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Sample records for a4 hydrolase lta4h

  1. The novel 13S,14S-epoxy-maresin is converted by human macrophages to maresin 1 (MaR1), inhibits leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), and shifts macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Zhu, Min; Vlasenko, Nikita A.; Deng, Bin; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Maresins are produced by macrophages from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exert potent proresolving and tissue homeostatic actions. Maresin 1 (MaR1; 7R,14S-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,8E,10E,12Z,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid) is the first identified maresin. Here, we investigate formation, stereochemistry, and precursor role of 13,14-epoxy-docosahexaenoic acid, an intermediate in MaR1 biosynthesis. The 14-lipoxygenation of DHA by human macrophage 12-lipoxygenase (hm12-LOX) gave 14-hydro(peroxy)-docosahexaenoic acid (14-HpDHA), as well as several dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acids, implicating an epoxide intermediate formation by this enzyme. Using a stereo-controlled synthesis, enantiomerically pure 13S,14S-epoxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid (13S,14S-epoxy-DHA) was prepared, and its stereochemistry was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. When this 13S,14S-epoxide was incubated with human macrophages, it was converted to MaR1. The synthetic 13S,14S-epoxide inhibited leukotriene B4 (LTB4) formation by human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) ∼40% (P<0.05) to a similar extent as LTA4 (∼50%, P<0.05) but was not converted to MaR1 by this enzyme. 13S,14S-epoxy-DHA also reduced (∼60%; P<0.05) arachidonic acid conversion by hm12-LOX and promoted conversion of M1 macrophages to M2 phenotype, which produced more MaR1 from the epoxide than M1. Together, these findings establish the biosynthesis of the 13S,14S-epoxide, its absolute stereochemistry, its precursor role in MaR1 biosynthesis, and its own intrinsic bioactivity. Given its actions and role in MaR1 biosynthesis, this epoxide is now termed 13,14-epoxy-maresin (13,14-eMaR) and exhibits new mechanisms in resolution of inflammation in its ability to inhibit proinflammatory mediator production by LTA4 hydrolase and to block arachidonate conversion by human 12-LOX rather than merely terminating phagocyte involvement.—Dalli, J., Zhu, M., Vlasenko, N. A., Deng, B., Haeggström, J. Z., Petasis, N. A., Serhan, C. N. The novel 13S

  2. Synthesis, docking, cytotoxicity, and LTA4H inhibitory activity of new gingerol derivatives as potential colorectal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Mai H; Mira, Amira; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Amer, Mohamed M; Badria, Farid A

    2017-02-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA 4 H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene which may play an important role in chronic inflammation associated carcinogenesis. [6]-gingerol, the major bioactive compound of Zingiber officinale, is a potential inhibitor of LTA 4 H, a highly expressed enzyme in colorectal carcinoma. Eighteen compounds; seven of natural origin (including [4]-, [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerol), five new and six known semi-synthesized [6]-gingerol derivatives were examined using docking, in vitro cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and LTA 4 H aminopeptidase and epoxide hydrolase inhibitory studies. Methyl shogoal (D8) showed to be the most potent compound against HCT-116 cells (IC 50 ; 1.54μM). Remarkably, D8 proved to be non-cytotoxic to normal cells; (TIG-1) and (HF-19) with high selective index (SI; 52.3). Furthermore [6]-gingerol derivatives showed potent LTA 4 H inhibitory activities in comparison to the universal positive controls (bestatin and 4BSA). Among the natural gingerols, [10]-gingerol (N3) exhibited the highest LTA 4 H aminopeptidase and epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activities with IC 50 ; 21.59 and 15.24μM, respectively. Meanwhile, methyl shogoal (D8) and 4'-O-prenyl-[6]-gingerol (D10) retained the highest inhibition with IC 50 ; 4.92 and 3.01μM, for aminopeptidase, and 11.27 and 7.25μM for epoxide hydrolase activities, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Discover potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix based on molecular simulation methods].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yan-Kun; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), as the major targets of 5-LOX branch in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway, play an important role in the treatment of inflammation. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix have clear anti-inflammation activities. In this paper, the targets of 5-LOX and LTA4H were used as the research carrier, and Hiphop module in DS4.0 (Discovery studio) was used to construct ingredients database for preliminary screening of three traditional Chinese medicines based on target inhibitor pharmacophore, so as to obtain 5-LOX and LTA4H potential active ingredients. The ingredients obtained in initial pharmacophore screening were further screened by using CDOCKER module, and the screening rules were established based on the score of initial compound and the key amino acids to obtain 12 potential 5-LOX inhibitors and 7 potential LTA4H inhibitors. To be more specific, the potential 5-LOX inhibitors included 6 ingredients in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, such as procyanidins B2-3,3'-O-double gallate and revandchinone 2; four ingredients in notopterygium, such as dodecanoic acid and so on. On the other hand, potential LTA4H inhibitors included revandchinone 1, revandchinone 4 in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, tridecanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid and methyl eicosanoate in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, montanic acid methyl ester and N-docosanoyl-O-aminobenzoate in Genitana Macrophyllae Radix and so on. The molecular simulation methods were highly efficient and time-saving to obtain the potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H, which could provide assistance for discovering the chemical quality indicators of anti-inflammatory efficacy of three Chinese herbs, and may be helpful to promote the whole-process quality control of three Chinese herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Nguyen T T; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Tram, Trinh T B; Thao, Le T P; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Ha, Vu T N; Bang, Nguyen D; Chau, Tran T H; Lan, Nguyen H; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen V V; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen T H; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya; Andrade, Bruno B

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non-IRIS group and in IRIS

  7. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L.; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Methods Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. Results A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non

  8. Testicular distribution and toxicity of a novel LTA4H inhibitor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.D., E-mail: pward4@its.jnj.com; La, D.

    JNJ 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole body autoradiography study showed preferential distribution and retention of JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity in the testes consistent with the observed site of toxicity. Subsequent studies with unlabeled JNJ 40929837 showed different metabolite profiles between the plasma and testes. Following a singlemore » oral 50 mg/kg dose of JNJ 40929837, M2 was the primary metabolite in plasma whereas M1 was the primary metabolite in testes. The exposure of M1 was 386-fold higher in the testes compared to plasma whereas M2 had limited exposure in testes. Furthermore, the T{sub max} of M1 was 48 h in testes suggesting a large accumulation potential of this metabolite in testes compared to plasma. Following six months of repeated daily oral dosing, M1 accumulated approximately five-fold in the testes whereas the parent did not accumulate. These results indicate that the toxicokinetic profiles of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites in testes are markedly different compared to plasma and support the importance of understanding the toxicokinetic profiles of compounds and their metabolites in organs/tissues where toxicity is observed. - Highlights: • JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity preferentially distributed into testes • Primary metabolite flip-flop in plasma and testes • The primary metabolite in testes accumulated 5-fold but not parent.« less

  9. In Vivo Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging of the Activity of the Inflammatory Biomarker LTA4H in a Mouse Pneumonia Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xue, Ke; Li, Ping; Yang, Yuyun; He, Zixu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Tang, Bo

    2018-05-15

    Severe atmospheric haze caused by industrial pollution has severely affected human health and led to the increasing incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases, including pneumonia. Conventional methods for diagnosis of pneumonia are complicated and tedious, and current clinical imaging techniques might cause organ injuries to some extent. Therefore, an accurate, fast, and intact imaging method must be developed to diagnose pneumonia in the early stages. In this study, we propose a new two-photon fluorescence probe, named as ASPC, for detection of the activity of the inflammatory biomarker LTA 4 H through specific recognition and cleavage of amides containing the unnatural amino acid l-AspBzl. The activity of LTA 4 H in the lung tissues of mice was rapidly and accurately monitored for the first time and could be an indicator for diagnosis of pneumonia. The severity of pneumonia in mice caused by haze particulate was determined through imaging the activity of LTA 4 H as biomarker and confirmed using a commercial ELISA kit of interleukin-1β. This work provides a promising method for clinical detection of pneumonia and for screening specific depressors of LTA 4 H as potential drug candidates.

  10. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Torres, María José; Fierro, Angélica; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Romero-Parra, Javier; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Faúndez, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Leukotriene A 4 hydrolase is a soluble enzyme with epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities catalysing the conversion of leukotriene A 4 to leukotriene B 4 and the hydrolysis of the peptide proline-glycine-proline. Imbalances in leukotriene B 4 synthesis are related to several pathologic conditions. Currently there are no available drugs capable to modulate the synthesis of leukotriene B 4 or to block its receptors. Here we show the inhibitory profile of alpha lipoic acid on the activity of leukotriene A 4 Hydrolase. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited both activities of the enzyme at concentrations lower than 10μM. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886, were unable to inhibit the activity of the enzyme. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells were differentiated to leukotriene A 4 hydrolase expressing neutrophil-like cells. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of the cytosolic fraction from neutrophil-like cells but had no effect on the cytosolic fraction from undifferentiated cells. Docking and molecular dynamic approximations revealed that alpha lipoic acid participates in electrostatic interactions with K-565 and R-563, which are key residues for the carboxylate group recognition of endogenous substrates by the enzyme. Alpha lipoic acid is a compound widely used in clinical practice, most of its therapeutic effects are associated with its antioxidants properties, however, antioxidant effect alone is unable to explain all clinical effects observed with alpha lipoic acid. Our results invite to evaluate the significance of the inhibitory effect of alpha lipoic acid on the catalytic activity of leukotriene A 4 hydrolase using in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Host genotype-specific therapies can optimize the inflammatory response to mycobacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Roca, Francisco J.; Oh, Sungwhan F.; McFarland, Ross; Vickery, Thad W.; Ray, John P.; Ko, Dennis C.; Zou, Yuxia; Bang, Nguyen D.; Chau, Tran T. H.; Vary, Jay C.; Hawn, Thomas R.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Thwaites, Guy E.; King, Mary-Claire; Serhan, Charles N.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2012-01-01

    Summary Susceptibility to tuberculosis is historically ascribed to an inadequate immune response that fails to control infecting mycobacteria. In zebrafish, we find that susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum can result from either inadequate or excessive acute inflammation. Modulation of the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) locus, which controls the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, reveals two distinct molecular routes to mycobacterial susceptibility converging on dysregulated TNF levels: inadequate inflammation caused by excess lipoxins and hyperinflammation driven by excess leukotriene B4. We identify therapies that specifically target each of these extremes. In humans, we identify a single nucleotide polymorphism in the LTA4H promoter that regulates its transcriptional activity. In tuberculous meningitis, the polymorphism is associated with inflammatory cell recruitment, patient survival and response to adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy. Together, our findings suggest that host-directed therapies tailored to patient LTA4H genotypes may counter detrimental effects of either extreme of inflammation. PMID:22304914

  12. Glycoside hydrolases having multiple hydrolase activities

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zhiwei; Friedland, Gregory D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Chivian, Dylan C.; Simmons, Blake A

    2017-08-08

    Glycoside hydrolases having at least two different hydrolytic activities are provided. In one embodiment, an isolated recombinant hydrolase having at least two activities selected from a group including asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided. Further, a method of generating free sugars from a mixture comprising asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided.

  13. Pharmacological profile and efficiency in vivo of diflapolin, the first dual inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein and soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Garscha, Ulrike; Romp, Erik; Pace, Simona; Rossi, Antonietta; Temml, Veronika; Schuster, Daniela; König, Stefanie; Gerstmeier, Jana; Liening, Stefanie; Werner, Markus; Atze, Heiner; Wittmann, Sandra; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Scriba, Gerhard K; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2017-08-24

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to diverse bioactive lipid mediators. Whereas the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) facilitates AA conversion by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) to pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LTs), the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) degrades anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Accordingly, dual FLAP/sEH inhibition might be advantageous drugs for intervention of inflammation. We present the in vivo pharmacological profile and efficiency of N-[4-(benzothiazol-2-ylmethoxy)-2-methylphenyl]-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (diflapolin) that dually targets FLAP and sEH. Diflapolin inhibited 5-LOX product formation in intact human monocytes and neutrophils with IC 50  = 30 and 170 nM, respectively, and suppressed the activity of isolated sEH (IC 50  = 20 nM). Characteristic for FLAP inhibitors, diflapolin (I) failed to inhibit isolated 5-LOX, (II) blocked 5-LOX product formation in HEK cells only when 5-LOX/FLAP was co-expressed, (III) lost potency in intact cells when exogenous AA was supplied, and (IV) prevented 5-LOX/FLAP complex assembly in leukocytes. Diflapolin showed target specificity, as other enzymes related to AA metabolism (i.e., COX1/2, 12/15-LOX, LTA 4 H, LTC 4 S, mPGES 1 , and cPLA 2 ) were not inhibited. In the zymosan-induced mouse peritonitis model, diflapolin impaired vascular permeability, inhibited cysteinyl-LTs and LTB 4 formation, and suppressed neutrophil infiltration. Diflapolin is a highly active dual FLAP/sEH inhibitor in vitro and in vivo with target specificity to treat inflammation-related diseases.

  14. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  15. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah [Davis, CA; Ward, Connie [Hamilton, MT; Cherry, Joel [Davis, CA; Jones, Aubrey [Davis, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Yi, Jung [Sacramento, CA

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  16. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2017-07-11

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  17. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  18. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by pathogenic fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogens are known to produce proteases that target host defense proteins. Here we describe polyglycine hydrolases, fungal proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine interdomain linker of targeted plant defense chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were puri...

  19. Epoxide hydrolases: structure, function, mechanism, and assay.

    PubMed

    Arand, Michael; Cronin, Annette; Adamska, Magdalena; Oesch, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are a class of enzymes important in the detoxification of genotoxic compounds, as well as in the control of physiological signaling molecules. This chapter gives an overview on the function, structure, and enzymatic mechanism of structurally characterized epoxide hydrolases and describes selected assays for the quantification of epoxide hydrolase activity.

  20. Hydrolases of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Rokicki, Jerzy; Lopieńska-Biernat, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic activity is an indicator of an organism's metabolic rate which depends on, i.e., environmental conditions, developmental stage, physiological stage, and sex. The API ZYM test was applied to compare activities of 19 hydrolases of female and male Hysterothylacium aduncum. Sexually mature nematodes were isolated from eelpout individuals caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk. Enzymatic activity of the hydrolases and the protein content was determined in nematode extracts using API ZYM and Bradford's method, respectively. The females and males tested showed a total of 13 enzymes to be active. The males showed additionally the presence of alpha-fucosidase. Acidic and alkaline phosphatases had very high activities in both sexes; short-chain fatty acid esterases, leucine and valine aminopeptidases, alpha-glucosidase, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were highly active. H. aduncum showed no trypsin- and chymotrypsin-specific activities; similarly, no activity of alpha-galactosidase, alpha-mannosidase, and beta-glucuronidase was revealed. Except for lipase (C14), hydrolases were more active in females than in males, which is related to metabolic rate being higher in females due to their reproductive function. Comparison of the results obtained with earlier data produced with API ZYM allowed suggesting that the hydrolase pattern may be more affected by habitat in the host than by the taxonomic affiliation of nematode.

  1. Structure and function of polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave polyglycine linkers of targeted plant defense chitinases. Unlike typical endoproteases that cleave a specific peptide bond, these 640 amino acid glycoproteins selectively cleave one of multiple peptide bonds within polyglyci...

  2. A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Noerager, Brett D; Xu, Xin; Davis, Virginia A; Jones, Caleb W; Okafor, Svetlana; Whitehead, Alicia; Blalock, J Edwin; Jackson, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are key mediators of inflammatory processes throughout the body. In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatment induced elevated production and functionality of collagen-degrading enzymes and generation of PGP fragments. Meanwhile, LTA4H levels and triaminopeptidase activity declined with increasing concentrations of acrolein thereby sparing PGP from enzymatic destruction. These findings suggest that acrolein exacerbates the acute inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils and sets the stage for chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  3. Inhibition of polygylcine hydrolases by substrate analog peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are proteases secreted by fungal pathogens that target corn defense chitinases. They cleave interdomain glycine-glycine bonds within a polyglycine linker, separating substrate chitinases into two single domain proteins. Polyglycine hydrolases consist of 640 amino acids with a ...

  4. Bacterial CS2 Hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Strains Are Homologous to the Archaeal Catenane CS2 Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Smeulders, Marjan J.; Pol, Arjan; Venselaar, Hanka; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Hermans, John; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS2 is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a property used in industrial biofiltration of CS2-polluted airstreams. We report on the mechanism of bacterial CS2 conversion in the extremely acidophilic A. thiooxidans strains S1p and G8. The bacterial CS2 hydrolases were highly abundant. They were purified and found to be homologous to the only other described (archaeal) CS2 hydrolase from Acidianus strain A1-3, which forms a catenane of two interlocked rings. The enzymes cluster in a group of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) homologues that may comprise a subclass of CS2 hydrolases within the β-CA family. Unlike CAs, the CS2 hydrolases did not hydrate CO2 but converted CS2 and COS with H2O to H2S and CO2. The CS2 hydrolases of A. thiooxidans strains G8, 2Bp, Sts 4-3, and BBW1, like the CS2 hydrolase of Acidianus strain A1-3, exist as both octamers and hexadecamers in solution. The CS2 hydrolase of A. thiooxidans strain S1p forms only octamers. Structure models of the A. thiooxidans CS2 hydrolases based on the structure of Acidianus strain A1-3 CS2 hydrolase suggest that the A. thiooxidans strain G8 CS2 hydrolase may also form a catenane. In the A. thiooxidans strain S1p enzyme, two insertions (positions 26 and 27 [PD] and positions 56 to 61 [TPAGGG]) and a nine-amino-acid-longer C-terminal tail may prevent catenane formation. PMID:23836868

  5. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  6. Human alpha beta hydrolase domain containing protein 11 and its yeast homolog are lipid hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, Madhuri; Srinivasan, Malathi; Rajasekharan, Ram

    Mammalian alpha/beta hydrolase domain (ABHD) family of proteins have emerged as key regulators of lipid metabolism and are found to be associated with human diseases. Human α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 11 (ABHD11) has recently been predicted as a potential biomarker for human lung adenocarcinoma. In silico analyses of the ABHD11 protein sequence revealed the presence of a conserved lipase motif GXSXG. However, the role of ABHD11 in lipid metabolism is not known. To understand the biological function of ABHD11, we heterologously expressed the human ABHD11 in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo [{sup 14}C]acetate labeling of cellular lipids in yeast cellsmore » overexpressing ABHD11 showed a decrease in triacylglycerol content. Overexpression of ABHD11 also alters the molecular species of triacylglycerol in yeast. Similar activity was observed in its yeast homolog, Ygr031w. The role of the conserved lipase motif in the hydrolase activity was proven by the mutation of all conserved amino acid residues of GXSXG motif. Collectively, our results demonstrate that human ABHD11 and its yeast homolog YGR031W have a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Overexpression of ABHD11 protein and its yeast homolog Ygr031w cause a reduction in triacylglycerol levels in yeast. • The reduction in triacylglycerol is due to the presence of lipase motif GXSXG. • Overexpression of ABHD11 and Ygr031w alters the molecular species of triacylglycerol.« less

  7. Characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Leeson, Cristian; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Rein, Kathleen S

    2016-02-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with molecular weight 44kDa. Kinetic parameters were evaluated using a variety of epoxide substrates to assess substrate selectivity and enantioselectivity, as well as its potential to catalyze the critical endo-tet cyclization of epoxy alcohols. Monitoring of EH activity in high and low toxin producing cultures of K. brevis over a three week period showed consistently higher activity in the high toxin producing culture implicating the involvement of one or more EH in brevetoxin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural and functional attributes of malaria parasite diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arvind; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-02-01

    Malaria symptoms are driven by periodic multiplication cycles of Plasmodium parasites in human red blood corpuscles (RBCs). Malaria infection still accounts for ~600,000 annual deaths, and hence discovery of both new drug targets and drugs remains vital. In the present study, we have investigated the malaria parasite enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase that regulates levels of signalling molecules like Ap4A by hydrolyzing them to ATP and AMP. We have tracked the spatial distribution of parasitic Ap4A hydrolase in infected RBCs, and reveal its unusual localization on the infected RBC membrane in subpopulation of infected cells. Interestingly, enzyme activity assays reveal an interaction between Ap4A hydrolase and the parasite growth inhibitor suramin. We also present a high resolution crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase in apo- and sulphate- bound state, where the sulphate resides in the enzyme active site by mimicking the phosphate of substrates like Ap4A. The unexpected infected erythrocyte localization of the parasitic Ap4A hydrolase hints at a possible role of this enzyme in purinerigic signaling. In addition, atomic structure of Ap4A hydrolase provides insights for selective drug targeting.

  9. Measuring the Global Substrate Specificity of Mycobacterial Serine Hydrolases Using a Library of Fluorogenic Ester Substrates.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Braden; Waibel, Brent; White, Alex; Hansen, Heather; Stephens, Dominique; Koelper, Andrew; Larsen, Erik M; Kim, Charles; Glanzer, Adam; Lavis, Luke D; Hoops, Geoffrey C; Johnson, R Jeremy

    2018-04-16

    Among the proteins required for lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a significant number of uncharacterized serine hydrolases, especially lipases and esterases. Using a streamlined synthetic method, a library of immolative fluorogenic ester substrates was expanded to better represent the natural lipidomic diversity of Mycobacterium. This expanded fluorogenic library was then used to rapidly characterize the global structure activity relationship (SAR) of mycobacterial serine hydrolases in M. smegmatis under different growth conditions. Confirmation of fluorogenic substrate activation by mycobacterial serine hydrolases was performed using nonspecific serine hydrolase inhibitors and reinforced the biological significance of the SAR. The hydrolases responsible for the global SAR were then assigned using gel-resolved activity measurements, and these assignments were used to rapidly identify the relative substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized mycobacterial hydrolases. These measurements provide a global SAR of mycobacterial hydrolase activity, a picture of cycling hydrolase activity, and a detailed substrate specificity profile for previously uncharacterized hydrolases.

