup 0}, {omega} and {phi}), {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}{gamma}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}P, {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}V, {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}e{sup -} and {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. It is shown that large parity asymmetries and time-reversal asymmetries are allowed in {mu}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -}. For {tau} lepton flavor violation processes, sizable asymmetries are possible reflecting characteristic chirality structure of lepton flavor violating interactions in this model.

  4. Flavored Exotic Multibaryons and Hypernuclei in Topological Soliton Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, V.B.; Shunderuk, A.M.

    2005-05-01

    The energies of baryon states with positive strangeness, or anticharm (antibeauty), are estimated in the chiral soliton approach, in the 'rigid oscillator' version of the bound-state soliton model proposed by Klebanov and Westerberg. Positive strangeness states can appear as relatively narrow nuclear levels ({theta}-hypernuclei), and the states with heavy antiflavors can be bound with respect to strong interactions in the original Skyrme variant of the model (SK4 variant). The binding energies of antiflavored states are also estimated in the variant of the model with a sixth-order term in chiral derivatives added to the Lagrangian to stabilize solitons (SK6 variant). This variant is less attractive, and nuclear states with anticharm and antibeauty can be unstable relative to strong interactions. The chances of obtaining bound hypernuclei with heavy antiflavors increase within the 'nuclear variant' of the model with a rescaled model parameter (the Skyrme constant e or e' decreased by about 30%), which is expected to be valid for baryon numbers greater than B {approx} 10. The rational map approximation is used to describe multiskyrmions with a baryon number of up to about 30 and to calculate the quantities necessary for their quantization (moments of inertia, sigma term, etc.)

  5. Two flavor superconductivity in non-local models

    SciTech Connect

    Duhau, R.; Grunfeld, A.G.; Scoccola, N.N.

    2004-12-02

    In the present work we study a relativistic quark model at finite temperature and density with non-local quark-antiquark and quark-quark interactions with SU(2) flavour and SU(3) color symmetries. After proper bosonization, we analyze the structure of the corresponding phase diagram and discuss the competition between the chiral and 2SC phases.

  6. Flavor structure, Higgs boson mass, and dark matter in a supersymmetric model with vector-like generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Nishida, Michinobu; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    We study a supersymmetric model in which the Higgs mass, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, and the dark matter are simultaneously explained with extra vector-like generation multiplets. For the explanations, non-trivial flavor structures and a singlet field are required. In this paper, we study the flavor texture by using the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, and then find realistic flavor structures that reproduce the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and fermion masses at low energy. Furthermore, we find that the fermion component of the singlet field becomes a good candidate for dark matter. In our model, flavor physics and dark matter are explained with moderate-size couplings through renormalization group flows, and the presence of dark matter supports the existence of just 3 generations in low-energy scales. We analyze the parameter region where the current thermal relic abundance of dark matter, the Higgs boson mass, and the muon g{-}2 can be explained simultaneously.

  7. Top quark decays with flavor violation in extended models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, J. I.; Gómez, D. E.; Cortés-Maldonado, I.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, F.; Tututi, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the top quark decays t → cg and t → cγ mediated by a new neutral gauge boson, identified as Z', in the context of the sequential Z model. We focus our attention on the corresponding branching ratios, which are a function of the Z' boson mass. The study range is taken from 2 TeV to 6 TeV, which is compatible with the resonant region of the dileptonic channel reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. Finally, our preliminary results tell us that the branching ratios of t → cg and t → cγ processes can be of the order of 10-11 and 10-13, respectively.

  8. Phenomenology of a Flavorful Two Higgs Doublet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuckler, Douglas; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 gave us the final piece of the SM, and since then there has been a large effort to understand its properties. Current experimental sensitivities allow us to probe the couplings of the Higgs to the 3rd generation of quarks and leptons, and measurements tell us that the Higgs is responsible for generating their mass. However, a lot less is known about the origin of mass of the 1st and 2nd generations: measurements of their couplings to the Higgs are out of experimental reach. With limited experimental sensitivities, one might be led to ask: is the origin of mass of the 1st and 2nd generation fermions due to the SM Higgs at all? In this talk, the idea that the mass of the 1st and 2nd generation fermions is not due to the SM Higgs, but a second source of electroweak symmetry breaking, is investigated. This can be realized simply by a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM), where one doublet couples mainly to the 3rd generations fermions while the second doublet couples mainly to the 1st and 2nd generation. We will see how a non-standard Yukawa texture leads to phenomenology that is markedly different from well studied 2HDMs, enhancing the collider signatures involving 2nd generation quarks and leptons.

  9. Flavor constraints on two-Higgs-doublet models with general diagonal Yukawa couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, F.

    2010-02-01

    We consider constraints from flavor physics on two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM) with general, flavor-diagonal, Yukawa couplings. Analyzing the charged Higgs contribution to different observables, we find that b{yields}s{gamma} transitions and {Delta}M{sub B{sub d}} restrict the coupling {lambda}{sub tt} of the top quark (corresponding to cot{beta} in models with a Z{sub 2} symmetry) to |{lambda}{sub tt}|<1 for m{sub H}{sup +} < or approx. 500 GeV. Stringent constraints from B meson decays are obtained also on the other third generation couplings {lambda}{sub bb} and {lambda}{sub {tau}{tau},} but with stronger dependence on m{sub H}{sup +}. For the second generation, we obtain constraints on combinations of {lambda}{sub ss}, {lambda}{sub cc}, and {lambda}{sub {mu}{mu}}from leptonic K and D{sub s} decays. The limits on the general couplings are translated to the common 2HDM types I-IV with a Z{sub 2} symmetry, and presented on the (m{sub H}{sup +},tan{beta}) plane. The flavor constraints are most excluding in the type II model which lacks a decoupling limit in tan{beta}. We obtain a lower limit m{sub H}{sup +} > or approx. 300 GeV in models of type II and III, while no lower bound on m{sub H}{sup +} is found for types I and IV.

  10. Higgs-flavon mixing and LHC phenomenology in a simplified model of broken flavor symmetry [Higgs boson physics and broken flavor symmetry - LHC phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Edmond L.; Giddings, Steven B.; Wang, Haichen; ...

    2014-10-10

    Here, the LHC phenomenology of a low-scale gauged flavor symmetry model with inverted hierarchy is studied, through introduction of a simplified model of broken flavor symmetry. A new scalar (a flavon) and a new neutral top-philic massive gauge boson emerge with mass in the TeV range, along with a new heavy fermion associated with the standard model top quark. After checking constraints from electroweak precision observables, we investigate the influence of the model on Higgs boson physics, notably on its production cross section and decay branching fractions. Limits on the flavon φ from heavy Higgs boson searches at the LHCmore » at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. The branching fractions of the flavon are computed as a function of the flavon mass and the Higgs-flavon mixing angle. We also explore possible discovery of the flavon at 14 TeV, particularly via the φ → Z0Z0 decay channel in the 2ℓ2ℓ' final state, and through standard model Higgs boson pair production φ → hh in the b¯bγγ final state. We conclude that the flavon mass range up to 500 GeV could be probed down to quite small values of the Higgs-flavon mixing angle with 100 fb–1 of integrated luminosity at 14 TeV.« less

  11. A4 and CP symmetry and a model with maximal CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Lu, Jun-Nan; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2016-12-01

    We study a second CP symmetry compatible with the A4 flavor group, which interchanges the representations 1‧ and 1″. We analyze the lepton mixing patterns arising from the A4 and CP symmetry broken to residual subgroups Z3 and Z2 × CP in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors respectively. One phenomenologically viable mixing pattern is found, and it predicts maximal atmospheric mixing angle as well as maximal Dirac CP phase, trivial Majorana phases and the correlation sin2 ⁡θ12cos2 ⁡θ13 = 1 / 3. We construct a concrete model based on the A4 and CP symmetry, the above interesting mixing pattern is achieved, the observed charged lepton mass hierarchy is reproduced, and the reactor mixing angle θ13 is of the correct order.

  12. Lepton flavor violation in the inert scalar model with higher representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Talal Ahmed; Nasri, Salah

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the inert scalar model with higher representations. We generalize the inert doublet model with right handed neutrino by using higher scalar and fermion representation of SU(2) L . As the generalized model and the inert doublet model have the same parameter space, we compare the rates of μ → eγ, μ → eeē and μ - e conversion in nuclei in the doublet and its immediate extension, the quartet model. We show that the corresponding rates are larger in the case of higher representation compared to the Inert doublet for the same region of parameter space. This implies that such extended models are more constrained by current LFV bounds and will have better prospects in future experiments.

  13. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p < 0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p < 0.05) and condensed milk (p < 0.05) flavor. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  14. Liouville decoherence in a model of flavor oscillations in the presence of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatos, Nick; Sarkar, Sarben

    2005-09-15

    We study in some detail the master equation, and its solution in a simplified case modelling flavor oscillations of a two-level system, stemming from the Liouville-string approach to quantum space-time foam. In this framework we discuss the appearance of diffusion terms and decoherence due to the interaction of low-energy string matter with space-time defects, such as D-particles in the specific model of ''D-particle foam,'' as well as dark-energy contributions. We pay particular attention to contrasting the decoherent role of a cosmological constant in inducing exponential quantum damping in the evolution of low-energy observables, such as the probability of flavor oscillations, with the situation where the dark-energy relaxes to zero for asymptotically large times, in which case such a damping is absent. Our findings may be of interest to (astrophysical) tests of quantum space-time foam models in the not-so-distant future.

  15. Genome-scale metabolic model for Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its application to the analysis of flavor formation.

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Nicolas A L; Wiersma, Anne; van de Bunt, Bert; Martens, Dirk E; Schaap, Peter J; Sijtsma, Lolke; Dos Santos, Vitor A Martins; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-10-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is a paradigm strain for lactococci used in industrial dairy fermentations. However, despite of its importance for process development, no genome-scale metabolic model has been reported thus far. Moreover, current models for other lactococci only focus on growth and sugar degradation. A metabolic model that includes nitrogen metabolism and flavor-forming pathways is instrumental for the understanding and designing new industrial applications of these lactic acid bacteria. A genome-scale, constraint-based model of the metabolism and transport in L. lactis MG1363, accounting for 518 genes, 754 reactions, and 650 metabolites, was developed and experimentally validated. Fifty-nine reactions are directly or indirectly involved in flavor formation. Flux Balance Analysis and Flux Variability Analysis were used to investigate flux distributions within the whole metabolic network. Anaerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures were used for estimating the energetic parameters. A thorough model-driven analysis showing a highly flexible nitrogen metabolism, e.g., branched-chain amino acid catabolism which coupled with the redox balance, is pivotal for the prediction of the formation of different flavor compounds. Furthermore, the model predicted the formation of volatile sulfur compounds as a result of the fermentation. These products were subsequently identified in the experimental fermentations carried out. Thus, the genome-scale metabolic model couples the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in L. lactis MG1363 with complete known catabolic pathways leading to flavor formation. The model provided valuable insights into the metabolic networks underlying flavor formation and has the potential to contribute to new developments in dairy industries and cheese-flavor research.

  16. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Chakraborty, Sovan; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Lisi, Eligio E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within ± 1σ fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  17. Aoki phases in the lattice Gross-Neveu model with flavored mass terms

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael; Kimura, Taro; Misumi, Tatsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the parity-broken phase structure for staggered and naive fermions in the Gross-Neveu model as a toy model of QCD. We consider a generalized staggered Gross-Neveu model including two types of four-point interactions. We use generalized mass terms to split the doublers for both staggered and naive fermions. The phase boundaries derived from the gap equations show that the mass splitting of tastes results in an Aoki phase both in the staggered and naive cases. We also discuss the continuum limit of these models and explore taking the chirally symmetric limit by fine-tuning a mass parameter and two-coupling constants. This supports the idea that in lattice QCD we can derive one- or two-flavor staggered fermions by tuning the mass parameter, which are likely to be less expensive than Wilson fermions in QCD simulation.

  18. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group show diverse abilities for the production of flavor compounds in 2 model systems.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Ewelina; Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Bertuzzi, Andrea; Rea, Mary C; Fitzgerald, Gerald; McAuliffe, Olivia; Kilcawley, Kieran N

    2017-09-01

    Cheese flavor development is directly connected to the metabolic activity of microorganisms used during its manufacture, and the selection of metabolically diverse strains represents a potential tool for the production of cheese with novel and distinct flavor characteristics. Strains of Lactobacillus have been proven to promote the development of important cheese flavor compounds. As cheese production and ripening are long-lasting and expensive, model systems have been developed with the purpose of rapidly screening lactic acid bacteria for their flavor potential. The biodiversity of 10 strains of the Lactobacillus casei group was evaluated in 2 model systems and their volatile profiles were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In model system 1, which represented a mixture of free AA, inoculated cells did not grow. In total, 66 compounds considered as flavor contributors were successfully identified, most of which were aldehydes, acids, and alcohols produced via AA metabolism by selected strains. Three strains (DPC2071, DPC3990, and DPC4206) had the most diverse metabolic capacities in model system 1. In model system 2, which was based on processed cheese curd, inoculated cells increased in numbers over incubation time. A total of 47 compounds were identified, and they originated not only from proteolysis, but also from glycolytic and lipolytic processes. Tested strains produced ketones, acids, and esters. Although strains produced different abundances of volatiles, diversity was less evident in model system 2, and only one strain (DPC4206) was distinguished from the others. Strains identified as the most dissimilar in both of the model systems could be more useful for cheese flavor diversification. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SuperLFV: An SLHA tool for lepton flavor violating observables in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Brandon

    2014-02-01

    We introduce SuperLFV, a numerical tool for calculating low-energy observables that exhibit charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). As the Large Hadron Collider and MEG, a dedicated μ+→e+γ experiment, are presently acquiring data, there is need for tools that provide rapid discrimination of models that exhibit LFV. SuperLFV accepts a spectrum file compliant with the SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA), containing the MSSM couplings and masses with complex phases at the supersymmetry breaking scale. In this manner, SuperLFV is compatible with but divorced from existing SLHA spectrum calculators that provide the low energy spectrum. Hence, input spectra are not confined to the LFV sources provided by established SLHA spectrum calculators. Input spectra may be generated by personal code or by hand, allowing for arbitrary models not supported by existing spectrum calculators.

  20. Electroweak naturalness in the three-flavor type I seesaw model and implications for leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Foot, Robert; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-04-01

    In the type I seesaw model, the naturalness requirement that corrections to the electroweak μ parameter not exceed 1 TeV results in a rough bound on the lightest right-handed neutrino mass, MN1≲3 ×1 07 GeV . In this paper we derive generic bounds applicable in any three-flavor type I seesaw model. We find MN1≲4 ×1 07 GeV and MN2≲7 ×1 07 GeV . In the limit of one massless neutrino, there is no naturalness bound on MN 3 in the Poincaré protected decoupling limit. Our results confirm that no type I seesaw model can explain the observed neutrino masses and baryogenesis via hierarchical (N1-, N2-, or N3-dominated) thermal leptogenesis while remaining completely natural.

  1. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark and lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  2. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE PAGES

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  3. Lepton flavor violating τ decays in the left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, A. G.; Aoki, Mayumi; Okada, Yasuhiro

    2007-07-01

    The left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with Higgs isospin triplets can provide neutrino masses via a TeV scale seesaw mechanism. The doubly charged Higgs bosons HL±± and HR±± induce lepton flavor violating decays τ±→lll at tree level via a coupling which is related to the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (VMNS). We study the magnitude and correlation of τ±→lll and μ→eγ with specific assumptions for the origin of the large mixing in VMNS while respecting the stringent bound for μ→eee. It is also shown that an angular asymmetry for τ±→lll is sensitive to the relative strength of the HL±± and HR±± mediated contributions and provides a means of distinguishing models with doubly charged Higgs bosons.

  4. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark and lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  5. Same-sign top pair production in an extra-dimension model of flavor at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jun; Li Chongsheng; Gao Xiangdong; Li Zhao

    2008-11-01

    We study the same-sign top pair production mediated by the first Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitation of the gluon in the Randall-Sundrum model with flavor violation at the LHC, in which the nonuniversal couplings between fermions and KK gauge bosons will lead to observable tree-level flavor changing neutral current effects. We find that the same-sign top quarks produced in our case have property of high energy and high transverse momentum, and lead to an observable signal in the same-sign dilepton channel even when the mass of the KK gluon reach up to 3 TeV. We further investigate the potential of the LHC to probe the flavor violating parameters and find that the LHC can probe their values down to 0.06.

  6. Phenomenology in the Higgs triplet model with the A4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Tsumura, Koji

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of doubly and singly charged Higgs bosons [of SU(2)L-triplet fields] in the simplest A4-symmetric version of the Higgs triplet model. Mass eigenstates of these Higgs bosons are obtained explicitly from the Higgs potential. It is shown that their decays into a pair of leptons have unique flavor structures which can be tested at the LHC if some of their masses are below the TeV scale. Sizable decay rates for τ→μ¯ee and τ→ēμμ can be obtained naturally, while other τ→ℓ¯ℓ'ℓ'', μ→ēee, and ℓ→ℓ'γ, are almost forbidden in this model. Contributions of these Higgs bosons to the nonstandard interactions of neutrinos are also considered.

  7. Properties of 2 +1 -flavor QCD in the imaginary chemical potential region: A model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Junpei; Kouno, Hiroaki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    We study properties of 2 +1 -flavor QCD in the imaginary chemical potential region by using two approaches. One is a theoretical approach based on the QCD partition function, and the other is a qualitative one based on the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. In the theoretical approach, we clarify conditions imposed on the imaginary chemical potentials μf=i θfT to realize the Roberge-Weiss (RW) periodicity. Here, T is the temperature, the index f denotes the flavor, and θf are dimensionless chemical potentials. We also show that the RW periodicity is broken if any one of θf is fixed to a constant value. In order to visualize the condition, we use the PNJL model as a model possessing the RW periodicity and draw the phase diagram as a function of θu=θd≡θl for two conditions of θs=θl and θs=0 . We also consider two cases, (μu,μd,μs)=(i θuT ,i C1T ,0 ) and (μu,μd,μs)=(i C2T ,i C2T ,i θsT ); here, C1 and C2 are dimensionless constants, whereas θu and θs are treated as variables. For some choice of C1 (C2), the number density of the up (strange) quark becomes smooth in the entire region of θu (θs) even in the high T region. This property may be important for lattice QCD simulations in the imaginary chemical potential region, since it makes the analytic continuation more feasible.

  8. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  9. Studies of the hybrid star structure within 2 +1 flavors NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin-Li; Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use the equation of state (EOS) of the 2 +1 flavors Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to study the structure of compact stars. To avoid the ultraviolet divergence, we employ the proper-time regularization (PTR) with an ultraviolet cutoff. For comparison, we fix three sets of parameters, where the constraints of chemical equilibrium and electric charge neutrality conditions are taken into consideration. With a certain interpolation method in the crossover region, we construct three corresponding hybrid EOSs but find that the maximum masses of hybrid stars in the three different cases do not differ too much. It should be pointed out that the results we get are in accordance with the recent astro-observation PSR J 0348 +0432 , PSR J 1614 -2230 , PSR J 1946 +3417 .

  10. Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-09-01

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking (liking) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee), milk flavor (milk), sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness). Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.

  11. Lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in seesaw models: New discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, N. H.; Hue, L. T.; Hung, H. T.; Xuan, N. T.

    2017-08-01

    The lepton flavor violating decay of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson (LFVHD), h → μτ, is discussed in seesaw models at the one-loop level. Based on particular analytic expressions of Passarino-Veltman functions, the two unitary and 't Hooft Feynman gauges are used to compute the branching ratio of LFVHD and compare with results reported recently. In the minimal seesaw (MSS) model, the branching ratio was investigated in the whole valid range 10-9-1015 GeV of new neutrino mass scale mn6. Using the Casas-Ibarra parameterization, this branching ratio enhances with large and increasing mn6. But the maximal value can reach only order of 10-11. Interesting relations of LFVHD predicted by the MSS and inverse seesaw (ISS) model are discussed. The ratio between two LFVHD branching ratios predicted by the ISS and MSS is simply mn62 μX-2, where μX is the small neutrino mass scale in the ISS. The consistence between different calculations is shown precisely from analytical approach.

  12. Roles of different initial Maillard intermediates and pathways in meat flavor formation for cysteine-xylose-glycine model reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Mengyao; Fan, Mengdie; Xiao, Qunfei; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Feng

    2017-10-01

    To explore initial Maillard reaction pathways and mechanisms for maximal formation of meaty flavors in heated cysteine-xylose-glycine systems, model reactions with synthesized initial Maillard intermediates, Gly-Amadori, TTCA (2-threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids) and Cys-Amadori, were investigated. Relative relativities were characterized by spectrophotometrically monitoring the development of colorless degradation intermediates and browning reaction products. Aroma compounds formed were determined by solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS and GC-olfactometry. Gly-Amadori showed the fastest reaction followed by Cys-Amadori then TTCA. Free glycine accelerated reaction of TTCA, whereas cysteine inhibited that of Gly-Amadori due to association forming relatively stable thiazolidines. Cys-Amadori/Gly had the highest reactivity in development of both meaty flavors and brown products. TTCA/Gly favored yielding meaty flavors, whereas Gly-Amadori/Cys favored generation of brown products. Conclusively, initial formation of TTCA and pathway involving TTCA with glycine were more applicable to efficiently produce processed-meat flavorings in a cysteine-xylose-glycine system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-minimal flavored {S}3⊗ {Z}2 left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Izquierdo, Juan Carlos

    2017-08-01

    We propose a non-minimal left-right symmetric model with parity symmetry where the fermion mixings arise as a result of imposing an \\mathbf{S}3⊗ \\mathbf{Z}2 flavor symmetry, and an extra \\mathbf{Z}e2 symmetry is considered in the lepton sector. Then the neutrino mass matrix possesses approximately the μ -τ symmetry. The breaking of the μ -τ symmetry induces sizable non-zero θ _{13}, and the deviation of θ _{23} from 45° is strongly controlled by an ɛ free parameter and the neutrino masses. So, an analytic study of the CP parities in the neutrino masses is carried out to constrain the ɛ parameter and the lightest neutrino mass that accommodate the mixing angles. The results are: (a) the normal hierarchy is ruled out for any values of the Majorana phases; (b) for the inverted hierarchy the values of the reactor and atmospheric angles are compatible up to 2, 3 σ C.L.; (c) the degenerate ordering is the most favorable such that the reactor and atmospheric angle are compatible with the experimental data for a large set of values of the free parameters. The model predicts defined regions for the effective neutrino mass, the neutrino mass scale and the sum of the neutrino masses for the favored cases. Therefore, this model may be testable by the future experiments.

  14. Meson properties at finite temperature in a three flavor nonlocal chiral quark model with Polyakov loop

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, G. A.; Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2010-03-01

    We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with the Polyakov loop. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles and decay constants. The critical temperature is found to be T{sub c{approx_equal}}202 MeV, in better agreement with lattice results than the value recently obtained in the local SU(3) PNJL model. It is seen that above T{sub c} pseudoscalar meson masses get increased, becoming degenerate with the masses of their chiral partners. The temperatures at which this matching occurs depend on the strange quark composition of the corresponding mesons. The topological susceptibility shows a sharp decrease after the chiral transition, signalling the vanishing of the U(1){sub A} anomaly for large temperatures.

  15. Two Higgs doublet model of type II facing flavor physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Olivier; Monteil, Stephane; Niess, Valentin; Descotes-Genon, Sebastien; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tisserand, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    We discuss tests of the charged Higgs sector of the two Higgs doublet model (2HDM) of type II in the light of recent flavor physics data. Particular attention is paid to recent measurement of purely leptonic decays of heavy-light mesons, which depart more or less significantly from the standard model (SM) predictions. We derive constraints on the parameters of the 2HDM type II from leptonic and semileptonic {Delta}F=1 decays as well as loop processes (b{yields}s{gamma}, BB mixing, or Z{yields}bb) sensitive to charged Higgs contributions. The outcome of this work is that while 2HDM type II can fit the individual observable through fine-tuning schemes, in a combined analysis it does not perform better than the standard model by favoring a decoupling solution. Assuming that 2HDM type II is realized in nature, constraints on its parameters (m{sub H}{sup +} and tan{beta}) are derived. A limit on the charged Higgs mass m{sub H}{sup +}>316 GeV at 95% CL is obtained irrespective of the value of tan{beta}. This limit is dominated by the b{yields}s{gamma} branching ratio measurement. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  16. Radiative seesaw model: Warm dark matter, collider signatures, and lepton flavor violating signals

    SciTech Connect

    Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Kubo, Jisuke; Suematsu, Daijiro; Restrepo, D.; Zapata, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Extending the standard model with three right-handed neutrinos (N{sub k}) and a second Higgs doublet ({eta}), odd under the discrete parity symmetry Z{sub 2}, Majorana neutrino masses can be generated at one-loop order. In the resulting model, the lightest stable particle, either a boson or a fermion, might be a dark matter candidate. Here we assume a specific mass spectrum (M{sub 1}<flavor violating rates in muon and tau final states are expected. Finally, we derive upper bounds on the right-handed neutrino Yukawa couplings from the current experimental limit on Br({mu}{yields}e{gamma})

  17. Color Superconductivity with 2 and 3 Flavors in the Chromodielectric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidalis, M.; Malheiro, M.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, the color flavor locked phases (CFL) was studied in the Chromodielectric Model(CDM), implementing a BCS quark pairing interaction. In this study it was shown that strange quark matter is stable even for large potential energy and the CFL phase is the true ground state of the strange matter at high densities. This conclusion was restricted to strange matter, u, d and s quarks, and in this work we also investigate the color superconducting phase formed only by light quarks, known as the 2SC phase, that can exist at low densities. Furthermore, in this earlier study, the β-equilibrium condition, that needs to be obeyed by the matter in the interior of compact objects, was not taken into account. We show that as a consequence of this condition, the CFL phase exists at high densities and for moderate densities it is possible to obtain superconducting strange matter with massive quarks in a chiral symmetry broken regime, where the quarks Fermi momenta are not identical, only if the pairing ∆ ≤ 55 MeV. We present for the first time the results for the 2SC phase in the CDM taking into account β-equilibrium. We find that in the model the 2SC phase is never energetically favored in comparison to the superconducting strange quark matter.

  18. Model-independent constraints on lepton-flavor-violating decays of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Kile, Jennifer; Soni, Amarjit

    2008-11-01

    The imminent start of the Large Hadron Collider, which is expected to produce {approx}10{sup 8} tt pairs per year, provides an unprecedented opportunity for top physics. As the top quark is widely expected to be rather sensitive to effects of new physics, a detailed study of its properties, including rare decays, is called for. A possible, experimentally distinctive decay is the case where a top decays to a light quark and a flavor-violating lepton-antilepton pair. We use an effective operator analysis to place model-independent bounds on contributions to the decays t{yields}ue{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}} and t{yields}ce{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}. We enumerate the dimension-six operators which contribute to these decays and which are invariant under the standard model gauge group. We separate these operators into two classes, one with operators where the top quark belongs to an SU(2) doublet and thus can contribute at tree level to low-energy processes, and one class with operators where the top quark is a right-handed singlet and can only contribute to low-energy processes via loop diagrams. We use B and K decays to place limits on the coefficients of some of these operators, but find that several remain unconstrained and could potentially make observable contributions to top decay.

  19. Exclusive radiative B-meson decays within minimal flavor-violating two-Higgs-doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Qiang; Yang, Ya-Dong; Yuan, Xing-Bo

    2014-03-01

    In the "Higgs basis" for a generic two-Higgs-doublet model, only one doublet gets a nonzero vacuum expectation value and, under the criterion of minimal flavor violation, the other one is fixed to be either color-singlet or color-octet, referred to, respectively, as the type-III and type-C models. Both of them can naturally avoid large FCNC transitions and provide very interesting phenomena in some low-energy processes. In this paper, we study their effects on exclusive radiative B-meson decays due to the exchange of colorless or colored charged Higgs. It is found that while constraints from the branching ratios are slightly weaker than the ones from the inclusive B→Xsγ decay, the isospin asymmetries in exclusive decays provide very complementary bounds on the model parameters. As the two models predict similar corrections to the dipole coefficient C7eff, but similar magnitudes with opposite signs to C8eff, the branching ratios cannot discriminate the two models, and we have to resort to the direct CP and isospin asymmetries of b→s processes, which are more sensitive to C8eff. Due to the CKM factors |λu(d)|˜|λt(d)|, the terms proportional to λu(d) make the observables of b→d processes exhibit a different dependence on the possible new physics phase. In addition, correlations between the various observables in the exclusive B→Vγ and the inclusive B→Xs ,dγ decays are investigated, which could provide further insights into the models with more precise experimental measurements and theoretical predictions for these decays.

  20. Purely flavored leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Nardi, Enrico; Munoz, Luis Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    We study a model for leptogenesis in which the total CP asymmetries in the decays and scatterings involving the SU(2) singlet seesaw neutrinos N{sub {alpha}} vanish ({epsilon}{sub N{sub {alpha}}}=0). Leptogenesis is possible due to nonvanishing CP violating lepton flavor asymmetries, realizing a situation in which the baryon asymmetry is due exclusively to flavor effects. We study the production of a net lepton asymmetry by solving the Boltzmann equations specific to this model, and we show that successful leptogenesis can be obtained at a scale as low as the TeV. We also discuss constraints on the model parameter space arising from current experimental upper limits on lepton flavor violating decays.

  1. Interface tension and interface entropy in the 2+1 flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Wei-yao; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-04-01

    We study the QCD phases and their transitions in the 2+1 flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, with a focus on the interface effects such as the interface tension, the interface entropy, and the critical bubble size in the coexistence region of the first-order phase transitions. Our results show that under the thin-wall approximation, the interface contribution to the total entropy density changes its discontinuity scale in the first-order phase transition. However, the entropy density of the dynamical chiral symmetry (DCS) phase is always greater than that of the dynamical chiral symmetry broken (DCSB) phase in both the heating and hadronization processes. To address this entropy puzzle, the thin-wall approximation is evaluated in the present work. We find that the puzzle can be attributed to an overestimate of the critical bubble size at low temperature in the hadronization process. With an improvement on the thin-wall approximation, the entropy puzzle is well solved with the total entropy density of the hadron-DCSB phase exceeding apparently that of the DCS-quark phase at low temperature.

  2. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    PubMed

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dark matter physics, flavor physics and LHC constraints in the dark matter model with a bottom partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Kawamura, Junichiro; Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    In the scenario that dark matter (DM) is a weakly interacting massive particle, there are many possibilities of the interactions with the Standard Model (SM) particles to achieve the relic density of DM. In this paper, we consider a simple DM model where the DM candidate is a complex scalar boson. The model contains a new complex gauge singlet scalar boson and a new fermion whose gauge charge is the same as the right-handed down-type quark. We dub the new fermion the bottom partner. These new particles have Yukawa interactions with the SM down-type quarks. The DM candidate interacts with the SM particles through the Yukawa interactions. The Yukawa interactions are not only relevant to the annihilation process of the DM but also contribute to the flavor physics, such as the Δ F = 2 processes. In addition, the flavor alignment of the Yukawa couplings is related to the decay modes of the bottom partner, and thus we can find the explicit correlations among the physical observables in DM physics, flavor physics, and the signals at the LHC. We survey the Δ F = 2 processes based on the numerical analyses of the thermal relic density, the direct detection of the DM, and the current LHC bounds. We investigate the perturbative bound on the Yukawa coupling as well. A Study of a fermionic DM model with extra scalar quarks is also given for comparison.

  4. SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental flavors: A minimal template for model building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with Nf=2 flavors of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite (Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs). We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the w0 parameter, and by measuring the relevant renormalization constants nonperturbatively in the regularization-invariant momentum (RI'-MOM) scheme. Our result for the lightest isovector state in the vector channel, in units of the pseudoscalar decay constant, is mV/FPS˜13.1 (2.2 ) (combining statistical and systematic errors). For the axial channel our result is mA/FPS˜14.5 (3.6 ) , which however does include a similarly sized additional systematic error due to residual excited-states contamination. In the context of the composite (Goldstone) Higgs models, our result for the spin-one resonances are mV>3.2 (5 ) TeV and mA>3.6 (9 ) TeV , which are above the current LHC constraints. In the context of dark matter models, for the SIMP case our results indicate the occurrence of a compressed spectrum at the required large dark pion mass, which implies the need to include the effects of spin-one resonances in phenomenological estimates.