  10. Benzil, a potent activator of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seidegård, J; DePierre, J W

    1980-12-01

    Benzil was found to be a very potent activator of microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity (measured with styrene oxide as substrate) in vitro. The activating effect was uncompetitive and benzil causes approximately ninefold increases in both the apparent V and the apparent Km of the enzyme(s). The half-maximal effect on activity was obtained as a 0.3 mM concentration of benzil. The activating effect obtained with benzil was found to be very specific, since a variety of structurally related compounds had little or no effect on microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity. In order to obtain indications for the existence of more than one microsomal epoxide hydrolase the effect of benzil on this activity from rats induced with phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, trans-stilbene oxide, and benzil was tested. The differences observed were minor.

  11. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  12. Germline genetics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and its specific subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang; Kumar, Abhishek; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Claes; Folprecht, Gunnar; Löffler, Harald; Krämer, Alwin; Försti, Asta

    2016-04-19

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a fatal cancer diagnosed through metastases at various organs. Little is known about germline genetics of CUP which appears worth of a search in view of reported familial associations in CUP. In the present study, samples from CUP patients were identified from 2 Swedish biobanks and a German clinical trial, totaling 578 CUP patients and 7628 regionally matched controls. Diagnostic data specified the organ where metastases were diagnosed. We carried out a genome-wide association study on CUP cases and controls. In the whole sample set, 6 loci reached an allelic p-value in the range of 10-7 and were supported by data from the three centers. Three associations were located next to non-coding RNA genes. rs2660852 flanked 5'UTR of LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase), rs477145 was intronic to TIAM1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastases) and rs2835931 was intronic to KCNJ6 (potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6). In analysis of subgroups of CUP patients (smokers, non-smokers and CUP with liver metastases) genome-wide significant associations were noted. For patients with liver metastases associations on chromosome 6 and 11, the latter including a cluster of genes DHCR7 and NADSYN1, encoding key enzymes in cholesterol and NAD synthesis, and KRTAP5-7, encoding a keratin associated protein. This first GWAS on CUP provide preliminary evidence that germline genes relating to inflammation (LTA4H), metastatic promotion (TIAM1) in association with lipid metabolic disturbance (chromosome 11 cluster) may contribute to the risk of CUP.

  13. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. Their action usually generates a small hole through which the phage tail crosses the cell envelope to inject the phage genetic m...

  14. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  15. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  16. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    DOEpatents

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  17. Recognition of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific pe...

  18. Consolidation of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 : a dual domain 4/7 hydrolase family consisting of two structurally distinct groups

    Treesearch

    Franz J. St John; Javier M. Gonzalez; Edwin Pozharski

    2010-01-01

    In this work glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 30 (GH30) is analyzed and shown to consist of its currently classified member sequences as well as several homologous sequence groups currently assigned within family GH5. A large scale amino acid sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree were generated and GH30 groups and subgroups were designated. A partial rearrangement...

  19. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  20. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-12-13

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  1. Inhibition of Xenobiotic-Degrading Hydrolases by Organophosphinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    transient increase in the salicylic acid hydrolysis product was observed. Pretreatment with 4-nitrophenyl methyl(phenyl)phosphinate had no significant...h. Hydroly- sis of aspirin was not reduced in pretreated mice, although a transient increase in the salicylic acid hydrolysis product was observed...26 Figure 1. Pathways of aspirin metabolism in mammals: CE is carboxylester hydrolase, SA is salicylic acid, SU is salicyluric

  2. Autolytic hydrolases affect sexual and asexual development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Emri, Tamás; Vékony, Viktória; Gila, Barnabás; Nagy, Flóra; Forgács, Katalin; Pócsi, István

    2018-03-30

    Radial growth, asexual sporulation, and cleistothecia formation as well as extracellular chitinase and proteinase formation of Aspergillus nidulans were monitored in surface cultures in order to study the physiological role of extracellular hydrolase production in carbon-stressed cultures. We set up carbon-stressed and carbon-overfed experimental conditions by varying the starting glucose concentration within the range of 2.5 and 40 g/L. Glucose starvation induced radial growth and hydrolase production and enhanced the maturation of cleistothecia; meanwhile, glucose-rich conditions enhanced mycelial biomass, conidia, and cleistothecia production. Double deletion of chiB and engA (encoding an extracellular endochitinase and a β-1,3-endoglucanase, respectively) decreased conidia production under carbon-stressed conditions, suggesting that these autolytic hydrolases can support conidia formation by releasing nutrients from the cell wall polysaccharides of dead hyphae. Double deletion of prtA and pepJ (both genes encode extracellular proteases) reduced the number of cleistothecia even under carbon-rich conditions except in the presence of casamino acids, which supports the view that sexual development and amino acid metabolism are tightly connected to each other in this fungus.

  3. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolasemore » genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta

  4. Enzymatic degradation of monocrotophos by extracellular fungal OP hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena

    2013-11-01

    The present study explores the potential of extracellular fungal organophosphate (OP) hydrolase for the degradation of monocrotophos. Extracellular OP hydrolases were isolated and purified from five different fungal isolates viz. Aspergillus niger (M1), Aspergillus flavus (M2), Penicillium aculeatum (M3), Fusarium pallidoroseum (M4), and Macrophomina sp. (M5) by AmSO4 precipitation, dialysis, and G-100 chromatography. M3 showed highest percentage yield of 68.81 followed by 55.41 % for M1. Each of the purified enzyme fraction constituted of two different subunits of 33- and 67-kDa molecular weight. Optimum enzyme fraction (150 μg ml(-1)) rapidly degraded monocrotophos within 120 h in phosphorus-free liquid culture medium (CZM) with K deg of 0.0368, 0.0138, 0.048, 0.016, 0.0138, and 0.048 day(-1) and half-life of 0.79, 2.11, 0.6, 1.8, and 2.11 days for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively. The results were further confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared which indicate the disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. The overall order of enzymatic degradation was found to be P. aculeatum > A. niger > F. pallidoroseum > A. flavus = Macrophomina sp. Hence, the study concludes that extracellular OP hydrolases efficiently degraded monocrotophos and could be used as a potential candidate for the detoxification of this neurotoxin pesticide.

  5. Function of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases in rice

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Osakabe, Keishi; Toki, Seiichi; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Although xyloglucans are ubiquitous in land plants, they are less abundant in Poales species than in eudicotyledons. Poales cell walls contain higher levels of β-1,3/1,4 mixed-linked glucans and arabinoxylans than xyloglucans. Despite the relatively low level of xyloglucans in Poales, the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) is comparable in size to that of the eudicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana. This raises the question of whether xyloglucan is a substrate for rice XTH gene products, whose enzyme activity remains largely uncharacterized. Methods This study focused on OsXTH19 (which belongs to Group IIIA of the XTH family and is specifically expressed in growing tissues of rice shoots), and two other XTHs, OsXTH11 (Group I/II) and OsXTH20 (Group IIIA), for reference, and measurements were made of the enzymatic activities of three recombinant rice XTHs, i.e. OsXTH11, OsXTH20 and OsXTH19. Key Results All three OsXTH gene products have xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH, EC 3·2·1·151) activity, and OsXTH11 has both XEH and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET, EC 2·4·1207) activities. However, these proteins had neither hydrolase nor transglucosylase activity when glucuronoarabinoxylan or mixed-linkage glucan was used as the substrate. These results are consistent with histological observations demonstrating that pOsXTH19::GUS is expressed specifically in the vicinity of tissues where xyloglucan immunoreactivity is present. Transgenic rice lines over-expressing OsXTH19 (harbouring a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter::OsXTH19 cDNA construct) or with suppressed OsXTH19 expression (harbouring a pOsXTH19 RNAi construct) did not show dramatic phenotypic changes, suggesting functional redundancy and collaboration among XTH family members, as was observed in A. thaliana. Conclusions OsXTH20 and OsXTH19 act as hydrolases exclusively on xyloglucan, while OsXTH11 exhibits both hydrolase and XET activities

  6. Recognition and cleavage of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn. Polyglycine hydrolases are novel proteins in terms of activity and sequence. The objective of the study is to und...

  7. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  8. Saccharification of woody biomass using glycoside hydrolases from Stereum hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Kalyani, Dayanand; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Kim, Hoon; Woo, Seongmin; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of woody biomasses was performed using glycoside hydrolases from Stereum hirsutum, a newly isolated fungal strain found to secrete efficient glycoside hydrolases. The strain showed the highest β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase, endoxylanase, laccase, and filter paper activity of 10.3, 1.7, 10.3, 29.9, 0.12, and 0.58 U/ml, respectively. Among the various biomasses tested for saccharification, pine biomass produced maximum reducing sugar. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the hydrolysis of pine biomass to achieve the highest level of sugars. The parameters including enzyme, substrate concentration, temperature and pH were found to be critical for the conversion of pine biomass into sugars. Maximum saccharification of 49.7% (435 mg/g-substrate) was obtained after 96 h of hydrolysis. A close agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions was achieved. S. hirsutum could be a good choice for the production of reducing sugars from cellulosic biomasses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of epoxide hydrolases in batch fermentations of Botryosphaeria rhodina.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Guido; Junne, Stefan; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Hempel, Dietmar C; Götz, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina (ATCC 9055) was investigated related to its ability for epoxide hydrolase (EH) production. Epoxide hydrolase activity is located at two different sites of the cells. The larger part is present in the cytosol (70%), while the smaller part is associated to membranes (30%). In media optimization experiments, an activity of 3.5 U/gDW for aromatic epoxide hydrolysis of para-nitro-styrene oxide (pNSO) could be obtained. Activity increased by 30% when pNSO was added to the culture during exponential growth. An increase of enzyme activity up to 6 U/gDW was achieved during batch-fermentations in a bioreactor with 2.7 l working volume. Evaluation of fermentations with 30 l working volume revealed a relation of oxygen uptake rate to EH expression. Oxygen limitation resulted in a decreased EH activity. Parameter estimation by the linearization method of Hanes yielded Km values of 2.54 and 1.00 mM for the substrates S-pNSO and R-pNSO, respectively. vmax was 3.4 times higher when using R-pNSO. A protein purification strategy leading to a 47-fold increase in specific activity (940 U/mgProtein) was developed as a first step to investigate molecular and structural characteristics of the EH.

  10. A molecular model for the active site of S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jerry C.; Borchardt, Ronald T.; Vedani, Angelo

    1991-06-01

    S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase, EC 3.3.1.1.), a specific target for antiviral drug design, catalyzes the hydrolysis of AdoHcy to adenosine (Ado) and homocysteine (Hcy) as well as the synthesis of AdoHcy from Ado and Hcy. The enzyme isolated from different sources has been shown to contain tightly bound NAD+. Based on the 2.0 Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of dogfish lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is functionally homologous to AdoHcy hydrolase, and the primary sequence of rat liver AdoHcy hydrolase, we have derived a molecular model of an extended active site for AdoHcy hydrolase. The computational mutation was performed using the software MUTAR (Yeh et al., University of Kansas, Lawrence), followed by molecular mechanics optimizations using the programs AMBER (Singh et al., University of California, San Francisco) and YETI (Vedani, University of Kansas). Solvation of the model structure was achieved by use of the program SOLVGEN (Jacober, University of Kansas); 56 water molecules were explicitly included in all refinements. Some of these may be involved in the catalytic reaction. We also studied a model of the complex of AdoHcy hydrolase with NAD+, as well as the ternary complexes of the redox reaction catalyzed by AdoHcy hydrolase and has been used to differentiate the relative binding strength of inhibitors.

  11. A proton wire and water channel revealed in the crystal structure of isatin hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan K; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Etzerodt, Michael; Morth, J Preben

    2014-08-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to a novel family of metalloenzymes that include the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The product state, mimicked by bound thioisatinate, reveals a water molecule that bridges the thioisatinate to a proton wire in an adjacent water channel and thus allows the proton released by the reaction to escape only when the product is formed. The functional proton wire present in isatin hydrolase isoform b represents a unique catalytic feature common to all hydrolases is here trapped and visualized for the first time. The local molecular environment required to coordinate thioisatinate allows stronger and more confident identification of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Expanding the Catalytic Triad in Epoxide Hydrolases and Related Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Beat A; Bauer, Paul; Duarte, Fernanda; Janfalk Carlsson, Åsa; Naworyta, Agata; Mowbray, Sherry L; Widersten, Mikael; Kamerlin, Shina C L

    2015-10-02

    Potato epoxide hydrolase 1 exhibits rich enantio- and regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of a broad range of substrates. The enzyme can be engineered to increase the yield of optically pure products as a result of changes in both enantio- and regioselectivity. It is thus highly attractive in biocatalysis, particularly for the generation of enantiopure fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The present work aims to establish the principles underlying the activity and selectivity of the enzyme through a combined computational, structural, and kinetic study using the substrate trans -stilbene oxide as a model system. Extensive empirical valence bond simulations have been performed on the wild-type enzyme together with several experimentally characterized mutants. We are able to computationally reproduce the differences between the activities of different stereoisomers of the substrate and the effects of mutations of several active-site residues. In addition, our results indicate the involvement of a previously neglected residue, H104, which is electrostatically linked to the general base H300. We find that this residue, which is highly conserved in epoxide hydrolases and related hydrolytic enzymes, needs to be in its protonated form in order to provide charge balance in an otherwise negatively charged active site. Our data show that unless the active-site charge balance is correctly treated in simulations, it is not possible to generate a physically meaningful model for the enzyme that can accurately reproduce activity and selectivity trends. We also expand our understanding of other catalytic residues, demonstrating in particular the role of a noncanonical residue, E35, as a "backup base" in the absence of H300. Our results provide a detailed view of the main factors driving catalysis and regioselectivity in this enzyme and identify targets for subsequent enzyme design efforts.

  13. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    DOE PAGES

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; ...

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define themore » active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.« less

  14. Crystal structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuzhou; Guo, Fangfang; Hu, Xiao Jian; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is a gut-bacterial enzyme that negatively influences host fat digestion and energy harvesting. The BSH enzyme activity functions as a gateway reaction in the small intestine by the deconjugation of glycine-conjugated or taurine-conjugated bile acids. Extensive gut-microbiota studies have suggested that BSH is a key mechanistic microbiome target for the development of novel non-antibiotic food additives to improve animal feed production and for the design of new measures to control obesity in humans. However, research on BSH is still in its infancy, particularly in terms of the structural basis of BSH function, which has hampered the development of BSH-based strategies for improving human and animal health. As an initial step towards the structure-function analysis of BSH, C-terminally His-tagged BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514 was crystallized in this study. The 1.90 Å resolution crystal structure of L. salivarius BSH was determined by molecular replacement using the structure of Clostridium perfringens BSH as a starting model. It revealed this BSH to be a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. Crystals of apo BSH belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.79, b = 87.35, c = 86.76 Å (PDB entry 5hke). Two BSH molecules packed perfectly as a dimer in one asymmetric unit. Comparative structural analysis of L. salivarius BSH also identified potential residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity.

  15. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  16. Crystal structure of wild-type and mutant human Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Ge, Honghua; Chen, Xiaofang; Yang, Weili; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17), an enzyme involved in a number of biological processes, is characterized as cleaving the polyphosphate chain at the fourth phosphate from the bound adenosine moiety. This paper presents the crystal structure of wild-type and E58A mutant human Ap4A hydrolase. Similar to the canonical Nudix fold, human Ap4A hydrolase shows the common αβα-sandwich architecture. Interestingly, two sulfate ions and one diphosphate coordinated with some conserved residues were observed in the active cleft, which affords a better understanding of a possible mode of substrate binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity

    Treesearch

    Franz J. St John; Diane Dietrich; Casey Crooks; Edwin Pozharski; Javier M. González; Elizabeth Bales; Kennon Smith; Jason C. Hurlbert

    2014-01-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the

  18. An integrated molecular docking and rescoring method for predicting the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Yang, Xiao; Li, Guo-Bo; Fan, Kai-Ge; Yin, Peng-Fei; Chen, Xiang-Gui

    2016-04-01

    The enzymatic chemistry method is currently the most widely used method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but the enzymes used, such as cholinesterases, lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low concentrations of OP pesticides present in given samples. Serine hydrolase is considered an ideal enzyme source in seeking high-sensitivity enzymes used for OP pesticide detection. However, it is difficult to systematically evaluate sensitivities of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides by in vitro experiments. This study aimed to establish an in silico method to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides. A serine hydrolase database containing 219 representative serine hydrolases was constructed. Based on this database, an integrated molecular docking and rescoring method was established, in which the AutoDock Vina program was used to produce the binding poses of OP pesticides to various serine hydrolases and the ID-Score method developed recently by us was adopted as a rescoring method to predict their binding affinities. In retrospective case studies, this method showed good performance in predicting the sensitivities of known serine hydrolases to two OP pesticides: paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The sensitivity spectrum of the 219 collected serine hydrolases to 37 commonly used OP pesticides was finally obtained using this method. Overall, this study presented a promising in silico tool to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides, which will help in finding high-sensitivity serine hydrolases for OP pesticide detection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Dramatic Differences in Organophosphorus Hydrolase Activity between Human and Chimeric Recombinant Mammalian Paraoxonase-1 Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dramatic Differences in Organophosphorus Hydrolase Activity between Human and 5a... activity , V-agents, VX, bioscavenger, medical countermeasures 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Organophosphorus Hydrolase Activity between Human and Chimeric Recombinant Mammalian Paraoxonase-1 Enzymes† Tamara C. Otto,‡ Christina K. Harsch,§ David T

  20. Repurposing Suzuki Coupling Reagents as a Directed Fragment Library Targeting Serine Hydrolases and Related Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Marion; Cole, Derek C; Istratiy, Yelena; Klein, Michael G; Schwartz, Phillip A; Tjhen, Richard; Jennings, Andy; Hixon, Mark S

    2017-06-22

    Serine hydrolases are susceptible to potent reversible inhibition by boronic acids. Large collections of chemically diverse boronic acid fragments are commercially available because of their utility in coupling chemistry. We repurposed the approximately 650 boronic acid reagents in our collection as a directed fragment library targeting serine hydrolases and related enzymes. Highly efficient hits (LE > 0.6) often result. The utility of the approach is illustrated with the results against autotaxin, a phospholipase implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  1. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Compositional profile of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  3. Regulation of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum by the serine hydrolase ABHD2.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bogeon; Lee, HeeJung; Powell, Roger; Reisdorph, Nichole; Ewing, Heather; Gelb, Michael H; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Leslie, Christina C

    2017-09-02

    The serine hydrolase inhibitors pyrrophenone and KT195 inhibit cell death induced by A23187 and H 2 O 2 by blocking the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial calcium uptake. The effect of pyrrophenone and KT195 on these processes is not due to inhibition of their known targets, cytosolic phospholipase A 2 and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) 6, respectively, but represent off-target effects. To identify targets of KT195, fibroblasts were treated with KT195-alkyne to covalently label protein targets followed by click chemistry with biotin azide, enrichment on streptavidin beads and tryptic peptide analysis by mass spectrometry. Although several serine hydrolases were identified, α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 2 (ABHD2) was the only target in which both KT195 and pyrrophenone competed for binding to KT195-alkyne. ABHD2 is a serine hydrolase with a predicted transmembrane domain consistent with its pull-down from the membrane proteome. Subcellular fractionation showed localization of ABHD2 to the endoplasmic reticulum but not to mitochondria or mitochondrial-associated membranes. Knockdown of ABHD2 with shRNA attenuated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial calcium uptake and cell death in fibroblasts stimulated with A23187. The results describe a novel mechanism for regulating calcium transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria that involves the serine hydrolase ABHD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing of Cholinesterase-like α/β-Hydrolase Fold Proteins: Alterations Associated with Congenital Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Jaco, Antonella; Comoletti, Davide; Dubi, Noga; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer

    2016-01-01

    The α/β hydrolase fold family is perhaps the largest group of proteins presenting significant structural homology with divergent functions, ranging from catalytic hydrolysis to heterophilic cell adhesive interactions to chaperones in hormone production. All the proteins of the family share a common three-dimensional core structure containing the α/β-hydrolase fold domain that is crucial for proper protein function. Several mutations associated with congenital diseases or disorders have been reported in conserved residues within the α/β-hydrolase fold domain of cholinesterase-like proteins, neuroligins, butyrylcholinesterase and thyroglobulin. These mutations are known to disrupt the architecture of the common structural domain either globally or locally. Characterization of the natural mutations affecting the α/β-hydrolase fold domain in these proteins has shown that they mainly impair processing and trafficking along the secretory pathway causing retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Studying the processing of α/β-hydrolase fold mutant proteins should uncover new functions for this domain, that in some cases require structural integrity for both export of the protein from the ER and for facilitating subunit dimerization. A comparative study of homologous mutations in proteins that are closely related family members, along with the definition of new three-dimensional crystal structures, will identify critical residues for the assembly of the α/β-hydrolase fold. PMID:21933121

  5. SARS coronavirus protein 7a interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Natalia; Moshynskyy, Igor; Zakhartchouk, Alexander

    2010-02-09

    The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) open reading frame 7a (ORF 7a) encodes a 122 amino acid accessory protein. It has no significant sequence homology with any other known proteins. The 7a protein is present in the virus particle and has been shown to interact with several host proteins; thereby implicating it as being involved in several pathogenic processes including apoptosis, inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. In this study we present data demonstrating that the SARS-CoV 7a protein interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17). Ap4A-hydrolase is responsible for metabolizing the "allarmone" nucleotide Ap4A and therefore likely involved in regulation of cell proliferation, DNA replication, RNA processing, apoptosis and DNA repair. The interaction between 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase was identified using yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from cultured human cells transiently expressing V5-His tagged 7a and HA tagged Ap4A-hydrolase. Human tissue culture cells transiently expressing 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase tagged with EGFP and Ds-Red2 respectively show these proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm.

  6. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  7. Heterologous expression of the methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase MCD.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Tatheer; Cheesman, Matthew J; Williams, Michelle R; Campbell, Peter M; Ahmed, Safia; Russell, Robyn J; Scott, Colin; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-10-26

    The methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase (MCD) of Achromobacter WM111 has considerable potential as a pesticide bioremediation agent. However this potential has been unrealisable until now because of an inability to express MCD in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli. Herein, we describe the first successful attempt to express appreciable quantities of MCD in active form in E. coli, and the subsequent characterisation of the heterologously expressed material. We find that the properties of this material closely match the previously reported properties of MCD produced from Achromobacter WM111. This includes the presence of two distinct forms of the enzyme that we show are most likely due to the presence of two functional translational start sites. The purified enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of a carbamate (carbaryl), a carboxyl ester (alpha-naphthyl acetate) and a phophotriester (dimethyl umbelliferyl phosphate) and it is relatively resistant to thermal and solvent-mediated denaturation. The robust nature and catalytic promiscuity of MCD suggest that it could be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of components from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Leem, Hyun Hee; Lee, Ga Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jang Hoon; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-10-01

    One new compound, 10-methoxy-leonurine (1), and four known compounds (2-5) were purified by silica gel, C-18, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated using one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution (HR)-electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The compounds were evaluated to determine their inhibition of the catalysis of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). According to the results from in vitro analyses, compounds 1 and 2, which contain guanidine and flavonoid (3), were determined to be potential inhibitors of this enzyme. All compounds were revealed to be non-competitive inhibitors according to Lineweaver-Burk plots. Furthermore, in silico molecular docking indicated that compounds 1-3 are bound to sEH in a similar fashion and have stable binding energies, as calculated by AutoDock 4.2. Molecular dynamics determined the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), total energy, RMS fluctuation (RMSF), hydrogen bonds, and distance of the complex according to time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Binding on Enantioselectivity of Epoxide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Julian; Gumulya, Yosephine; Bodén, Mikael; Mark, Alan E; Malde, Alpeshkumar K

    2018-03-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations have been used to investigate the effect of ligand binding on the enantioselectivity of an epoxide hydrolase (EH) from Aspergillus niger. Despite sharing a common mechanism, a wide range of alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of enantiomeric selectivity in EHs. By comparing the interactions of ( R)- and ( S)-glycidyl phenyl ether (GPE) with both the wild type (WT, E = 3) and a mutant showing enhanced enantioselectivity to GPE (LW202, E = 193), we have examined whether enantioselectivity is due to differences in the binding pose, the affinity for the ( R)- or ( S)- enantiomers, or a kinetic effect. The two enantiomers were easily accommodated within the binding pockets of the WT enzyme and LW202. Free energy calculations suggested that neither enzyme had a preference for a given enantiomer. The two substrates sampled a wide variety of conformations in the simulations with the sterically hindered and unhindered carbon atoms of the GPE epoxide ring both coming in close proximity to the nucleophilic aspartic acid residue. This suggests that alternative pathways could lead to the formation of a ( S)- and ( R)-diol product. Together, the calculations suggest that the enantioselectivity is due to kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects and that the assumption that one substrate results in one product when interpreting the available experimental data and deriving E-values may be inappropriate in the case of EHs.

  10. Novel propanamides as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deplano, Alessandro; Morgillo, Carmine Marco; Demurtas, Monica; Björklund, Emmelie; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Svensson, Mona; Hashemian, Sanaz; Smaldone, Giovanni; Pedone, Emilia; Luque, F Javier; Cabiddu, Maria G; Novellino, Ettore; Fowler, Christopher J; Catalanotti, Bruno; Onnis, Valentina

    2017-08-18

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has a key role in the control of the cannabinoid signaling, through the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoids anandamide and in some tissues 2-arachidonoylglycerol. FAAH inhibition represents a promising strategy to activate the cannabinoid system, since it does not result in the psychotropic and peripheral side effects characterizing the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors. Here we present the discovery of a novel class of profen derivatives, the N-(heteroaryl)-2-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)propanamides, as FAAH inhibitors. Enzymatic assays showed potencies toward FAAH ranging from nanomolar to micromolar range, and the most compounds lack activity toward the two isoforms of cyclooxygenase. Extensive structure-activity studies and the definition of the binding mode for the lead compound of the series are also presented. Kinetic assays in rat and mouse FAAH on selected compounds of the series demonstrated that slight modifications of the chemical structure could influence the binding mode and give rise to competitive (TPA1) or non-competitive (TPA14) inhibition modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering glycoside hydrolase stability by the introduction of zinc binding

    DOE PAGES

    Ellinghaus, Thomas L.; Pereira, Jose H.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; ...

    2018-06-27

    The development of robust enzymes, in particular cellulases, is a key step in the success of biological routes to `second-generation' biofuels. The typical sources of the enzymes used to degrade biomass include mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. The endoglucanase J30 from glycoside hydrolase family 9 was originally identified through metagenomic analyses of compost-derived bacterial consortia. These studies, which were tailored to favor growth on targeted feedstocks, have already been shown to identify cellulases with considerable thermal tolerance. The amino-acid sequence of J30 shows comparably low identity to those of previously analyzed enzymes. As an enzyme that combines a well measurable activitymore » with a relatively low optimal temperature (50°C) and a modest thermal tolerance, it offers the potential for structural optimization aimed at increased stability. Here, the crystal structure of wild-type J30 is presented along with that of a designed triple-mutant variant with improved characteristics for industrial applications. Through the introduction of a structural Zn 2+ site, the thermal tolerance was increased by more than 10°C and was paralleled by an increase in the catalytic optimum temperature by more than 5°C.« less

  12. Engineering glycoside hydrolase stability by the introduction of zinc binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinghaus, Thomas L.; Pereira, Jose H.; McAndrew, Ryan P.

    The development of robust enzymes, in particular cellulases, is a key step in the success of biological routes to `second-generation' biofuels. The typical sources of the enzymes used to degrade biomass include mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. The endoglucanase J30 from glycoside hydrolase family 9 was originally identified through metagenomic analyses of compost-derived bacterial consortia. These studies, which were tailored to favor growth on targeted feedstocks, have already been shown to identify cellulases with considerable thermal tolerance. The amino-acid sequence of J30 shows comparably low identity to those of previously analyzed enzymes. As an enzyme that combines a well measurable activitymore » with a relatively low optimal temperature (50°C) and a modest thermal tolerance, it offers the potential for structural optimization aimed at increased stability. Here, the crystal structure of wild-type J30 is presented along with that of a designed triple-mutant variant with improved characteristics for industrial applications. Through the introduction of a structural Zn 2+ site, the thermal tolerance was increased by more than 10°C and was paralleled by an increase in the catalytic optimum temperature by more than 5°C.« less

  13. Hepatic cholesterol ester hydrolase in human liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simon, J B; Poon, R W

    1978-09-01

    Human liver contains an acid cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) of presumed lysosomal origin, but its significance is unknown. We developed a modified CEH radioassay suitable for needle biopsy specimens and measured hepatic activity of this enzyme in 69 patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy. Histologically normal livers hydrolyzed 5.80 +/- 0.78 SEM mumoles of cholesterol ester per hr per g of liver protein (n, 10). Values were similar in alcoholic liver disease (n, 17), obstructive jaundice (n, 9), and miscellaneous hepatic disorders (n, 21). In contrast, mean hepatic CEH activity was more than 3-fold elevated in 12 patients with acute hepatitis, 21.05 +/- 2.45 SEM mumoles per hr per g of protein (P less than 0.01). In 2 patients studied serially, CEH returned to normal as hepatitis resolved. CEH activity in all patients paralleled SGOT levels (r, 0.84; P less than 0.01). There was no correlation with serum levels of free or esterified cholesterol nor with serum activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. These studies confirm the presence of CEH activity in human liver and show markedly increased activity in acute hepatitis. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of altered hepatic CEH activity in liver disease require further study.

  14. Microfluidic glycosyl hydrolase screening for biomass-to-biofuel conversion.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rajiv; Chen, Zhiwei; Datta, Supratim; Holmes, Bradley M; Sapra, Rajat; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2010-11-15

    The hydrolysis of biomass to fermentable sugars using glycosyl hydrolases such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Enhancement in hydrolysis efficiency is necessary and requires improvement in both enzymes and processing strategies. Advances in both areas in turn strongly depend on the progress in developing high-throughput assays to rapidly and quantitatively screen a large number of enzymes and processing conditions. For example, the characterization of various cellodextrins and xylooligomers produced during the time course of saccharification is important in the design of suitable reactors, enzyme cocktail compositions, and biomass pretreatment schemes. We have developed a microfluidic-chip-based assay for rapid and precise characterization of glycans and xylans resulting from biomass hydrolysis. The technique enables multiplexed separation of soluble cellodextrins and xylose oligomers in around 1 min (10-fold faster than HPLC). The microfluidic device was used to elucidate the mode of action of Tm_Cel5A, a novel cellulase from hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima . The results demonstrate that the cellulase is active at 80 °C and effectively hydrolyzes cellodextrins and ionic-liquid-pretreated switchgrass and Avicel to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. The proposed microscale approach is ideal for quantitative large-scale screening of enzyme libraries for biomass hydrolysis, for development of energy feedstocks, and for polysaccharide sequencing.

  15. Proton Shuttles and Phosphatase Activity in Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    De Vivo, Marco; Ensing, Bernd; Peraro, Matteo Dal; Gomez, German A.; Christianson, David W.; Klein, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a novel metal (Mg2+)-dependent phosphatase activity has been discovered in the N-terminal domain of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), opening a new branch of fatty acid metabolism and providing an additional site for drug targeting. Importantly, the sEH N-terminal fold belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, which comprises a vast majority of phosphotransferases. Herein we present the results of a computational study of the sEH phosphatase activity, which includes classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Based on experimental results, a two-step mechanism has been proposed and herein investigated: 1) phosphoenzyme intermediate formation; 2) phosphoenzyme intermediate hydrolysis. Building on our earlier work, we now provide a detailed description of the reaction mechanism for the whole catalytic cycle along with its free energy profile. The present computations suggest metaphosphate-like transition states for these phosphoryl transfers. They also reveal that the enzyme promotes water deprotonation and facilitates shuttling of protons via a metal-ligand connecting water-bridge (WB). These WB mediated proton shuttles are crucial for the activation of the solvent nucleophile and for the stabilization of the leaving-group. Moreover, due to the conservation of structural features in the N-terminal catalytic site of sEH and other members of the HAD superfamily, we suggest a generalization of our findings to these other metal-dependent phosphatases. PMID:17212419

  16. Purification and characterization of paraoxon hydrolase from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, L; Gil, F; Hernandez, A F; Marina, A; Vazquez, J; Pla, A

    1997-01-01

    Paraoxonase (paraoxon hydrolase), an enzyme that hydrolyses paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), is located in mammals primarily in the serum and liver. Although considerable information is available regarding serum paraoxonase, little is known about the hepatic form of this enzyme. The present work represents the first study on the purification of rat liver paraoxonase. This enzyme has been purified 415-fold to apparent homogeneity with a final specific activity of 1370 units/mg using a protocol consisting of five steps: solubilization of the microsomal fraction, hydroxyapatite adsorption, chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, non-specific affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue 3GA and anion exchange on Mono Q HR 5/5. The presence of Ca2+ and Triton X-100 in the buffers throughout the purification procedure was essential for maintaining enzyme activity. SDS/PAGE of the final preparation indicated a single protein-staining band with an apparent Mr of 45 000. N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were determined and compared with those of paraoxonases from human and rabbit serum and mouse liver, showing a high similarity. The pH profile showed optimum activity at pH 8.5. The pH stability and heat inactivation of the enzyme were also studied. The Km for liver paraoxonase was 1.69 mM. PMID:9032442

  17. Functional metagenomics of oil-impacted mangrove sediments reveals high abundance of hydrolases of biotechnological interest.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; Cabral, Lucélia; de Sousa, Sanderson Tarciso Pereira; Júnior, Gileno Vieira Lacerda; Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; Soares Junior, Fábio Lino; da Silva, Mylenne Calciolari Pinheiro; Marcon, Joelma; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; de Melo, Itamar Soares; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2017-07-01

    Mangroves are located in coastal wetlands and are susceptible to the consequences of oil spills, what may threaten the diversity of microorganisms responsible for the nutrient cycling and the consequent ecosystem functioning. Previous reports show that high concentration of oil favors the incidence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in mangroves. This finding has guided the goals of this study in an attempt to broaden the analysis to other hydrolases and thereby verify whether oil contamination interferes with the prevalence of particular hydrolases and their assigned microorganisms. For this, an in-depth survey of the taxonomic and functional microbial diversity recovered in a fosmid library (Library_Oil Mgv) constructed from oil-impacted Brazilian mangrove sediment was carried out. Fosmid DNA of the whole library was extracted and submitted to Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The resulting Library Oil_Mgv dataset was further compared with those obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA from Brazilian mangroves (from distinct regions and affected by distinct sources of contamination), focusing on hydrolases with potential use in biotechnological processes. The most abundant hydrolases found were proteases, esterases and amylases, with similar occurrence profile in all datasets. The main microbial groups harboring such hydrolase-encoding genes were distinct in each mangrove, and in the fosmid library these enzymes were mainly assigned to Chloroflexaceae (for amylases), Planctomycetaceae (for esterases) and Bradyrhizobiaceae (for proteases). Assembly and analysis of Library_Oil Mgv reads revealed three potentially novel enzymes, one epoxide hydrolase, one xylanase and one amylase, to be further investigated via heterologous expression assays.

  18. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  19. Reward and Toxicity of Cocaine Metabolites Generated by Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jordan D; Reyes, Santiago; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding. The present study, utilizing Balb/c mice, tested reward effects and cardiovascular effects of administering EME and BA together at molar levels equivalent to those generated by a given dose of cocaine. Reward was evaluated by conditioned place preference. In this paradigm, cocaine (20 mg/kg) induced a robust positive response but the equivalent combined dose of EME + BA failed to induce either place preference or aversion. Likewise, mice that had undergone gene transfer with mouse CocH (mCocH) showed no place preference or aversion after repeated treatments with a near-lethal 80 mg/kg cocaine dose. Furthermore, a single administration of that same high cocaine dose failed to affect blood pressure as measured using the noninvasive tail-cuff method. These observations confirm that the drug metabolites generated after CocH gene transfer therapy are safe even after a dose of cocaine that would ordinarily be lethal.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis CT771 (nudH) is an asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Barta, Michael L; Lovell, Scott; Sinclair, Amy N; Battaile, Kevin P; Hefty, P Scott

    2014-01-14

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5',5‴-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases are members of the Nudix superfamily that asymmetrically cleave the metabolite Ap4A into ATP and AMP while facilitating homeostasis. The obligate intracellular mammalian pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis possesses a single Nudix family protein, CT771. As pathogens that rely on a host for replication and dissemination typically have one or zero Nudix family proteins, this suggests that CT771 could be critical for chlamydial biology and pathogenesis. We identified orthologues to CT771 within environmental Chlamydiales that share active site residues suggesting a common function. Crystal structures of both apo- and ligand-bound CT771 were determined to 2.6 Å and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. The structure of CT771 shows a αβα-sandwich motif with many conserved elements lining the putative Nudix active site. Numerous aspects of the ligand-bound CT771 structure mirror those observed in the ligand-bound structure of the Ap4A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. These structures represent only the second Ap4A hydrolase enzyme member determined from eubacteria and suggest that mammalian and bacterial Ap4A hydrolases might be more similar than previously thought. The aforementioned structural similarities, in tandem with molecular docking, guided the enzymatic characterization of CT771. Together, these studies provide the molecular details for substrate binding and specificity, supporting the analysis that CT771 is an Ap4A hydrolase (nudH).

  1. Isolation and characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A K; de la Peña, C E; Barnes, L D

    1993-02-13

    An enzyme that catalyzes the asymmetric hydrolysis of Ap4A has been partially purified from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The crude supernatant fraction from log-phase cells was fractionated by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Red A dye-ligand and QAE-Sepharose resins. Two peaks of Ap4A hydrolase activity, designated major and minor, were separated on the Red A dye-ligand resin. Both the major and minor Ap4A hydrolase have an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa based on gel filtration chromatography. On a SDS polyacrylamide gel, a protein of 22 kDa exhibited Ap4A hydrolase activity. Both forms of the enzyme have a Km value in the range of 22 to 36 microM for Ap4A. Both forms of the enzyme asymmetrically hydrolyze Ap4A to AMP and ATP as determined by HPLC. Ap4A is the optimal substrate among several nucleotides and dinucleoside polyphosphates tested at 10 microM. A divalent metal cation is required for activity. Concentrations of Pi below 30 mM stimulate Ap4A hydrolase while higher concentrations inhibit the activity. Pi is not a substrate for this Ap4A-degradative enzyme. Fluoride, from 50 microM to 20 mM, has no significant effect on Ap4A hydrolase activity.

  2. A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine N-Terminal Nucleophile Hydrolases, as Revealed by Free Energy Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lodola, Alessio; Branduardi, Davide; De Vivo, Marco; Capoferri, Luigi; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolases are a superfamily of enzymes specialized in the hydrolytic cleavage of amide bonds. Even though several members of this family are emerging as innovative drug targets for cancer, inflammation, and pain, the processes through which they catalyze amide hydrolysis remains poorly understood. In particular, the catalytic reactions of cysteine Ntn-hydrolases have never been investigated from a mechanistic point of view. In the present study, we used free energy simulations in the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics framework to determine the reaction mechanism of amide hydrolysis catalyzed by the prototypical cysteine Ntn-hydrolase, conjugated bile acid hydrolase (CBAH). The computational analyses, which were confirmed in water and using different CBAH mutants, revealed the existence of a chair-like transition state, which might be one of the specific features of the catalytic cycle of Ntn-hydrolases. Our results offer new insights on Ntn-mediated hydrolysis and suggest possible strategies for the creation of therapeutically useful inhibitors. PMID:22389698

  3. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-05

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure-Guided Engineering of Molinate Hydrolase for the Degradation of Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Ana M.; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  5. Polyglycine hydrolases: fungal b-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochli...

  6. Congenital hypothyroidism mutations affect common folding and trafficking in the α/β-hydrolase fold proteins

    PubMed Central

    De Jaco, Antonella; Dubi, Noga; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer

    2017-01-01

    The α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily of proteins is composed of structurally related members that, despite great diversity in their catalytic, recognition, adhesion and chaperone functions, share a common fold governed by homologous residues and conserved disulfide bridges. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms within the α/β-hydrolase fold domain in various family members have been found for congenital endocrine, metabolic and nervous system disorders. By examining the amino acid sequence from the various proteins, mutations were found to be prevalent in conserved residues within the α/β-hydrolase fold of the homologous proteins. This is the case for the thyroglobulin mutations linked to congenital hypothyroidism. To address whether correct folding of the common domain is required for protein export, we inserted the thyroglobulin mutations at homologous positions in two correlated but simpler α/β-hydrolase fold proteins known to be exported to the cell surface: neuroligin3 and acetylcholinesterase. Here we show that these mutations in the cholinesterase homologous region alter the folding properties of the α/β-hydrolase fold domain, which are reflected in defects in protein trafficking, folding and function, and ultimately result in retention of the partially processed proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Accordingly, mutations at conserved residues may be transferred amongst homologous proteins to produce common processing defects despite disparate functions, protein complexity and tissue-specific expression of the homologous proteins. More importantly, a similar assembly of the α/β-hydrolase fold domain tertiary structure among homologous members of the superfamily is required for correct trafficking of the proteins to their final destination. PMID:23035660

  7. [A comparative study on hydrolase activities in Acanthamoeba culbertsoni and A. royreba

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyu; Kim, Tae Ue; Joung, In Sil; Im, Kyung Il

    1988-06-01

    Specific or non-specific cytolytic processes of free-living amoebae causing meningoencephalitis have been emphasized and the cytolytic ability related to hydrolases in Entamoeba sp. and Naegleria sp. has also been reported since the latter half of 1970's. However, no information on hydrolase activities in Acanthamoeba sp. is available. Hydrolases in Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, a pathogenic species of free-living amoebae, were assayed and compared with those in a non-pathogenic species, A. royreba. Pathogenicity of these two species was confirmed through experimental infection to BALB/c mice. Hydrolase activities and cytotoxic effects between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species were compared in the trophozoites cultured in CGV media and in CHO cell line, respectively. The results are summarized as follows: The mice infected with A. culbertsoni were all dead 15 days after nasal inoculation, and the mean survival time was 8.5 days. Also the mice infected with this pathogenic species mani fested typical meningoencephalitis, whereas the mice infected with A. royreba did not. Hydrolases detected both in the cell extracts and culture media were acid phosphatase, beta-N-acetyl galactosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, neutral proteinase and acid proteinase, all of which were detected with remarkably higher rate in A.culbertsoni than in A. royreba. A. culbertsoni revealed strong cytotoxicity for the target CHO cells, whereas A. royreba did not show any specific cytotoxicity. About 80% of the target cells mixed with A. culbertsoni were dead 48 hours after cultivation, and more than 95% of the target cells were dead 72 hours after cultivation. Hydrolase activities in A. culbertsoni cultured with the target cell line were assayed according to the culture time. The activities of acid phosphatase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase and acid proteinase in this pathogenic amoeba were detected higher in amoeba

  8. Epoxide hydrolase-lasalocid a structure provides mechanistic insight into polyether natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fong T; Hotta, Kinya; Chen, Xi; Fang, Minyi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Chu-Young

    2015-01-14

    Biosynthesis of some polyether natural products involves a kinetically disfavored epoxide-opening cyclic ether formation, a reaction termed anti-Baldwin cyclization. One such example is the biosynthesis of lasalocid A, an ionophore antibiotic polyether. During lasalocid A biosynthesis, an epoxide hydrolase, Lsd19, converts the bisepoxy polyketide intermediate into the tetrahydrofuranyl-tetrahydropyran product. We report the crystal structure of Lsd19 in complex with lasalocid A. The structure unambiguously shows that the C-terminal domain of Lsd19 catalyzes the intriguing anti-Baldwin cyclization. We propose a general mechanism for epoxide selection by ionophore polyether epoxide hydrolases.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  10. Glycoside hydrolase gene transcription by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius during growth on wheat arabinoxylan and monosaccharides: a proposed xylan hydrolysis mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; Sheridan, Peter P.