  5. Skew-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; ...

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  6. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  7. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  8. Enhancement of the lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decay rates from SUSY loops in the inverse seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arganda, E.; Herrero, M. J.; Marcano, X.; Weiland, C.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we study the full one-loop SUSY contributions to the lepton flavor violating Higgs decay h →τ μ ¯, within the context of the supersymmetric inverse seesaw model. We assume that both the right-handed neutrino masses, MR, and their supersymmetric partner masses, mν˜R , are not far from the interesting O (TeV ) energy scale, and we work with scenarios with large neutrino Yukawa couplings that transmit large lepton flavor violating effects. By exploring the behavior with the most relevant parameters, mainly MR, mν ˜R and the trilinear sneutrino coupling Aν, we will look for regions of the parameter space where the enhancement of BR (h →τ μ ¯ ) is large enough to reach values at the percent level, which could explain the excess recently reported by CMS and ATLAS at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Leptogenesis and CP violation in SU(5) models with lepton flavor mixing originating from the right-handed sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päs, H.; Schumacher, E.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss neutrino masses and mixing in the context of seesaw type I models with three right-handed Majorana neutrinos and an approximately diagonal Dirac sector. This ansatz is motivated by the idea that the flavor structure in the right-handed Majorana masses is responsible for the large mixing angles, whereas the small mixing angle θ13 originates from the Dirac Yukawa couplings in analogy to the quark sector. To obtain θ13≈0.15 we study a possible SU(5) grand unified theory realization with a U(1)×Z2'×Z2''×Z2''' flavor symmetry and include a complex perturbation parameter in the Dirac mass matrix. The consequences for CP violating phases and effects on leptogenesis are investigated.

  10. Discrete minimal flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicky, Roman; Fischbacher, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the consequences of replacing the global flavor symmetry of minimal flavor violation (MFV) SU(3){sub Q}xSU(3){sub U}xSU(3){sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} by a discrete D{sub Q}xD{sub U}xD{sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} symmetry. Goldstone bosons resulting from the breaking of the flavor symmetry generically lead to bounds on new flavor structure many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. The absence of Goldstone bosons for discrete symmetries constitute the primary motivation of our work. Less symmetry implies further invariants and renders the mass-flavor basis transformation observable in principle and calls for a hierarchy in the Yukawa matrix expansion. We show, through the dimension of the representations, that the (discrete) symmetry in principle does allow for additional {delta}F=2 operators. If though the {delta}F=2 transitions are generated by two subsequent {delta}F=1 processes, as, for example, in the standard model, then the four crystal-like groups {sigma}(168){approx_equal}PSL(2,F{sub 7}), {sigma}(72{phi}), {sigma}(216{phi}) and especially {sigma}(360{phi}) do provide enough protection for a TeV-scale discrete MFV scenario. Models where this is not the case have to be investigated case by case. Interestingly {sigma}(216{phi}) has a (nonfaithful) representation corresponding to an A{sub 4} symmetry. Moreover we argue that the, apparently often omitted, (D) groups are subgroups of an appropriate {delta}(6g{sup 2}). We would like to stress that we do not provide an actual model that realizes the MFV scenario nor any other theory of flavor.

  11. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  12. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  13. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  14. Lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decay h →μ τ in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingfang; Han, Jinzhong; Liu, Ning

    2017-02-01

    Inspired by the recent CMS h →μ τ excess, we calculate the lepton flavor violating Higgs decay h →μ τ in the littlest Higgs model with T parity (LHT). Under the constraints of ℓi→ℓjγ , Z →ℓiℓ¯j and Higgs data, we find that the branching ratio of h →μ τ can maximally reach O (10-4) . We also investigate the correlation between h →μ τ , τ →μ γ , and Z →μ τ , which can be used to test the LHT model at future e+e- colliders.

  15. Charged lepton flavor violating processes and scalar leptoquark decay branching ratios in the colored Zee-Babu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, We-Fu; Liou, Siao-Cing; Wong, Chi-Fong; Xu, Fanrong

    2016-10-01

    We consider a neutrino mass generating model which employs a scalar leptoquark, Δ, and a scalar diquark, S. The new scalars Δ and S carry the standard model SU(3) c × SU(2) L × U(1) Y quantum numbers (3 , 1 , -1 /3) and (6 , 1 , -2 /3), respectively. The neutrino masses are generated at the two-loop level, as in the Zee-Babu model [1, 2], and Δ /S plays the role of the doubly/singly charged scalar in the Zee-Babu model. With a moderate working assumption that the magnitudes of the six Yukawa couplings between S and the down-type quarks are of the same order, strong connections are found between the neutrino masses and the charged lepton flavor violating processes. In particular, we study Zto overline{l}{l}^' } , and l→ l 'γ and find that some portions of the parameter space of this model are within the reach of the planned charged lepton flavor violating experiments. Interesting lower bounds are predicted that B(Zto overline{l}{l}^')≳ 1{0}^{-16} - 1{0}^{-14}(1{0}^{-14}) × {(1 TeV \\cdotp {m}_S/7{m}{^{Δ}}^2)}^2 and B( l → l' γ) ≳ 10- 17 - 10- 16(10- 18 - 10- 16) × (1 TeV · m S /7 m Δ 2 )2 for neutrino masses being the normal (inverted) hierarchical pattern. The type of neutrino mass hierarchy could also be determined by measuring the charged lepton flavor violating double ratios. Moreover, definite leptoquark decay branching ratios are predicted when there is no Yukawa interaction between the right-handed fermions and Δ (the branching fraction of Δ to a charged lepton and a quark is 50%), which could help refine the collider search limit on the scalar leptoquark mass.

  16. Ward identities and the analogous Goldberger-Treiman relation in a three-flavor Spectral Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, E. A.; Mota, A. L.; Dias, E. W.

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first results of an extension of the spectral quark model which includes different flavors. The spectral quark model is an approach based on a generalization of the Lehmann representation for the quark propagator. Gauge and chiral invariance are ensured with the help of gauge technique which provides particular solutions to the Ward-Takahashi identities. General conditions on the quark spectral function follow from natural physical requirements. In particular, the function is normalized, its positive momenta must vanish, while the physical observables depend on negative moments and the so-called log moments. As a consequence, the model is made finite. To allow the description of mesons constituted by different flavors of quarks we introduce different spectral functions and obtain vertex functions constructed from Ward-Takahashi identities that includes two different spectral (constituent) quark masses, allowing the physical description of strange mesons, for example. We obtain some observables based on the current approach and, in particular, the spectral version of the Kaon analogous Goldberger-Treiman relation.

  17. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  18. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.

  19. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; ...

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however,more » no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  20. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2009-08-03

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary {Omicron}(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-{tau} unification is replaced by the SU(5) breaking relation m{sub {tau}}/m{sub b} = 3/2, in better agreement with observations. Other SU(5) breaking effects in the fermion masses can easily arise directly from the flavor model itself. The symmetry breaking that triggers the generation of flavor necessarily gives rise to an axion, solving the strong CP problem. These theories contain long-lived particles whose decays could give striking signatures at the LHC and may solve the primordial Lithium problems. These models also give novel proton decay signatures which can be probed by the next generation of experiments. Measurement of the various proton decay channels directly probes the flavor symmetry breaking couplings. In this scenario the Higgs mass is predicted to lie in a range near 150 GeV.

  1. Flavored quantum Boltzmann equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Lee, Christopher; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Tulin, Sean

    2010-05-15

    We derive from first principles, using nonequilibrium field theory, the quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the dynamics of flavor oscillations, collisions, and a time-dependent mass matrix in the early universe. Working to leading nontrivial order in ratios of relevant time scales, we study in detail a toy model for weak-scale baryogenesis: two scalar species that mix through a slowly varying time-dependent and CP-violating mass matrix, and interact with a thermal bath. This model clearly illustrates how the CP asymmetry arises through coherent flavor oscillations in a nontrivial background. We solve the Boltzmann equations numerically for the density matrices, investigating the impact of collisions in various regimes.

  2. Characterization of the volatility of flavor compounds in alcoholic beverages through headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Khio, Shuh-Wen; Cheong, Mun-Wai; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The volatility of flavor compounds (10 distinctive esters commonly found in alcoholic beverages) was characterized using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis combined with mathematical modeling. The impacts of extrinsic factors (extraction time and temperature) and intrinsic parameters (ethanol content and concentration of these flavor compounds) were evaluated on their influences. From extraction profiles, different kinetic behaviors of flavor compounds revealed that volatility is influenced by chemical natures (that is, molecular weight and physicochemical properties). Moreover, volatility was also found to be interrelated with extraction temperature and absorption/adsorption on the fiber's surface. Through mathematical modeling, the kinetic constants of these volatile compounds were computed, and their release profiles were determined. Finally, it was observed that an increase of ethanol (a competitive interference compound to flavor compounds) could decrease the extraction efficiency. Our studies indicated that this approach might be a rapid and practical method that would provide a better understanding of flavor release behavior from alcoholic beverages. The proposed approach may provide a simple and fast method in predicting the performance of key aroma esters in different alcoholic beverages. It could also be a practical way in quality control during the production of alcoholic beverage by monitoring key aroma esters. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Influence of complexation between amylose and a flavored model sponge cake on the degree of aroma compound release.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayon, María-Angeles; Biais, Benoît; Rampon, Vincent; Cayot, Nathalie; Le Bail, Patricia

    2008-08-13

    Flavoring is used in the food industry to reinforce the aroma profile of baked cereal goods. During the processing of such products, interactions between starch and aroma compounds can occur, and this may have an impact on aroma release and perception. In the present study, 20 aroma compounds were tested to establish whether they formed complexes with amylose. The structure of the complexes was determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A cocomplexation study proved that several complexing compounds could be present in the same crystalline aggregate. WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed in a flavored model sponge cake at different steps of processing and showed that aroma compounds might form complexes with amylose in a sponge cake as they can do in simple system containing only amylose. Some of the aroma compounds trapped in the sponge cake were quantified, and their release behavior was followed by headspace analysis. The V-type structure could partly explain aroma retention in the product and the rate of aroma release.

  4. R{sub b} and R{sub c} in the two Higgs Doublet Model with flavor changing neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    D. Atwood; L. Reina; A. Soni

    1996-03-01

    A study of R{sub b} and R{sub c} is presented in the context of a Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with flavor changing scalar currents (FCSC). Implications of the model for the {rho}-parameter and for b {r_arrow} s{gamma} are also considered. The experimental data on R{sub b} places stringent constraints on the model parameters. The configuration of the model needed to account for R{sub b} is found to be irreconcilable with constraints from b {r_arrow} s{gamma} and {rho}. In particular, if R{sub b}{sup exp} > R{sub b}{sup SM} persists then this version of 2HDM will be ruled out or require significant modifications. Noting that aspects of the experimental analysis for R{sub b} and R{sub c} may be of some concern, the authors also disregard R{sub b}{sup exp} and R{sub c}{sup exp} and give predictions for these using constraints from b {r_arrow} s{gamma} and {rho} parameter only. They emphasize the theoretical and experimental advantages of the observable R{sub b+c} {equivalent_to} {Gamma}(Z {r_arrow} b{anti b} or c{anti c})/{Gamma}(Z {r_arrow} hadrons). They also stress the role of R{sub t} {equivalent_to} {Gamma}(Z {r_arrow} hadrons)/{Gamma}(Z {r_arrow} l{sup =}l{sup {minus}}) in testing the Standard Model (SM) despite its dependence on QCD corrections. Noting that in models with FCNC the amplitude for Z {r_arrow} c{anti c} receives a contribution which grows with m{sub t}{sup 2}, the importance and uniqueness of precision Z {r_arrow} c{anti c} measurements for constraining flavor changing t{anti c} currents is underscored.

  5. Scalar non-degeneracy and flavor unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Kentaro

    2008-05-13

    Grand unified models of the strong and electroweak forces generally predict some types of flavor unification. The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. It is shown that the generation dependence of sfermion mass non-degeneracy provides direct imprints of unification of the standard model matter multiplets. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  6. Color-Flavor Locked Strangelets in a New Quark Model with Linear Confinement and Coulomb-Type Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Wu; Peng, Guang-Xiong

    2012-06-01

    The color-flavor locked (CFL) strangelets have been investigated in a new quark model with linear confinement and one-gluon-exchange interactions. Considering Coulomb energy, we have studied the properties of three kinds of CFL strangelets, namely, positively charged, negatively charged and nearly neutral CFL strangelets. It is found that the one-gluon-exchange effect lowers the energy of a strangelet considerably and thus makes it much more stable than without considering the effect. The charge of a positive strangelet is larger than 0.15A2/3 with A being the baryon number, but smaller than that in bag model. The charge of a negatively charged or nearly neutral CFL strangelet is nearly proportional to A1/3.

  7. Equation of state for the magnetic-color-flavor-locked phase and its implications for compact star models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulucci, L.; Ferrer, Efrain J.; de La Incera, Vivian; Horvath, J. E.

    2011-02-01

    Using the solutions of the gap equations of the magnetic-color-flavor-locked (MCFL) phase of paired quark matter in a magnetic field, and taking into consideration the separation between the longitudinal and transverse pressures due to the field-induced breaking of the spatial rotational symmetry, the equation of state of the MCFL phase is self-consistently determined. This result is then used to investigate the possibility of absolute stability, which turns out to require a field-dependent “bag constant” to hold. That is, only if the bag constant varies with the magnetic field, there exists a window in the magnetic field vs bag constant plane for absolute stability of strange matter. Implications for stellar models of magnetized (self-bound) strange stars and hybrid (MCFL core) stars are calculated and discussed.

  8. Lepton flavor violating {tau}{yields}3{mu} decay in the type-III two Higgs doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2009-01-01

    We study the current structure of the lepton flavor violating {tau}{yields}3{mu} decay in the Type-III 2HDM. This model has many coupling constants that affect this decay. We find that each coupling constant corresponds to a different final-state momentum distribution and vice versa. Using this fact, we suggest how to determine the current structure. We also find the upper limit |{eta}{sub 23}{sup E}{eta}{sub 22}{sup E}|<0.00022 in the case that all Higgs bosons except for the lighter CP even neutral h{sup 0} are decoupled, M{sub h{sup 0}}=115 GeV and cos{beta}=1/{radical}(2). The observable difference between the MSSM and Type-III 2HDM is also discussed.

  9. Lepton-flavor violating mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galon, Iftah; Kwa, Anna; Tanedo, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV γ-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  10. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  11. Degradation of the coffee flavor compound furfuryl mercaptan in model Fenton-type reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Blank, Imre; Pascual, Ederlinda C; Devaud, Stéphanie; Fay, Laurent B; Stadler, Richard H; Yeretzian, Chahan; Goodman, Bernard A

    2002-04-10

    The stability of the coffee flavor compound furfuryl mercaptan has been investigated in aqueous solutions under Fenton-type reaction conditions. The impact of hydrogen peroxide, iron, ascorbic acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was studied in various combinations of reagents and temperature. Furfuryl mercaptan reacts readily under Fenton-type reaction conditions, leading to up to 90% degradation within 1 h at 37 degrees C. The losses were lower when one or more of the reagents was omitted or the temperature decreased to 22 degrees C. Volatile reaction products identified were mainly dimers of furfuryl mercaptan, difurfuryl disulfide being the major compound. In addition, a large number of nonvolatile compounds was observed with molecular masses in the range of 92-510 Da. The formation of hydroxyl and carbon-centered radicals was indicated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone or 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin traps. Whereas *OH was generated by Fenton-type reactions, the C-centered radical is probably a secondary product of the reaction of *OH with various organic molecules, the reaction with furfuryl mercaptan appearing to be the most important. No evidence for S-centered radicals was seen in the spin-trapping experiments, but a sulfur-containing radical was detected when measurements were made at 77 K in the absence of spin traps.

  12. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 flavors of color-sextet quarks: A model of walking/conformal technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, J. B.; Sinclair, D. K.

    2010-06-01

    QCD with two flavors of massless color-sextet quarks is considered as a model for conformal/walking technicolor. If this theory possesses an infrared fixed point, as indicated by 2-loop perturbation theory, it is a conformal (unparticle) field theory. If, on the other hand, a chiral condensate forms on the weak-coupling side of this would-be fixed point, the theory remains confining. The only difference between such a theory and regular QCD is that there is a range of momentum scales over which the coupling constant runs very slowly (walks). In this first analysis, we simulate the lattice version of QCD with two flavors of staggered quarks at finite temperatures on lattices of temporal extent N{sub t}=4 and 6. The deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoration couplings give us a measure of the scales associated with confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking. We find that, in contrast to what is seen with fundamental quarks, these transition couplings are very different. {beta}=6/g{sup 2} for each of these transitions increases significantly from N{sub t}=4 and N{sub t}=6 as expected for the finite-temperature transitions of an asymptotically free theory. This suggests a walking rather than a conformal behavior, in contrast to what is observed with Wilson quarks. In contrast to what is found for fundamental quarks, the deconfined phase exhibits states in which the Polyakov loop is oriented in the directions of all three cube roots of unity. At very weak coupling the states with complex Polyakov loops undergo a transition to a state with a real, negative Polyakov loop.

  13. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae.

    PubMed

    Cherry, John F; Carlson, J; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-06-29

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times but could be inadequate in early epochs of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new approach in neutrino flavor transformation modeling.

  14. Probing neutrino flavor transition mechanism with ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che

    2014-02-01

    Observation of ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos and identification of their flavors have been proposed for future neutrino telescopes. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos observed on the Earth depends on both the initial flavor ratio at the source and flavor transitions taking place during propagations of these neutrinos. The flavor transition mechanisms are well classified with our model-independent parametrization. We find that a new parameter R ≡ϕe/(ϕμ+ϕτ) can probe directly the flavor transition in the framework of our model-independent parametrization, without the assumption of the νμ-ντ symmetry. A few flavor-transition models are employed to test our parametrization with this new observable. The observational constraints on flavor transition mechanisms by the new observable are discussed through our model-independent parametrization.

  15. Flavor violating signatures of lighter and heavier Higgs bosons within the two Higgs doublet model type III at the LHeC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. P.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Moretti, S.; Rosado, A.; Xoxocotzi, R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the prospects for observing the light and heavy C P -even neutral Higgs bosons (ϕ =h and H ) in their decays into flavor violating b s ¯ channels (including charge conjugation) at the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC), with √{s }≈1.3 TeV , in the framework of a 2-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) Type III, assuming a four-zero texture in the Yukawa matrices and a general Higgs potential. We consider theoretically consistent scenarios in agreement with current experimental data from flavor and Higgs physics. We investigate the charged current production process νeϕ q in presence of flavor violating decays of the Higgs bosons, that lead to a 3 -jets+ ET signature. We demand exactly two jets, one tagged b -jet and one light-flavor jet, all in the central rapidity region. The remaining jet (originated by the remnant quark q ) is tagged in the forward or backward regions and this together with a central jet veto (not more than one light-flavor jet) are essential criterions to enhance the signal-to-background rates. We consider the most relevant standard model (SM) backgrounds, treating c -jets separately from light-flavor and gluon ones, while allowing for mistagging. We find that the SM-like Higgs boson, h , would be accessible within several parameter configurations of our model at approximately the 1 -2 σ level with 100 fb-1 of data. We also find that the heaviest neutral Higgs boson, H , with mass up to 150 GeV, would have a 1 σ significance for the same data sample. At the end of the LHeC running, one would have ten times data accumulation and for all the Higgs masses the significances are enhanced so as to allow for detection of both the h and H state. Hence, one of the most viable extensions of 2HDMs with flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) generated at tree level but controlled by a four-zero texture approach in the Yukawa matrices, as opposed to the adoption of ad hoc discrete symmetries, could be put under scrutiny at a future e

  16. Calculability, natura flavor conservation, and a left-right symmetric gauge model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two of the most powerful theoretical constraints on gague theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions are calculability of the generalized Cabibbo mixing angles and Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) in gauge boson and Higgs mediated neutral currents. Much of the work in these areas has been done in the context of the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge model Calculability is defined here in a precise way for an arbitrary gauge model with an unbroken U(1) symmetry (WET) for the first time and tis implications are explored. Also in the context of an arbitrary WET, it is found that NFC requires all quarks of a given charge and helicity to transform identically under the gauge group. The question as to whether a WET that obeys the fiats of NFC can support calculable mixing angles is answered in the negative. Similar results have been obtained for the standard model. This thesis addresses other outstanding problems in these areas, as well as formulating and examining a new left-right symmetric gauge model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions which exploits the gauge group SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) employed first by Pati, Salam, and Mohapatra.

  17. Rare top decay t →c γ with flavor changing neutral scalar interactions in two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitán, R.; Montes de Oca, J. H.; Garcés, E. A.; Martinez, R.

    2016-11-01

    Models beyond the standard model with extra scalars have been highly motivated by the recent discovery of the Higgs boson. The two Higgs doublet model type III considers the most general case for the scalar potential, allowing mixing between neutral C P -even and C P -odd scalar fields. This work presents the results of the study on the t →c γ decay at one loop level if neutral flavor changing is generated by top-charm-Higgs coupling given by the Yukawa matrix. For instance, a value for the branching ratio Br (t →c γ )˜10-6 for tan β =2.5 and general neutral Higgs mixing parameters, 1.16 ≤α1≤1.5 , -0.48 ≤α2≤-0.1 . The number of events for the t →c γ decay with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb-1 is estimated as 10 ≲NEff≲100 for the parameters of the model constrained by experimental data.

  18. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G.; Hansen, R. S. E-mail: rasmus@mpi-hd.mpg.de E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-03-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency Δ m{sup 2}/2E. However, even in the simple case of a ν{sub e} beam interacting with an opposite-moving ν-bar {sub e} beam, and allowing for spatial inhomogeneities, the growth rate of the fastest-growing Fourier mode is of order μ=√2 G{sub F} n{sub ν}, a typical ν–ν interaction energy. This growth rate is much larger than the vacuum oscillation frequency and gives rise to flavor conversion on a much shorter time scale. This phenomenon of 'fast flavor conversion' occurs even for vanishing Δ m{sup 2}/2E and thus does not depend on energy, but only on the angle distributions. Moreover, it does not require neutrinos to mix or to have masses, except perhaps for providing seed disturbances. We also construct a simple homogeneous example consisting of intersecting beams and study a schematic supernova model proposed by Ray Sawyer, where ν{sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} emerge with different zenith-angle distributions, the key ingredient for fast flavor conversion. What happens in realistic astrophysical scenarios remains to be understood.

  19. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  20. Common origin of nonzero θ13 and dark matter in an S4 flavor symmetric model with inverse seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ananya; Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2017-07-01

    We study an inverse seesaw model of neutrino mass within the framework of S4 flavor symmetry from the requirement of generating nonzero reactor mixing angle θ13 along with correct dark matter relic abundance. The leading order S4 model gives rise to tribimaximal-type leptonic mixing, resulting in θ13=0 . Nonzero θ13 is generated at one-loop level by extending the model with additional scalar and fermion fields which take part in the loop correction. The particles going inside the loop are odd under an in-built Z2Dark symmetry such that the lightest Z2Dark odd particle can be a dark matter candidate. Correct neutrino and dark matter phenomenology can be achieved for such one-loop corrections either to the light neutrino mass matrix or to the charged lepton mass matrix, although the latter case is found to be more predictive. The predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay are also discussed, and inverted hierarchy in the charged lepton correction case is found to be disfavored by the latest KamLAND-Zen data.

  1. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, Andrija

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, Vub/Vcb = √mu/mc and Vtd/Vts = √md/ms, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  2. Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Abhijit R; Raghunathan, Anuradha; Venkatesh, K V

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is a combined process of saccharification of a renewable bioresource and fermentation process to produce products, such as lactic acid and ethanol. Recently, SSF has been extensively used to convert various sources of cellulose and starch into fermentative products. Here, we present a study on production of buttery flavors, namely diacetyl and acetoin, by growing Lactobacillus rhamnosus on a starch medium containing the enzyme glucoamylase. We further develop a structured kinetics for the SSF process, which includes enzyme and growth kinetics. The model was used to simulate the effect of pH and temperature on the SSF process so as to obtain optimum operating conditions. The model was experimentally verified by conducting SSF using an initial starch concentration of 100 g/L. The study demonstrated that the developed kinetic was able to suggest strategies for improved productivities. The developed model was able to accurately predict the enhanced productivity of flavors in a three stage process with intermittent addition of starch. Experimental and simulations demonstrated that citrate addition can also lead to enhanced productivity of flavors. The developed optimal model for SSF was able to capture the dynamics of SSF in batch mode as well as in a three stage process. The structured kinetics was also able to quantify the effect of multiple substrates present in the medium. The study demonstrated that structured kinetic models can be used in the future for design and optimization of SSF as a batch or a fed-batch process.

  3. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Elgart, Benjamin Z.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d′, of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation. PMID:19079746

  4. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory.

    PubMed

    Marks, Lawrence E; Elgart, Benjamin Z; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M

    2007-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d', of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation.

  5. Chaos in a 4D dissipative nonlinear fermionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    Gursey Model is the only possible 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear self-coupled spinor term. It has been assumed to be similar to the Heisenberg's nonlinear generalization of Dirac's equation, as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles. Gursey Model admits particle-like solutions for the derived classical field equations and these solutions are instantonic in character. In this paper, the dynamical nature of damped and forced Gursey Nonlinear Differential Equations System (GNDES) are studied in order to get more information on spinor type instantons. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by constructing the bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré sections. Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum graphs of GNDES are also constructed to characterize the chaotic behavior.

  6. Next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the single top quark production via model-independent tqg flavor-changing neutral-current couplings at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jun; Li Chongsheng; Zhang Jiajun; Zhu Huaxing

    2009-12-01

    We present the calculations of the complete next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD effects on the single top productions induced by model-independent tqg flavor-changing neutral-current couplings at hadron colliders. Our results show that, for the tcg coupling, the NLO QCD corrections can enhance the total cross sections by about 60% and 30%, and for the tug coupling by about 50% and 20% at the Tevatron and LHC, respectively, which means that the NLO corrections can increase the experimental sensitivity to the flavor-changing neutral-current couplings by about 10%-30%. Moreover, the NLO corrections reduce the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization or factorization scale significantly, which lead to increased confidence on the theoretical predictions. Besides, we also evaluate the NLO corrections to several important kinematic distributions, and find that for most of them the NLO corrections are almost the same and do not change the shape of the distributions.

  7. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  8. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle ``massless'' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ~ mt/mb ~ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ``massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  9. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  10. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  11. The Δ(27) flavor 3-3-1 model with neutral leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, V. V.; Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Long, H. N.

    2016-12-01

    We build the first 3-3-1 model based on the Δ (27) discrete group symmetry, consistent with fermion masses and mixings. In the model under consideration, the neutrino masses are generated from a combination of type-I and type-II seesaw mechanisms mediated by three heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos and three SU (3)L scalar antisextets, respectively. Furthermore, from the consistency of the leptonic mixing angles with their experimental values, we obtain a non-vanishing leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of -π/2. Our model features an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay, with values mββ = 10 and 18 meV for the normal and the inverted neutrino mass hierarchies, respectively.

  12. Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-03-18

    Flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations can modify liking for a flavor CS, while flavor-flavor associations can also modify the sensory experience of the trained flavor. Less is known about how these associations modify behavioral responses to the trained CS. To test this, 60 participants classified as sweet likers were divided into five training conditions with a novel flavor CS. In the flavor-flavor only condition, participants consumed the target CS in a sweetened, low-energy form, with energy (maltodextrin) but no sweetness added in the flavor-nutrient only condition and both energy and sweetness (sucrose) in the combined flavor-flavor, flavor-nutrient condition. Comparison groups controlled for exposure to the CS, and repeat testing. Training was conducted in a hungry state on four non-consecutive days. To test for acquired changes in evaluation and intake, the flavor CS was processed into a low-energy sorbet, which was evaluated and consumed ad libitum on test days before and after training. Liking for the flavor CS increased only in the sucrose-sweetened condition, but intake increased significantly in both high-energy conditions. In contrast, rated sweetness of the sorbet increased in both sucrose-sweetened and aspartame-sweetened conditions. These findings suggest that liking changes were maximal when flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations co-occurred, but that behavioral changes were specific to flavor-nutrient associations.

  13. 'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26

    We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.

  14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking, with flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2010-04-01

    We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of standard model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry-breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first- and second-generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.

  15. Meson vacuum phenomenology in a three-flavor linear sigma model with (axial-)vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parganlija, D.; Kovács, P.; Wolf, Gy.; Giacosa, F.; Rischke, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    We study scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons with nonstrange and strange quantum numbers in the framework of a linear sigma model with global chiral U(Nf)L×U(Nf)R symmetry. We perform a global fit of meson masses, decay widths, as well as decay amplitudes. The quality of the fit is, for a hadronic model that does not consider isospin-breaking effects, surprisingly good. We also investigate the question whether the scalar q¯q states lie below or above 1 GeV and find the scalar states above 1 GeV to be preferred as q¯q states. Additionally, we also describe the axial-vector resonances as q¯q states.

  16. Majorana zero-modes and topological phases of multi-flavored Jackiw-Rebbi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shih-Hao; Lin, Feng-Li; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the recent Kitaev's K-theory analysis of topological insulators and superconductors, we adopt the same framework to study the topological phase structure of Jackiw-Rebbi model in 3+1 dimensions. According to the K-theory analysis based on the properties of the charge conjugation and time reversal symmetries, we classify the topological phases of the model. In particular, we find that there exist Z Majorana zero-modes hosted by the hedgehogs/t'Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, if the model has a T 2 = 1 time reversal symmetry. Guided by the K-theory results, we then explicitly show that a single Majorana zero mode solution exists for the SU(2) doublet fermions in some co- dimensional one planes of the mass parameter space. It turns out we can see the existence of none or a single zero mode when the fermion doublet is only two. We then take a step further to consider four-fermion case and find there can be zero, one or two normalizable zero mode in some particular choices of mass matrices. Our results also indicate that a single normalizable Majorana zero mode can be compatible with the cancellation of SU(2) Witten anomaly.

  17. Charged Lepton Flavor-Violation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, S.; Miller, J. P.; Paradisi, P.; Piredda, G.

    2013-10-01

    We review the status of the major experiments that are searching for charged lepton flavor violation. We present and discuss recent results and prospects for future projects in the framework of theories beyond the Standard Model.

  18. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; ...

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to threemore » photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.« less

  19. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.

  20. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.

  1. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This frameworkmore » is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.« less

  2. Generalized mixing angles in gauge theories with natural flavor conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, Arthur C.; Kang, Kyungsik

    1981-01-01

    A number of theorems, relating Natural Flavor Conservation and Calculability are proven for general gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions with an unbroken U(1) symmetry. The concept of nontriviality - a necessary condition that all naturally flavor conserving gauge models must obey in order to have nontrivial mixing angles - is introduced. It is found that naturality groups guaranteeing Natural Flavor Conservation cannot generate meaningful mixing angles in any gauge model.

  3. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    PubMed

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages.

  4. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  5. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  6. Three-sublattice ordering of the SU(3) Heisenberg model of three-flavor fermions on the square and cubic lattices.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Tamás A; Läuchli, Andreas M; Mila, Frédéric; Penc, Karlo

    2010-12-31

    Combining a semiclassical analysis with exact diagonalizations, we show that the ground state of the SU(3) Heisenberg model on the square lattice develops three-sublattice long-range order. This surprising pattern for a bipartite lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions is shown to be the consequence of a subtle quantum order-by-disorder mechanism. By contrast, thermal fluctuations favor two-sublattice configurations via entropic selection. These results are shown to extend to the cubic lattice, and experimental implications for the Mott-insulating states of three-flavor fermionic atoms in optical lattices are discussed.

  7. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  8. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-27

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5){sub L} Multiplication-Sign SU(5){sub R} which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  9. On neutrino flavor states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chiu Man

    2012-12-01

    We review the issues associated with the construction of neutrino flavor states. We then provide a consistent proof that the flavor states are approximately well-defined only if neutrinos are ultra-relativistic or the mass differences are negligible compared to energy. However, we show that weak interactions can be consistently described by only neutrino mass eigenstates. Meanwhile, the second quantization of neutrino flavor fields generally has no physical relevance as their masses are indefinite. Therefore, the flavor states are not physical quantum states and they should simply be interpreted as definitions to denote specific linear combinations of mass eigenstates involved in weak interactions. We also briefly discuss the implication of this work for the mixing between active and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  10. Flavor from the double tetrahedral group without supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Chaurasia, Shikha; Vasquez, Savannah

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of flavor models proposed by Aranda, Carone and Lebed, relaxing the assumption of supersymmetry and allowing the flavor scale to float anywhere between the weak and Planck scales. We perform global fits to the charged fermion masses and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angles, and consider the dependence of the results on the unknown mass scale of the flavor sector. We find that the typical Yukawa textures in these models provide a good description of the data over a wide range of flavor scales, with a preference for those that approach the lower bounds allowed by flavor-changing-neutral-current constraints. Nevertheless, the possibility that the flavor scale and Planck scale are identified remains viable. We present models that demonstrate how the assumed textures can arise most simply in a nonsupersymmetric framework.

  11. Naturally flavorful supersymmetry at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Yasunori; Stolarski, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    The suppression of flavor and CP violation in supersymmetric theories may be due to the mechanism responsible for the structure of the Yukawa couplings. We study model independently the compatibility between low-energy flavor and CP constraints and observability of superparticles at the LHC, assuming a generic correlation between the Yukawa couplings and the supersymmetry breaking parameters. We find that the superpotential operators that generate scalar trilinear interactions are generically problematic. We discuss several ways in which this tension is naturally avoided. In particular, we focus on several frameworks in which the dangerous operators are naturally absent. These frameworks can be combined with many theories of flavor, including those with (flat or warped) extra dimensions, strong dynamics, or flavor symmetries. We show that the resulting theories can avoid all the low-energy constraints while keeping the superparticles light. The intergenerational mass splittings among the sfermions can reflect the structure of the underlying flavor theory, and can be large enough to be measurable at the LHC. Detailed observations of the superparticle spectrum may thus provide new handles on the origin of the flavor structure of the standard model.

  12. Top quark flavor-changing neutral-current decays and productions at LHC in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    SciTech Connect

    Han Xiaofang; Wang Lei; Yang Jinmin

    2009-07-01

    In the littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) the newly introduced mirror quarks have flavor-changing couplings with the standard model (SM) quarks and may enhance the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top-quark interactions which are extremely suppressed in the SM. In this work we perform a comprehensive study for the contributions of these mirror fermions to various top-quark FCNC decays and productions at the LHC, which includes the decays t{yields}cV (V=g, {gamma}, Z), t{yields}cgg and the productions proceeding through the parton processes cg{yields}t, gg{yields}tc, cg{yields}tg, cg{yields}t{gamma} and cg{yields}tZ. We find that although these FCNC processes can be greatly enhanced by the LHT contributions, they are hardly accessible at the LHC. Therefore, the LHT model may not cause the FCNC problem in the top-quark sector if the top-quark property is proved to be SM-like at the LHC.

  13. Flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to uncover any underlying physics in the standard model (SM), we suggest a μ - τ power law in the lepton sector, such that relatively large 13 mixing angle with bilarge ones can be derived. On the basis of this, we propose a neat and economical model for both the fermion mass hierarchy problem of the SM and a solution to the strong charge parity (C P ) problem, in a way that no domain wall problem occurs, based on A4×U (1 )X symmetry in a supersymmetric framework. Here we refer to the global U (1 )X symmetry that can explain the above problems as "flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry." In the model, a direct coupling of the SM gauge singlet flavon fields responsible for spontaneous symmetry breaking to ordinary quarks and leptons, both of which are charged under U (1 )X, comes to pass through Yukawa interactions, and all vacuum expectation values breaking the symmetries are connected to each other. So the scale of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking is shown to be roughly located around the 1 012 GeV section through its connection to the fermion masses. The model predictions are shown to lie on the testable regions in the very near future through on-going experiments for neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay, and the axion. We examine the model predictions, arisen from the μ - τ power law, on leptonic C P violation, neutrinoless double beta decay, and atmospheric mixing angle, and show that the fermion mass and mixing hierarchies are in good agreement with the present data. Interestingly, we show the model predictions on the axion mass ma≃2.53 ×1 0-5 eV and the axion coupling to photon ga γ γ≃1.33 ×1 0-15 GeV-1 . And subsequently the square of the ratio between them is shown to be one or two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional axion model.

  14. Supersymmetry, grand unification and flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkhbat, Tsedenbaljir

    In this thesis I have presented the findings of my research pursued during my Ph.D. study. The purpose of this thesis was to study different theoretical ideas in high energy physics model building addressed primarily towards understanding the fermion mass problem and the gauge hierarchy problem. These include: Anomalous flavor U(1) symmetry and its experimental implications, finite GUT models with discrete family symmetry, and a product GUT model in a 2D deconstructed theory space. The second and third chapters of the thesis describe our study of lepton flavor violation (LFV) and electric dipole moments (EDM) induced by a flavor-dependent anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry of string origin. The models considered also address the fermion mass hierarchy problem successfully. We have shown that the U(1) sector induces significant LFV and EDMs through the SUSY breaking parameters. These effects arise via renormalization group evolution of the parameters in the momentum regime between the string and the anomalous U(1) breaking scale. The fourth chapter of the thesis contains our work on a concrete realization of SUSY breaking using interference between the anomalous U(1) flavor gauge symmetry and a strongly coupled SU(N c), leading to the so called Split SUSY spectrum where the sfermions and the gravitino acquire masses of order 105 ÷ 108 GeV while the gauginos and the Higgsinos have masses of order 102 ÷ 103 GeV. We have calculated the leading order supergravity corrections and have presented a class of explicit models of Split SUSY which are phenomenologically consistent. In the fifth chapter I have presented models for realistic quark masses and mixings in the context of finite SU(5) GUT wherein the beta functions for the gauge and the Yukawa couplings vanish to all orders in perturbation theory. The models presented are based on non-Abelian discrete symmetries. In the case of (Z4)3 x P and A4 symmetries we have found models finite to all order of perturbation theory

  15. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  16. Probing lepton flavor violation signal via γ γ →l¯ilj in the left-right twin Higgs model at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Li; Wang, Fei; Xie, Kuan; Guo, Xiao-Fei

    2017-08-01

    To explain the small neutrino masses, heavy Majorana neutrinos are introduced in the left-right twin Higgs model. The heavy neutrinos—together with the charged scalars and the heavy gauge bosons—may contribute large mixings between the neutrinos and the charged leptons, which may induce some distinct lepton-flavor-violating processes. We check ℓ¯iℓj (i ,j =e ,μ ,τ ,i ≠j ) production in γ γ collisions in the left-right twin Higgs model, and find that the production rates may be large in some specific parameter space. In optimal cases, it is even possible to detect them with reasonable kinematical cuts. We also show that these collisions can effectively constrain the model parameters—such as the Higgs vacuum expectation value, the right-handed neutrino mass, etc.—and may serve as a sensitive probe of this new physics model.

  17. The chemical interactions underlying tomato flavor preferences.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise; Bliss, Peter; McIntyre, Lauren M; Blandon-Ubeda, Adilia; Bies, Dawn; Odabasi, Asli Z; Rodríguez, Gustavo R; van der Knaap, Esther; Taylor, Mark G; Goulet, Charles; Mageroy, Melissa H; Snyder, Derek J; Colquhoun, Thomas; Moskowitz, Howard; Clark, David G; Sims, Charles; Bartoshuk, Linda; Klee, Harry J

    2012-06-05

    Although human perception of food flavors involves integration of multiple sensory inputs, the most salient sensations are taste and olfaction. Ortho- and retronasal olfaction are particularly crucial to flavor because they provide the qualitative diversity so important to identify safe versus dangerous foods. Historically, flavor research has prioritized aroma volatiles present at levels exceeding the orthonasally measured odor threshold, ignoring the variation in the rate at which odor intensities grow above threshold. Furthermore, the chemical composition of a food in itself tells us very little about whether or not that food will be liked. Clearly, alternative approaches are needed to elucidate flavor chemistry. Here we use targeted metabolomics and natural variation in flavor-associated sugars, acids, and aroma volatiles to evaluate the chemistry of tomato fruits, creating a predictive and testable model of liking. This nontraditional approach provides novel insights into flavor chemistry, the interactions between taste and retronasal olfaction, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural products. Some of the most abundant volatiles do not contribute to consumer liking, whereas other less abundant ones do. Aroma volatiles make contributions to perceived sweetness independent of sugar concentration, suggesting a novel way to increase perception of sweetness without adding sugar.

  18. Use of fiber interface direct mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile flavor release from model food systems.

    PubMed

    Springett, M B; Rozier, V; Bakker, J

    1999-03-01

    Described in this paper is a fiber interface direct headspace mass spectrometric system for the real-time measurement of flavor release. The system was optimized for the detection of the garlic aroma volatile, diallyl disulfide, from water. Parameters investigated included interface temperature, flow rate through the fiber, flow rate through the sample vessel, and sample stir rate. The delay time for detection of sample after introduction into the sample vessel was determined as 43 s. The system proved to be reliable and robust with no loss in sensitivity or contamination of the mass spectrometer over a 6 month period. The technique was applied to a homologous series of aliphatic alcohols from C(2) to C(7). Results showed that as polarity decreased with increasing chain length the release of volatile into the headspace was faster and gave a higher maximum intensity. Release of the garlic aroma volatile from different commercial mayonnaise products clearly showed a decrease in the release of diallyl disulfide as fat content increased. These results demonstrate the potential of using this technique as a tool for understanding the complex interactions that occur between flavor compounds and the bulk food matrix.

  19. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  20. Rare flavor processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is untuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact U(1) R symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and tree-level contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and B-meson oscillations, the rare decays B s, d → μ + μ -, μ → ēee and μ- e conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays μ → eγ and . Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

  1. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    SciTech Connect

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  2. The S100A4 Oncoprotein Promotes Prostate Tumorigenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Hifzur R.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Parray, Aijaz; Johnson, Jeremy J.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Shekhani, Mohammad T.; Murtaza, Imtiyaz; Ambartsumian, Noona; Konety, Badrinath R.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, is known for its role in the metastatic spread of tumor cells, a late event of cancer disease. This is the first report showing that S100A4 is not merely a metastatic protein but also an oncoprotein that plays a critical role in the development of tumors. We earlier showed that S100A4 expression progressively increases in prostatic tissues with the advancement of prostate cancer (CaP) in TRAMP, an autochthonous mouse model. To study the functional significance of S100A4 in CaP, we generated a heterozygously deleted S100A4 (TRAMP/S100A4+/−) genotype by crossing TRAMP with S100A4−/− mice. TRAMP/S100A4+/− did not show a lethal phenotype, and transgenes were functional. As compared to age-matched TRAMP littermates, TRAMP/S100A4+/− mice exhibited 1) an increased tumor latency period (P < 0.001), 2) a 0% incidence of metastasis, and 3) reduced prostatic weights (P < 0.001). We generated S100A4-positive clones from S100A4-negative CaP cells and tested their potential. S100A4-positive tumors grew at a faster rate than S100A4-negative tumors in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. The S100A4 protein exhibited growth factor–like properties in multimode (intracellular and extracellular) forms. We observed that 1) the growth-promoting effect of S100A4 is due to its activation of NFκB, 2) S100A4-deficient tumors exhibit reduced NFκB activity, 3) S100A4 regulates NFκB through the RAGE receptor, and 4) S100A4 and RAGE co-localize in prostatic tissues of mice. Keeping in view its growth-promoting role, we suggest that S100A4 qualifies as an excellent candidate to be exploited for therapeutic agents to treat CaP in humans. PMID:24069509

  3. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design.

  4. Wine flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  5. Six Flavors of Quarks but only Three Flavors of Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Gerald

    1980-05-01

    Fryberger's self-consistency condition for the mean leptonic mass in QED with bare-mass zero and a quantum-gravitational cutoff indicates that there exist six flavors of quarks but only three flavors of leptons. For three flavors there is an explicit expression for the charged lepton mass operator.

  6. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-05-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  7. State-Space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF A 4th ORDER ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM by Jeremiah P. Anderson December 2009 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE State-space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical...Educational Control Products is modeled from first principles and represented in state-space form. Identification of the state-space parameters was

  8. Meson-meson bound state in a 2+1 lattice QCD model with two flavors and strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael; Neto, Antonio Francisco

    2005-08-01

    We consider the existence of bound states of two mesons in an imaginary-time formulation of lattice QCD. We analyze an SU(3) theory with two flavors in 2+1 dimensions and two-dimensional spin matrices. For a small hopping parameter and a sufficiently large glueball mass, as a preliminary, we show the existence of isoscalar and isovector mesonlike particles that have isolated dispersion curves (upper gap up to near the two-particle threshold {approx}-4ln{kappa}). The corresponding meson masses are equal up to and including O({kappa}{sup 3}) and are asymptotically of order -2ln{kappa}-{kappa}{sup 2}. Considering the zero total isospin sector, we show that there is a meson-meson bound state solution to the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a ladder approximation, below the two-meson threshold, and with binding energy of order b{kappa}{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.02359{kappa}{sup 2}. In the context of the strong coupling expansion in {kappa}, we show that there are two sources of meson-meson attraction. One comes from a quark-antiquark exchange. This is not a meson exchange, as the spin indices are not those of the meson particle, and we refer to this as a quasimeson exchange. The other arises from gauge field correlations of four overlapping bonds, two positively oriented and two of opposite orientation. Although the exchange part gives rise to a space range-one attractive potential, the main mechanism for the formation of the bound state comes from the gauge contribution. In our lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, this mechanism is manifested by an attractive distance-zero energy-dependent potential. We recall that no bound state appeared in the one-flavor case, where the repulsive effect of Pauli exclusion is stronger.

  9. Bose—Einstein Condensation in Strong-Coupling Quark Color Superconductor near Flavor SU(3) Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Ren, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Near the flavor SU(3) limit, we propose an analytical description for color-flavor-locked-type Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) phase in the Nambu Jona—Lasinio (NJL) model. The diquark behaviors in light-flavor and strange-flavor-involved channels and Bose—Einstein condensation (BEC) of bound diquark states are studied. When the attractive interaction between quarks is strong enough, a BCS-BEC crossover is predicted in the environment with color-flavor-locked pairing pattern. The resulting Bose—Einstein condensed phase is found to be an intergrade phase before the emergence of the previous-predicted BEC phase in two-flavor quark superconductor.

  10. Leptoquark flavor patterns & B decay anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Schönwald, Kay

    2016-12-01

    Flavor symmetries that explain masses and mixings of the standard model fermions dictate flavor patterns for the couplings of scalar and vector leptoquarks to the standard model fermions. A generic feature is that couplings to SU(2)-doublet leptons are suppressed at least by one spurion of the discrete non-abelian symmetry breaking, responsible for neutrino mixing, while couplings to charged lepton singlets can be order one. We obtain testable patterns including those that predominantly couple to a single lepton flavor, or two, or in a skewed way. They induce lepton non-universality, which we contrast to current anomalies in B-decays. We find maximal effects in R D and {R_D}{^{ast }} at the level of ˜10 percent and few percent, respectively, while leptoquark effects in {R_K}{^{(ast )}} can reach order few×10 percent. Predictions for charm and kaon decays and μ - e conversion are worked out.

  11. Modeling of heavy-flavor pair correlations in Au-Au collisions at 200 A GeV at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the nuclear modification of angular and momentum correlations between heavy quark pairs in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks inside the thermalized medium is described via a modified Langevin approach that incorporates both elastic and inelastic interactions with the medium constituents. The spacetime evolution of the fireball is obtained from a (2 +1 )-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics simulation. The hadronization of heavy quarks is performed by utilizing a hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence. Our results show that the nuclear modification of the transverse momentum imbalance of D D ¯ pairs reflects the total energy loss experienced by the heavy quarks and may help us probe specific regions of the medium. The angular correlation of heavy-flavor pairs, especially in the low- to intermediate-transverse-momentum regime, is sensitive to the detailed energy-loss mechanism of heavy quarks inside the quark-gluon plasma.

  12. QSAR modeling of in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Mao, Boryeu; Gozalbes, Rafael; Barbosa, Frédérique; Migeon, Jacques; Merrick, Sandra; Kamm, Kelly; Wong, Eric; Costales, Chester; Shi, Wei; Wu, Cheryl; Froloff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    We report the QSAR modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme inhibition using four large data sets of in vitro data. These data sets consist of marketed drugs and drug-like compounds all tested in four assays measuring the inhibition of the metabolism of four different substrates by the CYP3A4 enzyme. The four probe substrates are benzyloxycoumarin, testosterone, benzyloxyresorufin, and midazolam. We first show that using state-of-the-art QSAR modeling approaches applied to only one of these four data sets does not lead to predictive models that would be useful for in silico filtering of chemical libraries. We then present the development and the testing of a multiple pharmacophore hypothesis (MPH) that is formulated as a conceptual extension of the traditional QSAR approach to modeling the promiscuous binding of a large variety of drugs to CYP3A4. In the simplest form, the MPH approach takes advantage of the multiple substrate data sets and identifies the binding of test compounds as either proximal or distal relative to that of a given substrate. Application of the approach to the in silico filtering of test compounds for potential inhibitors of CYP3A4 is also presented. In addition to an improvement in the QSAR modeling for the inhibition of CYP3A4, the results from this modeling approach provide structural insights into the drug-enzyme interactions. The existence of multiple inhibition data sets in the BioPrint database motivates the original development of the concept of a multiple pharmacophore hypothesis and provides a unique opportunity for formulating alternative strategies of QSAR modeling of the inhibition of the in vitro metabolism of CYP3A4.

  13. Flavor changing neutral currents and the third family

    SciTech Connect

    Reina, L.

    1996-09-16

    We consider a Two Higgs Doublet Model with Flavor Changing Scalar Neutral Currents arising at the tree level. All the most important constraints are taken into account and the compatibility with the present Electroweak measurements is examined. The Flavor Changing couplings involving the third family are not constrained to be very small and this allows us to predict some interesting signals of new physics.

  14. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ˜ O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early "preview" of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  15. Nonzero θ13 in SO (3 )→A4 lepton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Ng, Wee Hao

    2015-04-01

    The simplest neutrino mass models based on A4 symmetry predict θ13=0 at tree level, a value that contradicts recent data. We study models that arise from the spontaneous breaking of an SO(3) symmetry to its A4 subgroup, and find that such models can naturally accommodate a nonzero θ13 at tree level. Standard Model charged leptons mix with additional heavy ones to generate a θ13 that scales with the ratio of the A4-breaking to SO(3)-breaking scales. A suitable choice of energy scales hence allows one to reproduce the correct lepton mixing angles. We also consider an alternative approach where we modify the alignment of flavons associated with the charged lepton masses, and find that the effects on θ13 are enhanced by a factor that scales as mτ/mμ.

  16. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  17. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario; Tuckler, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H /A →c c ,t c ,μ μ ,τ μ and H±→c b ,c s ,μ ν . Searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.

  18. Flavor mixing in gauge-Higgs unification

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Y.; Kurahashi, N.; Lim, C. S.; Maru, N.; Tanabe, K.

    2012-07-27

    Gauge-Higgs unification is the fascinating scenario solving the hierarchy problem without supersymmetry. In this scenario, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet is identified with extra component of the gauge field in higher dimensions and its mass becomes finite and stable under quantum corrections due to the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. On the other hand, Yukawa coupling is provided by the gauge coupling, which seems to mean that the flavor mixing and CP violation do not arise at it stands. In this talk, we discuss that the flavor mixing is originated from simultaneously non-diagonalizable bulk and brane mass matrices. Then, this mechanism is applied to various flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) processes via Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson exchange at tree level and constraints for compactification scale are obtained.

  19. Relaxing constraints from lepton flavor violation in 5D flavorful theories

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh

    2009-12-01

    We propose new mechanisms for ameliorating the constraints on the Kaluza-Klein mass scale from charged lepton flavor violation in the framework of the standard model fields propagating in a warped extra dimension, especially in models accounting for neutrino data. These mechanisms utilize the extended five-dimensional (5D) electroweak gauge symmetry [SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}] which is already strongly motivated in order to satisfy electroweak precision tests in this framework. We show that new choices of representations for leptons under this symmetry (naturally) can allow small mixing angles for left-handed (LH) charged leptons and simultaneously large mixing angles for their SU(2){sub L} partners, i.e., the LH neutrinos, with the neutrino data being accounted for by the latter mixings. Enhancement of charged lepton flavor violation by the large mixing angle observed in leptonic charged currents, which is present for the minimal choice of representations where the LH charged lepton and neutrino mixing angles are similar, can thus be avoided in these models. This idea might also be useful for suppressing the contributions to B{sub d,s} mixing in this framework and in order to suppress flavor violation from exchange of superpartners (instead of from KK modes) in 5D 'flavorful supersymmetry' models. Additionally, the less minimal representations can provide custodial protection for shifts in couplings of fermions to Z and, in turn, further suppress charged lepton flavor violation from tree-level Z exchange in the warped extra-dimensional scenario. As a result, {approx}O(3) TeV KK mass scale can be simultaneously consistent with charged lepton flavor violation and neutrino data, even without any particular structure in the 5D flavor parameters in the framework of a warped extra dimension.

  20. Spin polarization versus color-flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança; Yamamura, Masatoshi; Bohr, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color-flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between the color-flavor-locked phase and the spin-polarized phase is the first order by means of second-order perturbation theory.

  1. Flavor deterioration in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Harasawa, N; Tateba, H; Ishizuka, N; Wakayama, T; Kishino, K; Ono, M

    1998-01-01

    Volatile components of flavored yogurt preserved at 5 degrees C in the dark for 0 day, 3 days and 10 days were recovered by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and headspace (HS) procedures. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of those samples showed remarkable changes in some compounds. Aldehydes which contribute to expressing citrusy notes were reduced to alcohols during fermentation process and storage. As a result, the strength of flavors which expressed well-balanced citrusy notes in yogurt were weakened, and fatty or oily notes mainly caused from alcohols were strengthened reversely. Hydrocarbons were also digested by bacteria during a fermentation process. A small amount of other compounds, such as esters and terpene alcohols changed. Fewer effects of sorption into a package material and chemical reactions, such as hydrolysis esters, hydration or oxidation of hydrocarbons, were observed.

  2. Flavored Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Flavored electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not prohibited in the United States, and e-cigarette flavors proliferate on the market. This study sought to examine flavored e-cigarette use and its association with smoking among youth. Estimates of flavored e-cigarette use from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey were investigated. A logistic regression model was used to assess whether flavored e-cigarette use was associated with (1) intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (n = 16 471), (2) intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (n = 1338), and (3) perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (n = 21 491). A total of 2017 respondents reported using e-cigarettes in the last 30 days, of whom 1228 (60.9%) reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among never-smoking youth, 55.6% (288) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among current smokers, 68.4% (495) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Compared with not using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days, using flavored e-cigarettes was associated with higher odds of intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.7; P < .0001), lower odds of intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (aOR = 0.6; P = .006), and a lower prevalence of perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (aOR = 0.5; P < .0001). Flavored e-cigarette use is associated with increased risks of smoking among youth. Comprehensive tobacco control and prevention strategies that address flavored e-cigarette products are critically needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. The flavor of the Composite Twin Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri; Weiler, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The assumption of anarchic quark flavor puts serious stress on composite Higgs models: flavor bounds imply a tuning of a few per-mille (at best) in the Higgs potential. Composite twin Higgs (CTH) models significantly reduce this tension by opening up a new region of parameter space, obtained by raising the coupling among the composites close to the strong coupling limit g ∗ ˜ 4π, thereby raising the scale of composites to around 10 TeV. This does not lead to large tuning in the Higgs potential since the leading quantum corrections are canceled by the twin partners (rather than the composites). We survey the leading flavor bounds on the CTH, which correspond to tree-level Δ F = 2 four-Fermi operators from Kaluza-Klein (KK) Z exchange in the kaon system and 1-loop corrections from KK fermions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron. We provide a parametric estimate for these bounds and also perform a numeric scan of the parameter space using the complete calculation for both quantities. The results confirm our expectation that CTH models accommodate anarchic flavor significantly better than regular composite Higgs (CH) models. Our conclusions apply both to the identical and fraternal twin cases.

  4. Lepton flavor violation at LEP II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.L. |

    1996-07-01

    At present, two fundamental mysteries in particle physics are the origins of electroweak symmetry breaking and the fermion mass matrices. The experimental discovery of superpartners would represent enormous progress in the understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking, but would it also allow progress on the flavor problem? To date, nearly all experimental studies of supersymmetry have ignored the possibility of flavor mixings in the sfermion sector. However, since all superpartners must be given masses, all supersymmetric theories necessarily allow for the possibility of new flavor mixings beyond the standard model. In addition, there are now many supersymmetric theories of flavor, which predict a wide variety of superpartner flavor mixings. In this study, the author examines the possibility of measuring these mixings at LEP II and the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Rare flavor changing processes, such as {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, {tau} {yields} e{gamma}, b {yields} s{gamma}, and neutral meson mixing, already provide important constraints on the sfermion flavor mixings through the virtual effects of superpartners. However, as will be seen below, once superpartners are discovered, it will be possible to probe these mixings much more powerfully by directly observing the change in flavor occurring at the superpartner production and decay vertices.

  5. Flavor symmetry breaking and meson masses.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, M. S.; Chang, L.; Liu, Y.-X.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.; Physics; Peking Univ.; National Lab. of Heavy Ion Accelerator; The Key Lab. of Heavy Ion Physics; Kent State Univ.

    2007-10-01

    The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is used to derive mass formulas for neutral pseudoscalar mesons. Flavor symmetry breaking entails nonideal flavor content for these states. Adding that the {eta} is not a Goldstone mode, exact chiral-limit relations are developed from the identity. They connect the dressed-quark propagator to the topological susceptibility. It is confirmed that in the chiral limit the {eta} mass is proportional to the matrix element which connects this state to the vacuum via the topological susceptibility. The implications of the mass formulas are illustrated using an elementary dynamical model, which includes an Ansatz for that part of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel related to the non-Abelian anomaly. In addition to the current-quark masses, the model involves two parameters, one of which is a mass-scale. It is employed in an analysis of pseudoscalar- and vector-meson bound-states. While the effects of SU(N{sub f}=2) and SU(N{sub f}=3) flavor symmetry breaking are emphasized, the five-flavor spectra are described. Despite its simplicity, the model is elucidative and phenomenologically efficacious; e.g., it predicts {eta}-{eta} mixing angles of {approx} -15{sup o} and {pi}{sup 0}-{eta} angles of {approx}1{sup o}.

  6. Quark magnetar in three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model under strong magnetic fields with two types of vector interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Jia, Yu-Yue; Dong, Yu-Min; Wang, Shu-Mei; Li, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Ma, Hong-Yang

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) in the framework of SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with two types of vector interactions under strong magnetic fields: (1) the flavor-dependent repulsion among u , d , and s quarks with the coupling constant GV, and (2) the universal repulsion and the vector-isovector interaction with the coupling constants gV and GI V. The effects of the two types of vector interactions on the constituent quark mass, vacuum quark mass, quark chemical potential, and quark fraction in SQM under strong magnetic fields are studied, and the results indicate that these physical quantities for SQM are all sensitive to the two types of vector interactions in NJL model under magnetic fields. Using a density-dependent magnetic field profile which is introduced to describe the magnetic field strength distribution inside the magnetars, we calculate the properties of spherical QSs by using two extreme cases for the orientation of the magnetic field inside the stars, i.e., the radial orientation in which the magnetic fields are along the radial direction in stars, and the transverse orientation in which the magnetic fields are randomly oriented in the plane which is perpendicular to the radial direction. Our results indicate that the maximum mass of QSs may dependent on both the strength distribution and the orientation of the magnetic fields inside QSs by using SU(3) NJL model.

  7. S100A4 upregulation suppresses tissue ossification and enhances matrix degradation in experimental periodontitis models

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Li, Zhuo-quan; Wang, Zuo-lin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: S100A4, also known as fibroblast-specific protein 1 or metastasin 1, is not only highly expressed in growth-stimulated cultured cells and metastatic tumor cells, but also in the periodontal ligament. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of S100A4 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and its regulatory mechanisms in inflammatory milieu. Methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced in rats by submarginal silk ligatures. TRAP activity and S100A4 expression in periodontal ligaments were examined using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. IL-1β-treated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) were used as in vitro model of experimental periodontitis. S100A4 mRNA and protein were assessed using qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. hPDLCs were transfected with either S100A4 overexpression plasmids or shRNAs plasmids. The mineralization in hPDLCs was evaluated with a 12-d osteogenic induction assay, and the expression of ALP, OCN, MMP-2 and MMP-13 was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Results: In the periodontal ligaments of rats with experimental periodontitis, TRAP activity and S100A4 protein staining were considerably more intense compared with those in the control rats. Treatment of hPDLCs with IL-1β (10, 50 and 100 ng/mL) dose-dependently increased the mRNA and protein levels of S100A4. Transfection with shRNAs markedly increased mineralized nodule formation and the osteogenic-related markers ALP and OCN levels in hPDLCs, whereas the overexpression of S100A4 significantly reduced mineralized nodule formation, and increased the matrix degradation enzymes MMP-2 and MMP-13 levels in hPDLCs. Conclusion: S100A4 is upregulated in the experimental rat periodontitis and in IL-1β-treated hPDLCs, where S100A4 suppresses osteogenic differentiation and enhances matrix degradation. Thus, S100A4 is a potential target for the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:26499072

  8. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [retention of flavor during freeze drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The retention of flavor during freeze drying was studied with model systems. Mechanisms by which flavor retention phenomena is explained were developed and process conditions specified so that flavor retention is optimized. The literature is reviewed and results of studies of the flavor retention behavior of a number of real food products, including both liquid and solid foods are evaluated. Process parameters predicted by the mechanisms to be of greatest significance are freezing rate, initial solids content, and conditions which result in maintenance of sample structure. Flavor quality for the real food showed the same behavior relative to process conditions as predicted by the mechanisms based on model system studies.

  9. Bilarge neutrino mixing and Abelian flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Morisi, S.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2013-03-01

    We explore two bilarge neutrino mixing Anzätze within the context of Abelian flavor symmetry theories: (BL1) sin⁡θ12˜λ, sin⁡θ13˜λ, sin⁡θ23˜λ, and (BL2) sin⁡θ12˜λ, sin⁡θ13˜λ, sin⁡θ23˜1-λ. The first pattern is proposed by two of us and is favored if the atmospheric mixing angle θ23 lies in the first octant, while the second one is preferred for the second octant of θ23. In order to reproduce the second texture, we find that the flavor symmetry should be U(1)×Zm, while for the first pattern the flavor symmetry should be extended to U(1)×Zm×Zn with m and n of different parity. Explicit models for both mixing patterns are constructed based on the flavor symmetries U(1)×Z3×Z4 and U(1)×Z2. The models are extended to the quark sector within the framework of SU(5) grand unified theory in order to give a successful description of quark and lepton masses and mixing simultaneously. Phenomenological implications are discussed.

  10. Signals from flavor changing scalar currents at the future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, D.; Reina, L.; Soni, A.

    1996-11-22

    We present a general phenomenological analysis of a class of Two Higgs Doublet Models with Flavor Changing Neutral Currents arising at the tree level. The existing constraints mainly affect the couplings of the first two generations of quarks, leaving the possibility for non negligible Flavor Changing couplings of the top quark open. The next generation of lepton and hadron colliders will offer the right environment to study the physics of the top quark and to unravel the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this context we discuss some interesting signals from Flavor Changing Scalar Neutral Currents.

  11. The computational model to predict accurately inhibitory activity for inhibitors towards CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes with oxidative function responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics especially drug metabolism. CYP3A4, an extensive studied CYP isoform, plays crucial role in the metabolism of structurally diverse drugs. Furthermore, the drug-drug interaction resulted from the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity is of extreme importance for the treatment of disease and the development of new drug. In this study, using the method of the support vector machine (SVM) and three descriptors selected from the 153 descriptors we construct the models that can predict accurately the inhibitory effect of a compound on the activity of CYP3A4. By optimizing the parameters related to SVM, the cross validation correlation efficient of the model can achieve 0.71, which is higher than those of other models obtained using Artifical Neutral Network (ANN) and Partial least square (PLS) methods to our knowledge, and thus our model can present the important application in assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug as well as prediction of drug-drug interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of tomato germplasm for flavor and flavor contributing components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavor is one of the most highly demanded consumer traits of tomato at present; poor flavor is one of the most commonly heard complaints associated with modern varieties of tomato. Research in the past has identified reducing sugars, organic acids and approximately 30 plant volatiles as either direc...