    Background Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Results Molecular analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays was performed on A. acidocaldarius strain ATCC27009 when growing on WAX. When a culture growing exponentially at the expense of arabinoxylan saccharides was challenged with glucose or xylose, most glycoside hydrolasesmore » were down-regulated. Interestingly, regulation was more intense when xylose was added to the culture than when glucose was added, a clear departure from classical carbon catabolite repression demonstrated by many Gram-positive bacteria. In silico analyses of the regulated glycoside hydrolases, along with the results from the microarray analyses, yielded a potential mechanism for arabinoxylan metabolism by A. acidocaldarius. Glycoside hydrolases expressed by this strain may have broad substrate specificity, and initial hydrolysis is catalyzed by an extracellular xylanase, while subsequent steps are likely performed inside the growing cell. Conclusions Glycoside hydrolases, for the most part, appear to be found in clusters, throughout the A. acidocaldarius genome. Not all of the glycoside hydrolase genes found at loci within these clusters were regulated during the experiment, indicating that a specific subset of the 19 glycoside hydrolase genes found in A. acidocaldarius were used during metabolism of WAX. While specific functions of the glycoside hydrolases was not tested as part of the research discussed, many of the glycoside hydrolases found in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain appear to have a

  11. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED AMPEROMETRIC SENSOR: MODULATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SUBSTRATE SELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of organophosphate (OP) insecticides with nitrophenyl substituents is reported using an enzyme electrode composed of Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) and albumin co-immobilized to a nylon net and attached to a carbon paste electrode. The mechanism for this biosen...

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface of
    Escherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membrane
    fractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus
    ...

  13. Ligand bound structures of a glycosyl hydrolase family 30 glucuronoxylan xylanohydrolase

    Treesearch

    Franz St. Johns; Jason C. Hurlbert; John D. Rice; James F. Preston; Edwin Pozharski

    2011-01-01

    Xylanases of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) have been shown to cleave β-1,4 linkages of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MeGXn) as directed by the position along the xylan chain of an α-1,2-linked 4-O-methylglucuronate (MeGA) moiety. Complete hydrolysis of MeGXn by...

  14. Neuroligin Trafficking Deficiencies Arising from Mutations in the α/β-Hydrolase Fold Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    De Jaco, Antonella; Lin, Michael Z.; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Miller, Meghan T.; Camp, Shelley; Ellisman, Mark; Butko, Margaret T.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Taylor, Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Despite great functional diversity, characterization of the α/β-hydrolase fold proteins that encompass a superfamily of hydrolases, heterophilic adhesion proteins, and chaperone domains reveals a common structural motif. By incorporating the R451C mutation found in neuroligin (NLGN) and associated with autism and the thyroglobulin G2320R (G221R in NLGN) mutation responsible for congenital hypothyroidism into NLGN3, we show that mutations in the α/β-hydrolase fold domain influence folding and biosynthetic processing of neuroligin3 as determined by in vitro susceptibility to proteases, glycosylation processing, turnover, and processing rates. We also show altered interactions of the mutant proteins with chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum and arrest of transport along the secretory pathway with diversion to the proteasome. Time-controlled expression of a fluorescently tagged neuroligin in hippocampal neurons shows that these mutations compromise neuronal trafficking of the protein, with the R451C mutation reducing and the G221R mutation virtually abolishing the export of NLGN3 from the soma to the dendritic spines. Although the R451C mutation causes a local folding defect, the G221R mutation appears responsible for more global misfolding of the protein, reflecting their sequence positions in the structure of the protein. Our results suggest that disease-related mutations in the α/β-hydrolase fold domain share common trafficking deficiencies yet lead to discrete congenital disorders of differing severity in the endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:20615874

  15. Neuroligin trafficking deficiencies arising from mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold protein family.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Lin, Michael Z; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Miller, Meghan T; Camp, Shelley; Ellisman, Mark; Butko, Margaret T; Tsien, Roger Y; Taylor, Palmer

    2010-09-10

    Despite great functional diversity, characterization of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold proteins that encompass a superfamily of hydrolases, heterophilic adhesion proteins, and chaperone domains reveals a common structural motif. By incorporating the R451C mutation found in neuroligin (NLGN) and associated with autism and the thyroglobulin G2320R (G221R in NLGN) mutation responsible for congenital hypothyroidism into NLGN3, we show that mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain influence folding and biosynthetic processing of neuroligin3 as determined by in vitro susceptibility to proteases, glycosylation processing, turnover, and processing rates. We also show altered interactions of the mutant proteins with chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum and arrest of transport along the secretory pathway with diversion to the proteasome. Time-controlled expression of a fluorescently tagged neuroligin in hippocampal neurons shows that these mutations compromise neuronal trafficking of the protein, with the R451C mutation reducing and the G221R mutation virtually abolishing the export of NLGN3 from the soma to the dendritic spines. Although the R451C mutation causes a local folding defect, the G221R mutation appears responsible for more global misfolding of the protein, reflecting their sequence positions in the structure of the protein. Our results suggest that disease-related mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain share common trafficking deficiencies yet lead to discrete congenital disorders of differing severity in the endocrine and nervous systems.

  16. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECOMBINANT JUVENILE HORMONE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (JHEH) FROM MANDUCA SEXTA. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cDNA of the microsomal Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta was expressed in vitro in the baculovirus system. In insect cell culture, the recombinant enzyme (Ms-JHEH) was produced at a high level (100 fold over background EH catalytic activit...

  17. Expression of recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase in the original producer of the enzyme, Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kosuke; Ohmori, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Natsumi; Seto, Yasuo; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The plasmid encoding His-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) cloned from Sphingobium fuliginis was modified to be transferred back to this bacterium. The replication function of S. amiense plasmid was inserted at downstream of OPH gene, and S. fuliginis was transformed with this plasmid. The transformant produced larger amount of active OPH with His-tag than E. coli.

  18. Oxidoreductive Cellulose Depolymerization by the Enzymes Cellobiose Dehydrogenase and Glycoside Hydrolase 61▿†

    PubMed Central

    Langston, James A.; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  19. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism ß-xylosidases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a ß-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein...

  20. Characterization and purification of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeen, S.G.; Savage, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    The authors have characterized and purified the bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100. Bile salt hydrolase from cells of the strain was purified with column and high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity was assayed in whole cells and cell-free extracts with either a radiochemical assay involving ({sup 14}C)taurocholic acid or a nonradioactive assay involving trinitrobenzene sulfonate. The activity was detectable only in stationary-phase cells. Within 20 min after conjugated bile acids were added to stationary-phase cultures of strain 100-100, the activity in whole cells increased to levels three- to fivefold higher than in cells from cultures grown in mediummore » free of bile salts. In cell-free extracts, however, the activity was about equal whether or not the cells have been grown with bile salts present. When supernatant solutions from cultures grown in medium containing taurocholic acid were used to suspend cells grown in medium free of the bile salt, the bile salt hydrolase activity detected in whole cells increased two- to threefold. Two forms of the hydrolase were purified from the cells and designated hydrolases A and B. They eluted from anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in two sets of fractions, A at 0.15 M NaCl and B at 0.18 M NaCl. Their apparent molecular weights in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 115,000 and 105,000, respectively. However, discrepancies existed in the apparent molecular weights and number of peptides detected in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the two forms. Whether the enzyme exists in two forms in the cells remains to be determined.« less

  1. γ-PGA Hydrolases of Phage Origin in Bacillus subtilis and Other Microbial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Mamberti, Stefania; Prati, Paola; Cremaschi, Paolo; Seppi, Claudio; Morelli, Carlo F; Galizzi, Alessandro; Fabbi, Massimo; Calvio, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) is an industrially interesting polymer secreted mainly by members of the class Bacilli which forms a shield able to protect bacteria from phagocytosis and phages. Few enzymes are known to degrade γ-PGA; among them is a phage-encoded γ-PGA hydrolase, PghP. The supposed role of PghP in phages is to ensure access to the surface of bacterial cells by dismantling the γ-PGA barrier. We identified four unannotated B. subtilis genes through similarity of their encoded products to PghP; in fact these genes reside in prophage elements of B. subtilis genome. The recombinant products of two of them demonstrate efficient polymer degradation, confirming that sequence similarity reflects functional homology. Genes encoding similar γ-PGA hydrolases were identified in phages specific for the order Bacillales and in numerous microbial genomes, not only belonging to that order. The distribution of the γ-PGA biosynthesis operon was also investigated with a bioinformatics approach; it was found that the list of organisms endowed with γ-PGA biosynthetic functions is larger than expected and includes several pathogenic species. Moreover in non-Bacillales bacteria the predicted γ-PGA hydrolase genes are preferentially found in species that do not have the genetic asset for polymer production. Our findings suggest that γ-PGA hydrolase genes might have spread across microbial genomes via horizontal exchanges rather than via phage infection. We hypothesize that, in natural habitats rich in γ-PGA supplied by producer organisms, the availability of hydrolases that release glutamate oligomers from γ-PGA might be a beneficial trait under positive selection.

  2. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  3. The Mode of Inhibitor Binding to Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase: Binding Studies and Structure Determination of Unbound and Bound Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Sanket; Singh, Nagendra; Yamini, Shavait; Singh, Avinash; Sinha, Mau; Arora, Ashish; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design. PMID:23844024

  4. The mode of inhibitor binding to peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase: binding studies and structure determination of unbound and bound peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sanket; Singh, Nagendra; Yamini, Shavait; Singh, Avinash; Sinha, Mau; Arora, Ashish; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design.

  5. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes themore » unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  6. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenxin; Wang, Qihai; Bi, Ruchang

    2005-12-01

    Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.41) hydrolyzes Ap4A symmetrically in prokaryotes. It plays a potential role in organisms by regulating the concentration of Ap4A in vivo. To date, no three-dimensional structures of proteins with significant sequence homology to this protein have been determined. The 31.3 kDa Ap4A hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. Crystals of Ap4A hydrolase have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 K using PEG 550 MME as precipitant. Ap4A hydrolase crystals diffract X-rays to 3.26 A and belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 118.9, b = 54.6, c = 128.5 A, beta = 95.7 degrees.

  7. Cell- and ligand-specific dephosphorylation of acid hydrolases: evidence that the mannose 6-phosphatase is controlled by compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Mouse L cells that possess the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (Man 6-P)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II receptor change the extent to which they dephosphorylate endocytosed acid hydrolases in response to serum (Einstein, R., and C. A. Gabel. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:1037-1046). To investigate the mechanism by which dephosphorylation competence is regulated, the dephosphorylation of individual acid hydrolases was studied in Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive and - deficient cell lines. 125I-labeled Man 6-P-containing acid hydrolases were proteolytically processed but remained phosphorylated when endocytosed by receptor-positive L cells maintained in the absence of serum; after the addition of serum, however, the cell-associated hydrolases were dephosphorylated. Individual hydrolases were dephosphorylated at distinct rates and to different extents. In contrast, the same hydrolases were dephosphorylated equally and completely after entry into Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The dephosphorylation competence of Man 6- P/IGF II receptor-deficient mouse J774 cells was more limited. beta- Glucuronidase produced by these cells underwent a limited dephosphorylation in transit to lysosomes such that diphosphorylated oligosaccharides were converted to monophosphorylated species. The overall quantity of phosphorylated oligosaccharides associated with the enzyme, however, did not decrease within the lysosomal compartment. Likewise, beta-glucuronidase was not dephosphorylated when introduced into J774 cells via Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. The CHO and J774 cell lysosomes, therefore, display opposite extremes with respect to their capacity to dephosphorylate acid hydrolases; within CHO cell lysosomes acid hydrolases are rapidly and efficiently dephosphorylated, but within J774 cell lysosomes the same acid hydrolases remain phosphorylated. This difference in processing indicates that lysosomes themselves exist in a dephosphorylation

  8. Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Kyu; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D; Nishi, Kosuke

    2015-11-15

    Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were investigated. First, a series of alkyl or aryl groups were substituted on the carbon alpha to the phosphonate function in amide compounds to see whether substituted phosphonates can act as a secondary pharmacophore. A tert-butyl group (16) on the alpha carbon was found to yield most potent inhibition on the target enzyme. A 4-50-fold drop in inhibition was induced by other substituents such as aryls, substituted aryls, cycloalkyls, and alkyls. Then, the modification of the O-substituents on the phosphonate function revealed that diethyl groups (16 and 23) were preferable for inhibition to other longer alkyls or substituted alkyls. In amide compounds with the optimized diethylphosphonate moiety and an alkyl substitution such as adamantane (16), tetrahydronaphthalene (31), or adamantanemethane (36), highly potent inhibitions were gained. In addition, the resulting potent amide-phosphonate compounds had reasonable water solubility, suggesting that substituted phosphonates in amide inhibitors are effective for both inhibition potency on the human sEH and water solubility as a secondary pharmacophore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  10. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-03-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of neoagarobiose hydrolase from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saeyoung; Lee, Jonas Yun; Ha, Sung Chul; Jung, Jina; Shin, Dong Hae; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2009-01-01

    Many agarolytic bacteria degrade agar polysaccharide into the disaccharide unit neoagarobiose [O-3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-d-galactose] using various β-agarases. Neoagarobiose hydrolase is an enzyme that acts on the α-­1,3 linkage in neoagarobiose to yield d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose. This activity is essential in both the metabolism of agar by agarolytic bacteria and the production of fermentable sugars from agar biomass for bioenergy production. Neoagarobiose hydrolase from the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 129.83, b = 76.81, c = 90.11 Å, β = 101.86°. The crystals diffracted to 1.98 Å resolution and possibly contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:20054134

  12. Age-related pulmonary emphysema in mice lacking alpha/beta hydrolase domain containing 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shoude; Zhao, Gang; Li, Zhenghua; Nishimoto, Yuki; Isohama, Yoichiro; Shen, Jingling; Ito, Takaaki; Takeya, Motohiro; Araki, Kimi; He, Ping; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2009-03-06

    The alpha/beta hydrolase family genes have been identified as down-regulated genes in human emphysematous lungs. Although proteins in the alpha/beta hydrolase family generally act as enzymes, such as lipases, the specific functions of the Abhd2 protein are unknown. To examine the role of Abhd2 in the lung, we analyzed Abhd2 deficient mice obtained by gene trap mutagenesis. Abhd2 was expressed in the alveolar type II cells. Abhd2 deficiency resulted in a decreased level of phosphatidylcholine in the bronchoalveolar lavage. These mice developed spontaneous gradual progression of emphysema, due to increased macrophage infiltration, increased inflammatory cytokines, a protease/anti-protease imbalance and enhanced apoptosis. This phenotype is more akin to the pace of emphysema that develops in humans. Our findings suggest that derangement in alveolar phospholipid metabolism can induce emphysema, and that Abhd2 plays a critical role in maintaining lung structural integrity.

  13. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  14. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 glycoside hydrolase family 66 homolog catalyzes dextranolytic and cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kang, Min-Sun; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Saburi, Wataru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Momma, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Zui; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Kim, Doman; Kimura, Atsuo

    2012-09-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 harbors a gene encoding a putative cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase (BT3087) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66. The goal of the present study was to characterize the catalytic properties of this enzyme. Therefore, we expressed BT3087 (recombinant endo-dextranase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482) in Escherichia coli and determined that recombinant endo-dextranase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 preferentially synthesized isomaltotetraose and isomaltooligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 4) from dextran. The enzyme also generated large cyclic isomaltooligosaccharides early in the reaction. We conclude that members of the glycoside hydrolase 66 family may be classified into three types: (a) endo-dextranases, (b) dextranases possessing weak cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase activity, and (c) cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferases. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  15. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  16. Hydrolysis of VX and related compounds by organophosphorus hydrolase. Final report, Februray-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kolakowski, J.E.; DeFrank, J.J.; Lai, K.

    1995-11-01

    Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) is a fully characterized and cloned enzyme, derived from Pseudomonas diminuta, consisting of 365 amino acids with a total molecular weight of 38,0(X). The enzyme has a leader sequence of 29 amino acids which has been removed in the construction used in this study. OPH was evaluated for its effectiveness in catalyzing the S-(2-diisopwpylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) and its analogs.

  17. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.

    2008-04-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC{sub 50} 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although theremore » was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification.« less

  18. [Effects of nitrogen additions on soil hydrolase and oxidase activities in Pinus elliottii plantations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; Zou, Hong Tao; Zhang, Xin Yu; Kou, Liang; Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiao Min; Li, Sheng Gong; Wang, Hui Min

    2016-11-18

    We evaluated responses of hydrolase and oxidase activities in a subtropical Pinus elliottii plantation through a nitrogen (N) addition field experiment (dosage level: 0, 40, 120 kg N·hm -2 ·a -1 ). The results showed that N additions significantly decreased the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus related hydrolase and oxidase activities. The activities of β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and peroxidase (PER) activities were decreased by 16.5%-51.1% due to N additions, and the decrease was more remarkable in the higher N addition treatment. The activities of α-1,4-glucosidase (aG), β-1,4-xylosidase (BX), acid phosphatase (AP) and phenol oxidase (PPO) were decreased by 14.5%-38.6% by N additions, however, there was no significant difference among the different N addition treatments. Soil enzyme activities varied obviously in different seasons. The activities of BG, NAG, BX, CBH, AP and PPO were in the order of March > June > October, and aG and PER activities were in the order of October > March > June. Most of the soil hydrolase and oxidase activities were positively correlated with soil pH, but negatively with NO 3 - -N content. It indicated that N additions inhibited soil hydrolase and oxidase activities by reducing soil pH and increasing soil nitrification. N additions inhibited the soil organic matter mineralization and turnover in the subtropical area, and the effects were obvious with the increasing dosage of N additions.

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana EPOXIDE HYDROLASE1 (AtEH1) is a cytosolic epoxide hydrolase involved in the synthesis of poly-hydroxylated cutin monomers.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Emmanuelle; Xu, Lin; Renault, Hugues; Trolet, Adrien; Navrot, Nicolas; Ullmann, Pascaline; Légeret, Bertrand; Verdier, Gaëtan; Beisson, Fred; Pinot, Franck

    2017-07-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are present in all living organisms. They have been extensively characterized in mammals; however, their biological functions in plants have not been demonstrated. Based on in silico analysis, we identified AtEH1 (At3g05600), a putative Arabidopsis thaliana epoxide hydrolase possibly involved in cutin monomer synthesis. We expressed AtEH1 in yeast and studied its localization in vivo. We also analyzed the composition of cutin from A. thaliana lines in which this gene was knocked out. Incubation of recombinant AtEH1 with epoxy fatty acids confirmed its capacity to hydrolyze epoxides of C18 fatty acids into vicinal diols. Transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with constructs expressing AtEH1 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) indicated that AtEH1 is localized in the cytosol. Analysis of cutin monomers in loss-of-function Ateh1-1 and Ateh1-2 mutants showed an accumulation of 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxyoctadecenoic acid and a concomitant decrease in corresponding vicinal diols in leaf and seed cutin. Compared with wild-type seeds, Ateh1 seeds showed delayed germination under osmotic stress conditions and increased seed coat permeability to tetrazolium red. This work reports a physiological role for a plant EH and identifies AtEH1 as a new member of the complex machinery involved in cutin synthesis. © 2017 CNRS New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D.; Bailey, Richard G.; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A. S.; Hayhurst, Emma J.; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. PMID:26220963

  1. Crystallographic insight into the evolutionary origins of xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases and endo-hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Nicholas; Yin, Victor; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip; Brumer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family encodes enzymes of central importance to plant cell wall remodelling. The evolutionary history of plant XTH gene products is incompletely understood vis-à-vis the larger body of bacterial endo-glycanases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 (GH16). To provide molecular insight into this issue, high-resolution X-ray crystal structures and detailed enzyme kinetics of an extant transitional plant endo-glucanase (EG) were determined. Functionally intermediate between plant XTH gene products and bacterial licheninases of GH16, Vitis vinifera EG16 (VvEG16) effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of the backbones of two dominant plant cell wall matrix glycans, xyloglucan (XyG) and β(1,3)/β(1,4)-mixed-linkage glucan (MLG). Crystallographic complexes with extended oligosaccharide substrates reveal the structural basis for the accommodation of both unbranched, mixed-linked (MLG) and highly decorated, linear (XyG) polysaccharide chains in a broad, extended active-site cleft. Structural comparison with representative bacterial licheninases, a xyloglucan endo-tranglycosylase (XET), and a xyloglucan endo-hydrolase (XEH) outline the functional ramifications of key sequence deletions and insertions across the phylogenetic landscape of GH16. Although the biological role(s) of EG16 orthologs remains to be fully resolved, the present biochemical and tertiary structural characterization provides key insight into plant cell wall enzyme evolution, which will continue to inform genomic analyses and functional studies across species. PMID:27859885

  2. A novel plant enzyme with dual activity: an atypical Nudix hydrolase and a dipeptidyl peptidase III

    PubMed Central

    Karačić, Zrinka; Vukelić, Bojana; Ho, Gabrielle H.; Jozić, Iva; Sučec, Iva; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Kozlović, Marija; Brenner, Steven E.; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Abramić, Marija

    2017-01-01

    In a search for plant homologues of dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) family, we found a predicted protein from the moss Physcomitrella patens (UniProt entry: A9TLP4), which shared 61% sequence identity with the Arabidopsis thaliana uncharacterized protein, designated Nudix hydrolase 3. Both proteins contained all conserved regions of the DPP III family, but instead of the characteristic hexapeptide HEXXGH zinc-binding motif, they possessed a pentapeptide HEXXH, and at the N-terminus, a Nudix box, a hallmark of Nudix hydrolases, known to act upon a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. To investigate their biochemical properties, we expressed heterologously and purified Physcomitrella (PpND) and Arabidopsis (AtND) protein. Both hydrolyzed, with comparable catalytic efficiency, the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a universal precursor for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds. In addition, PpND dephosphorylated four purine nucleotides (ADP, dGDP, dGTP, and 8-oxo-dATP) with strong preference for oxidized dATP. Furthermore, PpND and AtND showed DPP III activity against dipeptidyl-2-arylamide substrates, which they cleaved with different specificity. This is the first report of a dual activity enzyme, highly conserved in land plants, which catalyses the hydrolysis of a peptide bond and of a phosphate bond, acting both as a dipeptidyl peptidase III and an atypical Nudix hydrolase. PMID:27467751

  3. Diadenosine Tetraphosphate Hydrolase Is Part of the Transcriptional Regulation Network in Immunologically Activated Mast Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Carmi-Levy, Irit; Yannay-Cohen, Nurit; Kay, Gillian; Razin, Ehud; Nechushtan, Hovav

    2008-01-01

    We previously discovered that microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) each forms a complex with its inhibitor histidine triad nucleotide-binding 1 (Hint-1) and with lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS). Moreover, we showed that the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), previously shown to be synthesized by LysRS, binds to Hint-1, and as a result the transcription factors are released from their suppression. Thus, transcriptional activity is regulated by Ap4A, suggesting that Ap4A is a second messenger in this context. For Ap4A to be unambiguously established as a second messenger, several criteria have to be fulfilled, including the presence of a metabolizing enzyme. Since several enzymes are able to hydrolize Ap4A, we provided here evidence that the “Nudix” type 2 gene product, Ap4A hydrolase, is responsible for Ap4A degradation following the immunological activation of mast cells. The knockdown of Ap4A hydrolase modulated Ap4A accumulation, resulting in changes in the expression of MITF and USF2 target genes. Moreover, our observations demonstrated that the involvement of Ap4A hydrolase in gene regulation is not a phenomenon exclusive to mast cells but can also be found in cardiac cells activated with the β-agonist isoproterenol. Thus, we have provided concrete evidence establishing Ap4A as a second messenger in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:18644867

  4. Diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase is part of the transcriptional regulation network in immunologically activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Carmi-Levy, Irit; Yannay-Cohen, Nurit; Kay, Gillian; Razin, Ehud; Nechushtan, Hovav

    2008-09-01

    We previously discovered that microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) each forms a complex with its inhibitor histidine triad nucleotide-binding 1 (Hint-1) and with lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS). Moreover, we showed that the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A), previously shown to be synthesized by LysRS, binds to Hint-1, and as a result the transcription factors are released from their suppression. Thus, transcriptional activity is regulated by Ap(4)A, suggesting that Ap(4)A is a second messenger in this context. For Ap(4)A to be unambiguously established as a second messenger, several criteria have to be fulfilled, including the presence of a metabolizing enzyme. Since several enzymes are able to hydrolyze Ap(4)A, we provided here evidence that the "Nudix" type 2 gene product, Ap(4)A hydrolase, is responsible for Ap(4)A degradation following the immunological activation of mast cells. The knockdown of Ap(4)A hydrolase modulated Ap(4)A accumulation, resulting in changes in the expression of MITF and USF2 target genes. Moreover, our observations demonstrated that the involvement of Ap(4)A hydrolase in gene regulation is not a phenomenon exclusive to mast cells but can also be found in cardiac cells activated with the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Thus, we have provided concrete evidence establishing Ap(4)A as a second messenger in the regulation of gene expression.

  5. Free and ATP-bound structures of Ap4A hydrolase from Aquifex aeolicus V5.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Nishida, Yuya; Nakagawa, Noriko; Praveen, Surendran; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2010-02-01

    Asymmetric diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases degrade the metabolite Ap(4)A back into ATP and AMP. The three-dimensional crystal structure of Ap(4)A hydrolase (16 kDa) from Aquifex aeolicus has been determined in free and ATP-bound forms at 1.8 and 1.95 A resolution, respectively. The overall three-dimensional crystal structure of the enzyme shows an alphabetaalpha-sandwich architecture with a characteristic loop adjacent to the catalytic site of the protein molecule. The ATP molecule is bound in the primary active site and the adenine moiety of the nucleotide binds in a ring-stacking arrangement equivalent to that observed in the X-ray structure of Ap(4)A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. Binding of ATP in the active site induces local conformational changes which may have important implications in the mechanism of substrate recognition in this class of enzymes. Furthermore, two invariant water molecules have been identified and their possible structural and/or functional roles are discussed. In addition, modelling of the substrate molecule at the primary active site of the enzyme suggests a possible path for entry and/or exit of the substrate and/or product molecule.

  6. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  7. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; ...

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  8. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-03-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3-7 μM; Vmax, 150-193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism.

  9. A new group of glycoside hydrolase family 13 α-amylases with an aberrant catalytic triad

    PubMed Central

    Sarian, Fean D.; Janeček, Štefan; Pijning, Tjaard; Ihsanawati; Nurachman, Zeily; Radjasa, Ocky K.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Natalia, Dessy; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.

    2017-01-01

    α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the α(1→4) glycosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and related α-glucans, and are ubiquitously present in Nature. Most α-amylases have been classified in glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a typical (β/α)8-barrel containing two aspartic acid and one glutamic acid residue that play an essential role in catalysis. An atypical α-amylase (BmaN1) with only two of the three invariant catalytic residues present was isolated from Bacillus megaterium strain NL3, a bacterial isolate from a sea anemone of Kakaban landlocked marine lake, Derawan Island, Indonesia. In BmaN1 the third residue, the aspartic acid that acts as the transition state stabilizer, was replaced by a histidine. Three-dimensional structure modeling of the BmaN1 amino acid sequence confirmed the aberrant catalytic triad. Glucose and maltose were found as products of the action of the novel α-amylase on soluble starch, demonstrating that it is active in spite of the peculiar catalytic triad. This novel BmaN1 α-amylase is part of a group of α-amylases that all have this atypical catalytic triad, consisting of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this group of α-amylases comprises a new subfamily of the glycoside hydrolase family 13. PMID:28287181

  10. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  11. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Asim K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas themore » two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.« less

  12. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  13. Regio- and enantiofacial selectivity of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydration by cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zeldin, D C; Kobayashi, J; Falck, J R; Winder, B S; Hammock, B D; Snapper, J R; Capdevila, J H

    1993-03-25

    The hydration of cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to the corresponding vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by cytosolic epoxide hydrolase demonstrates moderate regioselectivity with rates of hydration highest for the 14,15-epoxide and lower for the 11,12- and 8,9-epoxide (4.5, 1.6, and 1.5 mumol of product/mg of protein/min, respectively). Incubations of the 8,9- and 14,15-epoxides with cytosolic epoxide hydrolase show stereoselective formation of diols (7:3 and 4:1 ratio of antipodes, respectively) and concomitant chiral enrichment of the remaining unmetabolized substrate. In contrast, hydration of the 11,12-epoxide is nonenantioselective. The Km value of the enzyme for the 14(R),15(S)-epoxide is 3 microM. Incubations of the enantiomerically pure 8,9- and 14,15-epoxides with lung or liver cytosol, followed by chiral analysis of the resulting diols demonstrate selective cleavage of the oxirane ring at C9 and C15, respectively. On the other hand, cleavage of the 11,12- oxirane ring was less selective. The stereochemical preference of the cytosolic epoxide hydrolase, together with the known chiral composition of the endogenous arachidonate epoxide pools, suggests a functional role for this enzyme in the metabolism of these important compounds.

  14. S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency in a 26-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Buist, N R M; Glenn, B; Vugrek, O; Wagner, C; Stabler, S; Allen, R H; Pogribny, I; Schulze, A; Zeisel, S H; Barić, I; Mudd, S H

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the third proven human case of deficient S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase activity. The patient is similar to the only two previously reported cases with this disorder in having severe myopathy, developmental delay, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations, and hypermethioninaemia. Although he has been followed from infancy, the basic enzyme deficiency was established only at age 26 years. The diagnosis was based on markedly elevated plasma concentrations of both AdoHcy and S-adenosylmethionine, some 20% of the mean control activity of AdoHcy hydrolase activity in haemolysates of his red-blood cells, and two missense mutations in his gene encoding AdoHcy hydrolase. He had low values of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and plasma free choline and marginally elevated excretion of guanidinoacetate, suggesting that the elevated AdoHcy may have been inhibiting methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine and guanidinoacetate. His leukocyte DNA was globally more methylated than the DNA's of his parents or the mean extent of methylation measured in age-matched control subjects.

  15. Medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in lactating-rabbit mammary gland. Intracellular concentration and specificity of medium-chain acyl thioester hydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, J

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of medium-chain acyl thioester hydrolase and of fatty acid synthetase was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis in nine different particle-free supernatant fractions from lactating-rabbit mammary gland. The molar ratio of the hydrolase to fatty acid synthetase was 1.99 +/- 0.66 (mean +/- S.D.). A rate-limiting concentration of malonyl-CoA was required to ensure the predominant synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids when 2 mol of the hydrolase was added per mol of fatty acid synthetase. The interaction of the hydrolase with fatty acid synthetase was concentration-dependent, though an optimum concentration of hydrolase to synthetase could not be obtained. The lactating-rabbit mammary gland hydrolase altered the pattern of fatty acids synthesized by fatty acid synthetases prepared from cow, goat, sheep and rabbit lactating mammary glands, rabbit liver and cow adipose tissue. PMID:574008

  16. Cloning and expression of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Lactobacillus plantarum by using a direct plate assay.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, H; Leer, R J; Pouwels, P H; Verstraete, W

    1992-12-01

    The conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from the silage isolate Lactobacillus plantarum 80 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061. For the screening of this hydrolase gene within the gene bank, a direct plate assay developed by Dashkevicz and Feighner (M. P. Dashkevicz and S. D. Feighner, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:331-336, 1989) was adapted to the growth requirements of E. coli. Because of hydrolysis and medium acidification, hydrolase-active colonies were surrounded with big halos of precipitated, free bile acids. This phenomenon was also obtained when the gene was cloned into a multicopy shuttle vector and subsequently reintroduced into the parental Lactobacillus strain. The cbh gene and surrounding regions were characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence was shown to have 52% similarity with a penicillin V amidase from Bacillus sphaericus. Preliminary characterization of the gene product showed that it is a cholylglycine hydrolase (EC 3.5.1.24) with only slight activity against taurine conjugates. The optimum pH was between 4.7 and 5.5. Optimum temperature ranged from 30 to 45 degrees C. Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned gene has similarity with genomic DNA of bile acid hydrolase-active Lactobacillus spp. of intestinal origin.

  17. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  18. The nodulation factor hydrolase of Medicago truncatula: characterization of an enzyme specifically cleaving rhizobial nodulation signals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Yue; Wong, Kam-Bo; Feddermann, Nadja; Boller, Thomas; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Nodule formation induced by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial nodulation factors (NFs), modified chitin oligosaccharides with a fatty acid moiety. Certain NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by plant chitinases. However, the most abundant NF of Sinorhizobium meliloti, an O-acetylated and sulfated tetramer, is resistant to hydrolysis by all plant chitinases tested so far. Nevertheless, this NF is rapidly degraded in the host rhizosphere. Here, we identify and characterize MtNFH1 (for Medicago truncatula Nod factor hydrolase 1), a legume enzyme structurally related to defense-related class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18). MtNFH1 lacks chitinase activity but efficiently hydrolyzes all tested NFs of S. meliloti. The enzyme shows a high cleavage preference, releasing exclusively lipodisaccharides from NFs. Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of MtNFH1 were compared with those of class V chitinases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which cannot hydrolyze tetrameric NFs of S. meliloti. The Michaelis-Menten constants of MtNFH1 for NFs are in the micromolar concentration range, whereas nonmodified chitin oligosaccharides represent neither substrates nor inhibitors for MtNFH1. The three-dimensional structure of MtNFH1 was modeled on the basis of the known structure of class V chitinases. Docking simulation of NFs to MtNFH1 predicted a distinct binding cleft for the fatty acid moiety, which is absent in the class V chitinases. Point mutation analysis confirmed the modeled NF-MtNFH1 interaction. Silencing of MtNFH1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced NF degradation in the rhizosphere of M. truncatula. In conclusion, we have found a novel legume hydrolase that specifically inactivates NFs.

  19. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, Patricia; Boisvert, Susanne; Compton, Jaimee; Millard, Charles

    2014-07-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine O?. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. pNBE was tested as a surrogate scaffold for mammalian esterases. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1. We discuss the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases.

  20. Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Klimova, Nina; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-10-01

    NAD + catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD + catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NUDIX hydrolases (NUDT9α and NUDT9β) can affect mitochondrial and cellular AMP levels by hydrolyzing ADP- ribose (ADPr) and subsequently altering the levels of GTP and ATP. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is activated after DNA damage, which depletes NAD + pools and results in the PARylation of nuclear and mitochondrial proteins. In the mitochondria, ADP-ribosyl hydrolase-3 (ARH3) hydrolyzes PAR to ADPr, while NUDT9α metabolizes ADPr to AMP. Elevated AMP levels have been reported to reduce mitochondrial ATP production by inhibiting the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), allosterically activating AMPK by altering the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, and by depleting mitochondrial GTP pools by being phosphorylated by adenylate kinase 3 (AK3), which uses GTP as a phosphate donor. Recently, activated AMPK was reported to phosphorylate mitochondria fission factor (MFF), which increases Drp1 localization to the mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial fission. Moreover, the increased AK3 activity could deplete mitochondrial GTP pools and possibly inhibit normal activity of GTP-dependent fusion enzymes, thus altering mitochondrial dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified.more » Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.« less

  2. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J; Snarr, Brendan D; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J; Lee, Mark J; Jennings, Laura K; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A; Parsek, Matthew R; Sheppard, Donald C; Wozniak, Daniel J; Howell, P Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics.

  3. Activity-based proteomics of enzyme superfamilies: serine hydrolases as a case study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gabriel M; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-04-09

    Genome sequencing projects have uncovered thousands of uncharacterized enzymes in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Deciphering the physiological functions of enzymes requires tools to profile and perturb their activities in native biological systems. Activity-based protein profiling has emerged as a powerful chemoproteomic strategy to achieve these objectives through the use of chemical probes that target large swaths of enzymes that share active-site features. Here, we review activity-based protein profiling and its implementation to annotate the enzymatic proteome, with particular attention given to probes that target serine hydrolases, a diverse superfamily of enzymes replete with many uncharacterized members.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Organelle-Type Nudix Hydrolases in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Miyake, Hiroe; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Ito, Daisuke; Tanabe, Noriaki; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    Nudix (for nucleoside diphosphates linked to some moiety X) hydrolases act to hydrolyze ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, nucleotide sugars, coenzymes, or dinucleoside polyphosphates. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains 27 genes encoding Nudix hydrolase homologues (AtNUDX1 to -27) with a predicted distribution in the cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Previously, cytosolic Nudix hydrolases (AtNUDX1 to -11 and -25) were characterized. Here, we conducted a characterization of organelle-type AtNUDX proteins (AtNUDX12 to -24, -26, and -27). AtNUDX14 showed pyrophosphohydrolase activity toward both ADP-ribose and ADP-glucose, although its Km value was approximately 100-fold lower for ADP-ribose (13.0 ± 0.7 μm) than for ADP-glucose (1,235 ± 65 μm). AtNUDX15 hydrolyzed not only reduced coenzyme A (118.7 ± 3.4 μm) but also a wide range of its derivatives. AtNUDX19 showed pyrophosphohydrolase activity toward both NADH (335.3 ± 5.4 μm) and NADPH (36.9 ± 3.5 μm). AtNUDX23 had flavin adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase activity (9.1 ± 0.9 μm). Both AtNUDX26 and AtNUDX27 hydrolyzed diadenosine polyphosphates (n = 4–5). A confocal microscopic analysis using a green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that AtNUDX15 is distributed in mitochondria and AtNUDX14 -19, -23, -26, and -27 are distributed in chloroplasts. These AtNUDX mRNAs were detected ubiquitously in various Arabidopsis tissues. The T-DNA insertion mutants of AtNUDX13, -14, -15, -19, -20, -21, -25, -26, and -27 did not exhibit any phenotypical differences under normal growth conditions. These results suggest that Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis control a variety of metabolites and are pertinent to a wide range of physiological processes. PMID:18815383

  5. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of N-adamantyl substituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Lango, Jozsef; Hwang, Sung Hee; Watanabe, Takaho; Kim, In-Hae; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-15

    N,N'-disubstituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for hypertension, inflammation, and pain in multiple animal models. The drug absorption and pharmacological efficacy of these inhibitors have been reported extensively. However, the drug metabolism of these inhibitors is not well described. Here we reported the metabolic profile and associated biochemical studies of an N-adamantyl urea-based sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)pentyl)urea (AEPU) in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of AEPU were identified by interpretation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or NMR. In vitro, AEPU had three major positions for phase I metabolism including oxidations on the adamantyl moiety, urea nitrogen atoms, and cleavage of the polyethylene glycol chain. In a rodent model, the metabolites from the hydroxylation on the adamantyl group and nitrogen atom were existed in blood while the metabolites from cleavage of polyethylene glycol chain were not found in urine. The major metabolite found in rodent urine was 3-(3-adamantyl-ureido)-propanoic acid, a presumably from cleavage and oxidation of the polyethylene glycol moiety. All the metabolites found were active but less potent than AEPU at inhibiting human sEH. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 was found to be a major enzyme mediating AEPU metabolism. In conclusion, the metabolism of AEPU resulted from oxidation by CYP could be shared with other N-adamantyl-urea-based compounds. These findings suggest possible therapeutic roles for AEPU and new strategies for drug design in this series of possible drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusivelymore » high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Cloning and Expression of a Phloretin Hydrolase Gene from Eubacterium ramulus and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Schoefer, Lilian; Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Phloretin hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolytic C-C cleavage of phloretin to phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid during flavonoid degradation in Eubacterium ramulus. The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned by screening a gene library for hydrolase activity. The insert of a clone conferring phloretin hydrolase activity was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 822 bp (phy), a putative promoter region, and a terminating stem-loop structure. The deduced amino acid sequence of phy showed similarities to a putative protein of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic operon from Pseudomonas fluorescens. The phloretin hydrolase was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was approximately 55 kDa as determined by gel filtration. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the deduced amino acid sequence of phy indicated molecular masses of 30 and 30.8 kDa, respectively, suggesting that the enzyme is a homodimer. The recombinant phloretin hydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of phloretin to equimolar amounts of phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid. The optimal temperature and pH of the catalyzed reaction mixture were 37°C and 7.0, respectively. The Km for phloretin was 13 ± 3 μM and the kcat was 10 ± 2 s−1. The enzyme did not transform phloretin-2′-glucoside (phloridzin), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propandione, or trans-1,3-diphenyl-2,3-epoxy-propan-1-one. The catalytic activity of the phloretin hydrolase was reduced by N-bromosuccinimide, o-phenanthroline, N-ethylmaleimide, and CuCl2 to 3, 20, 35, and 85%, respectively. Phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid reduced the activity to 54 and 70%, respectively. PMID:15466559

  8. Structural genomics analysis of uncharacterized protein families overrepresented in human gut bacteria identifies a novel glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteroides spp. form a significant part of our gut microbiome and are well known for optimized metabolism of diverse polysaccharides. Initial analysis of the archetypal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome identified 172 glycosyl hydrolases and a large number of uncharacterized proteins associated with polysaccharide metabolism. Results BT_1012 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 is a protein of unknown function and a member of a large protein family consisting entirely of uncharacterized proteins. Initial sequence analysis predicted that this protein has two domains, one on the N- and one on the C-terminal. A PSI-BLAST search found over 150 full length and over 90 half size homologs consisting only of the N-terminal domain. The experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the BT_1012 protein confirms its two-domain architecture and structural analysis of both domains suggests their specific functions. The N-terminal domain is a putative catalytic domain with significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, the C-terminal domain has a beta-sandwich fold typically found in C-terminal domains of other glycosyl hydrolases, however these domains are typically involved in substrate binding. We describe the structure of the BT_1012 protein and discuss its sequence-structure relationship and their possible functional implications. Conclusions Structural and sequence analyses of the BT_1012 protein identifies it as a glycosyl hydrolase, expanding an already impressive catalog of enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism in Bacteroides spp. Based on this we have renamed the Pfam families representing the two domains found in the BT_1012 protein, PF13204 and PF12904, as putative glycoside hydrolase and glycoside hydrolase-associated C-terminal domain respectively. PMID:24742328

  9. Glycoside hydrolase gene transcription by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius during growth on wheat arabinoxylan and monosaccharides: a proposed xylan hydrolysis mechanism

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; Sheridan, Peter P.; ...

    2018-04-16

    Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Here, experiments were performed to understand the effect of monosaccharides on gene expression during growth on the polysaccharide, WAX.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the amidase domain of allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Balotra, Sahil; Newman, Janet; French, Nigel G.

    2014-02-19

    The amidase domain of the allophanate hydrolase AtzF from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction data have been collected. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was expressed and purified, and a tryptic digest fragment was subsequently identified, expressed and purified. This 50 kDa construct retained amidase activity and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and adopted space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.4, b = 179.2, c = 112.6 Å, β = 106.6°.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  12. Glycoside hydrolase gene transcription by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius during growth on wheat arabinoxylan and monosaccharides: a proposed xylan hydrolysis mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; Apel, William A.; Sheridan, Peter P.

    Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Here, experiments were performed to understand the effect of monosaccharides on gene expression during growth on the polysaccharide, WAX.