  13. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-04-08

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. μ → 3e, τ → eμμ, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6σ deviation of the muon g-2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale ⁺e⁻ colliders. Wemore » suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  14. On flavor symmetry in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2012-02-01

    Using a well established method to engineer non-abelian symmetries in superstring compactifications, we study the link between the point splitting method of Creutz et al. [PoS: Lattice 2010, 078 (2010) and Creutz et al. JHEP 041, 1012 (2010)] for implementing flavor symmetry in lattice QCD; and singularity theory in complex algebraic geometry. We show amongst others that Creutz flavors for naive fermions are intimately related with toric singularities of a class of complex Kahler manifolds that are explicitly built here. In the case of naive fermions of QCD2N, Creutz flavors are shown to live at the poles of real 2-spheres and carry quantum charges of the fundamental of [SU(2)]2N. We show moreover that the two Creutz flavors in Karsten-Wilczek model, with Dirac operator in reciprocal space of the form i{γ }1F1+i{γ }2F2+ i{γ }3F3+ i/sin α {γ }_{4}F4, are related with the small resolution of conifold singularity that live at sin α = 0. Other related features are also studied.

  15. New signatures of flavor violating Higgs couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-01

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) pp → thh (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top-up-Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) pp → tH 0, where H 0 is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels H 0 → tu, WW, ZZ, hh and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the thh final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter space, it is superior to other searches, including searches for flavor violating top quark decays ( t → hq). (3) H 0 → τ μ, again in the context of a 2HDM. This channel is particularly well motivated by the recent CMS excess in h → τ μ, and we use the data from this search to constrain the properties of H 0.

  16. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  17. Combatting wintertime off-flavors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Off-flavored catfish are not acceptable for harvest, which disrupts the orderly flow of product from farm to processing plant. Most summertime off-flavors are caused when odorous substances produced by blue-green algae are absorbed from water and deposited in the fish’s flesh. Fish can also become o...

  18. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  19. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for t{gamma} associated production via model-independent flavor-changing neutral-current couplings at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yue; Li Bohua; Li Chongsheng; Gao Jun; Zhu Huaxing

    2011-05-01

    We present the complete next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions for the t{gamma} associated production induced by model-independent tq{gamma} and tqg flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) couplings at hadron colliders, respectively. We also consider the mixing effects between the tq{gamma} and tqg FCNC couplings for this process. Our results show that, for the tq{gamma} couplings, the NLO QCD corrections can enhance the total cross sections by about 50% and 40% at the Tevatron and LHC, respectively. Including the contributions from the tq{gamma}, tqg FCNC couplings and their mixing effects, the NLO QCD corrections can enhance the total cross sections by about 50% for the tu{gamma} and tug FCNC couplings, and by about 80% for the tc{gamma} and tcg FCNC couplings at the LHC, respectively. Moreover, the NLO corrections reduce the dependence of the total cross section on the renormalization and factorization scale significantly. We also evaluate the NLO corrections for several important kinematic distributions.

  20. Lipoxin A4 ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion induced spinal cord injury in rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Jian; Xia, Li-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced spinal cord injury is an important pathologic mechanism leading to the paraplegia observed after surgery to repairaortic aneurysms. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Lipoxin A4 and its potential mechanism in a rabbit model with I/R spinal cord injury. Forty-five rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, I/R group and Lipoxin A4 group. Rabbits were subject to 30 min aortic occlusion to induce transient spinal cord ischemia. All animals were sacrificed after neurological evaluation with modified Tarlov criteria at the 48th hour after reperfusion, and the spinal cord segments (L4-6) were harvested for histopathological examination, as well as local malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity analysis. All animals in the I/R group became paraplegic. While after 48-hour treatment, compared with I/R group, Lipoxin A4 significantly improved neurological function, reduced cell apoptosis and MDA levels as well as increased SOD activity (P < 0.05). These results suggest that Lipoxin A4 can ameliorate I/R induced spinal cord injury in Rabbit through its antiapoptosis and antioxidant activity. PMID:26550197

  1. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.

    2017-05-01

    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995<|c_h|<1. We have analyzed a more general diagonalization of gauge boson mass matrices, then we show that the ratio of the tangents of the W-W' and Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.

  2. Applications of flavor symmetry to the phenomenology of elementary particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Thomas A.

    1995-05-01

    Some applications of flavor symmetry are examined. Approximate flavor symmetries and their consequences in the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) are considered, and found to give natural values for the possible B- and L-violating couplings that are empirically acceptable, except for the case of proton decay. The coupling constants of SU(3) are calculated and used to parameterize the decays of the D mesons in broken flavor SU(3). The resulting couplings are used to estimate the long-distance contributions to D-meson mixing.

  3. Symmetry for Flavor-Kinematics Duality from an Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new representation of the nonlinear sigma model that exhibits a manifest duality between flavor and kinematics. The fields couple exclusively through cubic Feynman vertices which define the structure constants of an underlying kinematic algebra. The action is invariant under a combination of internal and spacetime symmetries whose conservation equations imply flavor-kinematics duality, ensuring that all Feynman diagrams satisfy kinematic Jacobi identities. Substituting flavor for kinematics, we derive a new cubic action for the special Galileon theory. In this picture, the vanishing soft behavior of amplitudes is a by-product of the Weinberg soft theorem.

  4. Effective theories of flavor and the nonuniversal MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dipankar; López-Ibáñez, M. L.; Pérez, M. Jay; Vives, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Flavor symmetries à la Froggatt-Nielsen provide a compelling way to explain the hierarchies of fermionic masses and mixing angles in the Yukawa sector. In supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the Standard Model where the mediation of SUSY breaking occurs at scales larger than the breaking of flavor, this symmetry must be respected not only by the Yukawas of the superpotential but also by the soft-breaking masses and trilinear terms. In this work we show that contrary to naive expectations, even starting with completely flavor blind soft breaking in the full theory at high scales, the low-energy sfermion mass matrices and trilinear terms of the effective theory, obtained upon integrating out the heavy mediator fields, are strongly nonuniversal. We explore the phenomenology of these SUSY flavor models after the latest LHC searches for new physics.

  5. A 4D variational assimilation scheme with partition method for nearshore wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingyang; Mayerle, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the development steps of a 4D variational assimilation scheme for nearshore wave models. A partition method is applied for adjusting both wave boundary conditions and wind fields. Nonstationary conditions are assimilated by providing defined correlations of model inputs in time. The scheme is implemented into the SWAN model. Twin experiments covering both stationary and nonstationary wave conditions are carried out to assess the adequacy of the proposed scheme. Stationary experiments are carried out considering separately windsea, swells, and mixed sea. Cost functions decline to less than 5% and RMS spectrum errors are reduced to less than 10%. The nonstationary experiment covers 1 day simulation under mixed wave conditions with assimilation windows of 3 h. RMS spectrum errors are reduced to less than 10% after 30 iterations in most assimilation windows. The results show that for spacially uniform model inputs, model accuracy is improved notably by the assimilation scheme throughout the computational domain. It is found that under wave conditions in which observed spectra can be well classified, the assimilation scheme is able to improve model results significantly.

  6. Development and validation of skinfold-thickness prediction equations with a 4-compartment model.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew J; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Siervogel, Roger M

    2003-05-01

    Skinfold-thickness measurements are commonly obtained for the indirect assessment of body composition. We developed new skinfold-thickness equations by using a 4-compartment model as the reference. Additionally, we compared our new equations with the Durnin and Womersley and Jackson and Pollock skinfold-thickness equations to evaluate each equation's validity and precision. Data from 681 healthy, white adults were used. Percentage body fat (%BF) values were calculated by using the 4-compartment model. The cohort was then divided into validation and cross-validation groups. Equations were developed by using regression analyses and the 4-compartment model. All equations were then tested by using the cross-validation group. Tests for accuracy included mean differences, R(2), and Bland-Altman plots. Precision was evaluated by comparing root mean squared errors. Our new equations' estimated means for %BF in men and women (22.7% and 32.6%, respectively) were closest to the corresponding 4-compartment values (22.8% and 32.8%). The Durnin and Womersley equation means in men and women (20.0% and 31.0%, respectively) and the Jackson and Pollock mean in women (26.2%) underestimated %BF. All equations showed a tendency toward underestimation in subjects with higher %BF. Bland-Altman plots showed limited agreement between Durnin and Wormersley, Jackson and Pollock, and the 4-compartment model. Precision was similar among all the equations. We developed accurate and precise skinfold-thickness equations by using a 4-compartment model as the method of reference. Additionally, we found that the skinfold-thickness equations frequently used by clinicians and practitioners underestimate %BF.

  7. Molecular modelling of (A4T4NN)n and (T4A4NN)n: sequence elements responsible for curvature.

    PubMed Central

    Sanghani, S R; Zakrzewska, K; Harvey, S C; Lavery, R

    1996-01-01

    The molecular modelling program JUMNA has been used to investigate the origins of the strikingly different curvature of the two sequences, (A4T4NN)n and (T4A4NN)n. Gel electrophoresis and cyclisation studies have shown that only the former of these two sequences is significantly curved. By developing novel superhelical symmetry constraints we were able to study the energetic and structural aspects of polymeric DNA having a controlled curvature. The results obtained (which do not take into account specific hydration effects) correlate well with the experimental data and offer a molecular level explanation of curvature. Although curvature is found to be initiated by specific dinucleotide junctions, deformations spread to surrounding dinucleotide steps and, moreover, sequence effects beyond the dinucleotide level are observed. PMID:8649979

  8. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda; Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl

    2016-12-01

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ 3 × ℤ 3 heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  9. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  10. Fermion masses and neutrino mixing in an U(1){sub H} flavor symmetry model with hierarchical radiative generation for light charged fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Galeana, Albino

    2007-11-01

    I report the analysis performed on fermion masses and mixing, including neutrino mixing, within the context of a model with hierarchical radiative mass generation mechanism for light charged fermions, mediated by exotic scalar particles at one and two loops, respectively, meanwhile the neutrinos get Majorana mass terms at tree level through the Yukawa couplings with two SU(2){sub L} Higgs triplets. All the resulting mass matrices in the model, for the u, d, and e fermion charged sectors, the neutrinos and the exotic scalar particles, are diagonalized in exact analytical form. Quantitative analysis shows that this model is successful to accommodate the hierarchical spectrum of masses and mixing in the quark sector as well as the charged lepton masses. The lepton mixing matrix, V{sub PMNS}, is written completely in terms of the neutrino masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, and m{sub 3}. Large lepton mixing for {theta}{sub 12} and {theta}{sub 23} is predicted in the range of values 0.7 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 12} < or approx. 0.7772 and 0.87 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} < or approx. 0.9023 by using 0.033 < or approx. s{sub 13}{sup 2} < or approx. 0.04. These values for lepton mixing are consistent with 3{sigma} allowed ranges provided by recent global analysis of neutrino data oscillation. From {delta}m{sub sol}{sup 2} bounds, neutrino masses are predicted in the range of values m{sub 1}{approx_equal}(1.706-2.494)x10{sup -3} eV, m{sub 2}{approx_equal}(6.675-12.56)x10{sup -3} eV, and m{sub 3}{approx_equal}(1.215-2.188)x10{sup -2} eV, respectively. The above allowed lepton mixing leads to the quark-lepton complementary relations {theta}{sub 12}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 12}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}41.543 deg. -44.066 deg. and {theta}{sub 23}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 23}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}36.835 deg. -38.295 deg. The new exotic scalar particles induce flavor changing neutral currents and contribute to lepton flavor violating processes such as E{yields}e{sub 1}e

  11. Color-flavor locked strangelets.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J

    2001-10-22

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number A(min). Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z approximately 0.3A(2/3). This is quite different from "ordinary" strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments.

  12. Heavy flavor at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, S.

    2016-07-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider have pioneered and established the role of hadron collisions in exploring flavor physics through a broad program that continues to offer competitive results. I report on latest results in the flavor sector obtained using the whole CDF and D0 data sets corresponding to {˜}10{ fb-1} of integrated luminosity; including B-mesons spectroscopy and production asymmetries, flavor specific decay bottom-strange mesons lifetime. I also present measurements of direct and indirect CP violation in bottom and charm meson decays.

  13. Color-Flavor Locked Strangelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-10-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number Amin. Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z~0.3A2/3. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments.

  14. Generalized bottom-tau unification, neutrino oscillations and dark matter: Predictions from a lepton quarticity flavor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centelles Chuliá, Salvador; Srivastava, Rahul; Valle, José W. F.

    2017-10-01

    We propose an A4 extension of the Standard Model with a Lepton Quarticity symmetry correlating dark matter stability with the Dirac nature of neutrinos. The flavor symmetry predicts (i) a generalized bottom-tau mass relation involving all families, (ii) small neutrino masses are induced a la seesaw, (iii) CP must be significantly violated in neutrino oscillations, (iv) the atmospheric angle θ23 lies in the second octant, and (v) only the normal neutrino mass ordering is realized.

  15. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in big bang cosmology is re-examined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid.

  16. Magnetic Color-flavor-locked Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulucci, Laura; Ferrer, Efrain J.; de la Incera, Vivian; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2013-03-01

    Using the solutions of the gap equations of the magnetic-color-flavor-locked (MCFL) phase of paired quark matter in a magnetic field, and taking into consideration the separation between the longitudinal and transverse pressures due to the field-induced breaking of the spatial rotational symmetry, the equation of state (EoS) of the MCFL phase is self-consistently determined. Implications for stellar models of magnetized (self-bound) strange stars and hybrid (MCFL core) stars are discussed.

  17. Bilinear R-parity violation with flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzocchi, F.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F.; Vicente, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinear R-parity violation (BRPV) provides the simplest intrinsically super-symmetric neutrino mass generation scheme. While neutrino mixing parameters can be probed in high energy accelerators, they are unfortunately not predicted by the theory. Here we propose a model based on the discrete flavor symmetry A 4 with a single R-parity violating parameter, leading to (i) correct Cabbibo mixing given by the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin formula, and a successful unification-like b-tau mass relation, and (ii) a correlation between the lepton mixing angles θ 13 and θ 23 in agreement with recent neutrino oscillation data, as well as a (nearly) massless neutrino, leading to absence of neutrinoless double beta decay.

  18. Flavor violating leptonic decays of the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Seham; Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

    2016-12-01

    Recent data from the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN give a hint of possible violation of flavor in the leptonic decays of the Higgs boson. In this work we analyze the flavor violating leptonic decays H10→lil¯j (i ≠j ) within the framework of a minimal supersymmetric standard model extension with a vectorlike leptonic generation. Specifically we focus on the decay mode H10→μ τ . The analysis is done including tree and loop contributions involving exchange of W , Z , charged and neutral Higgs bosons and leptons and mirror leptons, charginos and neutralinos and sleptons and mirror sleptons. It is found that a substantial branching ratio of H10→μ τ , i.e., of as much as O (1 )%, can be achieved in this model, the size hinted by the ATLAS and CMS data. The flavor violating decays H10→e μ , e τ are also analyzed and found to be consistent with the current experimental limits. An analysis of the dependence of flavor violating decays on C P phases is given. The analysis is extended to include flavor decays of the heavier Higgs bosons. A confirmation of the flavor violation in Higgs boson decays with more data that is expected from LHC at √{s }=13 TeV will be evidence of new physics beyond the standard model.

  19. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-09-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kähler potential obeys the underlying S3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kähler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale.

  20. Infusion of volatile flavor compounds into low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Avison, S J; Gray, D A; Davidson, G M; Taylor, A J

    2001-01-01

    Supercritical fluids can extract components from some matrixes (e.g., fat and flavors from food) as well as infusing additives into synthetic polymer matrixes. To study the feasibility of infusing flavors into matrixes as a potential flavoring mechanism, a wide range of volatile flavor compounds was infused into a well-defined synthetic polymer (low-density polyethylene) using supercritical carbon dioxide. The polymer was then extracted, and the amount of infused compound was determined. The effects of time, temperature, pressure, rate of depressurization, volatile concentration, and volatile properties on the degree of infusion were studied. Infusion with supercritical carbon dioxide achieved much higher loadings of the polymer (0.01 to 6.87 mg/g LDPE, depending on the volatile molecule being infused) compared to those achieved by static diffusion. Forty-five volatiles were infused, from which a model was developed to predict infusion as a function of certain physicochemical properties.

  1. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and workers can take steps to address working conditions and work practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related ... advise workers about any suspected or confirmed medical condition that may be ... exposures, about recommendations for further evaluation and treatment, ...

  2. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, G. ); Kim, C.S. )

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  3. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  4. Electroweak baryogenesis with lepton flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Fuyuto, Kaori; Senaha, Eibun

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis in a two-Higgs doublet model with lepton flavor violation. By scrutinizing the heavy Higgs boson mass spectrum, regions satisfying both strong first-order electroweak phase transition and the muon g - 2 anomaly are identified. We also estimate the baryon number density by exploiting extra Yukawa couplings in the μ-τ sector. It is found that a CP-violating source term can be enhanced by the μ-τ flavor-violating coupling together with the extra τ coupling. With O (1) Yukawa couplings and CP-violating phases, the observed baryon number density is marginally produced under a generous assumption for the bubble wall profile.

  5. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Curwin, Brian D.; Deddens, Jim A.; McKernan, Lauralynn T.

    2015-01-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25–3124 ppb and 15–172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous. PMID:25052692

  6. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  7. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics: Establishing and testing the Standard Model of flavor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitlin, David

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of an unexpectedly long B meson lifetime made it feasible to measure the CP -violating asymmetry in B meson decay. The measurement of these asymmetries were made by the BABAR Collaboration at SLAC and the Belle Collaboration at KEK, using the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric e+e- colliders. The asymmetry in the decay rates of B0 and B0 mesons to CP eigenstate final states, due to a non-zero phase in the three quark generation CKM matrix, can be directly interpreted using the Unitarity Triangle construction in terms of the fundamental parameters of the matrix, with very little uncertainty due to hadronic effects. The measurement of these asymmetries in a wide variety of final states, which show complete consistency with the three-generation Standard Model, will be discussed. The three following presentations will discuss in further detail the PEP-II and KEKB colliders, the BABAR and Belle detectors, and aspects of the results other than those on CP -violation. This is the first of four Panofsky Prize presentation abstracts. The order of presentation should be Hitlin, Dorfan, Takasaki, Olsen.

  8. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas

    2017-08-01

    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  9. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Mario; Asner, David Mark; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women's U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen's U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  10. Scalar triplet flavored leptogenesis: a systematic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Dhen, Mikaël; Hambye, Thomas E-mail: mikadhen@ulb.ac.be

    2014-08-01

    Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed neutrinos or extra triplets, it also provides a compelling framework for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We derive in this context the full network of Boltzmann equations for studying leptogenesis in the flavored regime. To this end we determine the relations which hold among the chemical potentials of the various particle species in the thermal bath. This takes into account the standard model Yukawa interactions of both leptons and quarks as well as sphaleron processes which, depending on the temperature, may be classified as faster or slower than the Universe Hubble expansion. We find that when leptogenesis is enabled by the presence of an extra triplet, lepton flavor effects allow the production of the B-L asymmetry through lepton number conserving CP asymmetries. This scenario becomes dominant as soon as the triplets couple more to leptons than to standard model scalar doublets. In this case, the way the B-L asymmetry is created through flavor effects is novel: instead of invoking the effect of L-violating inverse decays faster than the Hubble rate, it involves the effect of L-violating decays slower than the Hubble rate. We also analyze the more general situation where lepton number violating CP asymmetries are present and actively participate in the generation of the B-L asymmetry, pointing out that as long as L-violating triplet decays are still in thermal equilibrium when the triplet gauge scattering processes decouple, flavor effects can be striking, allowing to avoid all washout suppression effects from seesaw interactions. In this case the amount of B-L asymmetry produced is limited only by a universal gauge suppression effect, which nevertheless goes away for large triplet decay rates.

  11. Hybrid scheme for heavy flavors: Merging the fixed flavor number scheme and variable flavor number scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusina, A.; Olness, F. I.; Schienbein, I.; Ježo, T.; Kovařík, K.; Stavreva, T.; Yu, J. Y.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a hybrid variable flavor number scheme for heavy flavors, denoted H-VFNS, which incorporates the advantages of both the traditional variable flavor number scheme as well as the fixed flavor number scheme (FFNS). By including an explicit NF dependence in both the parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the strong coupling constant αS, we generate coexisting sets of PDFs and αS for NF={3,4,5,6} at any scale μ that are related analytically by the MS¯ matching conditions. The H-VFNS resums the heavy quark contributions and provides the freedom to choose the optimal NF for each particular data set. Thus, we can fit selected HERA data in a FFNS framework, while retaining the benefits of the VFNS to analyze LHC data at high scales. We illustrate how such a fit can be implemented for the case of both HERA and LHC data.

  12. SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhard, Guy; Feng, Jonathan L.; Galon, Iftah; Sanford, David; Yu, Felix

    2010-01-01

    We describe SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events. SPICE takes as input two ingredients: a standard flavor-conserving supersymmetric spectrum and a set of flavor-violating slepton mass parameters, both of which are specified at some high "mediation" scale. SPICE then combines these two ingredients to form a flavor-violating model, determines the resulting low-energy spectrum and branching ratios, and outputs HERWIG and SUSY Les Houches files, which may be used to generate collider events. The flavor-conserving model may be any of the standard supersymmetric models, including minimal supergravity, minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking supplemented by a universal scalar mass. The flavor-violating contributions may be specified in a number of ways, from specifying charges of fields under horizontal symmetries to completely specifying all flavor-violating parameters. SPICE is fully documented and publicly available, and is intended to be a user-friendly aid in the study of flavor at the Large Hadron Collider and other future colliders. Program summaryProgram title: SPICE Catalogue identifier: AEFL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8153 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 67 291 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Personal computer Operating system: Tested on Scientific Linux 4.x Classification: 11.1 External routines: SOFTSUSY [1,2] and SUSYHIT [3] Nature of problem: Simulation programs are required to compare theoretical models in particle physics with present and future data at particle colliders. SPICE determines the masses and decay branching ratios of

  13. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains a solely natural flavor(s), the flavor shall be so labeled, e.g., strawberry flavor, banana flavor, or natural strawberry flavor. In cases where the flavor contains both a natural flavor and an artificial flavor, the flavor shall be so labeled, e.g., natural and artificial strawberry flavor. In cases...

  14. Quark confinement via magnetic color-flavor locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Yokoi, Naoto

    2013-11-01

    The color-flavor locking phenomenon in the magnetic picture can be the microscopic description of the quark confinement in QCD. We demonstrate it in an = 2 supersymmetric SU( N c )1 × SU( N c )2 quiver gauge theory coupled to N f flavors of quarks ( N f < N c ). This model reduces to SU( N c )1+2 gauge theory with N f flavors when the vacuum expectations value of the link field is much larger than the dynamical scales, and thus provides a continuous deformation of the = 2 supersymmetric QCD. We study a vacuum which survives upon adding a superpotential term to reduce to = 1 while preserving the vectorial SU( N f ) flavor symmetry. We find a region of the parameter space where the confinement is described by the Higgsing of a weakly coupled magnetic SU( N f ) × U(1) gauge theory. The Higgsing locks the quantum numbers of SU( N f ) magnetic color to those of SU( N f ) flavor symmetry, and thus the massive magnetic gauge bosons become the singlet and adjoint representations of the flavor group, i.e, the vector mesons. If the qualitative picture remains valid in non-supersymmetric QCD, one can understand the Hidden Local Symmetry as the magnetic dual description of QCD, and the confining string is identified as the vortex of vector meson fields.

  15. Non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries of 10D SYM theory with magnetized extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    We study discrete flavor symmetries of the models based on a ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (10D SYM) theory compactified on magnetized tori. We assume non-vanishing non-factorizable fluxes as well as the orbifold projections. These setups allow model-building with more various flavor structures. Indeed, we show that there exist various classes of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries. In particular, we find that S 3 flavor symmetries can be realized in the framework of the magnetized 10D SYM theory for the first time.

  16. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario; Tuckler, Douglas

    2016-12-30

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.

  17. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; ...

    2016-12-30

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarksmore » can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.« less

  18. Identification of Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Effects of Linguistic Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, using different ranges and numbers of stimuli, examined how linguistic labels affect the identification of flavor mixtures containing different proportions of sucrose (gustatory flavorant) and citral (olfactory flavorant). Both experiments asked subjects to identify each stimulus as having either “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus.” In one condition, no labels preceded the flavor stimuli. In another condition, each flavor stimulus followed a label, either SUGAR or CITRUS, which, the subjects were informed, usually though not always named the stronger flavor component; that is, the labels were probabilistically valid. The results of both experiments showed that the labels systematically modified the identification responses: Subjects responded “sugar” or “citrus” more often when the flavor stimulus followed the corresponding label, SUGAR or CITRUS. But the labels hardly affected overall accuracy of identification. Accuracy was possibly limited, however, by both the confusability of the flavor stimuli per se and the way that confusability could limit the opportunity to discern the probabilistic associations between labels and individual flavor stimuli. We describe the results in terms of a decision-theoretic model, in which labels induce shifts in response criteria governing the identification responses, or possibly effect changes in the sensory representations of the flavorants themselves. PMID:23329730

  19. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  20. Clinical Exposure Boost Predictions by Integrating Cytochrome P450 3A4-Humanized Mouse Studies With PBPK Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Heimbach, Tycho; Scheer, Nico; Barve, Avantika; Li, Wenkui; Lin, Wen; He, Handan

    2016-04-01

    NVS123 is a poorly water-soluble protease 56 inhibitor in clinical development. Data from in vitro hepatocyte studies suggested that NVS123 is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. As a consequence of limited solubility, NVS123 therapeutic plasma exposures could not be achieved even with high doses and optimized formulations. One approach to overcome NVS123 developability issues was to increase plasma exposure by coadministrating it with an inhibitor of CYP3A4 such as ritonavir. A clinical boost effect was predicted by using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. However, initial boost predictions lacked sufficient confidence because a key parameter, fraction of drug metabolized by CYP3A4 (fmCYP3A4), could not be estimated with accuracy on account of disconnects between in vitro and in vivo preclinical data. To accurately estimate fmCYP3A4 in human, an in vivo boost effect study was conducted using CYP3A4-humanized mouse model which showed a 33- to 56-fold exposure boost effect. Using a top-down approach, human fmCYP3A4 for NVS123 was estimated to be very high and included in the human PBPK modeling to support subsequent clinical study design. The combined use of the in vivo boost study in CYP3A4-humanized mouse model mice along with PBPK modeling accurately predicted the clinical outcome and identified a significant NVS123 exposure boost (∼42-fold increase) with ritonavir.

  1. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  2. Dark Matter from Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eby, David; Frampton, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry, originally developed as a quark family symmetry and later adapted to leptons, has proved both resilient and versatile over the past decade. In 2008 a minimal T' model was developed to accommodate quark and lepton masses and mixings using a family symmetry of (T'xZ2). We examine an expansion of this earlier model using an additional Z2 group that facilitates predictions of WIMP dark matter, the Cabibbo angle, and deviations from Tribimaximal Mixing, while giving hints at the nature of leptogenesis.

  3. The flavor group Δ(6n2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, J. A.; Luhn, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Many non-Abelian finite subgroups of SU(3) have been used to explain the flavor structure of the standard model. In order to systematize and classify successful models, a detailed knowledge of their mathematical structure is necessary. In this paper, we shall therefore look closely at the series of finite non-Abelian groups known as Δ(6n2), its smallest members being S3 (n =1) and S4 (n =2). For arbitrary n, we determine the conjugacy classes, the irreducible representations, the Kronecker products, as well as the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients.

  4. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  5. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  6. A review of μ-τ flavor symmetry in neutrino physics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Behind the observed pattern of lepton flavor mixing is a partial or approximate μ-τ flavor symmetry-a milestone on our road to the true origin of neutrino masses and flavor structures. In this review article we first describe the features of μ-τ permutation and reflection symmetries, and then explore their various consequences on model building and neutrino phenomenology. We pay particular attention to soft μ-τ symmetry breaking, which is crucial for our deeper understanding of the fine effects of flavor mixing and CP violation.

  7. Strong CP, Flavor, and Twisted Split Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2004-11-10

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class.

  8. Neutrino physics from a U(2) flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, C.D.; Hall, L.J. |

    1997-10-01

    We consider the neutrino physics of models with a sequentially broken U(2) flavor symmetry. Such theories yield the observed pattern of quark and lepton masses, while maintaining sufficient degeneracies between superparticles of the first two generations to solve the supersymmetric flavor problem. Neutrino mass ratios and mixing angles in these models may differ significantly from those of the charged leptons, even though the neutrinos and charged leptons transform identically under the flavor group. A wide class of well-motivated U(2) theories yield order one {nu}{sub {mu}}- {nu}{sub {tau}} mixing, without a fine-tuning of parameters. These models provide a natural solution to the atmospheric neutrino deficit, and also have distinctive signatures at long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. (S{sub 3}){sup 3} theories of flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    The author presents a supersymmetric theory of flavor based on the discrete flavor group (S{sub 3}){sup 3}. The model can account for the masses and mixing angles of the standard model, while maintaining sufficient sfermion degeneracy to evade the supersymmetric flavor problem. The author demonstrates that the model has a viable phenomenology and makes one very striking prediction: the nucleon decays predominantly to Kl where l is a first generation lepton. He shows that the modes n {yields} K{sup 0}{bar {nu}}{sub e}, p {yields} K{sup +}{bar {nu}}{sub e}, and p {yields} K{sup 0}e{sup +} occur at comparable rates, and could well be discovered simultaneously at the SuperKamiokande experiment.

  10. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  11. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  12. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  13. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  14. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  15. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  16. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  17. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  18. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  19. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  20. Aspects of the flavor triangle for cosmic neutrino propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lingjun; Ho, Chiu Man; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-03-01

    Over cosmic distances, astrophysical neutrino oscillations average out to a classical flavor propagation matrix P . Thus, flavor ratios injected at the cosmic source We,Wμ,Wτ evolve to flavor ratios at Earthly detectors we,wμ,wτ according to w →=P W →. The unitary constraint reduces the Euclidean octant to a "flavor triangle." We prove a theorem that the area of the Earthly flavor triangle is proportional to Det(P ) . One more constraint would further reduce the dimensionality of the flavor triangle at Earth (two) to a line (one). We discuss four such constraints. The first is the possibility of a vanishing determinant for P . We give a formula for a unique δ (θi j) that yields the vanishing determinant. Next, we consider the thinness of the Earthly flavor triangle. We relate this thinness to the small deviations of the two angles θ32 and θ13 from maximal mixing and zero, respectively. Then we consider the confusion resulting from the tau-neutrino decay topologies, which are showers at low energy, "double-bang" showers in the PeV range, and a mixture of showers and tracks at even higher energies. We examine the simple low-energy regime, where there are just two topologies: wshower=we+wτ and wtrack=wμ. We apply the statistical uncertainty to be expected from IceCube to this model. Finally, we consider ramifications of the expected lack of ντ injection at cosmic sources. In particular, this constraint reduces the Earthly triangle to a boundary line of the triangle. Some tests of this "no ντ injection" hypothesis are given.

  1. Single-flavor CSL phase in compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, David; Sandin, Fredrik; Klaehn, Thomas; Berdermann, Jens

    2008-08-29

    We suggest a scenario where the three light quark flavors are sequentially deconfined under increasing pressure in cold asymmetric nuclear matter as, e.g., in neutron stars. The basis for our analysis is a chiral quark matter model of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type with diquark pairing in the spin-1 single flavor (CSL), spin-0 two flavor (2SC) and three flavor (CFL) channels. We find that nucleon dissociation sets in at about the saturation density, n{sub 0}, when the down-quark Fermi sea is populated (d-quark dripline) due to the flavor asymmetry induced by {beta}-equilibrium and charge neutrality. At about 3n{sub 0} u-quarks appear and a two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) phase is formed. The s-quark Fermi sea is populated only at still higher baryon density, when the quark chemical potential is of the order of the dynamically generated strange quark mass. We construct two different hybrid equations of state (EoS) using the Dirac-Brueckner Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach and the EoS by Shen et al. in the nuclear matter sector. The corresponding hybrid star sequences have maximum masses of, respectively, 2.1 and 2.0 M{sub {center_dot}}. Two- and three-flavor quark-matter phases exist only in gravitationally unstable hybrid star solutions in the DBHF case, while the Shen-based EoS produce stable configurations with a 2SC phase component in the core of massive stars. Nucleon dissociation due to d-quark drip at the crust-core boundary fulfills basic criteria for a deep crustal heating process which is required to explain superbusts as well as cooling of X-ray transients.

  2. Flavor mixing with quarks and leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    The last year has brought such a wealth of new information on heavy flavors that meaningful bounds can now be placed on all fermion mass related parameters in the Standard Model. The status of the KM matrix is reviewed with particular emphasis on the theoretical uncertainties. B/sup 0/-anti B/sup 0/ mixing is reevaluated and CP violation is discussed as it is observed in K/sub L/ decays and as it hopefully can be studied in B decays. The report is concluded with short remarks on neutrino oscillations.

  3. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  4. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  5. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  6. Lectures on Heavy Flavor Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Helen R

    2002-11-27

    These lectures are intended as an introduction to flavor physics for graduate students in experimental high energy physics. In these four lectures the basic ideas and of the subject and some current issues are presented, but no attempt is made to teach calculational techniques and methods.

  7. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavor breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.

  8. Identification of SNPs, QTLs, and dominant markers associated with wheat flavor using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain foods are well known to provide important nutrients in the human diet; however, consumer acceptance can be hindered by the flavor, aroma, and texture of whole wheat products. Flavor differences among wheat varieties have been observed, but are still little understood. A lab mouse model s...

  9. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  10. Studies on localization and function of annexin A4a within urinary bladder epithelium using a mouse knockout model.

    PubMed

    Hill, Warren G; Meyers, Susan; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Apodaca, Gerard; Dedman, John R; Kaetzel, Marcia A; Zeidel, Mark L

    2008-04-01

    Annexin A4 (anxA4) is a member of the Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding family of proteins implicated in the regulation of ion conductances, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and membrane trafficking. We demonstrate, in mice, that annexins 1-6 are present in whole bladder and exhibit differential expression in the urothelium. An anxA4a-knockout (anxA4a(-/-)) mouse model shows no protein in the urothelium by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In wild-type bladders, anxA4a in umbrella cells showed uniform cytoplasmic staining and some association with the nuclear membrane. Application of a hydrostatic pressure to bladders mounted in Ussing chambers resulted in redistribution of anxA4a from cytoplasm to cellular boundaries in the basal and intermediate cells but not in superficial umbrella cells. We hypothesized that anxA4a might be important for barrier function or for stretch-activated membrane trafficking. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a series of functional and morphological analyses on bladders from control and anxA4a(-/-) animals. The transepithelial resistances, water permeabilities, and urea permeabilities of anxA4a(-/-) bladders were not different from controls, indicating that barrier function was intact. Membrane trafficking in response to hydrostatic pressure as measured by capacitance increases was also normal for anxA4a(-/-) bladders. Cystometrograms performed on live animals showed that voiding frequency and intrabladder pressures were also not different. There were no differences in bladder surface morphology or cellular architecture examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We conclude that loss of anxA4 from the urothelium does not affect barrier function, membrane trafficking, or normal bladder-voiding behavior.

  11. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral BsBs meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent Bs flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: Bs → Dsπ(ππ) and Bs → Dslv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B+ and B0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B0 oscillation frequency yields Δmd = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps-1. The search for Bs oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb-1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the Bs meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the Bs samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps-1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps-1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of Bs mixing beyond the

  12. Mice acquire flavor preferences during shipping.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Alarcón, Laura K; Byerly, Erica A; Doman, Samantha A

    2005-11-15

    Vigorous motion can cause rodents to develop flavor aversions and show other signs of malaise. We tested whether a flavor aversion could be induced by shipping mice from an animal breeder to a test site. Boxes of 12 male C57BL/6J mice were shipped approximately 950 km from Bar Harbor, ME to Philadelphia, PA by truck. For some boxes, the gel provided for hydration was flavored with almond and for others it was flavored with banana. After the journey, the mice were individually housed and allowed to recover for 5 days. They then received a choice between the two flavors of gel. Contrary to expectations, mice preferred the flavor they had previously ingested during shipping. Controls given flavored gel under similar conditions but while stationary did not show a preference. These results suggest that mice find shipping or its sequelae pleasurable. If mice are travel sick this must be inconsequential relative to other components of the shipping experience.

  13. Magnetized color flavor locked state and compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Felipe, R.; Manreza Paret, D.; Pérez Martınez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The stability of the color flavor locked phase in the presence of a strong magnetic field is investigated within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the strange quark mass, the baryon density, the magnetic field, as well as the bag and gap parameters. It is found that the minimum value of the energy per baryon in a color flavor locked state at vanishing pressure is lower than the corresponding one for unpaired magnetized strange quark matter and, as the magnetic field increases, the energy per baryon decreases. This implies that magnetized color flavor locked matter is more stable and could become the ground state inside neutron stars. The mass-radius relation for such stars is also studied.

  14. Yeast diversity and native vigor for flavor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast used widely for beer, bread, cider, and wine production, is the most resourceful eukaryotic model used for genetic engineering. A typical concern about using engineered yeasts for food production might be negative consumer perception of genetically modified organisms. However, we believe the true pitfall of using genetically modified yeasts is their limited capacity to either refine or improve the sensory properties of fermented foods under real production conditions. Alternatively, yeast diversity screening to improve the aroma and flavors could offer groundbreaking opportunities in food biotechnology. We propose a 'Yeast Flavor Diversity Screening' strategy which integrates knowledge from sensory analysis and natural whole-genome evolution with information about flavor metabolic networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycerol, an underestimated flavor precursor in the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Devaud-Goumoens, Stéphanie; Viton, Florian

    2013-10-30

    The objective of the present work was to investigate in depth the role of glycerol in Maillard reactions and its potential to act as an active flavor precursor. Reactions using isotopically labeled compounds (various reducing sugars, proline, and glycerol) unambiguously demonstrated that, in addition to its role of solvent, glycerol actively contributes to the formation of proline-specific compounds in Maillard model systems. Additionally, rhamnose and fucose/proline/glycerol systems generated the 2-propionyl-1(3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridines, known for their roasty, popcorn aroma. Their formation from such systems is unprecedented. The results presented here have direct implications for flavor generation during thermal processing of foods containing glycerol, which is a ubiquitous food ingredient and an underestimated flavor precursor.

  16. Spin and flavor strange quark content of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, Harleen; Gupta, Manmohan

    2008-07-01

    Several spin and flavor dependent parameters characterizing the strangeness content of the nucleon have been calculated in the chiral constituent quark model with configuration mixing ({chi}CQM{sub config}) which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the ''proton spin crisis'' and related issues. In particular, we have calculated the strange spin polarization {delta}s, the strangeness contribution to the weak axial vector couplings {delta}{sub 8} etc., strangeness contribution to the magnetic moments {mu}(p){sup s} etc., the strange quark flavor fraction f{sub s}, the strangeness dependent quark flavor ratios (2s/u+d) and (2s/u+d) etc. Our results are consistent with the recent experimental observations.

  17. Resonant enhancement of flavor-changing neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Roulet, E.

    1991-10-01

    The resonant amplification of neutrino oscillations in the presence of flavor-changing neutrino interactions with matter is analyzed. It is shown that a significant {mu}-flavor conversion can take place even in the absence of neutrino mixing in vacuum. To account for the solar neutrino deficit, the strength of the new interactions should be {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2}G{sub F} and the resulting neutrino suppression and spectrum is similar to that in the ordinary MSW effect. I discuss some extensions of the standard model where these interactions can be present, taking into account the experimental constraints that arise mainly from the induced leptonic rare decays.

  18. Identification of Distinct Bacillus thuringiensis 4A4 Nematicidal Factors Using the Model Nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Iatsenko, Igor; Nikolov, Angel; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been extensively used for the biological control of insect pests. Nematicidal B. thuringiensis strains have also been identified; however, virulence factors of such strains are poorly investigated. Here, we describe virulence factors of the nematicidal B. thuringiensis 4A4 strain, using the model nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that B. thuringiensis 4A4 kills both nematodes via intestinal damage. Whole genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 4A4 identified Cry21Ha, Cry1Ba, Vip1/Vip2 and β-exotoxin as potential nematicidal factors. Only Cry21Ha showed toxicity to C. elegans, while neither Cry nor Vip toxins were active against P. pacificus, when expressed in E. coli. Purified crystals also failed to intoxicate P. pacificus, while autoclaved spore-crystal mixture of B. thuringiensis 4A4 retained toxicity, suggesting that primary β-exotoxin is responsible for P. pacificus killing. In support of this, we found that a β-exotoxin-deficient variant of B. thuringiensis 4A4, generated by plasmid curing lost virulence to the nematodes. Thus, using two model nematodes we revealed virulence factors of the nematicidal strain B. thuringiensis 4A4 and showed the multifactorial nature of its virulence. PMID:25025708

  19. Identification of distinct Bacillus thuringiensis 4A4 nematicidal factors using the model nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Iatsenko, Igor; Nikolov, Angel; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-14

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been extensively used for the biological control of insect pests. Nematicidal B. thuringiensis strains have also been identified; however, virulence factors of such strains are poorly investigated. Here, we describe virulence factors of the nematicidal B. thuringiensis 4A4 strain, using the model nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that B. thuringiensis 4A4 kills both nematodes via intestinal damage. Whole genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 4A4 identified Cry21Ha, Cry1Ba, Vip1/Vip2 and β-exotoxin as potential nematicidal factors. Only Cry21Ha showed toxicity to C. elegans, while neither Cry nor Vip toxins were active against P. pacificus, when expressed in E. coli. Purified crystals also failed to intoxicate P. pacificus, while autoclaved spore-crystal mixture of B. thuringiensis 4A4 retained toxicity, suggesting that primary β-exotoxin is responsible for P. pacificus killing. In support of this, we found that a β-exotoxin-deficient variant of B. thuringiensis 4A4, generated by plasmid curing lost virulence to the nematodes. Thus, using two model nematodes we revealed virulence factors of the nematicidal strain B. thuringiensis 4A4 and showed the multifactorial nature of its virulence.

  20. Neutrino Flavor Identification in SALSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miočinović, Predrag

    The proposed Saltdome Shower Array (SalSA) experiment will detect coherent Cherenkov radio signals from high-energy neutrino interactions in a naturally occurring salt dome. By identifying the number and the angular profile of radio emissions in any given event, distinction can be made between charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) neutrino interactions. Additionally, the flavor of the neutrino can be identified in the case of charged-current interactions. Preliminary results for nominal GZK neutrino flux indicate that ~25% of all events can be correctly identified as coming from charged-current interactions of νμ's or ντ's. These charged-current initiated events can further be separated by the flavor of the original neutrino, either νμ's or ντ's.

  1. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazard, Derek E.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays M →ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 of quarkonium states M with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating M →γ ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  2. Detecting heavy flavors at CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, S.; Ogilvie, M.; Stumer, I.; Tanaka, M.; Wanderer, P.

    1983-03-01

    In the CBA luminosity range (L approx. = 10/sup 32/-10/sup 33/cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/) the expected rate of bare heavy flavor production is high enough to allow for detection schemes which rely on relatively small leptonic branching ratios. These provide a clean separation of the signal from the gluon plus light quark background, while retaining sufficient statistics for further study. The current status of the investigation of lepton-related triggers and cuts is presented, and the jet topologies of events (both signal and background) with high-P/sub T/ leptons are discussed. While these studies have been carried out with samples of high-P/sub T/ q anti q and gluon jets generated with ISAJET, other sources of heavy flavor production at CBA are surveyed.

  3. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  4. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  5. Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2003-12-01

    We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.

  6. Semantic World Modelling and Data Management in a 4d Forest Simulation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßmann, J.; Hoppen, M.; Bücken, A.

    2013-08-01

    Various types of 3D simulation applications benefit from realistic forest models. They range from flight simulators for entertainment to harvester simulators for training and tree growth simulations for research and planning. Our 4D forest simulation and information system integrates the necessary methods for data extraction, modelling and management. Using modern methods of semantic world modelling, tree data can efficiently be extracted from remote sensing data. The derived forest models contain position, height, crown volume, type and diameter of each tree. This data is modelled using GML-based data models to assure compatibility and exchangeability. A flexible approach for database synchronization is used to manage the data and provide caching, persistence, a central communication hub for change distribution, and a versioning mechanism. Combining various simulation techniques and data versioning, the 4D forest simulation and information system can provide applications with "both directions" of the fourth dimension. Our paper outlines the current state, new developments, and integration of tree extraction, data modelling, and data management. It also shows several applications realized with the system.

  7. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-12-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry. - Highlights: • We developed a breathing human lung CFD model based on 4D-dynamic CT images. • The 4DCT-based breathing lung model is able to capture lung relative hysteresis. • A new boundary condition for lung model based on one static CT image was proposed. • The difference between lung models based on 4D and static CT images was quantified.

  8. Probing Soft QCD with Spin and Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, W. W.

    1998-04-01

    Investigation of the nature of the strong interaction at short (<= 0.1 fm) distance scales probes the transition regime at the interface of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. Spin and flavor degrees of freedom are a promising way of providing insight into this transition from a purely hadronic (e.g., involving baryons and mesons in an effective theory) to a quark-gluon description. The introduction of strange and charmed quark flavors, in distinction to the more common light (u and d) quark components, can be used to tag reaction channels, probe intrinsic particle structure and help define aspects of the dynamics. Recent results from a strangeness production experiment (DISTO(A. Maggiora for the DISTO collaboration, Nucl. Phys. News 5), 23 (1995).) with 2.85 GeV polarized protons from SATURNE II impinging on a liquid Hydrogen target are presented, including associated and open production as well as hidden strangeness channels. The spin transfer coefficient D_NN for associated production seems particularly sensitive to the underlying mechanism and hence useful in the context of testing the limits of meson-exchange models and the applicability of soft QCD techniques. When viewed along with available world data, the D_NN data suggest a transition regime in the energy range ~ 5-15 GeV. Possible additions to the strangeness measurements and extension to the charm sector at a higher energy (LISS-type) accelerator will be discussed.

  9. Effects of oral chemical irritation on tastes and flavors in frequent and infrequent users of chili.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J; Stevenson, R J

    1995-12-01

    The studies reported here addressed the question of whether the pungent principle in chilies, capsaicin, suppresses taste and flavor intensity. Over a period of several minutes, groups of frequent and infrequent eaters of chili repeatedly rated the taste and flavor intensities of sweet and sour solutions that also contained either orange or vanilla flavor, and capsaicin at 0, 2, 4, and 16 ppm. As well as the intensity of the qualities while in the mouth, measures of the number of rating periods for the intensity to dissipate to zero, and the summed total intensity were also derived. Infrequent chili users rated the capsaicin burn as more intense than did the frequent users. With few exceptions, and for groups, sweetness was suppressed by the presence of capsaicin. By contrast, sourness was unaffected by capsaicin. Flavor intensities also showed suppression by capsaicin. High correlations between ratings of sweetness and flavor were found, suggesting that perceptual confusion between the two qualities may have been responsible for the flavor suppression. A second experiment examined the effects of capsaicin on ratings of strawberry flavor alone. This study produced little evidence of flavor suppression by capsaicin. These results are discussed in terms of an attentional model of capsaicin's effects.

  10. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-12-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry.

  11. Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, Andrew Hill

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  12. Pathogen-induced chemokine secretion from model intestinal epithelium is inhibited by lipoxin A4 analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, A T; McCormick, B; Neish, A S; Petasis, N A; Gronert, K; Serhan, C N; Madara, J L

    1998-01-01

    Enteric pathogens induce intestinal epithelium to secrete chemokines that direct movement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Mechanisms that might downregulate secretion of these proinflammatory chemokines and thus contain intestinal inflammation have not yet been elucidated. The antiinflammatory activities exhibited by the arachidonate metabolite lipoxin A4 (LXA4) suggests that this eicosanoid, which is biosynthesized in vivo at sites of inflammation, might play such a role. We investigated whether chemokine secretion could be regulated by stable analogs of LXA4. Monolayers of T84 intestinal epithelial cells were infected with Salmonella typhimurium, which elicits secretion of distinct apical (pathogen-elicited epithelial chemoattractant) and basolateral (IL-8) chemokines. Stable analogs of LXA4 inhibited S. typhimurium-induced (but not phorbol ester-induced) secretion of both IL-8 and pathogen-elicited epithelial chemoattractant. LXA4 stable analogs did not alter bacterial adherence to nor internalization by epithelia, indicating that LXA4 stable analogs did not block all signals that Salmonella typhimurium activates in intestinal epithelia, but likely led to attenuation of signals that mediate chemokine secretion. Inhibition of S. typhimurium-induced IL-8 secretion by LXA4 analogs was concentration- (IC50 approximately 1 nM) and time-dependent (maximal inhibition approximately 1 h). As a result of these effects, LXA4 stable analogs inhibited the ability of bacteria-infected epithelia to direct polymorphonuclear leukocyte movement. These data suggest that LXA4 and its stable analogs may be useful in downregulating active inflammation at mucosal surfaces. PMID:9576749

  13. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  14. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  15. Flow Visualization Experiments in a 4:1 Scale Model of the Canine Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael; Lawson, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2009-11-01

    An anatomically-correct 4:1 scale model of the canine nasal cavity is used to study flow patterns in the complex nasal airways through dye-streak flow visualization. The nasal cavity geometry was obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and the model was constructed in sections from a transparent material using a rapid prototyping technique. We believe this model represents the first anatomically-realistic reproduction of the canine nasal cavity, allowing the nasal flowfield to be experimentally studied at a level of detail not previously possible. Olfactory and respiratory flows are observed to take separate paths through the nasal cavity. Respiratory flow through the maxilloturbinates completely bypasses the olfactory region, which amounts to a ``side-sampler.'' A single airway conducts airflow into the olfactory region, whence it slowly filters forward and eventually exits the nasal cavity. The residence time of airflow in the olfactory region varies significantly depending on the specific flowpath taken. The results compare well with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed using the same nasal geometry.

  16. Multiple Z'→tt¯ signals in a 4D composite Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, D.; De Curtis, S.; Mimasu, K.; Moretti, S.

    2013-10-01

    We study the production of top-antitop pairs at the Large Hadron Collider as a test bed for discovering heavy Z' bosons belonging to a composite Higgs model, as in this scenario, such new gauge interaction states are sizeably coupled to the third-generation quarks of the Standard Model. We study their possible appearance in cross sections, as well as (charge and spin) asymmetry distributions. Our calculations are performed in the minimal four-dimensional formulation of such a scenario, namely the four-dimensional composite Higgs model, which embeds five new Z's. We pay particular attention to the case of nearly degenerate resonances, highlighting the conditions under which these are separable in the aforementioned observables. We also discuss the impact of the intrinsic width of the new resonances on the event rates and various distributions. We confirm that the 14 TeV stage of the LHC will enable one to detect two such states, assuming standard detector performance and machine luminosity. A mapping of the discovery potential of the LHC for these new gauge bosons is given. Finally, from the latter, several benchmarks are extracted which are amenable to experimental investigation.

  17. Prospecting for new physics in the Higgs and flavor sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady

    2015-05-01

    We explore two directions in beyond the standard model physics: dark matter model building and probing new sources of CP violation. In dark matter model building, we consider two scenarios where the stability of dark matter derives from the flavor symmetries of the standard model. The first model contains a flavor singlet dark matter candidate whose couplings to the visible sector are proportional to the flavor breaking parameters. This leads to a metastable dark matter with TeV scale mediators. In the second model, we consider a fully gauged SU(3)3 flavor model with a flavor triplet dark matter. Consequently, the dark matter multiplet is charged while the standard model fields are neutral under a remnant Z3 which ensures dark matter stability. We show that a Dirac fermion dark matter with radiative splitting in the multiplet must have a mass in the range [0:5; 5] TeV in order to satisfy all experimental constraints. We then turn our attention to Higgs portal dark matter and investigate the possibility of obtaining bounds on the up, down, and strange quark Yukawa couplings. If Higgs portal dark matter is discovered, we find that direct detection rates are insensitive to vanishing light quark Yukawa couplings. We then review flavor models and give the expected enhancement or suppression of the Yukawa couplings in those models. Finally, in the last two chapters, we develop techniques for probing CP violation in the Higgs coupling to photons and in rare radiative decays of B mesons. While theoretically clean, we find that these methods are not practical with current and planned detectors. However, these techniques can be useful with a dedicated detector (e.g., a gaseous TPC). In the case of radiative B meson decay B0 → (K* → Kππ) γ, the techniques we develop also allow the extraction of the photon polarization fraction which is sensitive to new physics contributions since, in the standard model, the right(left) handed

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimized using response surface modeling for the quantitation of fungal off-flavors in grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Navideh; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Antalick, Guillaume; Blackman, John W; Steel, Christopher C

    2015-03-25

    An optimized method for the quantitation of volatile compounds responsible for off-aromas, such as earthy odors, found in wine and grapes was developed. The method involved a fast and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) for simultaneous determination of 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 3-octanone, fenchone, 1-octen-3-one, trans-2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, geosmin, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and pentachloroanisole. The extraction of the temperature and time were optimized using response surface methodology in both wine base (WB) and grape base (GB). Low limits of detection (0.1-5 ng/L in WB and 0.05-1.6 in GB) and quantitation (0.3-17 in WB and 0.2-6.2 in GB) with good recoveries (83-131%) and repeatability [4.3-9.8% coefficient of variation (CV) in WB and 5.1-11.1% CV in GB] and reproducibility (3.6-10.2 in WB and 1.9-10.9 in GB) indicate that the method has excellent sensitivity and is suitable for the analysis of these off-flavor compounds in wine and grape juice samples.

  19. Spherically symmetric solutions of a (4 + n)-dimensional Einstein Yang Mills model with cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2005-01-01

    We construct solutions of an Einstein Yang Mills system including a cosmological constant in 4 + n spacetime dimensions, where the n-dimensional manifold associated with the extra dimensions is taken to be Ricci flat. Assuming the matter and metric fields to be independent of the n extra coordinates, a spherical symmetric ansatz for the fields leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. We find that for n > 1 only solutions with either one non-zero Higgs field or with all Higgs fields constant and zero gauge field function (corresponding to a Wu Yang-type ansatz) exist. We give the analytic solutions available in this model. These are 'embedded' Abelian solutions with a diverging size of the manifold associated with the extra n dimensions. Depending on the choice of parameters, these latter solutions either represent naked singularities or they possess a single horizon. We also present solutions of the effective four-dimensional Einstein Yang Mills Higgs-dilaton model, where the higher-dimensional cosmological constant induces a Liouville-type potential. The solutions are non-Abelian solutions with diverging Higgs fields, which exist only up to a maximal value of the cosmological constant.

  20. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  1. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Seco, Joao; Mishra, Pankaj; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  2. 3D delivered dose assessment using a 4DCT-based motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weixing; Hurwitz, Martina H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Dhou, Salam; Berbeco, Ross I.; Mishra, Pankaj E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu; Lewis, John H. E-mail: jhlewis@lroc.harvard.edu; Seco, Joao

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically feasible method of calculating actual delivered dose distributions for patients who have significant respiratory motion during the course of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: A novel approach was proposed to calculate the actual delivered dose distribution for SBRT lung treatment. This approach can be specified in three steps. (1) At the treatment planning stage, a patient-specific motion model is created from planning 4DCT data. This model assumes that the displacement vector field (DVF) of any respiratory motion deformation can be described as a linear combination of some basis DVFs. (2) During the treatment procedure, 2D time-varying projection images (either kV or MV projections) are acquired, from which time-varying “fluoroscopic” 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. The DVF of each timepoint in the time-varying reconstruction is an optimized linear combination of basis DVFs such that the 2D projection of the 3D volume at this timepoint matches the projection image. (3) 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D reconstructed fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach was first validated using two modified digital extended cardio-torso (XCAT) phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions. The estimated doses were compared to the dose that would be calculated for routine 4DCT-based planning and to the actual delivered dose that was calculated using “ground truth” XCAT phantoms at all timepoints. The approach was also tested using one set of patient data, which demonstrated the application of our method in a clinical scenario. Results: For the first XCAT phantom that has a mostly regular breathing pattern, the errors in 95% volume dose (D95) are 0.11% and 0.83%, respectively for 3D fluoroscopic images

  3. S4 flavor symmetry and fermion masses: towards a grand unified theory of flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Lindner, Manfred; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2006-06-01

    Pursuing a bottom-up approach to explore which flavor symmetry could serve as an explanation of the observed fermion masses and mixings, we discuss an extension of the standard model (SM) where the flavor structure for both quarks and leptons is determined by a spontaneously broken S4 and the requirement that its particle content is embeddable simultaneously into the conventional SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) and a continuous flavor symmetry Gf like SO(3)f or SU(3)f. We explicitly provide the Yukawa and the Higgs sector of the model and show its viability in two numerical examples which arise as small deviations from rank one matrices. In the first case, the corresponding mass matrix is democratic and in the second one only its 2-3 block is non-vanishing. We demonstrate that the Higgs potential allows for the appropriate vacuum expectation value (VEV) configurations in both cases, if CP is conserved. For the first case, the chosen Yukawa couplings can be made natural by invoking an auxiliary Z2 symmetry. The numerical study we perform shows that the best-fit values for the lepton mixing angles θ12 and θ23 can be accommodated for normal neutrino mass hierarchy. The results for the quark mixing angles turn out to be too small. Furthermore the CP-violating phase δ can only be reproduced correctly in one of the examples. The small mixing angle values are likely to be brought into the experimentally allowed ranges by including radiative corrections. Interestingly, due to the S4 symmetry the mass matrix of the right-handed neutrinos is proportional to the unit matrix.

  4. Error modeling and calibration of a 4ṞRR redundant positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sheng; Zhang, Xianmin; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Benliang

    2017-09-01

    Using the macro-micro combination positioning system for nanomanipulating can fulfill the requirements of large workspace, high precision and multi-degrees of freedom. As a macro part of the macro-micro combination positioning system, a redundantly actuated three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) parallel kinematic mechanism (4ṞRR) with a directly driven system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the error sensitivity of the 4ṞRR planar parallel mechanism is analyzed with global errors sensitive index (GESI) based on the error model of the positioning system. Then, a novel and practical calibration method combined with an error compensation strategy is proposed for the 4ṞRR positioning system. Finally, in order to verify the proposed method, a series of experiments are conducted with the laser measurement system in creditable conditions, and the data are illustrated for comparisons. The experimental results show that the positioning accuracy of the 4ṞRR positioning system is improved, and the performances of the end-effector are enhanced based on the proposed method.

  5. A combined model for predicting CYP3A4 clinical net drug-drug interaction based on CYP3A4 inhibition, inactivation, and induction determined in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Odette A; Maurer, Tristan S; Kish, Mary; Cardenas, Edwin; Boldt, Sherri; Nettleton, David

    2008-08-01

    Although approaches to the prediction of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) arising via time-dependent inactivation have recently been developed, such approaches do not account for simple competitive inhibition or induction. Accordingly, these approaches do not provide accurate predictions of DDIs arising from simple competitive inhibition (e.g., ketoconazole) or induction of cytochromes P450 (e.g., phenytoin). In addition, methods that focus upon a single interaction mechanism are likely to yield misleading predictions in the face of mixed mechanisms (e.g., ritonavir). As such, we have developed a more comprehensive mathematical model that accounts for the simultaneous influences of competitive inhibition, time-dependent inactivation, and induction of CYP3A in both the liver and intestine to provide a net drug-drug interaction prediction in terms of area under the concentration-time curve ratio. This model provides a framework by which readily obtained in vitro values for competitive inhibition, time-dependent inactivation and induction for the precipitant compound as well as literature values for f(m) and F(G) for the object drug can be used to provide quantitative predictions of DDIs. Using this model, DDIs arising via inactivation (e.g., erythromycin) continue to be well predicted, whereas those arising via competitive inhibition (e.g., ketoconazole), induction (e.g., phenytoin), and mixed mechanisms (e.g., ritonavir) are also predicted within the ranges reported in the clinic. This comprehensive model quantitatively predicts clinical observations with reasonable accuracy and can be a valuable tool to evaluate candidate drugs and rationalize clinical DDIs.

  6. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Myeongho; Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Hee Young; Tran, Dinh Nam; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF). Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg), propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg), and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh). All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles. PMID:28208728

  7. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Myeongho; Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Hee Young; Tran, Dinh Nam; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-02-08

    Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF). Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg), propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg), and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh). All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles.

  8. Recent heavy flavor results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dorigo, Mirco; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste

    2012-05-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider have pioneered and established the role of flavor physics in hadron collisions. A broad program is now at its full maturity. We report on three new results sensitive to physics beyond the standard model, obtained using the whole CDF dataset: a measurement of the difference of CP asymmetries in K{sup +}K{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays of D{sup 0} mesons, new bounds on the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase and on the decay width difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} mass-eigenstates, and an update of the summer 2011 search for B{sub (s)}{sup 0} mesons decaying into pairs of muons. Finally, the D0 confirmation of the observation of a new hadron, the {chi}{sub b}(3P) state, is briefly mentioned.

  9. The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Feron, V J; Goodman, J I; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Newberne, P M; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Waddell, W J; Wagner, B M

    2002-04-01

    This is the fifth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually taking into account the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of pyrazine derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated.

  10. Bitterness suppression with zinc sulfate and na-cyclamate: a model of combined peripheral and central neural approaches to flavor modification.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Breslin, Paul A S

    2005-11-01

    Zinc sulfate is known to inhibit the bitterness of the antimalarial agent quinine [R. S. J. Keast. The effect of zinc on human taste perception. J. Food Sci. 68:1871-1877 (2003)]. In the present work, we investigated whether zinc sulfate would inhibit other bitter-tasting compounds and pharmaceuticals. The utility of zinc as a general bitterness inhibitor is compromised, however, by the fact that it is also a good sweetness inhibitor [R. S. J. Keast, T. Canty, and P. A. S. Breslin. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception. Chem. Senses 29:513-521 (2004)] and would interfere with the taste of complex formulations. Yet, zinc sulfate does not inhibit the sweetener Na-cyclamate. Thus, we determined whether a mixture of zinc sulfate and Na-cyclamate would be a particularly effective combination for bitterness inhibition (Zn) and masking (cyclamate). We used human taste psychophysical procedures with chemical solutions to assess bitterness blocking. Zinc sulfate significantly inhibited the bitterness of quinine-HCl, Tetralone, and denatonium benzoate (DB) (p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on the bitterness of sucrose octa-acetate, pseudoephedrine (PSE), and dextromethorphan. A second experiment examined the influence of zinc sulfate on bittersweet mixtures. The bitter compounds were DB and PSE, and the sweeteners were sucrose (inhibited by 25 mM zinc sulfate) and Na-cyclamate (not inhibited by zinc sulfate). The combination of zinc sulfate and Na-cyclamate most effectively inhibited DB bitterness (86%) (p < 0.0016), whereas the mixture's inhibition of PSE bitterness was not different from that of Na-cyclamate alone. A combination of Na-cyclamate and zinc sulfate was most effective at inhibiting bitterness. Thus, the combined use of peripheral oral and central cognitive bitterness reduction strategies should be particularly effective for improving the flavor profile of bitter-tasting foods and pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  12. Texturized proteins: fabrication, flavoring, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods used for the texurization of proteins, with emphasis on soy proteins. The sensory characteristics, i.e., flavor, texture, and color are discussed, particularly in relation to the problems of simulating meat flavored products. The nutritional qualities of texturized products are reviewed, and current regulations concerning their use in foods are cited.

  13. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  14. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  15. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  16. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  17. Managing summertime off-flavors in catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in channel catfish ponds often contain blue-green algae that produce musty or earthy odors. The odorous compounds are absorbed by fish across their gills and deposited in fatty tissues, giving fish undesirable “off-flavors.” When fish are declared off-flavored by proc...

  18. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  19. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  20. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  1. Research on Electroweak and Flavor Symmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Kenneth Douglas

    2013-05-01

    Abstract of Project Summary, as written in August 2012: The objective of this research is the primary one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva: the discovery and study of the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). This is the mission of the LHC's two large general-purpose detectors, ATLAS and CMS. Lane's approach to this goal assumes that a new strong interaction at the electroweak energy scale of 100's of GeV, called ``technicolor'' (TC), is responsible for triggering EWSB. He is one of the developers of technicolor, particularly of its flavor-physics component, called extended technicolor (ETC). The TC/ETC theory of this physics provides not only the dynamics of EWSB, but also an understanding of the types (flavors) of quarks and leptons and of their masses and mixing. The main thrust of this research involves close collaboration with members of ATLAS and CMS to search for the signatures of TC/ETC that are most accessible experimentally. These are new, rather heavy, spin-one particles --- technivector bosons ($\\tro$, $\\tom$, $\\ta$) --- readily produced at the LHC and decaying into electroweak bosons, $\\gamma, W, Z$, and spin-zero bosons called technipions, $\\tpi$. If these particles exist, they hold the key to understanding flavor physics. A very important recent development at the LHC is the discovery of a new 125-GeV boson decaying into $\\gamma\\gamma$, $ZZ$ and $WW$. This particle is widely suspected to be the long-sought Higgs boson, a basic component of the so-called standard model of EWSB. But, from a purely theoretical standpoint, this resolution to the origin of EWSB is very unsatisfactory. Moreover, there are interesting and possibly significant discrepancies of the data with this interpretation. Lane and collaborators are proposing that this boson is, in fact, a special kind of technipion. He is also working with ATLAS experimentalists to test this hypothesis. The LHC data to be collected and analyzed by ATLAS and CMS over

  2. QCD phase structure at finite temperature in three-flavor random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2009-07-01

    The QCD phase structure is studied at finite temperature in a three-flavor random matrix model formulated with nonzero quark chemical potentials. In the case of no flavor mixing, we analytically obtain temperature dependent critical chemical potentials for finite quark masses. Numerical results show that the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature is qualitatively in agreement with the prediction of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.