  13. Screening Brazilian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José C

    2012-03-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipases. Hydrolase detection and growth rate determination were done on citric pectin, gelatin, casein, soluble starch, and olive oil as substrates. Ten isolates were found to be active on all substrates tested. The most commonly detected enzymes were pectinases, amylases, and lipases. The growth rate on pectin was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while the growth rates on the different media identified CMM 2105, CMM 1091, and PEL as the fastest-growing isolates. The lipase activity of four isolates grown on olive oil was followed for 4 days by measuring the activity in the cultivation broth. The specific lipolytic activity of isolate PEL was significantly higher at 96 h (130 mU mg protein(-1)). The broth was active at 37 °C, pH 8, indicating the potential utility of the lipases of this isolate in mild alkaline detergents. There was a strong and positive correlation (0.86) between radial growth rate and specific lipolytic activity.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Acylpeptide Hydrolase Bound to Chlorpyrifosmethyl Oxon and Dichlorvos

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hanyong; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wang, Dongmei; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APHs) catalyze the removal of N-acylated amino acids from blocked peptides. Like other prolyloligopeptidase (POP) family members, APHs are believed to be important targets for drug design. To date, the binding pose of organophosphorus (OP) compounds of APH, as well as the different OP compounds binding and inducing conformational changes in two domains, namely, α/β hydrolase and β-propeller, remain poorly understood. We report a computational study of APH bound to chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos. In our docking study, Val471 and Gly368 are important residues for chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos binding. Molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to explore the conformational changes between the chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos bound to APH, which indicated that the structural feature of chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon binding in APH permitted partial opening of the β-propeller fold and allowed the chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon to easily enter the catalytic site. These results may facilitate the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy. PMID:25794283

  15. Molecular characterization of human ABHD2 as TAG lipase and ester hydrolase.

    PubMed

    M, Naresh Kumar; V B S C, Thunuguntla; G K, Veeramachaneni; B, Chandra Sekhar; Guntupalli, Swapna; J S, Bondili

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been progressively documented as a characteristic property of cancer cells. Though, human ABHD2 gene was found to be highly expressed in breast and lung cancers, its biochemical functionality is yet uncharacterized. In the present study we report, human ABHD2 as triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase along with ester hydrolysing capacity. Sequence analysis of ABHD2 revealed the presence of conserved motifs G(205)XS(207)XG(209) and H(120)XXXXD(125) Phylogenetic analysis showed homology to known lipases, Drosophila melanogaster CG3488. To evaluate the biochemical role, recombinant ABHD2 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using pYES2/CT vector and His-tag purified protein showed TAG lipase activity. Ester hydrolase activity was confirmed with pNP acetate, butyrate and palmitate substrates respectively. Further, the ABHD2 homology model was built and the modelled protein was analysed based on the RMSD and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) of the 100 ns simulation trajectory. Docking the acetate, butyrate and palmitate ligands with the model confirmed covalent binding of ligands with the Ser(207) of the GXSXG motif. The model was validated with a mutant ABHD2 developed with alanine in place of Ser(207) and the docking studies revealed loss of interaction between selected ligands and the mutant protein active site. Based on the above results, human ABHD2 was identified as a novel TAG lipase and ester hydrolase. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway from acylpeptide hydrolases using steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Jin, Hanyong; Wang, Junling; Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Han, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. APH is significantly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase, a target of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Thus, OP compounds can be used as a tool to probe the physiological functions of APH. Here, we report the results of a computational study of molecular dynamics simulations of APH bound to the OP compounds and an exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. In addition, we apply SMD simulations to identify potential escape routes of chlorpyrifos from hydrolase hydrophobic cavities in the APH-inhibitor complex. Two previously proposed APH pathways were reliably identified by CAVER 3.0, with the estimated relative importance of P1 > P2 for its size. We identify the major pathway, P2, using SMD simulations, and Arg526, Glu88, Gly86, and Asn65 are identified as important residues for the ligand leaving via P2. These results may help in the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy, as well as in understanding APH selectivity of the inhibitor binding in the prolyl oligopeptidase family.

  17. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Controls Energy Metabolism Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fisette, Alexandre; Tobin, Stephanie; Décarie-Spain, Léa; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Peyot, Marie-Line; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2016-10-25

    α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH KO ) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges. VMH KO mice exhibited blunted fasting-induced feeding and reduced food intake, energy expenditure, and adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold exposure, high-fat feeding, and dieting (transition to a low-fat diet). Our findings identify ABHD6 as a regulator of the counter-regulatory responses to major metabolic shifts, including fasting, nutrient excess, cold, and dieting, thereby highlighting the importance of ABHD6 in the VMH in mediating energy metabolism flexibility. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Down-regulation of anandamide hydrolase in mouse uterus by sex hormones.

    PubMed

    MacCarrone, M; De Felici, M; Bari, M; Klinger, F; Siracusa, G; Finazzi-Agrò, A

    2000-05-01

    Endocannabinoids are an emerging class of lipid mediators, which mimic several effects of cannabinoids. Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide) is a major endocannabinoid, which has been shown to impair pregnancy and embryo development. The activity of anandamide is controlled by cellular uptake through a specific transporter and intracellular degradation by the enzyme anandamide hydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH). We characterized FAAH in mouse uterus by radiochromatographic and immunochemical techniques, showing that the enzyme is confined to the epithelium and its activity decreases appreciably during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy because of lower gene expression at the translational level. Ovariectomy prevented the decrease in FAAH, and both progesterone and estrogen further reduced its basal levels, suggesting hormonal control of the enzyme. Anandamide was shown to induce programmed cell death in mouse blastocysts, through a pathway independent of type-1 cannabinoid receptor. Blastocysts, however, have a specific anandamide transporter and FAAH, which scavenge this lipid. Taken together, these results provide evidence of an interplay between endocannabinoids and sex hormones in pregnancy. These findings may also be relevant for human fertility, as epithelial cells from healthy human uterus showed FAAH activity and expression, which in adenocarcinoma cells was increased fivefold.

  19. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-d-xylopyranose-(1→6)-d-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. PMID:26755723

  20. Crystallization of dienelactone hydrolase in two space groups: structural changes caused by crystal packing

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Joanne L.; Carr, Paul D.; Collyer, Charles A.; Ollis, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Dienelactone hydrolase (DLH) is a monomeric protein with a simple α/β-hydrolase fold structure. It readily crystallizes in space group P212121 from either a phosphate or ammonium sulfate precipitation buffer. Here, the structure of DLH at 1.85 Å resolution crystallized in space group C2 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. When crystallized in space group P212121 DLH has either phosphates or sulfates bound to the protein in crucial locations, one of which is located in the active site, preventing substrate/inhibitor binding. Another is located on the surface of the enzyme coordinated by side chains from two different molecules. Crystallization in space group C2 from a sodium citrate buffer results in new crystallographic protein–protein interfaces. The protein backbone is highly similar, but new crystal contacts cause changes in side-chain orientations and in loop positioning. In regions not involved in crystal contacts, there is little change in backbone or side-chain configuration. The flexibility of surface loops and the adaptability of side chains are important factors enabling DLH to adapt and form different crystal lattices. PMID:25005082

  1. Crystal structure of the glycosidase family 73 peptidoglycan hydrolase FlgJ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Ochiai, Akihito; Momma, Keiko

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) categorized into family 73 plays an important role in degrading bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The flagellar protein FlgJ contains N- and C-terminal domains responsible for flagellar rod assembly and peptidoglycan hydrolysis, respectively. A member of family GH-73, the C-terminal domain (SPH1045-C) of FlgJ from Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. SPH1045-C exhibited bacterial cell lytic activity most efficiently at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C. The X-ray crystallographic structure of SPH1045-C was determined at 1.74 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The enzyme consists of two lobes, {alpha} and {beta}. Amore » deep cleft located between the two lobes can accommodate polymer molecules, suggesting that the active site is located in the cleft. Although SPH1045-C shows a structural homology with family GH-22 and GH-23 lysozymes, the arrangement of the nucleophile/base residue in the active site is specific to each peptidoglycan hydrolase.« less

  2. Smoke-derived karrikin perception by the α/β-hydrolase KAI2 from Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongxia; Zheng, Zuyu; La Clair, James J.; Chory, Joanne; Noel, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies in Arabidopsis implicate an α/β-hydrolase, KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) as a receptor for karrikins, germination-promoting butenolide small molecules found in the smoke of burned plants. However, direct biochemical evidence for the interaction between KAI2 and karrikin and for the mechanism of downstream signaling by a KAI2–karrikin complex remain elusive. We report crystallographic analyses and ligand-binding experiments for KAI2 recognition of karrikins. The karrikin-1 (KAR1) ligand sits in the opening to the active site abutting a helical domain insert but distal from the canonical catalytic triad (Ser95-His246-Asp217) of α/β-hydrolases, consistent with the lack of detectable hydrolytic activity by purified KAI2. The closest approach of KAR1 to Ser95-His246-Asp217 is 3.8 Å from His246. Six aromatic side chains, including His246, encapsulate KAR1 through geometrically defined aromatic–aromatic interactions. KAR1 binding induces a conformational change in KAI2 at the active site entrance. A crevice of hydrophobic residues linking the polar edge of KAR1 and the helical domain insert suggests that KAI2–KAR1 creates a contiguous interface for binding signaling partners in a ligand-dependent manner. PMID:23613584

  3. Smoke-derived karrikin perception by the α/β-hydrolase KAI2 from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongxia; Zheng, Zuyu; La Clair, James J; Chory, Joanne; Noel, Joseph P

    2013-05-14

    Genetic studies in Arabidopsis implicate an α/β-hydrolase, KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) as a receptor for karrikins, germination-promoting butenolide small molecules found in the smoke of burned plants. However, direct biochemical evidence for the interaction between KAI2 and karrikin and for the mechanism of downstream signaling by a KAI2-karrikin complex remain elusive. We report crystallographic analyses and ligand-binding experiments for KAI2 recognition of karrikins. The karrikin-1 (KAR1) ligand sits in the opening to the active site abutting a helical domain insert but distal from the canonical catalytic triad (Ser95-His246-Asp217) of α/β-hydrolases, consistent with the lack of detectable hydrolytic activity by purified KAI2. The closest approach of KAR1 to Ser95-His246-Asp217 is 3.8 Å from His246. Six aromatic side chains, including His246, encapsulate KAR1 through geometrically defined aromatic-aromatic interactions. KAR1 binding induces a conformational change in KAI2 at the active site entrance. A crevice of hydrophobic residues linking the polar edge of KAR1 and the helical domain insert suggests that KAI2-KAR1 creates a contiguous interface for binding signaling partners in a ligand-dependent manner.

  4. Geotrichum candidum link 1809: hydrolases activity and own method of digestive tract strains biotyping.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowska, A; Białasiewicz, D

    2001-01-01

    Hydrolase activity of (enzymograms, biotypes) in Geotrichum candidum, one of the poorly described pathogenic fungi, was studied 81 strains were isolated from oral cavity and faeces of patients with gastrointestinal tract disorders. Axenic strains were differentiated with API 20C Aux and API ZYM tests. Then, enzymograms and biotypes were determined for all strains based on the activity of 19 hydrolases. High variability of enzymograms (17 different types) was found. The highest activity was noted in case of: e2 - alkaline phosphatase, e6 - leucine arylamidase, e11 - acid phosphatase. E5 - lipase, e7 - valine arylamidase, e12 - naphtol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and e17 - beta-glucosidase were used for biotyping procedures. Our own system of biotyping of 81 strains of G. candidum was based on the mathematical binominal distribution formula (1 : 4 : 6 : 4 : 1) - all "+"; one "-", three "+"; two "two "+"; three "-", one "+"; all "-". We have found: A (11.1 +/- 3.5%), BI (6.17 +/- 2.67%), B2 (1.23 +/- 1.22%), B4 (4.94 +/- 2.41%), C, (1.23 +/-1.22%), C3 (63.0 +/- 5.4%), D2 (9.88 +/-3.31%), D3 (2.47 +/- 1.72%). Among all strains from 8 various biotypes of G. candidum.

  5. Systematic Survey of Serine Hydrolase Activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Defines Changes Associated with Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Corrie; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Frando, Andrew

    The transition between replication and non-replication underlies much of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenicity, as non- or slowly replicating Mtb are responsible for persistence and poor treatment outcomes. Therapeutic targeting of non-replicating, persistent populations is a priority for tuberculosis treatment, but only few drug targets in non-replicating Mtb are currently known. Here, we directly measure the activity of the highly diverse and druggable serine hydrolases (SHs) during active replication and non-replication by activity-based proteomics. We predict serine hydrolase activity for 78 proteins, including 27 proteins with previously unknown function, and identify 37 SHs that remain active even in the absence ofmore » replication, providing a set of candidate persistence targets. Non-replication was associated with large shifts in the activity of the majority of SHs. These activity changes were largely independent of SH abundance, indicating extensive post-translational regulation. By probing a large cross-section of druggable Mtb enzyme space during replication and non-replication, we identify new SHs and suggest new persistence targets.« less

  6. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence datamore » from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.« less

  7. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence datamore » from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.« less

  8. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and –beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGLβ perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12345.001 PMID:26779719

  9. Drosophila tan Encodes a Novel Hydrolase Required in Pigmentation and Vision

    PubMed Central

    True, John R; Yeh, Shu-Dan; Hovemann, Bernhard T; Kemme, Tobias; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Edwards, Tara N; Liou, Shian-Ren; Han, Qian; Li, Jianyong

    2005-01-01

    Many proteins are used repeatedly in development, but usually the function of the protein is similar in the different contexts. Here we report that the classical Drosophila melanogaster locus tan encodes a novel enzyme required for two very different cellular functions: hydrolysis of N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD) to dopamine during cuticular melanization, and hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine in the metabolism of photoreceptor neurotransmitter. We characterized two tan-like P-element insertions that failed to complement classical tan mutations. Both are inserted in the 5′ untranslated region of the previously uncharacterized gene CG12120, a putative homolog of fungal isopenicillin-N N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.164). Both P insertions showed abnormally low transcription of the CG12120 mRNA. Ectopic CG12120 expression rescued tan mutant pigmentation phenotypes and caused the production of striking black melanin patterns. Electroretinogram and head histamine assays indicated that CG12120 is required for hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine, which is required for histaminergic neurotransmission. Recombinant CG12120 protein efficiently hydrolyzed both NBAD to dopamine and carcinine to histamine. We conclude that D. melanogaster CG12120 corresponds to tan. This is, to our knowledge, the first molecular genetic characterization of NBAD hydrolase and carcinine hydrolase activity in any organism and is central to the understanding of pigmentation and photoreceptor function. PMID:16299587

  10. Structure and substrate-binding mechanism of human Ap4A hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Swarbrick, James D; Buyya, Smrithi; Gunawardana, Dilantha; Gayler, Kenwyn R; McLennan, Alexander G; Gooley, Paul R

    2005-03-04

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases play a major role in maintaining homeostasis by cleaving the metabolite diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) back into ATP and AMP. The NMR solution structures of the 17-kDa human asymmetric Ap(4)A hydrolase have been solved in both the presence and absence of the product ATP. The adenine moiety of the nucleotide predominantly binds in a ring stacking arrangement equivalent to that observed in the x-ray structure of the homologue from Caenorhabditis elegans. The binding site is, however, markedly divergent to that observed in the plant/pathogenic bacteria class of enzymes, opening avenues for the exploration of specific therapeutics. Binding of ATP induces substantial conformational and dynamic changes that were not observed in the C. elegans structure. In contrast to the C. elegans homologue, important side chains that play a major role in substrate binding do not have to reorient to accommodate the ligand. This may have important implications in the mechanism of substrate recognition in this class of enzymes.

  11. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D.; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon–carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors’ knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors. PMID:18097091

  12. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D; Noble, Martin E M; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 A resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors' knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  13. Structure of a Trypanosoma Brucei Alpha/Beta--Hydrolase Fold Protein With Unknown Function

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E.A.; Holmes, M.; Buckner, F.S.

    2009-05-26

    The structure of a structural genomics target protein, Tbru020260AAA from Trypanosoma brucei, has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 {angstrom} using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protein belongs to Pfam sequence family PF08538 and is only distantly related to previously studied members of the {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold family. Structural superposition onto representative {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold proteins of known function indicates that a possible catalytic nucleophile, Ser116 in the T. brucei protein, lies at the expected location. However, the present structure and by extension the other trypanosomatid members of this sequence family have neither sequence nor structural similaritymore » at the location of other active-site residues typical for proteins with this fold. Together with the presence of an additional domain between strands {beta}6 and {beta}7 that is conserved in trypanosomatid genomes, this suggests that the function of these homologs has diverged from other members of the fold family.« less

  14. Signature Motifs Identify an Acinetobacter Cif Virulence Factor with Epoxide Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Ballok, Alicia E.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Cady, Kyle C.; O'Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii (“aCif”). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog (“aCifR”) and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections. PMID:24474692

  15. Molecular characterization of human ABHD2 as TAG lipase and ester hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    M., Naresh Kumar; V.B.S.C., Thunuguntla; G.K., Veeramachaneni; B., Chandra Sekhar; Guntupalli, Swapna; J.S., Bondili

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been progressively documented as a characteristic property of cancer cells. Though, human ABHD2 gene was found to be highly expressed in breast and lung cancers, its biochemical functionality is yet uncharacterized. In the present study we report, human ABHD2 as triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase along with ester hydrolysing capacity. Sequence analysis of ABHD2 revealed the presence of conserved motifs G205XS207XG209 and H120XXXXD125. Phylogenetic analysis showed homology to known lipases, Drosophila melanogaster CG3488. To evaluate the biochemical role, recombinant ABHD2 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using pYES2/CT vector and His-tag purified protein showed TAG lipase activity. Ester hydrolase activity was confirmed with pNP acetate, butyrate and palmitate substrates respectively. Further, the ABHD2 homology model was built and the modelled protein was analysed based on the RMSD and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) of the 100 ns simulation trajectory. Docking the acetate, butyrate and palmitate ligands with the model confirmed covalent binding of ligands with the Ser207 of the GXSXG motif. The model was validated with a mutant ABHD2 developed with alanine in place of Ser207 and the docking studies revealed loss of interaction between selected ligands and the mutant protein active site. Based on the above results, human ABHD2 was identified as a novel TAG lipase and ester hydrolase. PMID:27247428

  16. Screening and evaluation of the glucoside hydrolase activity in Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts.

    PubMed

    Daenen, L; Saison, D; Sterckx, F; Delvaux, F R; Verachtert, H; Derdelinckx, G

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to select and examine Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts for hydrolase activity towards glycosidically bound volatile compounds. A screening for glucoside hydrolase activity of 58 brewing yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces was performed. The studied Saccharomyces brewing yeasts did not show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity, but a strain dependent beta-glucanase activity was observed. Some Brettanomyces species did show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity. The highest constitutive activity was found in Brettanomyces custersii. For the most interesting strains the substrate specificity was studied and their activity was evaluated in fermentation experiments with added hop glycosides. Fermentations with Br. custersii led to the highest release of aglycones. Pronounced exo-beta-glucanase activity in Saccharomyces brewing yeasts leads to a higher release of certain aglycones. Certain Brettanomyces brewing yeasts, however, are more interesting for hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatiles of hops. The release of flavour active compounds from hop glycosides opens perspectives for the bioflavouring and product diversification of beverages like beer. The release can be enhanced by using Saccharomyces strains with high exo-beta-glucanase activity. Higher activities can be found in Brettanomyces species with beta-glucosidase activity.