  3. Jet flavor tomography of quark gluon plasmas at RHIC and LHC.

    PubMed

    Buzzatti, Alessandro; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2012-01-13

    A new Monte Carlo model of jet quenching in nuclear collisions, CUJET1.0, is applied to predict the jet flavor dependence of the nuclear modification factor for fragments f=π,D,B,e(-) from quenched jet flavors g,u,c,b in central collisions at RHIC and LHC. The nuclear modification factors for different flavors are predicted to exhibit a novel level crossing pattern over a transverse momentum range 5

  4. Electromagnetic form factors of heavy flavored vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarsini, M.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita; Patra, Sweta P.; Barik, N.

    2016-12-01

    We study the electromagnetic form factors of heavy flavored vector mesons such as (D*,Ds*,J /Ψ ) , (B*,Bs*,ϒ ) via one photon radiative decays (V →P γ ) in the relativistic independent quark (RIQ) model based on a flavor independent average interaction potential in the scalar vector harmonic form. The momentum dependent spacelike (q2<0 ) form factors calculated in this model are analytically continued to the physical timelike region 0 ≤q2≤(MV-MP)2 . The predicted coupling constant gV P γ=FV P(q2=0 ) for real photon case in the limit q2→0 and decay widths Γ (V →P γ ) are found in reasonable agreement with experimental data and other model predictions.

  5. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, p<0.001) and cigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, p<0.001), cigars (34%, p<0.001), and pipes (55%, p<0.001), implying substitution toward the remaining legal flavored tobacco products. Despite increases in some forms of tobacco, overall there was a 6% (p<0.001) reduction in the probability of using any tobacco. The results suggest the 2009 flavored cigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flavor violating processes with sgoldstino pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics (SM), goldstino superpartners—scalar and pseudoscalar sgoldstinos—can be light enough for emerging in decays of SM particles. Sgoldstino interaction with SM fields is suppressed by the scale of supersymmetry breaking in the whole theory. Hence, searches for sgoldstinos give an opportunity to probe the underlying mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Sgoldstino couplings to SM fields are proportional to the supersymmetry breaking parameters—MSSM soft terms—and therefore can lead to flavor violating processes in quark and lepton sectors. We consider flavor violating processes involving sgoldstino pair production which are driven by sgoldstino couplings proportional to squark and slepton soft mass terms, m˜LL2 and m˜RR2. We find that present limits on off-diagonal entries in squark and slepton squared mass matrices allow t-, b-, c-quark and τ-lepton decays at levels available for study with existing data (BaBar, Belle, CLEOc) and in ongoing experiments (LHCb, CMS, ATLAS). In particular, we obtain the following branching ratios Br(t→cSP)≲10-7, Br(τ→μSP)≲10-7, Br(Bs→SP)≲10-4, Br(B→K(*)SP)≲10-4, Br(D→SP)≲10-7 with sgoldstino subsequent decays into kinematically allowed pairs of SM particles γγ, e+e-, μ+μ-, etc. Remarkably, the prominent signature of sgoldstino pair production is two muon pairs with pair momenta peaked at sgoldstino masses.

  7. Self-induced conversion in dense neutrino gases: Pendulum in flavor space

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.; Sigl, Guenter

    2006-11-15

    Neutrino-neutrino interactions can lead to collective flavor conversion effects in supernovae and in the early universe. We demonstrate that the case of bipolar oscillations, where a dense gas of neutrinos and antineutrinos in equal numbers completely converts from one flavor to another even if the mixing angle is small, is equivalent to a pendulum in flavor space. Bipolar flavor conversion corresponds to the swinging of the pendulum, which begins in an unstable upright position (the initial flavor), and passes through momentarily the vertically downward position (the other flavor) in the course of its motion. The time scale to complete one cycle of oscillation depends logarithmically on the vacuum mixing angle. Likewise, the presence of an ordinary medium can be shown analytically to contribute to a logarithmic increase in the bipolar conversion period. We further find that a more complex (and realistic) system of unequal numbers of neutrinos and antineutrinos is analogous to a spinning top subject to a torque. This analogy easily explains how such a system can oscillate in both the bipolar and the synchronized mode, depending on the neutrino density and the size of the neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry. Our simple model applies strictly only to isotropic neutrino gasses. In more general cases, and especially for neutrinos streaming from a supernova core, different modes couple to each other with unequal strength, an effect that can lead to kinematical decoherence in flavor space rather than collective oscillations. The exact circumstances under which collective oscillations occur in nonisotropic media remain to be understood.

  8. Quark and lepton flavor triality

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ernest

    2010-08-01

    Motivated by the success of A{sub 4} in explaining neutrino tribimaximal mixing, and its approximate residual Z{sub 3} symmetry in the quark and charged-lepton sectors, the notion of flavor triality is proposed. Under this hypothesis, certain processes such as {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}e{sup -} and {tau}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}{mu}{sup -} are favored, but {tau}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} are disfavored. Similarly, B{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}e{sup -} is favored, but B{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup -}e{sup +} is disfavored.

  9. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8_c]_{bar{b} s} ⊗ [8_c]_{bar{d} u} tetraquark currents with J^P = 0^+, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m_s, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle.

  10. The association between flavor labeling and flavor recall ability in children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Zuckerman, Matthew D; Cardinal, Tiffany; Kaciroti, Niko

    2005-09-01

    This study sought to determine if the ability to label a flavor is associated with an improved ability to recall having tasted the flavor in preschool-aged children. A total of 120 3- to 6-year-old English-speaking children tasted and labeled 20 different flavors, blinded to color. Children's labels for the flavors were scored for consistency and accuracy. Recall for having tasted the flavor was tested. Both labeling ability and recall ability improved rapidly between the ages of 3 and 6 years in this cohort. Regression analysis indicated that independent of the child's age, consistent accurate labeling was positively associated with recall ability. Higher maternal education was an independent and marginal contributor to greater recall ability. The combination of consistent and accurate labeling, age, and maternal education accounted for 28% of the variance in flavor recall ability. Consistent but inaccurate labeling alone contributed little to the variance in flavor recall ability. We conclude from these findings that children's ability to recall having tasted a flavor develops rapidly during the preschool age range and that improved recall ability is associated with the ability to consistently and accurately label the flavor. We conclude that language mediates memory for flavors in young children.

  11. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-compound interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The influence of flavor compound-compound interactions on flavor release properties and flavor perception in hard candy was investigated. Hard candies made with two different modes of binary flavor delivery, (1) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added as a mixture and (2) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added separate from one another, were analyzed via breath analysis and sensory time-intensity testing. Single-flavor candy containing only L-menthol or 1,8-cineole was also investigated via breath analysis for comparison. The release rates of both L-menthol and 1,8-cineole in the breath were more rapid and at a higher concentration when the compounds were added to hard candy separate from one another in comparison to their addition as a mixture (conventional protocol). Additionally, the time-intensity study indicated a significantly increased flavor intensity (measured as overall cooling) for hard candy made with separate addition of these flavor compounds. In conclusion, the flavor properties of hard candy can be controlled, at least in part, by flavor compound-compound interactions and may be altered by the method of flavor delivery.

  12. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    PubMed

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P < 0.05). Hexanal and diacetyl were two key volatiles that varied widely (P < 0.05). FFA profiles determined by solid-phase microextraction and degree of proteolysis of the whey samples were also different (P < 0.05). Differences in whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P < 0.05). Differences in liquid whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  13. Dark matter and observable lepton flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heurtier, Lucien; Teresi, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavor-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and dark matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density via the decays of the latter. The phenomenological implications of the model are discussed, finding that large LFV rates, observable in the near-future μ →e conversion experiments, require the DM mass to be in the keV range. Moreover, the active-neutrino coupling to the Majoron-like scalar field could be probed in future detections of supernova neutrino bursts.

  14. QCD axion as a bridge between string theory and flavor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    We construct a string-inspired model, motivated by the flavored Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axions, as a useful bridge between flavor physics and string theory. The key feature is two anomalous gauged U (1 ) symmetries, responsible for both the fermion mass hierarchy problem of the standard model and the strong C P problem, that combine string theory with flavor physics and severely constrain the form of the F- and D-term contributions to the potential. In the context of supersymmetric moduli stabilization we stabilize the size moduli with positive masses while leaving two axions massless and one axion massive. We demonstrate that, while the massive gauge bosons eat the two axionic degrees of freedom, two axionic directions survive to low energies as the flavored PQ axions.

  15. Flavored gauge mediation in the Peccei-Quinn NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Kamila; Pawełczyk, Jacek; Sessolo, Enrico Maria

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a particular version of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) NMSSM characterized by an economical and rigidly hierarchical flavor structure and based on flavored gauge mediation and on some considerations inspired by string theory GUTs. In this way we can express the Lagrangian of the PQ NMSSM through very few parameters. The obtained model is studied numerically and confronted with the most relevant phenomenological constraints. We show that typical spectra are for the most part too heavy to be significantly probed at the LHC, but regions of the parameter space exist yielding signatures that might possibly be observed during Run II. We also calculate the fine tuning of the model. We show that, in spite of the appearance of large scales in the superpotential and soft terms, it does not exceed the tuning present in the MSSM for equivalent spectra, which is of the order of 104.

  16. The role of top in heavy flavor physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of the massive top quark on heavy flavor transitions are explored. We review the generation of quark masses and mixings and the determination techniques, and present the status of the elements of the weak mixing matrix. Purely leptonic decays of heavy mesons are briefly summarized. We present a general introduction to flavor changing neutral currents and an extensive summary of radiative and other rare decay modes. The physics of neutral meson mixing is reviewed and applied to each meson system. We describe the phenomenology of CP violation and how it may be measured in meson decays. Standard Model predictions are given in each case and the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model are also discussed. Throughout, we contrast these transitions in the K and B meson systems to those in the D meson and top-quark sectors.

  17. Continuous Flavor Symmetries and the Stability of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-19

    Generically, the asymmetric interactions in asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models could lead to decaying DM. We show that, for ADM that carries nonzero baryon number, continuous flavor symmetries that generate the flavor structure in the quark sector also imply a looser lower bound on the mass scale of the asymmetric mediators between the dark and visible sectors. Furthermore, the mediators for B = 2 ADM that can produce a signal in the future indirect dark matter searches can thus also be searched for at the LHC. For two examples of the mediator models, with either the MFV or Froggatt-Nielsen flavormore » breaking pattern, we derive the FCNC constraints and discuss the search strategies at the LHC.« less

  18. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  19. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Rai, Ajay Kumar; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index ν. The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, J^P={1/2}^+ and {3/2}^+ baryons are computed for different power indices, ν starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index ν=1.0.

  20. Supersymmetric lepton flavor violation at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1997-04-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. If significant lepton flavor violation exists, selectron and smuon should be nearly degenerate. This leads to the phenomenon of slepton oscillations, which is analogous to neutrino oscillations, if sleptons are produced at the Next Linear Collider. The direct slepton production at the Next Linear Collider provides a much more powerful probe of lepton flavor violation than the current bounds from rare processes, such as {mu} {yields} e{gamma}.

  1. Supersymmetric lepton flavor violation at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1997-04-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. If significant lepton flavor violation exists, selectron and smuon should be nearly degenerate. This leads to the phenomenon of slepton oscillations, which is analogous to neutrino oscillations, if sleptons are produced at the Next Linear Collider. The direct slepton production at the Next Linear Collider provides a much more powerful probe of lepton flavor violation than the current bounds from rare processes, such as {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Flavor in heavy neutrino searches at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Deppisch, F.; Kittel, O.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2012-05-01

    Heavy neutrinos at the TeV scale have been searched for at the LHC in the context of left-right models, under the assumption that they couple to the electron, the muon, or both. We show that current searches are also sensitive to heavy neutrinos coupling predominantly to the tau lepton, and present limits can significantly constrain the parameter space of general flavor mixing.

  3. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Antaramian, Aram

    1995-02-22

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong.

  4. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    PubMed

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter.

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  6. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  7. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  8. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is...

  10. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  11. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  12. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  13. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to...

  14. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the...

  15. Solving the SUSY CP problem with flavor breaking F-terms

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Cruz, Lorenzo J.; Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-05-11

    Supersymmetric flavor models for the radiative generation of fermion masses offer an alternative way to solve the SUSY-CP problem. We assume that the supersymmetric theory is flavor and CP conserving. CP violating phases are associated to the vacuum expectation values of flavor violating susy-breaking fields. As a consequence, phases appear at tree level only in the soft supersymmetry breaking matrices. Using a U(2) flavor model as an example we show that it is possible to generate radiatively the first and second generation of quark masses and mixings as well as the CKM CP phase. The one-loop supersymmetric contributions to EDMs are automatically zero since all the relevant parameters in the lagrangian are flavor conserving and as a consequence real. The size of the flavor and CP mixing in the susy breaking sector is mostly determined by the fermion mass ratios and CKM elements. We calculate the contributions to {epsilon}, {epsilon}' and to the CP asymmetries in the B decays to {psi}K{sub s}, {phi}K{sub s}, {eta}'K{sub s} and X{sub s}{gamma}. We analyze a case study with maximal predictivity in the fermion sector. For this worst case scenario the measurements of {Delta}m{sub K}, {Delta}m{sub B} and {epsilon} constrain the model requiring extremely heavy squark spectra.

  16. Exotic Leptons. Higgs, Flavor and Collider Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela

    2014-01-15

    We study extensions of the standard model by one generation of vector-like leptons with non-standard hypercharges, which allow for a sizable modification of the h → γγ decay rate for new lepton masses in the 300 GeV-1 TeV range. We also analyze vacuum stability implications for different hypercharges. Effects in h → Zγ are typically much smaller than in h → γγ, but distinct among the considered hypercharge assignments. Non-standard hypercharges constrain or entirely forbid possible mixing operators with standard model leptons. As a consequence, the leading contributions to the experimentally strongly constrained electric dipole moments of standard model fermions are only generated at the two loop level by the new CP violating sources of the considered setups. Furthermore, we derive the bounds from dipole moments, electro-weak precision observables and lepton flavor violating processes, and discuss their implications. Finally, we examine the production and decay channels of the vector-like leptons at the LHC, and find that signatures with multiple light leptons or taus are already probing interesting regions of parameter space.

  17. Exotic Leptons. Higgs, Flavor and Collider Phenomenology

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela

    2014-01-15

    We study extensions of the standard model by one generation of vector-like leptons with non-standard hypercharges, which allow for a sizable modification of the h → γγ decay rate for new lepton masses in the 300 GeV-1 TeV range. We also analyze vacuum stability implications for different hypercharges. Effects in h → Zγ are typically much smaller than in h → γγ, but distinct among the considered hypercharge assignments. Non-standard hypercharges constrain or entirely forbid possible mixing operators with standard model leptons. As a consequence, the leading contributions to the experimentally strongly constrained electric dipole moments of standard model fermionsmore » are only generated at the two loop level by the new CP violating sources of the considered setups. Furthermore, we derive the bounds from dipole moments, electro-weak precision observables and lepton flavor violating processes, and discuss their implications. Finally, we examine the production and decay channels of the vector-like leptons at the LHC, and find that signatures with multiple light leptons or taus are already probing interesting regions of parameter space.« less

  18. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  19. Suppression of self-induced flavor conversion in the supernova accretion phase.

    PubMed

    Sarikas, Srdjan; Raffelt, Georg G; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2012-02-10

    Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos can strongly modify the flavor-dependent fluxes. We perform a linearized flavor stability analysis with accretion-phase matter profiles of a 15M[symbol: see text] spherically symmetric model and corresponding neutrino fluxes. We use realistic energy and angle distributions, the latter deviating strongly from quasi-isotropic emission, thus accounting for both multiangle and multienergy effects. For our matter and neutrino density profile we always find stable conditions: flavor conversions are limited to the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In this case one may distinguish the neutrino mass hierarchy in a SN neutrino signal if the mixing angle θ13 is as large as suggested by recent experiments.

  20. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F.; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  1. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  2. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-16

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  3. Properties of b-flavored hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, J.A.

    1983-10-01

    Experimental progress in the study of b-flavored hadrons is reviewed. The observation of the B meson, properties of hadronic B decays, semi-leptonic B decays, and the B lifetime are discussed. 30 references.

  4. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  5. Slepton Flavor Physics at Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dine, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Thomas, Scott

    If low energy supersymmetry is realized in nature it is possible that a first generation linear collider will only have access to some of the superpartners with electroweak quantum numbers. Among these, sleptons can provide sensitive probes for lepton flavor violation through potentially dramatic lepton violating signals. Theoretical proposals to understand the absence of low energy quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents are surveyed and many are found to predict observable slepton flavor violating signals at linear colliders. The observation or absence of such sflavor violation will thus provide important indirect clues to very high energy physics. Previous analyses of slepton flavor oscillations are also extended to include the effects of finite width and mass differences.

  6. Reaction of the Butter Flavorant Diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) with N-α-Acetylarginine: A Model for Epitope Formation with Pulmonary Proteins in the Etiology of Obliterative Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, James M.; Watson, Scott L.; Snyder, Rodney W.; Burgess, Jason P.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is implicated in causing obliterative bronchiolitis in microwave popcorn plant workers. Because diacetyl modifies arginine residues, an immunological basis for its toxicity is under investigation. Reaction products of diacetyl with N-α-acetylarginine (AcArg) were determined as a model for hapten formation, with characterization by mass spectrometry, NMR, and HPLC with UV detection and radiodetection. Four products were identified by LCMS, each with a positive ion of m/z 303 (diacetyl + AcArg); one pair displayed an additional ion at m/z 217 (AcArg), the other pair at m/z 285 (– H2O). Their 1H–13C NMR correlation spectra were consistent with the addition of one or two of the guanidine nitrogens to form aminols. Open-chain pairs interconverted at pH 2, as did the cyclized, but all four interconverted at neutral pH. This is the first structural characterization of the covalent adducts between diacetyl and an arginine moiety. PMID:21077678

  7. Reaction of the butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) with N-α-acetylarginine: a model for epitope formation with pulmonary proteins in the etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Mathews, James M; Watson, Scott L; Snyder, Rodney W; Burgess, Jason P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2010-12-22

    The butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is implicated in causing obliterative bronchiolitis in microwave popcorn plant workers. Because diacetyl modifies arginine residues, an immunological basis for its toxicity is under investigation. Reaction products of diacetyl with N-α-acetylarginine (AcArg) were determined as a model for hapten formation, with characterization by mass spectrometry, NMR, and HPLC with UV detection and radiodetection. Four products were identified by LC-MS, each with a positive ion of m/z 303 (diacetyl + AcArg); one pair displayed an additional ion at m/z 217 (AcArg), the other pair at m/z 285 (- H(2)O). Their (1)H-(13)C NMR correlation spectra were consistent with the addition of one or two of the guanidine nitrogens to form aminols. Open-chain pairs interconverted at pH 2, as did the cyclized, but all four interconverted at neutral pH. This is the first structural characterization of the covalent adducts between diacetyl and an arginine moiety.

  8. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.

  9. Flavor changing neutral currents with a fourth family of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Johana A.; Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A.

    2008-10-01

    For a model with a fourth family of quarks, new sources of flavor changing neutral currents are identified by confronting the unitary 4x4 quark mixing matrix with the experimental measured values of the familiar 3x3 quark mixing matrix. By imposing as experimental constraints the known bounds for the flavor changing neutral currents, the largest mixing of the known quarks with the fourth family ones is established. The predictions are: a value for |V{sub tb}| significantly different from unity, large rates for rare top decays as t{yields}c{gamma} and t{yields}cZ, the last one reachable at the Large Hadron Collider, and large rates for rare strange decays s{yields}d{gamma} and s{yields}dg, where g stands for the gluon field, both processes reachable at the existing B factories.

  10. Flavor Analysis of Nucleon, Δ , and Hyperon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmoser, Martin; Choi, Ki-Seok; Plessas, Willibald

    2017-03-01

    By the analysis of the world data base of elastic electron scattering on the proton and the neutron (for the latter, in fact, on ^2H and ^3He) important experimental insights have recently been gained into the flavor compositions of nucleon electromagnetic form factors. We report on testing the Graz Goldstone-boson-exchange relativistic constituent-quark model in comparison to the flavor contents in low-energy nucleons, as revealed from electron-scattering phenomenology. It is found that a satisfactory agreement is achieved between theory and experiment for momentum transfers up to Q^2˜ 4 GeV^2, relying on three-quark configurations only. Analogous studies have been extended to the Δ and the hyperon electromagnetic form factors. For them we here show only some sample results in comparison to data from lattice quantum chromodynamics.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-06-19

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO₂, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  12. New approach to flavor symmetry and an extended naturalness principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    A class of nonsupersymmetric extensions of the standard model is proposed in which there is a multiplicity of light scalar doublets in a multiplet of a nonabelian family group with the standard model Higgs doublet. Anthropic tuning makes the latter light, and consequently the other scalar doublets remain light because of the family symmetry. The family symmetry greatly constrains the pattern of flavor-changing neutral-current interactions (FCNC) and p decay operators coming from scalar-exchange. Such models show that useful constraints on model-building can come from an extended naturalness principle when the electroweak scale is anthropically tuned.

  13. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  14. Models of pair annihilation in 1E 1740.7-2942 and the HEAO 1 A-4 annihilation source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciolek-Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Zdziarski, Andrzej

    1994-01-01

    We study possible models of two Galactic sources of transient pair annihilation radiation, 1E 1740.7-2942 and a source observed by High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 A-4. We fit the observed spectral features by thermal annihilation spectra and find that the redshifts obtained by us are much larger than those obtained from fitting Caussian lines centered on 511 keV. This effect, which is due to the net blueshift (with respect to 511 keV) of the annihilation spectrum due to the thermal energies of pairs, puts strong constraints on models of sources. We consider those constraints first without considering the mechanism of positron production. From the shape of the observed spectra, we are able to rule out both spherical clouds and layers above cold matter as possible source geometries. The observed spectra are compatible with two source geometries: (1) a nearly face-on disk in the Kerr metric and (2) a jet close to a black hole. We consider, then, the origin of the pairs. Theories of both thermal and nonthermal pair equilibria predict that photon-pair production is unable to produce annihilation features that contain as much as half of the bolometric luminosity, which is observed. A possible solution to this problem is obscuration of a nonthermal source (in which pairs are produced by photon-photon collisions) and an outflow of pairs to an unobscured region. This makes annihilation in a jet the most likely model of the considered sources.

  15. A 4DVAR System for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model. Part 1: System Description and Assimilation of Synthetic Observations in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    A 4DVAR System for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model . Part I: System Description and Assimilation of Synthetic Observations in Monterey Bay* HANS NGODOCK...ABSTRACT A 4D variational data assimilation systemwas developed for assimilating ocean observations with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model . It is described in...Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). NCOM is an opera- tional ocean model (primarily at the Naval Oceano- graphic Office) that has been validated (Martin

  16. Heavy Flavor Physics in STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbæk, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The STAR Collaboration should complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. These detectors will greatly enhance the STAR physics capability to measure heavy quark collectivity and correlations using topologically reconstructed charmed hadrons and heavy quark decay electron-muon correlations. In addition, measurements of the quarkonium muon decay channels will enable us to separate Upsilon 1S from 2S and 3S states in p + p and A+A collisions. Selected STAR results on open charm and quarkonia production in p + p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are presented. An overview of the upgrades, their expected performance and current status is presented.

  17. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  18. Flavor origin of dark matter and its relation with leptonic nonzero θ 13 and Dirac CP phase δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya; Karmakar, Biswajit; Sahu, Narendra; Sil, Arunansu

    2017-05-01

    We propose a minimal extension of the standard model by including a U(1) flavor symmetry to establish a correlation between the relic abundance of dark matter, measured by WMAP and PLANCK satellite experiments and non-zero value of sin θ 13 observed at DOUBLE CHOOZ, Daya Bay, RENO and T2K. The flavour symmetry is allowed to be broken at a high scale to a remnant {Z}_2 symmetry, which not only ensures the stability to the dark matter, but also gives rise to a modification to the existing A 4-based tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing. This deviation in turn suggests the required non-zero value of sin θ 13. We assume the dark matter to be neutral under the existing A 4 symmetry while charged under the U(1) flavor symmetry. Hence in this set-up, the non-zero value of sin θ 13 predicts the dark matter charge under U(1), which can be tested at various ongoing and future direct and collider dark matter search experiments. We also point out the involvement of nonzero leptonic CP phase δ, which plays an important role in the analysis.

  19. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6.

    PubMed

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland-Yeo, K; Almond, L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Nonzero {theta}{sub 13} for neutrino mixing in a supersymmetric B-L gauge model with T{sub 7} lepton flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Qinghong; Khalil, Shaaban; Ma, Ernest; Okada, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    We discuss how {theta}{sub 13}{ne}0 is accommodated in a recently proposed renormalizable model of neutrino mixing using the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T{sub 7} in the context of a supersymmetric extension of the standard model with gauged U(1){sub B-L}. We predict a correlation between {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 23}, as well as the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  1. Flavorings and Perceived Harm and Addictiveness of E-cigarettes among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Pérez, Adriana; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students’ tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601). We used weighted logistic regression models to investigate the relationship between perceptions of harm and addictiveness and e-cigarette use, including the use of flavored and non-flavored e-cigarettes. Results Compared to youth who did not use e-cigarettes, ever and current e-cigarette users had higher odds of reporting that e-cigarettes were “not at all harmful” to health and “not at all addictive.” Ever and current e-cigarette users had higher odds of reporting that flavored e-cigarettes were “less harmful” than non-flavored e-cigarettes, compared to youth who did not use e-cigarettes. Conclusions These findings warrant attention given that nicotine is an addictive substance whose effects on the adolescent brain are potentially negative. Youth e-cigarette users perceived lower harm from flavored e-cigarettes, which is worrisome given emerging research documenting harmful constituents in certain e-cigarette flavorings. PMID:27722185

  2. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  3. Instability in the dense supernova neutrino gas with flavor-dependent angular distributions.

    PubMed

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2012-06-08

    The usual description of self-induced flavor conversions for neutrinos (ν's) in supernovae is based on the simplified assumption that all the ν's of the different species are emitted "half-isotropically" by a common neutrinosphere, in analogy to a blackbody emission. However, realistic supernova simulations show that ν angular distributions at decoupling are far from being half-isotropic and, above all, are flavor dependent. We show that flavor-dependent angular distributions may lead to crossing points in the angular spectra of different ν species (where F(ν(e))=F(ν(x)) and F(ν(e))=F(ν(x))) around which a new multiangle instability can develop. To characterize this effect, we carry out a linearized flavor stability analysis for different supernova neutrino angular distributions. We find that this instability can shift the onset of the flavor conversions toward low radii and produce a smearing of the splitting features found with trivial ν emission models. As a result the spectral differences among ν's of different flavors could be strongly reduced.

  4. Phenomenological consequences of radiative flavor violation in the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Hofer, Lars; Nierste, Ulrich; Scherer, Dominik

    2011-08-01

    In this article we investigate the consequences of radiative flavor violation (RFV) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In this framework the small off-diagonal elements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix and the small quark masses of the first two generations are generated from the trilinear supersymmetry-breaking terms. The impact of RFV on flavor-physics observables is studied in detail. We focus on the limiting cases in which the CKM matrix is either generated in the down sector, i.e. by the soft supersymmetry-breaking mass insertions δi3dLR (i=1, 2), or in the up-quark sector, i.e. by the mass insertions δi3uLR. In the first case we find an enhancement of b→sγ, which constrains the allowed range of sparticle masses (Fig. ). In addition, neutral Higgs penguins significantly contribute to Bs,d→μ+μ- and, if also δ32dLR is different from zero, these Higgs effects are capable of explaining the observed CP phase in the Bs system. If, on the other hand, the CKM generation takes place in the up sector, |ɛK| receives additional positive contributions enforcing large squark and gluino masses (see Fig. ). In this case also the rare decay K→πνν¯ receives sizable contributions. In conclusion we find that for supersymmetry masses around 1 TeV RFV is an interesting alternative to minimal flavor violation.

  5. Flavor pleasantness processing in the ventral emotion network.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Weitkamp, Liselore; Renken, Remco J; Nanetti, Luca; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2017-01-01

    The ventral emotion network-encompassing the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and ventral regions of the prefrontal cortex-has been associated with the identification of emotional significance of perceived external stimuli and the production of affective states. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating chemosensory stimuli have associated parts of this network with pleasantness coding. In the current study, we independently analyzed two datasets in which we measured brain responses to flavor stimuli in young adult men. In the first dataset, participants evaluated eight regular off the shelf drinking products while participants evaluated six less familiar oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the second dataset. Participants provided pleasantness ratings 20 seconds after tasting. Using independent component analysis (ICA) and mixed effect models, we identified one brain network in the regular products dataset that was associated with flavor pleasantness. This network was very similar to the ventral emotion network. Although we identified an identical network in the ONS dataset using ICA, we found no linear relation between activation of any network and pleasantness scores within this dataset. Our results indicate that flavor pleasantness is processed in a network encompassing amygdala, ventral prefrontal, insular, striatal and parahippocampal regions for familiar drinking products. For more unfamiliar ONS products the association is not obvious, which could be related to the unfamiliarity of these products.

  6. Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Emily S.; Parikh, Roshan; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments presented oral mixtures containing different proportions of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and an olfactory flavorant, either citral (Experiment 1) or lemon (Experiment 2). In 4 different sessions of each experiment, subjects identified each mixture as “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus/lemon” or rated the perceived intensities of the sweet and citrus components. Different sessions also presented the mixtures in different contexts, with mixtures containing relatively high concentrations of sucrose or citral/lemon presented more often (skew sucrose or skew citral/lemon). As expected, in both experiments, varying stimulus context affected both identification and perceived intensity: Skewing to sucrose versus citral/lemon decreased the probability of identifying the stimuli as “mostly sugar” and reduced the ratings of sweet intensity relative to citrus intensity. Across both contextual conditions of both experiments, flavor identification associated closely with the ratio of the perceived sweet and citrus intensities. The results accord with a model, extrapolated from signal-detection theory, in which sensory events are represented as multisensory–multidimensional distributions in perceptual space. Changing stimulus context can shift the locations of the distributions relative to response criteria, Decision rules guide judgments based on both sensory events and criteria, these rules not necessarily being identical in tasks of identification and intensity rating. PMID:26830499

  7. Flavor pleasantness processing in the ventral emotion network

    PubMed Central

    Weitkamp, Liselore; Renken, Remco J.; Nanetti, Luca; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2017-01-01

    The ventral emotion network–encompassing the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and ventral regions of the prefrontal cortex–has been associated with the identification of emotional significance of perceived external stimuli and the production of affective states. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating chemosensory stimuli have associated parts of this network with pleasantness coding. In the current study, we independently analyzed two datasets in which we measured brain responses to flavor stimuli in young adult men. In the first dataset, participants evaluated eight regular off the shelf drinking products while participants evaluated six less familiar oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the second dataset. Participants provided pleasantness ratings 20 seconds after tasting. Using independent component analysis (ICA) and mixed effect models, we identified one brain network in the regular products dataset that was associated with flavor pleasantness. This network was very similar to the ventral emotion network. Although we identified an identical network in the ONS dataset using ICA, we found no linear relation between activation of any network and pleasantness scores within this dataset. Our results indicate that flavor pleasantness is processed in a network encompassing amygdala, ventral prefrontal, insular, striatal and parahippocampal regions for familiar drinking products. For more unfamiliar ONS products the association is not obvious, which could be related to the unfamiliarity of these products. PMID:28207751

  8. Minimal color-flavor-locked--nuclear interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark; Rajagopal, Krishna; Reddy, Sanjay; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-10-01

    At nuclear matter density, electrically neutral strongly interacting matter in weak equilibrium is made of neutrons, protons, and electrons. At sufficiently high density, such matter is made of up, down, and strange quarks in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase, with no electrons. As a function of increasing density (or, perhaps, increasing depth in a compact star) other phases may intervene between these two phases, which are guaranteed to be present. The simplest possibility, however, is a single first order phase transition between CFL and nuclear matter. Such a transition, in space, could take place either through a mixed phase region or at a single sharp interface with electron-free CFL and electron-rich nuclear matter in stable contact. Here we construct a model for such an interface. It is characterized by a region of separated charge, similar to an inversion layer at a metal-insulator boundary. On the CFL side, the charged boundary layer is dominated by a condensate of negative kaons. We then consider the energetics of the mixed phase alternative. We find that the mixed phase will occur only if the nuclear-CFL surface tension is significantly smaller than dimensional analysis would indicate.

  9. General conditions for lepton flavor violation at tree- and 1-loop level

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Alexander; Merle, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we compile the necessary and sufficient conditions a theory has to fulfill in order to ensure general lepton flavor conservation, in the spirit of the Glashow-Weinberg criteria for the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents. At tree-level, interactions involving electrically neutral and doubly charged bosons are investigated. We also investigate flavor changes at 1-loop level. In all cases we find that the essential theoretical requirements can be reduced to a few basic conditions on the particle content and the coupling matrices. For 1-loop diagrams, we also investigate how exactly a GIM-suppression can occur that will strongly reduce the rates of lepton flavor violating effects even if they are in principle present in a certain theory. In all chapters, we apply our criteria to several models which can in general induce lepton flavor violation, e.g. LR-symmetric models or the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) In the end we give a summarizing table of the obtained results, thereby demonstrating the applicability of our criteria to a large class of models beyond the standard model.

  10. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited.

  11. Initial defibrillation versus initial chest compression in a 4-minute ventricular fibrillation canine model of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Long; Zhong, Jing-Quan; Tao, Wen; Hou, Xue-Mei; Meng, Xiang-Lin; Zhang, Yun

    2009-07-01

    Previous laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that chest compression preceding defibrillation in prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) increases the likelihood of successful cardiac resuscitation. The lower limit of VF duration when preshock chest compression provides no benefit has not been specifically studied. We aimed to study the effect of order of defibrillation and chest compression on defibrillation and cardiac resuscitation in a 4-minute VF canine model of cardiac arrest. Prospective, randomized animal study. Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research and Department of Cardiology, QiLu Hospital. Twenty-four domestic dogs. VF was induced in anesthetized and ventilated canines. After 4 minutes of untreated VF, animals were randomly assigned to receive shock first or chest compression first. Animals in the shock-first group received an immediate single countershock of 360 J for <10 seconds, then 200 immediate compressions before pulse check or rhythm reanalysis. The ratio of compression to ventilation was 30:2. Interruptions to deliver rescue breaths were eliminated in this study. Animals in the chest compression-first group received 200 chest compressions before a single countershock; the other interventions were the same as for the shock-first group. End points were restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), defined as spontaneous systolic arterial pressure >50 mm Hg, when epinephrine (0.02 mg/kg intravenously) was given, and resuscitation, defined as maintaining systolic arterial pressure >50 mm Hg at the 24-hour study end point. In the shock-first group, all animals achieved ROSC, and ten of 12 survived at the 24-hour study end point. In the chest compression-first group, 11 of 12 animals achieved ROSC, and nine of 12 survived at the 24-hour study end point. In this 4-minute VF canine model of cardiac arrest, the order of initial defibrillation or initial chest compression does not affect cardiac resuscitation.

  12. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  13. Flavored-Little-Cigar and Flavored-Cigarette Use Among U.S. Middle and High School Students

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A.; Tynan, Michael A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Arrazola, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Flavors can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making flavored tobacco products appealing to youth. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of flavored-little-cigar and flavored-cigarette use among U.S. middle and high school students in 2011. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative school-based survey of U.S. students in grades 6–12. National estimates of current flavored-little-cigar use, flavored-cigarette use, and combined use of either product were calculated overall and among current smokers by respondent characteristics, including sex, race/ethnicity, school level, and grade. Additionally, intention to quit tobacco and smoking frequency were assessed by flavored product use. Results The overall prevalence of current use was 4.2% for flavored cigarettes, 3.3% for flavored little cigars, and 6.3% for either product. Among current cigar smokers, 35.9% reported using flavored little cigars, and among current cigarette smokers, 35.4% reported using flavored cigarettes. Among current cigar or cigarette smokers, 42.4% reported using flavored little cigars or flavored cigarettes. Flavored product use among current smokers was higher among non-Hispanic whites than among blacks and Hispanics, higher among high school students than middle school students, and increased with grade. Among cigar smokers, prevalence of no intention to quit tobacco was higher among flavored-little-cigar users (59.7%) than nonusers (49.3%). Conclusions More than two fifths of U.S. middle and high school smokers report using flavored little cigars or flavored cigarettes, and disparities in the use of these products exist across subpopulations. Efforts are needed to reduce flavored tobacco product use among youth. PMID:24161587

  14. Wrong-Higgs interactions without flavor problems and their effects on physical observables

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung

    2010-09-01

    We consider the wrong-Higgs interactions such as type-III two Higgs doublet models. Generally, such interactions cause flavor problems. However, if new Yukawa interactions have the same flavor structure as that of the standard model, we do not have any flavor problems. In this work we propose a microscopic model for the wrong-Higgs interactions aligned with the standard model ones in the context of supersymmetry and show their phenomenological implications. Low energy contraints from muon g-2 and rare B decays can be relieved and it can be viable to have low mass superparticle spectra with light dark matter which is preferred by recent experiments such as DAMA/LIBRA, CDMS-II, and CoGeNT. We also briefly discuss modification of Higgs decay in colliders.

  15. The S100A4 Oncoprotein Promotes Prostate Tumorigenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model: Regulating NFκB through the RAGE Receptor.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Hifzur R; Adhami, Vaqar M; Parray, Aijaz; Johnson, Jeremy J; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Shekhani, Mohammad T; Murtaza, Imtiyaz; Ambartsumian, Noona; Konety, Badrinath R; Mukhtar, Hasan; Saleem, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, is known for its role in the metastatic spread of tumor cells, a late event of cancer disease. This is the first report showing that S100A4 is not merely a metastatic protein but also an oncoprotein that plays a critical role in the development of tumors. We earlier showed that S100A4 expression progressively increases in prostatic tissues with the advancement of prostate cancer (CaP) in TRAMP, an autochthonous mouse model. To study the functional significance of S100A4 in CaP, we generated a heterozygously deleted S100A4 (TRAMP/S100A4(+/-)) genotype by crossing TRAMP with S100A4(-/-) mice. TRAMP/S100A4(+/-) did not show a lethal phenotype, and transgenes were functional. As compared to age-matched TRAMP littermates, TRAMP/S100A4(+/-) mice exhibited 1) an increased tumor latency period (P < 0.001), 2) a 0% incidence of metastasis, and 3) reduced prostatic weights (P < 0.001). We generated S100A4-positive clones from S100A4-negative CaP cells and tested their potential. S100A4-positive tumors grew at a faster rate than S100A4-negative tumors in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. The S100A4 protein exhibited growth factor-like properties in multimode (intracellular and extracellular) forms. We observed that 1) the growth-promoting effect of S100A4 is due to its activation of NFκB, 2) S100A4-deficient tumors exhibit reduced NFκB activity, 3) S100A4 regulates NFκB through the RAGE receptor, and 4) S100A4 and RAGE co-localize in prostatic tissues of mice. Keeping in view its growth-promoting role, we suggest that S100A4 qualifies as an excellent candidate to be exploited for therapeutic agents to treat CaP in humans.

  16. Three-body decays of sleptons with general flavor violation and left-right mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Sanford, David; Yu, Felix; Galon, Iftah; Shadmi, Yael

    2009-06-01

    We determine the widths of three-body decays of sleptons, l-tilde{sup -}{yields}l-tilde{sup {+-}}l{sup -}l{sup {+-}}, l-tilde{sup -}{nu}{nu}, l-tilde{sup -}qq, in the presence of arbitrary slepton flavor violation and left-right mixing. These decays are important in scenarios in which the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino, a generic possibility in models with gauge- and gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Three-body decays have been discussed previously, assuming flavor conservation and left-right mixing in only the stau sector. Flavor violation and general left-right mixing open up many new decay channels, which provide new avenues for precision mass measurements and may play an essential role in solving the standard model flavor problem. We present results for toy models with two-generation mixing, and discuss the implementation of these results in spice, a program that simplifies collider event simulations of flavor-violating supersymmetric models.

  17. Predictions of Warped Extra Dimensions for Flavor Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-02-10

    The aim of these proceedings is to present the main predictions of the Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection for particle-antiparticle mixing and rare decays of K and B{sub s,d} mesons, putting particular attention on the testability of the resulting NP effects at future experiments. Before giving numerical results, we discuss theoretical expectations, residing in the flavor structure of the model. The high energy scale M{sub KK} is chosen in such a way that direct searches of new particles at the LHC are possible, still being consistent with electroweak precision observables.

  18. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts.

    PubMed

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were profiled by a sensory panel and analyzed for color and fatty acid composition. Principal Component Analysis, Canonical Variate Analysis and General Linear Model regression were used to identify differences in flavor, color and fatty acid profiles, and to relate them to raw materials or process conditions. Data showed that raw material selection is key for flavor, but processing is also significant. Specifically, maceration significantly increased "roasted peanut" and "dark roast" aromas, reducing "sweet", "raw bean" aromas, and sweetness. It also influenced color and the fatty acid profile. Baking reduced "roasted peanut" and "dark roast" and increased "raw bean" aromas compared to frying, and impacted color development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New vector-like fermions and flavor physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, Koji; Ligeti, Zoltan; Wise, Mark B.

    2015-10-06

    We study renormalizable extensions of the standard model that contain vector-like fermions in a (single) complex representation of the standard model gauge group. There are 11 models where the vector-like fermions Yukawa couple to the standard model fermions via the Higgs field. These models do not introduce additional fine-tunings. They can lead to, and are constrained by, a number of different flavor-changing processes involving leptons and quarks, as well as direct searches. An interesting feature of the models with strongly interacting vector-like fermions is that constraints from neutral meson mixings (apart from CP violation in $ {K}^0-{\\overline{K}}^0 $ mixing) are not sensitive to higher scales than other flavor-changing neutral-current processes. We identify order 1/(4πM)2 (where M is the vector-like fermion mass) one-loop contributions to the coefficients of the four-quark operators for meson mixing, that are not suppressed by standard model quark masses and/or mixing angles.

  20. New vector-like fermions and flavor physics

    DOE PAGES

    Ishiwata, Koji; Ligeti, Zoltan; Wise, Mark B.

    2015-10-06

    We study renormalizable extensions of the standard model that contain vector-like fermions in a (single) complex representation of the standard model gauge group. There are 11 models where the vector-like fermions Yukawa couple to the standard model fermions via the Higgs field. These models do not introduce additional fine-tunings. They can lead to, and are constrained by, a number of different flavor-changing processes involving leptons and quarks, as well as direct searches. An interesting feature of the models with strongly interacting vector-like fermions is that constraints from neutral meson mixings (apart from CP violation inmore » $$ {K}^0-{\\overline{K}}^0 $$ mixing) are not sensitive to higher scales than other flavor-changing neutral-current processes. We identify order 1/(4πM)2 (where M is the vector-like fermion mass) one-loop contributions to the coefficients of the four-quark operators for meson mixing, that are not suppressed by standard model quark masses and/or mixing angles.« less

  1. Lowest-lying even-parity {\\bar{B}}_s mesons: heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetry, chiral dynamics, and constituent quark-model bare masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of the D^*_{s0}(2317) and D_{s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q{\\bar{q}} and (Q{\\bar{q}})(q{\\bar{q}}) Fock components. In contrast to the c{\\bar{s}} sector, there is no experimental evidence of J^P=0^+,1^+ bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D_{s0}^*(2317) and D_{s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave {\\bar{B}}_s scalar and axial mesons and the {\\bar{B}}^{(*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels.

  2. Flavor Perception in Human Infants: Development and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Gary K.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Foods people consume impact on their health in many ways. In particular, excess intake of salty, sweet and fatty foods and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables have been related to many diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The flavor of a food determines its acceptability and modulates intake. It is thus critical to understand the factors that influence flavor preferences in humans. Aim: To outline several of the important factors that shape flavor preferences in humans. Methods We review a series of studies, mainly from our laboratories, on the important role of early experiences with flavors on subsequent flavor preference and food intake. Results and Conclusions: Some taste preferences and aversions (e.g. liking for sweet, salty and umami; disliking for bitter) are innately organized, although early experiences can modify their expression. In utero events may impact on later taste and flavor preferences and modulate intake of nutrients. Both before and after birth, humans are exposed to a bewildering variety of flavors that influence subsequent liking and choice. Fetuses are exposed to flavors in amniotic fluid modulating preferences later in life and flavor learning continues after birth. Experience with flavors that are bitter, sour or have umami characteristics, as well as volatile flavors such as carrot and garlic, occurs through flavorings in breast milk, infant formula and early foods. These early experiences mold long-term food and flavor preferences which can impact upon later health. PMID:21389721

  3. Flavor perception in human infants: development and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Foods people consume impact on their health in many ways. In particular, excess intake of salty, sweet and fatty foods and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables have been related to many diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The flavor of a food determines its acceptability and modulates intake. It is thus critical to understand the factors that influence flavor preferences in humans. To outline several of the important factors that shape flavor preferences in humans. We review a series of studies, mainly from our laboratories, on the important role of early experiences with flavors on subsequent flavor preference and food intake. Some taste preferences and aversions (e.g. liking for sweet, salty and umami; disliking for bitter) are innately organized, although early experiences can modify their expression. In utero events may impact on later taste and flavor preferences and modulate intake of nutrients. Both before and after birth, humans are exposed to a bewildering variety of flavors that influence subsequent liking and choice. Fetuses are exposed to flavors in amniotic fluid modulating preferences later in life and flavor learning continues after birth. Experience with flavors that are bitter, sour or have umami characteristics, as well as volatile flavors such as carrot and garlic, occurs through flavorings in breast milk, infant formula and early foods. These early experiences mold long-term food and flavor preferences which can impact upon later health. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrıo, Javier

    2016-11-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  5. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    PubMed

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  6. P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 involvement in risperidone transport using an in vitro Caco-2/TC7 model and an in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Cousein, Etienne; Barthélémy, Christine; Poullain, Stéphanie; Simon, Nicolas; Lestavel, Sophie; Williame, Virginie; Joiris, Etienne; Danel, Cécile; Clavey, Véronique; Brossard, Denis; Robert, Hugues; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Vaccher, Claude; Odou, Pascal

    2007-05-09

    The possible involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in risperidone transport was investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, uptake studies were performed on a Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayer; the effects of 1 microg ml(-1) risperidone on apparent permeability were determined for secretory and absorptive directions, in the presence or absence of various P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (verapamil, ketoconazole, erythromycin), and of an associated multidrug-resistant protein inhibitor (indomethacin). Secondly, on a conscious rat model, risperidone pharmacokinetic parameters, notably absorption parameters, were determined using compartmental and deconvolution methods. Three groups of seven rats received respectively an IV risperidone dose, an oral risperidone dose (PO group) and the same oral risperidone dose after verapamil administration (POV group). No formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone was observed on Caco-2 cells after risperidone administration; there was no evidence that intestinal CYP3A4 is involved in risperidone metabolising. Risperidone secretory permeation was higher than absorptive permeation. Verapamil increased risperidone absorption permeation and decreased its secretory permeation. Indomethacin did not modify these permeation values. In rats, verapamil led to an increase in both risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasmatic concentrations. The fraction absorbed in the verapamil group was 3.18 times higher than in the oral group (65.9% and 20.7% for POV group and PO group). The absorption rate constant was lower in the verapamil group. Our results indicate that P-gp decreases the intestinal absorption of risperidone and that intestinal CYP3A4 is not involved in risperidone metabolism.

  7. Pion and kaon condensations in three-flavor random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2008-11-01

    We study the QCD phase structure in a three-flavor random matrix model with symmetries of QCD formulated at finite temperature and nonzero chemical potentials of baryon number, isospin, and strangeness. We numerically investigate the phase diagram in the chemical potential plane at zero temperature with finite quark masses. We find a rich phase structure separated by both first and second order phase transition lines, which qualitatively agrees with the predictions of effective chiral models and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models. The phases are characterized by the chiral condensates of three flavors, pion and kaon condensates.

  8. Flavor binding: Its nature and cause.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    The brain binds inputs from multiple senses to enhance our ability to identify key events in the environment. Understanding this process is based mainly on data from the major senses (vision and audition), yet compelling examples of binding occur in other domains. When we eat, in fact taste, smell, and touch combine to form flavor. This process can be so complete that most people fail to recognize that smell contributes to flavor. The flavor percept has other features: (a) it feels located in the mouth, even though smell is detected in the nose and taste on the tongue, and (b) it feels continuous, yet smell is delivered in pulses to the nose during eating. Furthermore, tastes can modify smell perception and vice versa. Current explanations of these binding-related phenomena are explored. Preattentive processing provides a well-supported account of taste-to-tongue binding. Learning between taste and smell can explain perceptual interactions between these senses and perhaps localization of smell to the mouth. Attentional processes may also be important, especially given their role in binding the major senses. Two are specifically examined. One claims that the failure to recognize smell's role in flavor stems from the role of involuntary attention's "defaulting" to the mouth and taste (i.e., binding by ignoring). Another claims that taste and smell form a common attentional channel in the mouth, in effect becoming one sense. Except for preattentive processing, the mechanisms involved in flavor binding differ markedly from those proposed for the major senses. This distinction may result from functional differences, with flavor supporting future food choice but not current identification.

  9. Establishment of In Silico Prediction Models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 Induction in Human Hepatocytes by Multiple Regression Analysis Using Azole Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mika; Konno, Yoshihiro; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via cytochrome P450 (P450) induction are one clinical problem leading to increased risk of adverse effects and the need for dosage adjustments and additional therapeutic monitoring. In silico models for predicting P450 induction are useful for avoiding DDI risk. In this study, we have established regression models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction in human hepatocytes using several physicochemical parameters for a set of azole compounds with different P450 induction as characteristics as model compounds. To obtain a well-correlated regression model, the compounds for CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 induction were independently selected from the tested azole compounds using principal component analysis with fold-induction data. Both of the multiple linear regression models obtained for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction are represented by different sets of physicochemical parameters. The adjusted coefficients of determination for these models were of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. The fold-induction of the validation compounds, another set of 12 azole-containing compounds, were predicted within twofold limits for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. The concordance for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction was 87% with another validation set, 23 marketed drugs. However, the prediction of CYP2B6 induction tended to be overestimated for these marketed drugs. The regression models show that lipophilicity mostly contributes to CYP3A4 induction, whereas not only the lipophilicity but also the molecular polarity is important for CYP2B6 induction. Our regression models, especially that for CYP3A4 induction, might provide useful methods to avoid potent CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 inducers during the lead optimization stage without performing induction assays in human hepatocytes.

  10. Use of species other than oak to flavor wine: an exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Young, O A; Kaushal, M; Robertson, J D; Burns, H; Nunns, S J

    2010-01-01

    The concept of geographical exclusivity prompted an exploratory survey with toasted woods other than oak to flavor wine. A total of 11 woods and oak (Quercus alba) were cut into chips 20 × 10 × 2.5 mm and toasted at 200 °C for 2 h (light toast) or 210 °C for 3 h (dark). Weight losses and changes in CIE color space were monitored. The toasted chips were infused in unoaked chardonnay (5 g L(-1)) for 2 wk. Parallel infusions were done with model wine (water, ethanol, tartaric acid) adjusted to pH 3.5. Ultraviolet absorbances due to infusion were recorded on the basis that that lignin compounds and their potential pyrolysates are based on phenolic structures that absorb in the ultraviolet range. Weight losses on light and dark toasting were highly variable between species as were color changes, suggesting potential for different flavor outcomes from chemical changes. Ultraviolet absorbance curves were also highly variable showing that different species yielded different quantities of potentially flavor-active phenolic compounds in real and model wine. More absorbing matter was extracted from the light toast treatments, and light toast oak, which demonstrated the greatest weight loss on light toasting, yielded the widest range of ultraviolet-absorbing matter. In an informal sensory trial with the 24 species/toast combinations infused in chardonnay all but one wood, Cupressus macrocarpa, resulted in flavors reminiscent of oaked wines. A hedonic consumer trial with 4 species and oak compared with uninfused chardonnay showed that each of the 4 had potential as a flavorant. Thus, woods unsuited to barrel construction could provide unrealized flavor opportunities in the wine industry, and could extend to flavoring spirits. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Supersymmetric dark matter and lepton flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, Vernon; Marfatia, Danny; Mustafayev, Azar; Soleimani, Ali

    2009-10-01

    We study lepton flavor-violating (LFV) processes within a supersymmetric type-I seesaw framework with flavor-blind universal boundary conditions, properly accounting for the effect of the neutrino sector on the dark matter relic abundance. We consider several possibilities for the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix and show that in regions of SUSY parameter space that yield the correct neutralino relic density, LFV rates can differ from naive estimates by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Contrary to common belief, we find that current LFV limits do not exclude neutrino Yukawa couplings larger than top Yukawa couplings. We introduce the ISAJET-M program that was used for the computations.

  12. Flavor tagging with muons at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prepost, R.

    1984-05-01

    Identification of muons in hadronic events from e+e- annihilation observed in the MAC detector at PEP at √s=29 GeV provides flavor tagging of heavy quark mesons. A sample enriched in events from bb production is obtained and the b quark fragmentation function is determined. The b quark is found to fragment predominantly with high values of z, with =0.8+/-0.1 and to have an overall semileptonic branching ratio to muons of (15.5+5.4-2.9)%. The sample also provides flavor tagged hadronic jets. Invariant mass and charged multiplicity distributions are presented.

  13. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    PubMed

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  14. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  15. Building a better minimal supergravity: WIMP dark matter without flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Green, Daniel

    2009-10-15

    The appearance of a natural dark matter candidate, the neutralino, is among the principal successes of minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) and its descendents. In lieu of a suitable ultraviolet completion, however, theories of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking such as mSUGRA suffer from arbitrary degrees of flavor violation. Though theories of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking are free from such prohibitive flavor violation, they typically lack natural neutralino dark matter candidates. Yet this conventional dichotomy breaks down when the hidden sector is strongly coupled; in models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the neutralino may be the lightest supersymmetric particle if the fields of the hidden sector possess large anomalous dimensions. In fact, general models of so-called 'sequestered' gauge mediation possess the full richness of neutralino dark matter found in mSUGRA without corresponding flavor problems. Here we explore generalized models of sequestered gauge mediation and the rich variety of neutralino dark matter they exhibit.

  16. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  17. Resurrection of large lepton number asymmetries from neutrino flavor oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Kinney, William H.; Park, Wan-Il

    2017-02-01

    We numerically solve the evolution equations of neutrino three-flavor density matrices, and show that, even if neutrino oscillations mix neutrino flavors, large lepton number asymmetries are still allowed in certain limits by big bang nucleosynthesis.

  18. Lepton flavor violating non-standard interactions via light mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter can alter the pattern of neutrino oscillation due to the coherent forward scattering of neutrinos on the medium. This effect makes long-baseline neutrino experiments such as NO νA and DUNE a sensitive probe of beyond standard model (BSM) physics. We construct light mediator models that can give rise to both lepton flavor conserving as well as Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) neutral current NSI. We outline the present phenomenological viability of these models and future prospects to test them. We predict a lower bound on Br( H → μτ ) in terms of the parameters that can be measured by DUNE and NO νA, and show that the hint for H → μτ in current LHC data can be accommodated in our model. A large part of the parameter space of the model is already constrained by the bound on Br( τ → Z ' μ) and by the bounds on rare meson decays and can be in principle fully tested by improving these bounds.

  19. Maximal neutrino mixing from a minimal flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Aranda, A.; Carone, C.D.; Lebed, R.F.

    2000-02-01

    The authors study a number of models, based on a non-Abelian discrete group, that successfully reproduce the simple and predictive Yukawa textures usually associated with U(2) theories of flavor. These models allow for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems that do not require altering successful predictions for the charged fermions or introducing sterile neutrinos. Although Yukawa matrices are hierarchical in the models they consider, the mixing between second- and third-generation neutrinos is naturally large. They first present a quantitative analysis of a minimal model proposed in earlier work, consisting of a global fit to fermion masses and mixing angles, including the most important renormalization group effects. They then propose two new variant models: The first reproduces all important features of the SU(5) x U(2) unified theory with neither SU(5) nor U(2). The second demonstrates that discrete subgroups of SU(2) can be used in constructing viable supersymmetric theories of flavor without scalar universality even though SU(2) by itself cannot.

  20. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  1. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  2. The qqqqq components and hidden flavor contributions to the baryon magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect

    An, C. S.; Li, Q. B.; Riska, D. O.; Zou, B. S.

    2006-11-15

    The contributions from the qqqqq components to the magnetic moments of the octet as well as the {delta}{sup ++} and {omega}{sup -} decuplet baryons are calculated for the configurations that are expected to have the lowest energy if the hyperfine interaction depends on both spin and flavor. The contributions from the uu,dd, and the ss components are given separately. It is shown that addition of qqqqq admixtures to the ground state baryons can improve the overall description of the magnetic moments of the baryon octet and decuplet in the quark model without SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking, beyond that of the different constituent masses of the strange and light-flavor quarks. The explicit flavor (and spin) wave functions for all the possible configurations of the qqqqq components with light and strange qq pairs are given for the baryon octet and decuplet. Admixtures of {approx}10% of the qqqqq configuration where the flavor-spin symmetry is [4]{sub FS}[22]{sub F}[22]{sub S}, which is likely to have the lowest energy, in particular reduces the deviation from the empirical values of the magnetic moments {sigma}{sup -} and the {xi}{sup 0} compared with the static qqq quark model.

  3. Characterization of alkylmethoxypyrazines contributing to earthy/bell pepper flavor in farmstead cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Farmstead Cheddar cheeses with natural bandage wrappings have a distinctive flavor profile that is appealing to many consumers. An earthy/bell pepper (EBP) flavor has been previously recognized in some of these cheeses. This study characterized the alkylmethoxypyrazine compounds causing EBP flavor in Farmstead Cheddar cheeses. Eight cheeses were divided into inner, outer, rind, and wrapper sections, and tested for descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses. To assess reproducibility of EBP flavor, cheeses from the same facilities were purchased and tested after 6 and 12 mo. EBP flavor was detected in four out of 8 Farmstead Cheddar cheeses by a trained sensory panel. 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine were identified as the main sources of EBP flavor in these cheeses by GC/O and GC/MS. In general, those alkylmethoxypyrazines were prevalent in the wrapper (106 to 730 ppb) and rind (39 to 444 ppb) sections of the cheeses. They were either not detected in inner and outer sections of the cheeses or were present at low concentrations. These results suggest that 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine are formed near the surface of the cheeses and migrate into the cheese during ripening. Threshold values in water and whole milk were 1 and 16 ppt for 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 0.4 and 2.3 ppt for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, respectively. Sensory analysis of mild Cheddar cheese model systems confirmed that direct addition of those individual alkylmethoxypyrazines (0.4 to 20 ppb) resulted in EBP flavor.

  4. Characterization of hydrophobic flavor release profile in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Giroux, H J; Perreault, V; Britten, M

    2007-03-01

    An instrumental approach to better understand the release and persistence of flavor in oil-in-water emulsions has been developed. Emulsions were prepared with various whey protein (0.1% to 3.16%), sunflower oil (1% to 8%), and ethyl hexanoate (0% to 0.04%) concentrations. Flavor release profile in real time was measured at 37 degrees C using a specially designed glass cell connected directly to a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The intensity of flavor released from the emulsion stirred at a shear rate of 100 s(-1) was monitored as a function of time and data were fitted to a 1st-order kinetic equation. Maximum intensity and decay rate constant were both determined from the model and the persistence index (inversely associated to decay rate constant) was calculated. For constant aroma concentration in the emulsion, maximum intensity significantly decreased as whey protein and oil concentrations increased. For increasing aroma concentration, maximum intensity was directly proportional to the ethyl hexanoate concentration when the oil content was kept constant but leveled off when oil content was increased. Persistence of flavor significantly increased with increasing protein and oil concentrations while aroma concentrations had no effect when oil content was constant. The results showed that oil concentration had a greater influence on flavor release characteristics than protein concentration. Aroma concentration in the oil phase, rather than in the emulsion, determines the kinetics of hydrophobic flavor release. The method provides a useful tool for the rapid and reproducible measurement of flavor release profile.

  5. Unification of forces and flavors for three families

    SciTech Connect

    Galeana, A.H. Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli studi di Padova, I-35131 Padova ); Martinez, R.E. , A. A. 3840, Medellin ); Ponce, W.A. Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, Distrito Federal ); Zepeda, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Electroweak, strong, and horizontal interactions are unified in a simple group with an anomaly-free representation which does not include mirror fermions or exotic quarks. {plus minus}1 charged, and neutral exotic leptons are needed in the model, but they acquire heavy masses as a consequence of the survival hypothesis, and also mix with the known leptons producing seesaw and universal seesaw mechanisms in a natural way. Masses for fermions in the third family arise at the tree level via a BCS (flavor-democracy) mass matrix. Masses for other known quarks and leptons can be generated by radiative corrections.

  6. Double Dalitz plot analysis of flavor and CP modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Melissa Beth

    We use the CLEO-c 281.1 pb-1 of psi(3770) data to study the structure of the D0 → K0S pi+pi- Dalitz plot. Given the luminosity and sigma(DD) we have 1011960 correlated DD pairs. We analyze the case where both D's decay to three body decay modes. We analyze the two correlated Dalitz plots and show how this method increases sensitivity to effects of quantum correlations. We present two different studies. One is the Flavor tag analysis, where we reconstruct D 0 → K-pi+pi 0 and D0 → K0S pi+pi-. This was used to test our sensitivity to Doubly Cabibbo Suppressed (DCS) terms. We find that, if we ignore the DCS terms, the results differ from the CLEO II.V model by as much as 4sigma. Thus, in Flavor tags, we see evidence for enhancement of DCS terms through quantum correlations. The other study is the Combo tag analysis where both D's are reconstructed to K0S pi+pi-. This mode entangles both Flavor and CP. We construct a correlated Probability Distribution Function (PDF), and it is built on the CLEO II.V model for the D0 → K0S pi+pi- Dalitz plot. We find that with low statistics, 180 compared to 5305 events, we are able to reproduce the CLEO II.V analysis within errors. However, we do find one significant difference in the amplitude of the f2(1270). Also, the significance level, our goodness of fit, indicates that the CLEO II.V model has 0.4% significance. Between the f2(1270) discrepancy and the low significance level, we conclude that the CLEO II.V model is insufficient for our correlated data. We conclude that the quantum correlations in our data have a significant effect on our data. Our Flavor tag data indicates we are more sensitive to DCS terms than uncorrelated data. Our Combo tag data indicates that we see differences between our correlated data and CLEO II.V's uncorrelated data.

  7. Associations of volatile compounds with sensory aroma and flavor: the complex nature of flavor.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Edgar; Koppel, Kadri

    2013-04-25

    Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  8. Instrumental determination of flavor stability of fatty foods and its correlation with sensory flavor responses.

    PubMed

    Waltking, A E; Goetz, A G

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of flavor and the flavor stability of vegetable oils and products made from them has evolved from the purely subjective to the objective through the use of instrumental measurement techniques. An attempt has been made in this report to catalogue this evolution and put in perspective the advantages and limitations of both the sensory and the instrumental techniques. Multi-laboratory collaborative studies have shown the viability of the instrumental approach and the utility of a number of methods for research and quality control. While the benchmark of consumer acceptance remains anchored in the subjective sensory responses, the instrumental objective methods are beginning to replace these for application to product and process evaluation. They have also provided insight into the identity of the flavor bearing components and their changes with time and temperature abuse. Recent utilization of mass spectrometry for analysis of the flavor components from vegetable oil containing products has provided greater assurance of the validity of the instrumental approaches.

  9. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  10. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  11. Physics of heavy flavor at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Stefano; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-06-01

    Results on physics of heavy flavor at CDF are reported. Selected measurements of Branching Ratios and CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}, lifetime difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} CP eigenstates and a precise measurement of the B{sub c} mass are presented.

  12. Three-flavor atmospheric neutrino anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Lisi, E.; Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Montanino, D.; Scioscia, G.