  17. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase of rat liver. Purification and characterization of enzyme fractions with different chromatographic characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Bulleid, N J; Graham, A B; Craft, J A

    1986-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase was purified from rat liver, and different fractions of the purified enzyme, which varied in their contents of phospholipid, were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography. One fraction (A), which did not bind to CM-cellulose, had a high phospholipid content, and a second fraction (B), which was eluted from CM-cellulose at high ionic strength, had a low phospholipid content. Removal of most of the phospholipid from fraction A altered its chromatographic behaviour. When the delipidated material was re-applied to CM-cellulose, most of the enzyme bound to the cation-exchanger. The specific activities of all the fractions described (with styrene epoxide [(1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene] as substrate) were altered by adding the non-ionic detergent Lubrol PX or phospholipid. Lubrol PX inhibited enzyme activity, and phospholipid reversed this inhibition. The various enzyme fractions isolated appeared to be different forms of the same protein, as judged by their minimum Mr values and immunochemical properties. These results indicate that different fractions of epoxide hydrolase isolated by ion-exchange chromatography probably are not different isoenzyme forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3082328

  18. Cloning, expression and mutation of a triazophos hydrolase gene from Burkholderia sp. SZL-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Su-Hui; Cheng, Ming-Gen; Zhao, Meng-Jun; Hong, Qing; Huang, Xing

    2016-06-01

    Triazophos is a broad-spectrum and highly effective insecticide, and the residues of triazophos have been frequently detected in the environment. A triazophos-degrading bacterium, Burkholderia sp. SZL-1, was isolated from a long-term triazophos-polluted soil. Strain SZL-1 could hydrolyze triazophos to 1-phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, which was further utilized as the carbon sources for growth. The triazophos hydrolase gene trhA, cloned from strain SZL-1, was expressed and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. TrhA is 55 kDa and displays maximum activity at 25°C, pH 8.0. This enzyme still has nearly 60% activity at the range of 15°C-50°C for 30 min. TrhA was mutated by sequential error prone PCR and screened for improved activity for triazophos degradation. One purified variant protein (Val89-Gly89) named TrhA-M1 showed up to 3-fold improvement in specific activity against triazophos, and the specificity constants of Kcat and Kcat/Km for TrhA-M1 were improved up to 2.3- and 8.28-fold, respectively, compared to the wild-type enzyme. The results in this paper provided potential material for the contaminated soil remediation and hydrolase genetic structure research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Malbranchea cinnamomea: A thermophilic fungal source of catalytically efficient lignocellulolytic glycosyl hydrolases and metal dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Chhavi; Basotra, Neha; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Marcos; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea as an important source of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The secretome analysis using LC-MS/MS orbitrap showed that fungus produced a spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases (cellulase/hemicellulase), polysaccharide lyases (PL) and carbohydrate esterases (CE) in addition to cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) indicating the presence of functional classical and oxidative cellulolytic mechanisms. The protein fractions in the secretome resolved by ion exchange chromatography were analyzed for ability to hydrolyze alkali treated carrot grass (ATCG) in the presence of Mn(2+)/Cu(2+). This strategy in tandem with peptide mass fingerprinting led to identification of metal dependent protein hydrolases with no apparent hydrolytic activity, however, showed 5.7 folds higher saccharification in presence of Mn(2+). Furthermore, adding different protein fractions to commercial cellulase (Novozymes: Cellic CTec2) resulted in enhanced hydrolysis of ATCG ranging between 1.57 and 3.43 folds indicating the enzymes from M. cinnamomea as catalytically efficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modification of ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase-L1 by cyclopentenone prostaglandins exacerbates hypoxic injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wenjin; Ahmad, Muzamil; Miller, Tricia M.; Rose, Marie E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Hickey, Robert W.; Graham, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), are active prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects that may be important in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain specific deubiquitinating enzyme whose aberrant function has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. We report that [15d-PGJ2] detected by quadrapole mass spectrometry (MS) increases in rat brain after temporary focal ischemia, and that treatment with 15d-PGJ2 induces accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and exacerbates cell death in normoxic and hypoxic primary neurons. 15d-PGJ2 covalently modifies UCH-L1 and inhibits its hydrolase activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of UCH-L1 exacerbates hypoxic neuronal death while transduction with a TAT-UCH-L1 fusion protein protects neurons from hypoxia. These studies indicate UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death and excessive production of CyPGs after stroke may exacerbate ischemic injury by modification and inhibition of UCH-L1. PMID:20933087

  1. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  2. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in themore » other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.« less

  3. Quantum chemical study of leaving group activation in T. vivax nucleoside hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loverix, Stefan; Versees, Wim; Steyaert, Jan; Geerlings, Paul

    General acid catalysis is a powerful and widely used strategy in enzymatic nucleophilic displacement reactions. However, in the nucleoside hydrolase of the parasite Trypanosoma vivax, crystallographic and mutagenesis studies failed to identify a general acid. The only groups in the vicinity of the leaving group that contribute to catalysis are (i) the indole side chain of Trp260, and (ii) the 5'-group of the substrate's ribose moiety. The x-ray structure of the slow Asp10Ala mutant of nucleoside hydrolase with the substrate inosine bound in the active site displays a face-to-face aromatic stacking interaction between Trp260 and the purine base of the substrate, as well as a peculiar C4'-endo ribose pucker that allows the 5'-OH group to accept an intramolecular hydrogen bond from the C8 of the purine. The first interaction (aromatic stacking) has been shown to raise the pKa of the leaving purine. Here, we present a DFT study showing that the 5'-OH group of ribose fulfills a similar role, rather than stabilizing the oxocarbenium-like transition state.

  4. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar tomore » tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.« less

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and comparison of bile salt hydrolases from Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01.

    PubMed

    Chae, J P; Valeriano, V D; Kim, G-B; Kang, D-K

    2013-01-01

    To clone, characterize and compare the bile salt hydrolase (BSH) genes of Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01. The BSH genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific oligonucleotide primers, and the products were inserted into the pET21b expression vector. Escherichia coli BLR (DE3) cells were transformed with pET21b vectors containing the BSH genes and induced using 0·1 mmol l(-1) isopropylthiolgalactopyranoside. The overexpressed BSH enzymes were purified using a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni(2+) -NTA) agarose column and their activities characterized. BSH A hydrolysed tauro-conjugated bile salts optimally at pH 5·0 and 55°C, whereas BSH C hydrolysed glyco-conjugated bile salts optimally at pH 5·0 and 70°C. The enzymes had no preferential activities towards a specific cholyl moiety. BSH enzymes vary in their substrate specificities and characteristics to broaden its activity. Despite the lack of conservation in their putative substrate-binding sites, these remain functional through motif conservation. This is to our knowledge the first report of isolation of BSH enzymes from a single strain, showing hydrolase activity towards either glyco-conjugated or tauro-conjugated bile salts. Future structural homology studies and site-directed mutagenesis of sites associated with substrate specificity may elucidate specificities of BSH enzymes. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. High-Resolution X-Ray Structures of Two Functionally Distinct Members of the Cyclic Amide Hydrolase Family of Toblerone Fold Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Peat, Thomas S.; Balotra, Sahil; Wilding, Matthew; Hartley, Carol J.; Newman, Janet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Toblerone fold was discovered recently when the first structure of the cyclic amide hydrolase, AtzD (a cyanuric acid hydrolase), was elucidated. We surveyed the cyclic amide hydrolase family, finding a strong correlation between phylogenetic distribution and specificity for either cyanuric acid or barbituric acid. One of six classes (IV) could not be tested due to a lack of expression of the proteins from it, and another class (V) had neither cyanuric acid nor barbituric acid hydrolase activity. High-resolution X-ray structures were obtained for a class VI barbituric acid hydrolase (1.7 Å) from a Rhodococcus species and a class V cyclic amide hydrolase (2.4 Å) from a Frankia species for which we were unable to identify a substrate. Both structures were homologous with the tetrameric Toblerone fold enzyme AtzD, demonstrating a high degree of structural conservation within the cyclic amide hydrolase family. The barbituric acid hydrolase structure did not contain zinc, in contrast with early reports of zinc-dependent activity for this enzyme. Instead, each barbituric acid hydrolase monomer contained either Na+ or Mg2+, analogous to the structural metal found in cyanuric acid hydrolase. The Frankia cyclic amide hydrolase contained no metal but instead formed unusual, reversible, intermolecular vicinal disulfide bonds that contributed to the thermal stability of the protein. The active sites were largely conserved between the three enzymes, differing at six positions, which likely determine substrate specificity. IMPORTANCE The Toblerone fold enzymes catalyze an unusual ring-opening hydrolysis with cyclic amide substrates. A survey of these enzymes shows that there is a good correlation between physiological function and phylogenetic distribution within this family of enzymes and provide insights into the evolutionary relationships between the cyanuric acid and barbituric acid hydrolases. This family of enzymes is structurally and mechanistically

  7. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [(a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-ph...

  8. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase
    (OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-cost
    detection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  9. 3-D QSAR ANALYSIS OF INHIBITION OF MURINE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (MSEH) BY BENZOYLUREAS, ARYLUREAS, AND THEIR ANALOGUES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and seventy-one compounds including benzoylureas, arylureas and related compounds were assayed using recombinant murine soluble epoxide hydrolase (MsEH) produced from a baculovirus expression system. Among all the insect growth regulators assayed, 18 benzoylphenylu...

  10. Structural analysis of a glycosides hydrolase family 42 cold-adapted ß-galactosidase from Rahnella sp. R3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ß-galactosidase isolated from a psychrotrophic bacterium, Rahnella sp. R3 (R-ß-Gal), exhibits high activity at low temperature. R-ß-Gal is a member of the glycoside hydrolases family 42 (GH42), and forms a 225 kDa trimeric structure in solution. The X-ray crystal structure of R-ß-Gal was determi...

  11. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  12. Oxidoreductases provide a more generic response to metallic stressors (Cu and Cd) than hydrolases in soil fungi: new ecotoxicological insights.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Demont-Caulet, Nathalie; Cheviron, Nathalie; Laval, Karine; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Mougin, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of metals on the secretion of enzymes from 12 fungal strains maintained in liquid cultures. Hydrolases (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase) and ligninolytic oxidoreductases (laccase, Mn, and lignin peroxidases) activities, as well as biomass production, were measured in culture fluids from fungi exposed to Cu or Cd. Our results showed that all fungi secreted most of the selected hydrolases and that about 50% of them produced a partial oxidative system in the absence of metals. Then, exposure of fungi to metals led to the decrease in biomass production. At the enzymatic level, Cu and Cd modified the secretion profiles of soil fungi. The response of hydrolases to metals was contrasted and complex and depended on metal, enzyme, and fungal strain considered. By contrast, the metals always stimulated the activity of ligninolytic oxidoreductases in fungal strains. In some of them, oxidoreductases were specifically produced following metal exposure. Fungal oxidoreductases provide a more generic response than hydrolases, constituting thus a physiological basis for their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in soils.

  13. Genetic basis for the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to peptidoglycan hydrolase by comparative transcriptome and whole genome sequence analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Lysostaphin is a glycyl-glycine bacteriocin peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans for degrading the peptidoglycan moieties in Staphylococcus aureus cell walls which result in cell lysis. There are known mechanisms of resistance to lysostaphin, e.g. serine in place...

  14. Three-dimensional structure of nylon hydrolase and mechanism of nylon-6 hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Seiji; Shibata, Naoki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Yasuhira, Kengo; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Haruka; Lee, Young-Ho; Oshima, Shohei; Santa, Ryuji; Oshima, Shohei; Mochiji, Kozo; Goto, Yuji; Ikegami, Takahisa; Nagai, Keisuke; Kato, Dai-Ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2012-02-10

    We performed x-ray crystallographic analyses of the 6-aminohexanoate oligomer hydrolase (NylC) from Agromyces sp. at 2.0 Å-resolution. This enzyme is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily that is responsible for the degradation of the nylon-6 industry byproduct. We observed four identical heterodimers (27 kDa + 9 kDa), which resulted from the autoprocessing of the precursor protein (36 kDa) and which constitute the doughnut-shaped quaternary structure. The catalytic residue of NylC was identified as the N-terminal Thr-267 of the 9-kDa subunit. Furthermore, each heterodimer is folded into a single domain, generating a stacked αββα core structure. Amino acid mutations at subunit interfaces of the tetramer were observed to drastically alter the thermostability of the protein. In particular, four mutations (D122G/H130Y/D36A/E263Q) of wild-type NylC from Arthrobacter sp. (plasmid pOAD2-encoding enzyme), with a heat denaturation temperature of T(m) = 52 °C, enhanced the protein thermostability by 36 °C (T(m) = 88 °C), whereas a single mutation (G111S or L137A) decreased the stability by ∼10 °C. We examined the enzymatic hydrolysis of nylon-6 by the thermostable NylC mutant. Argon cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses of the reaction products revealed that the major peak of nylon-6 (m/z 10,000-25,000) shifted to a smaller range, producing a new peak corresponding to m/z 1500-3000 after the enzyme treatment at 60 °C. In addition, smaller fragments in the soluble fraction were successively hydrolyzed to dimers and monomers. Based on these data, we propose that NylC should be designated as nylon hydrolase (or nylonase). Three potential uses of NylC for industrial and environmental applications are also discussed.

  15. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D; Bailey, Richard G; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A S; Hayhurst, Emma J; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2015-07-28

    Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. Understanding bacterial growth and division is a fundamental problem, and knowledge in this area underlies the treatment of many infectious diseases. Almost all bacteria are surrounded by a macromolecule of peptidoglycan that encloses the cell and maintains shape, and bacterial cells must increase the size of this molecule in order to enlarge themselves. This requires not only the insertion of new peptidoglycan monomers, a process targeted by antibiotics, including penicillin, but also breakage of existing bonds, a potentially hazardous activity for the cell. Using Staphylococcus aureus, we have identified a set of enzymes that are critical for cellular enlargement. We

  16. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Chlorpyrifos Hydrolase from Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Luo, Jianjun; Li, Yanan

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is of great environmental concern due to its widespread use in the past several decades and its potential toxic effects on human health. Thus, the degradation study of chlorpyrifos has become increasing important in recent years. A fungus capable of using chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon source was isolated from organophosphate-contaminated soil and characterized as Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711). A novel chlorpyrifos hydrolase from cell extract was purified 35.6-fold to apparent homogeneity with 38.5% overall recovery by ammoniumsulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. It is a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 38.3 kDa. The pI value was estimated to be 5.2. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 6.5 and 40°C, respectively. No cofactors were required for the chlorpyrifos-hydrolysis activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Fe3+, DTT, β-mercaptoethanol and SDS, whereas slight inhibitory effects (5–10% inhibition) were observed in the presence of Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and EDTA. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed various organophosphorus insecticides with P-O and P-S bond. Chlorpyrifos was the preferred substrate. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for chlorpyrifos were 6.7974 μM and 2.6473 μmol·min−1, respectively. Both NH2-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified an amino acid sequence MEPDGELSALTQGANS, which shared no similarity with any reported organophosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes. These results suggested that the purified enzyme was a novel hydrolase and might conceivably be developed to fulfill the practical requirements to enable its use in situ for detoxification of chlorpyrifos. Finally, this is the first described chlorpyrifos hydrolase from fungus. PMID:22693630

  17. The leukotriene B4-leukotriene B4 receptor axis promotes cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by modulating neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Lin, Yuli; Ma, Shuai; Zheng, Yin; Yang, Xuguang; Li, Bingji; Yu, Wenyan; Xu, Qingqing; Liu, Tingyan; Hao, Chuanming; He, Rui; Ding, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent and widely used in treatment of various solid organ malignancies, including head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancers. However, the induction of acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of its main side effects. Leukotriene B 4 receptor 1 (BLT1) mediates the majority of physiological effects of leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ), a potent lipid chemoattractant generated at inflammation sites, but the role of the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis in cisplatin-induced AKI remains unknown. Here we found upregulated LTB 4 synthesis and BLT1 expression in the kidney after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin was found to directly upregulate gene expression of leukotriene A 4 hydrolase and stimulate LTB 4 production in renal tubular epithelial cells. Reduced kidney structural/functional damage, inflammation, and apoptosis were observed in BLT1 -/- mice, as well as in wild-type mice treated with the LTA4H inhibitor SC-57461A and the BLT1 antagonist U-75302. Neutrophils were likely the target of this pathway, as BLT1 absence induced a significant decrease in infiltrating neutrophils in the kidney. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from wild-type mice restored kidney injury in BLT1 -/- mice following cisplatin challenge. Thus, the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis contributes to cisplatin-induced AKI by mediating kidney recruitment of neutrophils, which induce inflammation and apoptosis in the kidney. Hence, the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis could be a potential therapeutic target in cisplatin-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Mechanism of Tongsaimai tablet for atherosclerosis based on network pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Xin-Zhuang; Wang, Yan-Ru; Cao, Liang; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-05-01

    Network pharmacology method was adopted in this study to explore the active compounds and mechanism of Tongsaimai tablets for atherosclerosis. In molecular docking and molecular-target protein network analysis, 97 molecules in Tongsaimai tablets showed good interaction with the atherosclerosis-related target protein (docking score ≥ 7), and 37 molecules of them could act on more than 2 targets (≥ 2) with higher betweenness, suggesting that these 37 molecules might be the main active compounds group in Tongsaimai tablets for atherosclerosis treatment. Furthermore, the predicted active compounds contained more flavonoids and saponins, reminding more attention should be paid on flavonoids and saponins in study of effective compounds and quality standards of Tongsaimai tablets. Targets network analysis showed that, the active compounds of Tongsaimai tablets could regulate inflammation, stabilize plaque, protect vascular endothelial cell, regulate blood lipid and inhibit blood coagulation through acting on the main 22 target proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4-H), 5-lipoxidase (5-LOX), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ). These active compounds can participate in regulating different pathologic stages of atherosclerosis and thus treat atherosclerosis finally. This study revealed the main active compounds and possible mechanism of Tongsaimai tablets for treatment of atherosclerosis and meanwhile, verified the characteristics of multi-components, multi-targets and integral regulation for Tongsaimai tablets, providing theoretical references for the following systematic laboratory experiments on effective compounds and action mechanism of Tongsaimai Tablet. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Identification of the sequence motif of glycoside hydrolase 13 family members

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikash

    2011-01-01

    A bioinformatics analysis of sequences of enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 13 family members such as α-amylase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase), branching enzyme and cyclomaltodextrinase has been carried out in order to find out the sequence motifs that govern the reactions specificities of these enzymes by using hidden Markov model (HMM) profile. This analysis suggests the existence of such sequence motifs and residues of these motifs constituting the −1 to +3 catalytic subsites of the enzyme. Hence, by introducing mutations in the residues of these four subsites, one can change the reaction specificities of the enzymes. In general it has been observed that α -amylase sequence motif have low sequence conservation than rest of the motifs of the GH13 family members. PMID:21544166

  20. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  1. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  2. Determination of Organophosphate Pesticides at a Carbon Nanotube/Organophosphorus Hydrolase Electrochemical Biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, R P.; Wang, Joseph; Block, I

    2005-02-08

    An amperometric biosensor for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on a carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified transducer and an organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) biocatalyst is described. A bilayer approach with the OPH layer atop of the CNT film was used for preparing the CNT/OPH biosensor. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of the enzymatically-generated p-nitrophenol product, including higher sensitivity and stability. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the surface modification and operating conditions. Under the optimal conditions the biosensor was used to measure as low as 0.15 {micro}M paraoxon and 0.8 {micro}M methyl parathion with sensitivities of 25more » and 6 nA/{micro}M, respectively.« less

  3. The use of neutron scattering to determine the functional structure of glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Ishida, Takuya; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko

    2016-10-01

    Neutron diffraction provides different information from X-ray diffraction, because neutrons are scattered by atomic nuclei, whereas X-rays are scattered by electrons. One of the key advantages of neutron crystallography is the ability to visualize hydrogen and deuterium atoms, making it possible to observe the protonation state of amino acid residues, hydrogen bonds, networks of water molecules and proton relay pathways in enzymes. But, because of technical difficulties, less than 100 enzyme structures have been evaluated by neutron crystallography to date. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of neutron crystallography as a tool to investigate the functional structure of glycoside hydrolases, with some examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Switchable Hydrolase Based on Reversible Formation of Supramolecular Catalytic Site Using a Self-Assembling Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunqiu; Shafi, Ramim; Lampel, Ayala; MacPherson, Douglas; Pappas, Charalampos G; Narang, Vishal; Wang, Tong; Maldarelli, Charles; Ulijn, Rein V

    2017-11-13

    The reversible regulation of catalytic activity is a feature found in natural enzymes which is not commonly observed in artificial catalytic systems. Here, we fabricate an artificial hydrolase with pH-switchable activity, achieved by introducing a catalytic histidine residue at the terminus of a pH-responsive peptide. The peptide exhibits a conformational transition from random coil to β-sheet by changing the pH from acidic to alkaline. The β-sheet self-assembles to form long fibrils with the hydrophobic edge and histidine residues extending in an ordered array as the catalytic microenvironment, which shows significant esterase activity. Catalytic activity can be reversible switched by pH-induced assembly/disassembly of the fibrils into random coils. At higher concentrations, the peptide forms a hydrogel which is also catalytically active and maintains its reversible (de-)activation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Identification and characterization of carprofen as a multitarget fatty acid amide hydrolase/cyclooxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Favia, Angelo D; Habrant, Damien; Scarpelli, Rita; Migliore, Marco; Albani, Clara; Bertozzi, Sine Mandrup; Dionisi, Mauro; Tarozzo, Glauco; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea; De Vivo, Marco

    2012-10-25

    Pain and inflammation are major therapeutic areas for drug discovery. Current drugs for these pathologies have limited efficacy, however, and often cause a number of unwanted side effects. In the present study, we identify the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen as a multitarget-directed ligand that simultaneously inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Additionally, we synthesized and tested several derivatives of carprofen, sharing this multitarget activity. This may result in improved analgesic efficacy and reduced side effects (Naidu et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.2009, 329, 48-56; Fowler, C. J.; et al. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem.2012, in press; Sasso et al. Pharmacol. Res.2012, 65, 553). The new compounds are among the most potent multitarget FAAH/COX inhibitors reported so far in the literature and thus may represent promising starting points for the discovery of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain.

  7. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  8. Unveiling the functional diversity of the Alpha-Beta hydrolase fold in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mindrebo, Jeffrey T.; Nartey, Charisse M.; Seto, Yoshiya; Burkart, Michael D.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The alpha/beta hydrolase (ABH) superfamily is a widespread and functionally malleable protein fold recognized for its diverse biochemical activities across all three domains of life. ABH enzymes possess unexpected catalytic activity in the green plant lineage through selective alterations in active site architecture and chemistry. Furthermore, the ABH fold serves as the core structure for phytohormone and ligand receptors in the gibberellin, strigolactone, and karrikin signaling pathways in plants. Despite recent discoveries, the ABH family is sparsely characterized in plants, a sessile kingdom known to evolve complex and specialized chemical adaptations as survival responses to widely varying biotic and abiotic ecologies. This review calls attention to the ABH superfamily in the plant kingdom to highlight the functional adaptability of the ABH fold. PMID:27662376

  9. Unveiling the functional diversity of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mindrebo, Jeffrey T; Nartey, Charisse M; Seto, Yoshiya; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-12-01

    The alpha/beta hydrolase (ABH) superfamily is a widespread and functionally malleable protein fold recognized for its diverse biochemical activities across all three domains of life. ABH enzymes possess unexpected catalytic activity in the green plant lineage through selective alterations in active site architecture and chemistry. Furthermore, the ABH fold serves as the core structure for phytohormone and ligand receptors in the gibberellin, strigolactone, and karrikin signaling pathways in plants. Despite recent discoveries, the ABH family is sparsely characterized in plants, a sessile kingdom known to evolve complex and specialized chemical adaptations as survival responses to widely varying biotic and abiotic ecologies. This review calls attention to the ABH superfamily in the plant kingdom to highlight the functional adaptability of the ABH fold. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Carbaryl Hydrolase from Blastobacter sp. Strain M501

    PubMed Central

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Nagata, Tadahiro

    1993-01-01

    A bacterium capable of hydrolyzing carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate) was isolated from a soil enrichment. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as a Blastobacter sp. and designated strain M501. A carbaryl hydrolase present in this strain was purified to homogeneity by protamine sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and hydrophobic, anion-exchange, gel filtration, and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 166,000 Da and was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 84,000 Da. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme activity were 9.0 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme was not stable at temperatures above 40°C. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed seven N-methylcarbamate insecticides and also exhibited activity against 1-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate. Images PMID:16348989

  11. Studies on sterol-ester hydrolase from Fusarium oxysporum. I. Partial purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    1977-05-01

    1. A search for a long chain fatty acyl sterol-ester hydrolase in microorganisms led to the isolation from soil of five strains belonging to Fusarium sp. which produced strong activity in the culture medium. 2. The cholesterol esterase from Fusarium oxysporum IGH-2 was purified about 270-fold by means of CaCl2 precipitation and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. 3. The cholesterol esterase was activated by adekatol and Triton X-100. It was inhibited by lecithin and lysolecithin, and completely inactivated by heat treatment (60 degrees C for 30 min, at pH 7.0). 4. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be around 7.0. 5. Among various cholesterol esters tested, cholesterol linoleate was the most suitable substrate. 6. Cholesterol esters in serum were also hydrolyzed by this enzyme.