    1997-04-01

    We investigate the indications of flavor oscillations that come from the anomalous flavor composition of the atmospheric neutrino flux observed in some underground experiments. We study the information coming from the neutrino-induced {mu}-like and e-like events both in the sub-GeV energy range (Kamiokande, IMB, Fr{acute e}jus, and NUSEX experiments) and in the multi-GeV energy range (Kamiokande experiment). First we analyze all the data in the limits of pure {nu}{sub {mu}}{leftrightarrow}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{leftrightarrow}{nu}{sub e} oscillations. We obtain that {nu}{sub {mu}}{leftrightarrow}{nu}{sub e} oscillations provide a better fit, in particular, to the multi-GeV data. Then we perform a three-flavor analysis in the hypothesis of dominance of one neutrino square mass difference m{sup 2} implying that the neutrino mixing is parametrized by two angles ({psi},{phi}){element_of}[0,{pi}/2]. We explore the space (m{sup 2},{psi},{phi}) exhaustively, and find the regions favored by the oscillation hypothesis. The results are displayed in a form suited to the comparison with other flavor oscillation searches at accelerator, reactor, and solar {nu} experiments. In the analysis, we pay particular attention to the Earth matter effects, to the correlation of the uncertainties, and to the symmetry properties of the oscillation probability. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. The psychophysical relationships between color and flavor.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, A S; Clydesdale, F M

    1978-01-01

    Psychophysics has become a well-defined discipline in science and is undergoing a period of transition from the theoretical and academic to the applied. Certainly the use of magnitude estimation in flavor evaluation is becoming more accepted, and concurrently the food research area is utilizing the colorimetric techniques which are available. However, there has been virtually no investigation carried out on the quantitative relationships which exist between color and flavor in a psychophysical sense. Intuitively, many researchers state the qualitative effect of color on flavor, but the quantification of these techniques is practically nonexistent. This paper will attempt to summarize the psychophysical techniques which are available for such studies, as well as discuss the importance of these studies. Great controversy exists concerning the need for colorants in food. If color does indeed affect flavor quantitatively, it will affect intake and, therefore, final nutritional status of the public in a quantitative manner. This controversy should be resolved in the light of fact, not intuition.

  14. Unified, flavor symmetric explanation for the tt asymmetry and Wjj excess at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ann E.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Okui, Takemichi

    2011-11-01

    We present a simple, perturbative, and renormalizable model with a flavor symmetry which can explain both the tt forward-backward asymmetry and the bump feature present in the dijet mass distribution of the W+jj sample in the range 120-160 GeV that was recently reported by the CDF collaboration. The flavor symmetry not only ensures the flavor/CP safety of the model, but also relates the two anomalies unambiguously. It predicts a comparable forward-backward asymmetry in cc. The forward-backward asymmetry in bb is, however, small. A bump in the dijet mass distribution in Z+jj sample is also predicted but with a suppressed cross section.

  15. Flavored Dark Matter and the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Batell, Brian; Hooper, Dan; Lin, Tongyan

    2014-09-01

    Thermal relic dark matter particles with a mass of 31-40 GeV and that dominantly annihilate to bottom quarks have been shown to provide an excellent description of the excess gamma rays observed from the center of the Milky Way. Flavored dark matter provides a well-motivated framework in which the dark matter can dominantly couple to bottom quarks in a flavor-safe manner. We propose a phenomenologically viable model of bottom flavored dark matter that can account for the spectral shape and normalization of the gamma-ray excess while naturally suppressing the elastic scattering cross sections probed by direct detection experiments. This model will be definitively tested with increased exposure at LUX and with data from the upcoming high-energy run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  16. Computer Simulations for Top Flavor-changing Neutral Higgs Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Jackson; Kao, Chung; Jain, Rishabh; McCoy, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM) are natural extensions to the Standard Model (SM), and a general 2HDM allows tree-level flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC). We choose this model for our analysis. Since the top quark is heavier than the light Higgs, t -> ch is kinematically possible, and a tch coupling is an accessible example of an FCNC. We look to FCNCs to study physics beyond the Standard Model, and, more specifically, to examine the potential for discovery of a flavor-changing neutral Higgs (FCNH) interaction at the LHC. We examine the discovery potential for the processes pp -> th -> bjjWW -> bjjlνlν + X and pp -> t t -> bjjcWW + X , using MadGraph to generate parton level calculations, Pythia for showering and hadronization, and Delphes for detector simulation. We use ROOT analysis to reconstruct the transverse mass mT (ll ,ET) . We examine these processes and present event rates and significance of the Higgs signal, including SM physics background with realistic acceptance cuts for √{ s} = 13 TeV and √{ s} = 14 TeV. This research was funded in part by NSF award PHY-1359417.

  17. Flavor changing strong interaction effects on top quark physics at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Oliveira, O.

    2006-02-01

    We perform a model independent analysis of the flavor changing strong interaction vertices relevant to the LHC. In particular, the contribution of dimension six operators to single top production in various production processes is discussed, together with possible hints for identifying signals and setting bounds on physics beyond the standard model.

  18. Experimental overview on heavy-flavor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Hadrons containing heavy-flavors are unique probes of the properties of the hot and dense QCD medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. Due to their large masses, heavy quarks are produced at the initial stage of the collision, almost exclusively via hard partonic scattering processes. Therefore, they are expected to experience the full collision history propagating through and interacting with the QCD medium. The parton energy loss, which is sensitive to the transport coefficients of the produced medium, can be studied experimentally by measuring the nuclear modification factor which accounts for the modification of the heavy-flavored hadron yield in Pb-Pb collisions with respect to pp collisions. In semi-central Pb-Pb collisions, the degree of thermalization of charm quarks in the QCD medium can be accessed via the measurement of the heavy flavor elliptic flow v2 at low pT. Furthermore, the measurement of heavy-flavors production in pp collisions allows testing the perturbative QCD calculations. The PHENIX and STAR Collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and ALICE, CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider have measured the production of charmonium and bottonium states as well as open heavy flavor hadrons via their hadronic and semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity and in the semi-muonic decay channel at forward rapidity in pp, p-A and A-A collisions in an energy domain that ranges from \\sqrt{s} = 0.2 TeV to \\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV in pp collisions and from \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}} = 0.2 TeV to \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}} = 5.02 TeV in A-A collisions. In this contribution the latest experimental results will be reviewed.

  19. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  20. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S. . E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  1. Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

    PubMed

    Fedan, J S; Dowdy, J A; Fedan, K B; Hubbs, A F

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  2. An fMRI study on the influence of sommeliers' expertise on the integration of flavor

    PubMed Central

    Pazart, Lionel; Comte, Alexandre; Magnin, Eloi; Millot, Jean-Louis; Moulin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Flavors guide consumers' choice of foodstuffs, preferring those that they like and meet their needs, and dismissing those for which they have a conditioned aversion. Flavor affects the learning and consumption of foods and drinks; what is already well-known is favored and what is new is apprehended. The flavor of foodstuffs is also crucial in explaining some eating behaviors such as overconsumption. The “blind” taste test of wine is a good model for assessing the ability of people to convert mouth feelings into flavor. To determine the relative importance of memory and sensory capabilities, we present the results of an fMRI neuro-imaging study involving 10 experts and 10 matched control subjects using wine as a stimulus in a blind taste test, focusing primarily on the assessment of flavor integration. The results revealed activations in the brain areas involved in sensory integration, both in experts and control subjects (insula, frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala). However, experts were mainly characterized by a more immediate and targeted sensory reaction to wine stimulation with an economic mechanism reducing effort than control subjects. Wine experts showed brainstem and left-hemispheric activations in the hippocampal and parahippocampal formations and the temporal pole, whereas control subjects showed activations in different associative cortices, predominantly in the right hemisphere. These results also confirm that wine experts work simultaneously on sensory quality assessment and on label recognition of wine. PMID:25360093

  3. Constraining flavor changing interactions from LHC Run-2 dilepton bounds with vector mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Siqueira, Clarissa; Valle, José W. F.

    2016-12-01

    Within the context of vector mediators, is a new signal observed in flavor changing interactions, particularly in the neutral mesons systems K0 -Kbar0, D0 -Dbar0 and B0 -B0 bar , consistent with dilepton resonance searches at the LHC? In the attempt to address this very simple question, we discuss the complementarity between flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) and dilepton resonance searches at the LHC run 2 at 13 TeV with 3.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, in the context of vector mediators at tree level. Vector mediators, are often studied in the flavor changing framework, specially in the light of the recent LHCb anomaly observed at the rare B decay. However, the existence of stringent dilepton bound severely constrains flavor changing interactions, due to restrictive limits on the Z‧ mass. We discuss this interplay explicitly in the well motivated framework of a 3-3-1 scheme, where fermions and scalars are arranged in the fundamental representation of the weak SU(3) gauge group. Due to the paucity of relevant parameters, we conclude that dilepton data leave little room for a possible new physics signal stemming from these systems, unless a very peculiar texture parametrization is used in the diagonalization of the CKM matrix. In other words, if a signal is observed in such flavor changing interactions, it unlikely comes from a 3-3-1 model.

  4. Kinetic description of fermion flavor mixing and CP-violating sources for baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2005-06-01

    We derive transport equations for fermionic systems with a space-time dependent mass matrix in flavor space allowing for complex elements leading to CP violation required for electroweak baryogenesis. By constructing appropriate projectors in flavor space of the relevant tree level Kadanoff-Baym equations, we split the constraint equations into "diagonal" and "transversal" parts in flavor space, and show that they decouple. While the diagonal densities exhibit standard dispersion relations at leading order in gradients, the transverse densities exhibit a novel on-shell structure. Next, the kinetic equations are considered to second order in gradients and the CP-violating source terms are isolated. This requires a thorough discussion of a flavor independent definition of charge-parity symmetry operation. To make a link with baryogenesis in the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, we construct the Green functions for the leading order kinetic operator and solve the kinetic equations for two mixing fermions (charginos). We take account of flavor blind damping, and consider the cases of inefficient and moderate diffusion. The resulting densities are the CP-violating chargino currents that source baryogenesis.

  5. A chemical genetic roadmap to improved tomato flavor.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise; Zhu, Guangtao; Resende, Marcio F R; Lin, Tao; Nguyen, Cuong; Bies, Dawn; Rambla, Jose Luis; Beltran, Kristty Stephanie Ortiz; Taylor, Mark; Zhang, Bo; Ikeda, Hiroki; Liu, Zhongyuan; Fisher, Josef; Zemach, Itay; Monforte, Antonio; Zamir, Dani; Granell, Antonio; Kirst, Matias; Huang, Sanwen; Klee, Harry

    2017-01-27

    Modern commercial tomato varieties are substantially less flavorful than heirloom varieties. To understand and ultimately correct this deficiency, we quantified flavor-associated chemicals in 398 modern, heirloom, and wild accessions. A subset of these accessions was evaluated in consumer panels, identifying the chemicals that made the most important contributions to flavor and consumer liking. We found that modern commercial varieties contain significantly lower amounts of many of these important flavor chemicals than older varieties. Whole-genome sequencing and a genome-wide association study permitted identification of genetic loci that affect most of the target flavor chemicals, including sugars, acids, and volatiles. Together, these results provide an understanding of the flavor deficiencies in modern commercial varieties and the information necessary for the recovery of good flavor through molecular breeding.

  6. Effect of New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Katori, Teppei; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-10-16

    Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools for investigating the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this Letter, we perform the first general new physics study on ultrahigh energy neutrino flavor content by introducing effective operators. We find that, at the current limits on these operators, new physics terms cause maximal effects on the flavor content; however, the flavor content on the Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content on the Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter – Spreading the Appeal of Flavors

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Soto, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social media platforms are used by tobacco companies to promote products. This study examines message content on Twitter from e-cigarette brands and determines if messages about flavors are more likely than non-flavor messages to be passed along to other viewers. Methods We examined Twitter data from 2 e-cigarette brands and identified messages that contained terms related to e-cigarette flavors. Results Flavor-related posts were retweeted at a significantly higher rate by e-cigarette brands (p = .04) and other Twitter users (p < .01) than non-flavor posts. Conclusions E-cigarette brands and other Twitter users pay attention to flavor-related posts and retweet them often. These findings suggest flavors continue to be an attractive characteristic and their marketing should be monitored closely. PMID:27853734

  8. The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Sembower, Mark A; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gerlach, Karen K; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p < .0001) and for each flavor (most p values < .0001). Teen interest did not vary by flavor (p = .75), but adult interest did (p < .0001). Past-30-day adult e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p < .0001). The e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  10. Heavy flavor electron RAA and υ2 in event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Caio A. G.; Cosentino, Mauro R.; Munhoz, Marcelo G.; Noronha, Jorge; Suaide, Alexandre A. P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate how event-by-event hydrodynamics fluctuations affect the nuclear suppression factor and elliptic flow of heavy flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. We use a 2D+1 Lagrangian ideal hydrodynamic code [1, 2] on an event-by-event basis in order to compute local temperature and flow profiles. Using a strong coupling inspired energy loss parametrization [3] on top of the evolving space-time energy density distributions we are able to propagate the heavy quarks inside the medium until the freeze-out temperature is reached and a Pythia [4] modeling of hadronization takes place. The resulting D0 and heavy-flavor electron yield is compared with recent experimental data for R AA and υ 2 from the STAR and PHENIX collaborations [5-7]. In addition we present preditions for the higher order Fourier harmonic coefficients υ3(pt) of heavy-flavor electrons at Rhic’s collisions.

  11. Flavor release from salad dressings: sensory and physicochemical approaches in relation with the structure.

    PubMed

    Charles, M; Rosselin, V; Beck, L; Sauvageot, F; Guichard, E

    2000-05-01

    The effect of process and formulation on sensory perception and flavor release was investigated on salad dressing models. Oil/vinegar emulsions (phi = 0.5, droplet size > 10 microm) with thickeners and a whey protein concentrate were prepared with different fat droplet sizes and different distributions of fat droplet size. The effect of the amount of emulsifier was also tested. Sensory profile analysis was performed by a trained panel and flavor release quantified by dynamic headspace analysis. When the droplet size is increased, the lemon smell and citrus aroma significantly increase, whereas the egg note, mustard, and butter aroma significantly decrease. The concentrations of alcohols and acids significantly increase when droplet size increases, whereas those of other compounds such as limonene or benzaldehyde significantly decrease. The dispersion of the droplet size has a small effect on flavor perception, and the effect of the increase of the amount of emulsifier is noticed only by instrumental analysis.

  12. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    PubMed

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P < 0.05). Fresh Cheddar whey had higher intensities of buttery and sweet aromatic flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  13. Color-spin locking phase in two-flavor quark matter for compact star phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, D. N.; Blaschke, D.; Buballa, M.; Yudichev, V.L.

    2005-08-01

    We study a spin-1 single-flavor color-superconducting phase which results from a color-spin locking (CSL) interaction in two-flavor quark matter. This phase is particularly interesting for compact star cooling applications since the CSL phase may survive under charge neutrality constraints implying a mismatch between up- and down-quark chemical potentials which can destroy the scalar diquark condensate. CSL gaps are evaluated within an NJL model and they are found to be consistent with cooling phenomenology if a density dependent coupling constant is used.

  14. Insensitivity of leptogenesis with flavor effects to low energy leptonic CP violation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sacha; Garayoa, Julia; Palorini, Federica; Rius, Nuria

    2007-10-19

    If the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is produced by leptogenesis, CP violation is required in the lepton sector. In the seesaw extension of the standard model with three hierarchical right-handed neutrinos, we show that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nagakawa-Sakata phases: thermal leptogenesis can work for any value of the observable phases. This result was well known when there were no flavor effects in leptogenesis; we show that it remains true when flavor effects are included.

  15. Search for anomalous heavy-flavor quark production in association with W bosons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-04-22

    We search for anomalous production of heavy-flavor quark jets in association with W bosons at the Fermilab Tevatron pp Collider in final states in which the heavy-flavor quark content is enhanced by requiring at least one tagged jet in an event. Jets are tagged using one algorithm based on semileptonic decays of b/c hadrons, and another on their lifetimes. We compare e+jets (164 pb(-1)) and mu+jets (145 pb(-1)) channels collected with the D0 detector at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV to expectations from the standard model and set upper limits on anomalous production of such events.

  16. Lepton sector phases and their roles in flavor and generalized C P symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Stuart, Alexander J.

    2017-08-01

    We study the effects of considering nontrivial unphysical lepton sector phases on the group theoretical properties of the flavor and generalized C P symmetry elements in the case where there are three light, distinct Majorana neutrino species. We highlight the similarities and differences between the charged lepton and neutrino sectors and further elucidate the group properties of the flavor and generalized C P symmetry elements. We show how the inclusion of these leptonic phases affects the bottom-up constructions of these symmetry elements and discuss the implications for top-down model building based on discrete symmetry groups.

  17. Insensitivity of Leptogenesis with Flavor Effects to Low Energy Leptonic CP Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Sacha; Palorini, Federica; Garayoa, Julia; Rius, Nuria

    2007-10-19

    If the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is produced by leptogenesis, CP violation is required in the lepton sector. In the seesaw extension of the standard model with three hierarchical right-handed neutrinos, we show that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nagakawa-Sakata phases: thermal leptogenesis can work for any value of the observable phases. This result was well known when there were no flavor effects in leptogenesis; we show that it remains true when flavor effects are included.

  18. Charged-lepton mixing and lepton flavor violation

    DOE PAGES

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Lane, Kenneth

    2015-10-08

    We present a model for calculating charged-lepton mixing matrices. These matrices are an essential ingredient for predicting lepton avor-violating rates in the lepton number nonuniversal models recently proposed to explain anomalies in B-meson decays. The model is based on work on \\constrained flavor breaking" by Appelquist, Bai and Piai relating the charged-lepton mass matrix, Mι, to those for the up and down-type quarks, Mud. We use our recent model of lepton nonuniversality to illustrate the magnitudes of avor-violating B-decay rates that might be expected. As a result, decays with μτ final states generally have the highest rates by far.

  19. Heavy Flavor Measurements at the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Donadelli, Marisilvia

    2010-11-12

    The main focus of the heavy flavor program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility is to investigate the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma poduced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, by studying its effect on open heavy flavor and quarkonia production. The measurements shown in this Letter were performed by PHENIX and STAR experiments in p+p, d+Au, Au+Au collisions at {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV. Charm and beauty cross sections are measured and compared through single lepton, and lepton-hadron correlations in p+p collisions. R{sub AA} modification factor for single electrons in Au+Au collisions is presented. Quarkonia measurements include J/{Psi}, {Psi}' and {Upsilon} yields as well as rapidity dependence, and modification factors for J/{Psi} in d+Au collisions and for {Upsilon} in Au+Au collisions.

  20. Confinement and flavor symmetry breaking via monopolecondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-19

    We discuss dynamics of N=2 supersymmetric SU(n_c) gaugetheories with n_f quark hypermultiplets. Upon N=1 perturbation ofintroducing a finite mass for the adjoint chiral multiplet, we show thatthe flavor U(n_f) symmetry is dynamically broken to U(r) times U(n_f-r),where r\\leq [n_f/2]is an integer. This flavor symmetry breaking occursdue to the condensates of magnetic degrees of freedom which acquireflavor quantum numbers due to the quark zero modes. We briefly comment onthe USp(2n_c) gauge theories. This talk is based on works with GiuseppeCarlino and Ken Konishi, hep-th/0001036 and hep-th/0005076.

  1. Chlorinous flavor perception in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Piriou, P; Mackey, E D; Suffet, I H; Bruchet, A

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinous flavors at the tap are the leading cause of customers' complaints and dissatisfaction with drinking water. To characterize consumer perception and acceptance to chlorinous tastes, extensive taste testing was performed with both trained panelists and average consumers. Taste testing with trained panelists showed that chlorine perception is underestimated by disinfectant flavor thresholds reported in the literature. However, trained panelists significantly overestimate the average consumer's ability to perceive chlorine. In addition, consumer perception seems to be influenced by the chlorination practices of the country they live in. Among water quality characteristics that may influence chlorine perception, temperature was not found to induce any significant change. The influence of total dissolved solids (TDS) on chlorine perception remains unclear and, as reported elsewhere, background tastes such as musty, may significantly impact chlorine threshold.

  2. Revisiting Lepton Flavor Universality in B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride; Pattori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Lepton flavor universality (LFU) in B decays is revisited by considering a class of semileptonic operators defined at a scale Λ above the electroweak scale v . The importance of quantum effects, so far neglected in the literature, is emphasized. We construct the low-energy effective Lagrangian taking into account the running effects from Λ down to v through the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGEs) in the limit of exact electroweak symmetry and QED RGEs from v down to the 1 GeV scale. The most important quantum effects turn out to be the modification of the leptonic couplings of the vector boson Z and the generation of a purely leptonic effective Lagrangian. Large LFU breaking effects in Z and τ decays and visible lepton flavor violating effects in the processes τ →μ ℓℓ, τ →μ ρ , τ →μ π , and τ →μ η(') are induced.

  3. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-07-01

    New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z‧ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h → μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ → μZ‧ opens up and for MZ‧ < 2mμ gives better constraints than τ → 3 μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  4. Revisiting Lepton Flavor Universality in B Decays.

    PubMed

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride; Pattori, Andrea

    2017-01-06

    Lepton flavor universality (LFU) in B decays is revisited by considering a class of semileptonic operators defined at a scale Λ above the electroweak scale v. The importance of quantum effects, so far neglected in the literature, is emphasized. We construct the low-energy effective Lagrangian taking into account the running effects from Λ down to v through the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGEs) in the limit of exact electroweak symmetry and QED RGEs from v down to the 1 GeV scale. The most important quantum effects turn out to be the modification of the leptonic couplings of the vector boson Z and the generation of a purely leptonic effective Lagrangian. Large LFU breaking effects in Z and τ decays and visible lepton flavor violating effects in the processes τ→μℓℓ, τ→μρ, τ→μπ, and τ→μη^{(')} are induced.

  5. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Charmonium with three flavors of synamical quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro et al.

    2003-12-23

    We present a calculation of the charmonium spectrum with three flavors of dynamical staggered quarks from gauge configurations that were generated by the MILC collaboration. We use the Fermilab action for the valence charm quarks. Our calculation of the spin-averaged 1P-1S and 2S-1S splittings yields a determination of the strong coupling, with {alpha}{sub {ovr MS}}(M{sub Z}) = 0.119(4).

  7. Neutrino flavor evolution in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the flavor evolution of neutrinos emitted from the disklike remnant (hereafter called "neutrino disk") of a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. We specifically follow the neutrinos emitted from the center of the disk, along the polar axis perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We carried out two-flavor simulations using a variety of different possible initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra and, for comparison, three-flavor simulations in specific cases. In all simulations, the normal neutrino mass hierarchy was used. The flavor evolution was found to be highly dependent on the initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra; in particular, we found two broad classes of results depending on the sign of the initial net electron neutrino lepton number (i.e., the number of neutrinos minus the number of antineutrinos). In the antineutrino-dominated case, we found that the matter-neutrino resonance effect dominates, consistent with previous results, whereas in the neutrino-dominated case, a bipolar spectral swap develops. The neutrino-dominated conditions required for this latter result have been realized, e.g., in a BNS merger simulation that employs the "DD2" equation of state for neutron star matter [Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044019]. For this case, in addition to the swap at low energies, a collective Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism generates a high-energy electron neutrino tail. The enhanced population of high-energy electron neutrinos in this scenario could have implications for the prospects of r -process nucleosynthesis in the material ejected outside the plane of the neutrino disk.

  8. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Gauthier; Grossman, Yuval; König, Matthias; Kuflik, Eric; Ray, Shamayita

    2016-05-01

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z -boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  9. Heavy Flavored Jet Modification at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In these proceedings, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors of b jets in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, at √{sNN} = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, respectively. In addition, we present the first ever measurement of charm-tagged jets in a heavy-ion environment, including cross-sections and comparisons to PYTHIA in both pPb and pp.

  10. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2016-08-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2 + 1)-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  11. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  12. GR effects in supernova neutrino flavor transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Kneller, James P.

    2017-07-01

    The strong gravitational field around a proto-neutron star can modify the neutrino flavor transformations that occur above the neutrinosphere via three general relativistic (GR) effects: time dilation, energy redshift, and trajectory bending. Depending on the compactness of the central object, the neutrino self-interaction potential is up to three times as large as that without GR principally due to trajectory bending which increases the intersection angles between different neutrino trajectories, and time dilation which changes the fluxes. We determine whether GR effects are important for flavor transformation during the different epochs of a supernova by using multiangle flavor transformation calculations and consider a density profile and neutrino spectra representative of both the accretion and cooling phases. We find the GR effects are smaller during the accretion phase due to low compactness of the proto-neutron star and merely delay the decoherence; the neutrino bipolar oscillations during the cooling phase are also delayed due to the GR effects but the delay may be more important because the delay occurs at radii where it might alter the nucleosynthesis in the neutrino driven wind.

  13. Experimental summary for heavy flavor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongrong

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions have played an important role in understanding the properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collision. Due to their large masses, heavy flavor quarks present unique sensitivity to the kinematics as well as the dynamics of the hot and dense medium. In this article, a selection of recent measurements on heavy flavor production in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies will be presented. The measurements in p+p collisions serve as benchmarks to fundamental theories, and as references to similar studies in A+A collisions where the hot medium effects are present. On the other hand, the measurements in p+A collisions can help to quantify the cold nuclear matter effects which are also in effect in A+A collisions and thus need to be taken into account when interpreting the measurements in heavy-ion collisions. The experimental results from A+A collisions are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations, which can shed lights on the understanding of the quark-gluon plasma.

  14. Human sensory preconditioning in a flavor preference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Mulcahey, Colleen P; Orlowski, Cassandra M

    2012-10-01

    This experiment adapted a sensory preconditioning (SPC) procedure using human participants to determine if conditioning (Cond) to one flavor (the conditioned flavor) will enhance liking for another flavor (the SPC flavor) associated with it prior to training. Participants in one of three groups (N=40 per group) consumed and rated plain or sweetened cherry and grape kool-aids in four phases. In baseline and SPC phase, ratings for a plain cherry, grape, and cherry-grape mixture were similar. In training, one flavor was sweetened (SPC+Cond and Cond Only groups) or unsweetened (SPC Only group) and ratings increased only for the flavor that was sweetened. In test, Group SPC+Cond rated the conditioned flavor and the SPC flavor as more liked and tasting sweeter. Group Cond Only rated only the conditioned flavor as more liked and tasting sweeter. Group SPC Only showed no change in ratings from baseline to test. These are the first data to show SPC learning using a flavor preference paradigm with human participants.

  15. Flavored Anesthetic Masks for Inhalational Induction in Children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aakriti; Mathew, Preethy Joseph; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor. Anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) in the pre-op room and during inhalational induction. Mask acceptance was graded by Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The cost-effectiveness of flavored anesthetic masks was compared to that of commercially available pre-scented masks. The baseline anxiety in the two groups was comparable. The number of children demonstrating high levels of anxiety at anesthetic induction was similar in flavored and non-flavored mask groups (p 0.45). The compliance to mask induction was also equally good (p 0.99). The authors found significant difference in the cost of flavored mask (INR 56.45 per mask) as compared to commercially available pre-scented masks (INR 660 per mask). The authors observed a placebo effect that reduced the pre-op anxiety in the control group which probably made the quality of induction equivalent with flavored and non-flavored masks. Therefore, using a flavored anesthetic mask is cost-effective than using a commercially available pre-scented mask.

  16. Conformal symmetry and light flavor baryon spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, M.; Compean, C. B.

    2010-08-01

    The degeneracy among parity pairs systematically observed in the N and Δ spectra is interpreted to hint on a possible conformal symmetry realization in the light flavor baryon sector in line with AdS5/CFT4. The case is made by showing that all the observed N and Δ resonances with masses below 2500 MeV distribute fairly well each over the first levels of a unitary representation of the conformal group, a representation that covers the spectrum of a quark-diquark system, placed directly on a conformally compactified Minkowski spacetime, R1⊗S3, as approached from the AdS5 cone. The free geodesic motion on the S3 manifold is described by means of the scalar conformal equation there, which is of the Klein-Gordon-type. The equation is then gauged by the curved Coulomb potential that has the form of a cotangent function. Conformal symmetry is not exact, this because the gauge potential slightly modifies the conformal centrifugal barrier of the free geodesic motion. Thanks to this, the degeneracy between P11-S11 pairs from same level is relaxed, while the remaining states belonging to same level remain practically degenerate. The model describes the correct mass ordering in the P11-S11 pairs through the spectra as a combined effect of the above conformal symmetry breaking, on the one side, and a parity change of the diquark from a scalar at low masses, to a pseudoscalar at higher masses, on the other. The quality of the wave functions is illustrated by calculations of realistic mean square charge radii and electric charge form factors on the examples of the proton, and the protonic P11(1440), and S11(1535) resonances. The scheme also allows for a prediction of the dressing function of an effective instantaneous gluon propagator from the Fourier transform of the gauge potential. We find a dressing function that is finite in the infrared and tends to zero at infinity.

  17. Increased S100A4 expression in the vasculature of human COPD lungs and murine model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sebastian; Fink, Ludger; Wilhelm, Jochen; Hoffmann, Julia; Bednorz, Mariola; Seimetz, Michael; Dessureault, Isabel; Troesser, Roger; Ghanim, Bahil; Klepetko, Walter; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2015-10-20

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a common cause of death in industrialized countries often induced by exposure to tobacco smoke. A substantial number of patients with COPD also suffer from pulmonary hypertension that may be caused by hypoxia or other hypoxia-independent stimuli - inducing pulmonary vascular remodeling. The Ca(2+) binding protein, S100A4 is known to play a role in non-COPD-driven vascular remodeling of intrapulmonary arteries. Therefore, we have investigated the potential involvement of S100A4 in COPD induced vascular remodeling. Lung tissue was obtained from explanted lungs of five COPD patients and five non-transplanted donor lungs. Additionally, mice lungs of a tobacco-smoke-induced lung emphysema model (exposure for 3 and 8 month) and controls were investigated. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of S100A4 and RAGE mRNA was performed from laser-microdissected intrapulmonary arteries. S100A4 immunohistochemistry was semi-quantitatively evaluated. Mobility shift assay and siRNA knock-down were used to prove hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) and HIF binding within the S100A4 promoter. Laser-microdissection in combination with real-time PCR analysis revealed higher expression of S100A4 mRNA in intrapulmonary arteries of COPD patients compared to donors. These findings were mirrored by semi-quantitative analysis of S100A4 immunostaining. Analogous to human lungs, in mice with tobacco-smoke-induced emphysema an up-regulation of S100A4 mRNA and protein was observed in intrapulmonary arteries. Putative HREs could be identified in the promoter region of the human S100A4 gene and their functionality was confirmed by mobility shift assay. Knock-down of HIF1/2 by siRNA attenuated hypoxia-dependent increase in S100A4 mRNA levels in human primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, RAGE mRNA expression was enhanced in pulmonary arteries of tobacco-smoke exposed mice but not in pulmonary arteries of COPD patients. As enhanced S100A4

  18. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  19. Leptonic flavor violation in the Higgs sector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Brent; Kao, Chung; Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Soni, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    We present the discovery potential of pp ->ϕ0 -> τμ + X at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with ϕ0 =h0 ,H0 ,A0 . We choose a general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with non-negligible flavor changing couplings in the hadronic sector, in which ϕ0 couples to tc . Current data favors the alignment limit of a 2HDM where sin(β - α) 1 , which can enhance leptonic couplings to the light Higgs boson and might provide an observable flavor changing cross-section in that sector. We study the ϕ0 -> τμ channel for a range of cos(β - α) and ρτμ values that can be consistent with the CMS excess in Run-1 and account for dominant physics background with realistic acceptance cuts at √{ s} = 13 TeV and 14 TeV. U.S. Department of Energy and OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research.

  20. Collective quantization of three-flavored Skyrmions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Cohen, Thomas D.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Lynch, Erin M.

    2005-11-01

    A self-consistent large N{sub c} approach is developed for the collective quantization of SU(3) flavor hedgehog solitons, such as the Skyrmion. The key to this analysis is the determination of all of the zero-modes associated with small fluctuations around the hedgehog. These are used in the conventional way to construct collective coordinates. This approach differs from previous work in that it does not implicitly assume that each static zero-mode is associated with a dynamical zero-mode. It is demonstrated explicitly in the context of the Skyrmion that there are fewer dynamical zero-modes than static ones due to the Witten-Wess-Zumino term in the action. Group-theoretic methods are employed to identify the physical states resulting from canonical quantization of the collectively rotating soliton. The collective states fall into representations of SU(3) flavor labeled by (p,q) and are given by (2J,(Nc/2)-J) where J=(1/2),(3/2),{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} is the spin of the collective state. States with strangeness S>0 do not arise as collective states from this procedure; thus the {theta}{sup +} (pentaquark) resonance does not arise as a collective excitation in models of this type.