  12. Natural diversity of glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanases: insights from structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Alahuhta, Markus; Sammond, Deanne W.

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima. We have crystallized one new GH48 module from Bacillus pumilus in a complex withmore » cellobiose and cellohexaose (BpumGH48). We compare this structure to other known GH48 enzymes in an attempt to understand GH48 structure/function relationships and draw general rules correlating amino acid sequences and secondary structures to thermostability in this GH family.« less

  13. Natural diversity of glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanases: insights from structure

    DOE PAGES

    Brunecky, Roman; Alahuhta, Markus; Sammond, Deanne W.; ...

    2017-11-30

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima. We have crystallized one new GH48 module from Bacillus pumilus in a complex withmore » cellobiose and cellohexaose (BpumGH48). We compare this structure to other known GH48 enzymes in an attempt to understand GH48 structure/function relationships and draw general rules correlating amino acid sequences and secondary structures to thermostability in this GH family.« less

  14. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-α-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  15. Alternative strategy for converting an inverting glycoside hydrolase into a glycosynthase.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuji; Fushinobu, Shinya; Hidaka, Masafumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Hajime; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-04-01

    The tyrosine residue Y198 is known to support a nucleophilic water molecule with the general base residue, D263, in the reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase (Rex). A mutation in the tyrosine residue changing it into phenylalanine caused a drastic decrease in the hydrolytic activity and a small increase in the F(-) releasing activity from alpha-xylobiosyl fluoride in the presence of xylose. In contrast, mutations at D263 resulted in the decreased F(-) releasing activity. As a result of the high F(-) releasing activity and low hydrolytic activity, Y198F of Rex accumulates a large amount of product during the glycosynthase reaction. We propose a novel method for producing a glycosynthase from an inverting glycoside hydrolase by mutating a residue that holds the nucleophilic water molecule with the general base residue while keeping the general base residue intact.

  16. A spectrophotometric assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase suitable for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    De Bank, Paul A; Kendall, David A; Alexander, Stephen P H

    2005-04-15

    Signalling via the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol appears to be terminated largely through the action of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In this report, we describe a simple spectrophotometric assay to detect FAAH activity in vitro using the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze oleamide and measuring the resultant production of ammonia with a NADH/NAD+-coupled enzyme reaction. This dual-enzyme assay was used to determine Km and Vmax values of 104 microM and 5.7 nmol/min/mgprotein, respectively, for rat liver FAAH-catalyzed oleamide hydrolysis. Inhibitor potency was determined with the resultant rank order of methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate>phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride>anandamide. This assay system was also adapted for use in microtiter plates and its ability to detect a known inhibitor of FAAH demonstrated, highlighting its potential for use in high-throughput screening.

  17. Extensive hydrolysis of phosphonates as unexpected behaviour of the known His6-organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lyagin, Ilya V; Andrianova, Mariia S; Efremenko, Elena N

    2016-07-01

    The catalytic activity of hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) in hydrolytic reactions of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and its monoesters and diesters being decomposition products of R-VX was demonstrated for the first time. The catalytic constants of enzyme in such reactions were determined. The mechanism of C-P bond cleavage in the MPA by His6-OPH was proposed. Such reaction was estimated to be carried out with the soluble and nanocapsulated forms of His6-OPH. His6-OPH was demonstrated to be capable of degrading the key organophosphorus components of reaction masses (RMs) that are produced by the chemical detoxification of R-VX and RMs are multi-substrate mixtures for this enzyme. The kinetic model describing the behaviour of His6-OPH in RMs was proposed and was shown to adequately fit experimental points during degradation of the real samples of RMs.

  18. Phytodegradation of organophosphorus compounds by transgenic plants expressing a bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ningfeng; Guo, Jun; Chu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Jian; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu

    2008-01-18

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used as pesticides in agriculture but cause broad-area environmental pollution. In this work, we have expressed a bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) gene in tobacco plants. An assay of enzyme activity showed that transgenic plants could secrete OPH into the growth medium. The transgenic plants were resistant to methyl parathion (Mep), an OP pesticide, as evidenced by a toxicity test showing that the transgenic plants produced greater shoot and root biomass than did the wild-type plants. Furthermore, at 0.02% (v/v) Mep, the transgenic plants degraded more than 99% of Mep after 14 days of growth. Our work indicates that transgenic plants expressing an OPH gene may provide a new strategy for decontaminating OP pollutants.

  19. Sequence determination and analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, K; Janowski, R; Podkowiński, J; Jaskólski, M

    2001-01-01

    The coding sequences of two S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) were identified in yellow lupine by screenig of a cDNA library. One of them, corresponding to the complete protein, was sequenced and compared with 52 other SAHase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins identified three groups of the enzymes. Group A comprises only bacterial sequences. Group B is subdivided into two subgroups, one of which (B1) is formed by animal sequences. Subgroup B2 consist of two distinct clusters, B2a and B2b. Cluster B2b comprises all known plant sequences, including the yellow lupine enzyme, which are distinguished by a 50-residue insert. Group C is heterogeneous and contains SAHases from Archaea as well as a new class of animal enzymes, distinctly different from those in group B1.

  20. Selective inhibition of plant serine hydrolases by agrochemicals revealed by competitive ABPP.

    PubMed

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2012-01-15

    Organophosphate and -phosphonates and their thio derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to confirm eight SH-compound interactions, including selective inhibition of carboxylesterase CXE12, prolyloligopeptidase, methylesterase MES2 and tripeptidyl peptidase TPP2. These observations can be used for the design of novel probes and selective inhibitors and may help to assess physiological effects of agrochemicals on crop plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective Inhibition of Plant Serine Hydrolases by Agrochemicals Revealed by Competitive ABPP

    PubMed Central

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate and –phosphonates and their thiol derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant and their consumers are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to confirm eight SH-compound interactions, including selective inhibition of carboxylesterase CXE12, prolyloligopeptidase, methylesterase MES2 and tripeptidyl peptidase TPP2. These observations can be used for the design of novel probes and selective inhibitors and may help to assess physiological effects of agrochemicals on crop plants. PMID:21764588

  2. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.

    2011-12-22

    Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases but with notable differences, such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional cocrystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformatemore » inhibitor, and a covalently bound transition state mimic provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.« less

  3. The importance of nucleoside hydrolase enzyme (NH) in studies to treatment of Leishmania: A review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Villar, José D; Sales, Edijane M

    2017-02-01

    Leishmania is a genus of trypanosomes, which are responsible for leishmaniasis disease, a major trypanosome infection in humans. In recent years, published studies have shown that the search for new drugs for Leishmania treatments has intensified. Through technique modeling it has been possible to develop new compounds, which act as nucleoside hydrolase (NH) inhibitors. The effect of these enzymes is the hydrolysis of certain RNA nucleotides, which include uridine and inosine, necessary for the protozoa to transform certain nucleosides obtained from infected individuals into nucleobases for the preparation of their DNA. The obtention of NH inhibitors is very important to eliminate leishmaniasis disease in infected individuals. The aim of this study is to discuss the research and development of new agents for the treatment of Leishmania, and to stimulate the formulation of new NH inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Semicontinuous cultivation of fungi of the genus Aspergillus, producers of hydrolases].

    PubMed

    Blieva, R K

    1982-01-01

    The production of exohydrolases (alpha-amylase and pectinase) by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus was studied in the course of batch cultivation and, if immobilized cells were used, in the semicontinuous regime of growth. The cells were immobilized on a fixed filtering plate and on floating, in the growth medium, polyhedrons. Such a cultivation of immobilized microbial cells in the semicontinuous regime of growth on submerged polyhedrons freely floating in the nutrient medium makes it possible to cultivate the cells for 1.5 months with the active production of exocellular hydrolases. Under these conditions, Aspergillus oryzae 3-9-15 produces more alpha-amylase and A. awamori synthesizes more pectinases.

  5. Combined Cocaine Hydrolase Gene Transfer and Anti-Cocaine Vaccine Synergistically Block Cocaine-Induced Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Anker, Justin J.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.; Shen, Xiaoyun; Kinsey, Berma; Parks, Robin J.; Gao, Yang; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Mice and rats were tested for reduced sensitivity to cocaine-induced hyper-locomotion after pretreatment with anti-cocaine antibody or cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In Balb/c mice, direct i.p. injection of CocH protein (1 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but it suppressed responses to i.p. cocaine up to 80 mg/kg. When CocH was injected i.p. along with a murine cocaine antiserum that also did not affect spontaneous locomotion, there was no response to any cocaine dose. This suppression of locomotor activity required active enzyme, as it was lost after pretreatment with iso-OMPA, a selective BChE inhibitor. Comparable results were obtained in rats that developed high levels of CocH by gene transfer with helper-dependent adenoviral vector, and/or high levels of anti-cocaine antibody by vaccination with norcocaine hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). After these treatments, rats were subjected to a locomotor sensitization paradigm involving a “training phase" with an initial i.p. saline injection on day 1 followed by 8 days of repeated cocaine injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A 15-day rest period then ensued, followed by a final “challenge" cocaine injection. As in mice, the individual treatment interventions reduced cocaine-stimulated hyperactivity to a modest extent, while combined treatment produced a greater reduction during all phases of testing compared to control rats (with only saline pretreatment). Overall, the present results strongly support the view that anti-cocaine vaccine and cocaine hydrolase vector treatments together provide enhanced protection against the stimulatory actions of cocaine in rodents. A similar combination therapy in human cocaine users might provide a robust therapy to help maintain abstinence. PMID:22912888

  6. Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Bergeman, Lai F.

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions. Single, purified enzymes from the GH5_4, GH10, and GH11 families of glycoside hydrolases hydrolyzed hemicelluloses as evidenced by the loss ofmore » specific epitopes from the glycome profiles in enzyme-treated plant biomass. The glycome profiling data were further substantiated by oxime-NIMS, which identified hexose products from hydrolysis of cellulose, and pentose-only and mixed hexose-pentose products from the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The GH10 enzyme proved to be reactive with the broadest diversity of xylose-backbone polysaccharide epitopes, but was incapable of reacting with glucose-backbone polysaccharides. In contrast, the GH5 and GH11 enzymes studied here showed the ability to react with both glucose- and xylose-backbone polysaccharides. The identification of enzyme specificity for a wide diversity of polysaccharide structures provided by glycome profiling, and the correlated identification of soluble oligosaccharide hydrolysis products provided by oxime-NIMS, offers a unique combination to understand the hydrolytic capabilities and constraints of individual enzymes as they interact with plant biomass.« less

  7. Tissue Expressions of Soluble Human Epoxide Hydrolase-2 Enzyme in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ahmedov, Merdin Lyutviev; Kemerdere, Rahsan; Baran, Oguz; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Gumus, Alper; Coskun, Cihan; Yeni, Seher Naz; Eren, Bulent; Uzan, Mustafa; Tanriverdi, Taner

    2017-10-01

    We sought to simply demonstrate how levels of soluble human epoxide hydrolase-2 show changes in both temporal the cortex and hippocampal complex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. A total of 20 patients underwent anterior temporal lobe resection due to temporal lobe epilepsy. The control group comprised 15 people who died in traffic accidents or by falling from a height, and their autopsy findings were included. Adequately sized temporal cortex and hippocampal samples were removed from each patient during surgery, and the same anatomic structures were removed from the control subjects during the autopsy procedures. Each sample was stored at -80°C as rapidly as possible until the enzyme assay. The temporal cortex in the epilepsy patients had a significantly higher enzyme level than did the temporal cortex of the control group (P = 0.03). Correlation analysis showed that as the enzyme level increases in the temporal cortex, it also increases in the hippocampal complex (r 2  = 0.06, P = 0.00001). More important, enzyme tissue levels showed positive correlations with seizure frequency in both the temporal cortex and hippocampal complex in patients (r 2  = 0.7, P = 0.00001 and r 2  = 0.4, P = 0.003, respectively). The duration of epilepsy was also positively correlated with the hippocampal enzyme level (r 2  = 0.06, P = 0.00001). Soluble human epoxy hydrolase enzyme-2 is increased in both lateral and medial temporal tissues in temporal lobe epilepsy. Further studies should be conducted as inhibition of this enzyme has resulted in a significant decrease in or stopping of seizures and attenuated neuroinflammation in experimental epilepsy models in the current literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo; Kim, Seonah

    2014-04-25

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system ofmore » hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed.« less

  9. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E Ann

    2014-04-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) represents the best known amylolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch and related α-glucans. In general, the α-amylase is an enzyme with a broad substrate preference and product specificity. In the sequence-based classification system of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α-amylase family, forms clan GH-H together with families GH70 and GH77 that, however, contain no α-amylase. Within the family GH13, the α-amylase specificity is currently present in several subfamilies, such as GH13_1, 5, 6, 7, 15, 24, 27, 28, 36, 37, and, possibly in a few more that are not yet defined. The α-amylases classified in family GH13 employ a reaction mechanism giving retention of configuration, share 4-7 conserved sequence regions (CSRs) and catalytic machinery, and adopt the (β/α)8-barrel catalytic domain. Although the family GH57 α-amylases also employ the retaining reaction mechanism, they possess their own five CSRs and catalytic machinery, and adopt a (β/α)7-barrel fold. These family GH57 attributes are likely to be characteristic of α-amylases from the family GH119, too. With regard to family GH126, confirmation of the unambiguous presence of the α-amylase specificity may need more biochemical investigation because of an obvious, but unexpected, homology with inverting β-glucan-active hydrolases.

  10. The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B From And Its Complex With Urea-Based Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, B.K.; Morisseau, C.; Garen, G.

    2009-05-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes at least six epoxide hydrolases (EHs A to F). EHs convert epoxides to trans-dihydrodiols and have roles in drug metabolism as well as in the processing of signaling molecules. Herein, we report the crystal structures of unbound Mtb EHB and Mtb EHB bound to a potent, low-nanomolar (IC(50) approximately 19 nM) urea-based inhibitor at 2.1 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homodimer; each monomer adopts the classical alpha/beta hydrolase fold that composesmore » the catalytic domain; there is a cap domain that regulates access to the active site. The catalytic triad, comprising Asp104, His333 and Asp302, protrudes from the catalytic domain into the substrate binding cavity between the two domains. The urea portion of the inhibitor is bound in the catalytic cavity, mimicking, in part, the substrate binding; the two urea nitrogen atoms donate hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic carboxylate of Asp104, and the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety receives hydrogen bonds from the phenolic oxygen atoms of Tyr164 and Tyr272. The phenolic oxygen groups of these two residues provide electrophilic assistance during the epoxide hydrolytic cleavage. Upon inhibitor binding, the binding-site residues undergo subtle structural rearrangement. In particular, the side chain of Ile137 exhibits a rotation of around 120 degrees about its C(alpha)-C(beta) bond in order to accommodate the inhibitor. These findings have not only shed light on the enzyme mechanism but also have opened a path for the development of potent inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles against all Mtb EHs of the alpha/beta type.« less

  11. Sugar suppresses cell death caused by disruption of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Tiantian; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yi; Han, Chengyun; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Qi; Ren, Chunmei

    2016-09-01

    Sugar negatively regulates cell death resulting from the loss of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase that catalyzes the last step in the Tyr degradation pathway in Arabidopsis . Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) hydrolyzes fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate, the final step in the tyrosine (Tyr) degradation pathway that is essential to animals. Previously, we first found that the Tyr degradation pathway plays an important role in plants. Mutation of the SSCD1 gene encoding FAH in Arabidopsis leads to spontaneous cell death under short-day conditions. In this study, we presented that the lethal phenotype of the short-day sensitive cell death1 (sscd1) seedlings was suppressed by sugars including sucrose, glucose, fructose, and maltose in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed the expression of Tyr degradation pathway genes homogentisate dioxygenase and maleylacetoacetate isomerase, and sucrose-processing genes cell-wall invertase 1 and alkaline/neutral invertase G, was up-regulated in the sscd1 mutant, however, this up-regulation could be repressed by sugar. In addition, a high concentration of sugar attenuated cell death of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings caused by treatment with exogenous succinylacetone, an abnormal metabolite resulting from the loss of FAH in the Tyr degradation pathway. These results indicated that (1) sugar could suppress cell death in sscd1, which might be because sugar supply enhances the resistance of Arabidopsis seedlings to toxic effects of succinylacetone and reduces the accumulation of Tyr degradation intermediates, resulting in suppression of cell death; and (2) sucrose-processing genes cell-wall invertase 1 and alkaline/neutral invertase G might be involved in the cell death in sscd1. Our work provides insights into the relationship between sugar and sscd1-mediated cell death, and contributes to elucidation of the regulation of cell death resulting from the loss of FAH in plants.

  12. A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for determining bile salt hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Rohawi, Nur Syakila; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Lim, Siong Meng

    2018-06-05

    A quantitative assay using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed to investigate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in Pediococcus pentosaceus LAB6 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 probiotic bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were cultured in de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 1 mmol/L of sodium-based glyco- and tauro-conjugated bile salts for 24 h. The cultures were centrifuged and the resultant cell free supernatant was subjected to chromatographic separation on a HPTLC plate. Conjugated bile salts were quantified by densitometric scans at 550 nm and results were compared to digital image analysis of chromatographic plates after derivatisation with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid. Standard curves for bile salts determination with both methods show good linearity with high coefficient of determination (R 2 ) between 0.97 and 0.99. Method validation indicates good sensitivity with low relative standard deviation (RSD) (<10%), low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.4 versus 0.2 μg and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.4 versus 0.7 μg, for densitometric vs digital image analysis method, respectively. The bile salt hydrolase activity was found to be higher against glyco- than tauro-conjugated bile salts (LAB6; 100% vs >38%: LAB12; 100% vs >75%). The present findings strongly show that quantitative analysis via digitally-enhanced HPTLC offers a rapid quantitative analysis for deconjugation of bile salts by probiotics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Determinants of reactivity and selectivity in soluble epoxide hydrolase from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Richard; Hoyle, Simon; Grey, Daniel T; Ridder, Lars; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2012-02-28

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in drug metabolism that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxides to form their corresponding diols. sEH has a broad substrate range and shows high regio- and enantioselectivity for nucleophilic ring opening by Asp333. Epoxide hydrolases therefore have potential synthetic applications. We have used combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at the AM1/CHARMM22 level) and high-level ab initio (SCS-MP2) QM/MM calculations to analyze the reactions, and determinants of selectivity, for two substrates: trans-stilbene oxide (t-SO) and trans-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO). The calculated free energy barriers from the QM/MM (AM1/CHARMM22) umbrella sampling MD simulations show a lower barrier for phenyl attack in t-DPPO, compared with that for benzylic attack, in agreement with experiment. Activation barriers in agreement with experimental rate constants are obtained only with the highest level of QM theory (SCS-MP2) used. Our results show that the selectivity of the ring-opening reaction is influenced by several factors, including proximity to the nucleophile, electronic stabilization of the transition state, and hydrogen bonding to two active site tyrosine residues. The protonation state of His523 during nucleophilic attack has also been investigated, and our results show that the protonated form is most consistent with experimental findings. The work presented here illustrates how determinants of selectivity can be identified from QM/MM simulations. These insights may also provide useful information for the design of novel catalysts for use in the synthesis of enantiopure compounds.

  14. Legionella pneumophila NudA Is a Nudix hydrolase and virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Paul H; Hu, Baofeng; Shinzato, Takashi; Edelstein, Martha A C; Xu, Wenlian; Bessman, Maurice J

    2005-10-01

    We studied the identity and function of the 528-bp gene immediately upstream of Legionella pneumophila F2310 ptsP (enzyme I(Ntr)). This gene, nudA, encoded for a Nudix hydrolase based on the inferred protein sequence. NudA had hydrolytic activity typical of other Nudix hydrolases, such as Escherichia coli YgdP, in that Ap(n)A's, in particular diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A), were the preferred substrates. NudA hydrolyzed Ap(5)A to ATP plus ADP. Both ptsP and nudA were cotranscribed. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis showed no PtsP-NudA interactions. Gene nudA was present in 19 of 20 different L. pneumophila strains tested and in 5 of 10 different Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila. An in-frame nudA mutation was made in L. pneumophila F2310 to determine the phenotype. The nudA mutant was an auxotroph that grew slowly in liquid and on solid media and had a smaller colony size than its parent. In addition, the mutant was more salt resistant than its parent and grew very poorly at 25 degrees C; all of these characteristics, as well as auxotrophy and slow-growth rate, were reversed by transcomplementation with nudA. The nudA mutant was outcompeted by about fourfold by the parent in competition studies in macrophages; transcomplementation almost completely restored this defect. Competition studies in guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia showed that the nudA mutant was outcompeted by its parent in both lung and spleen. NudA is of major importance for resisting stress in L. pneumophila and is a virulence factor.

  15. Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling

    DOE PAGES

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Bergeman, Lai F.; ...

    2017-02-02

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions. Single, purified enzymes from the GH5_4, GH10, and GH11 families of glycoside hydrolases hydrolyzed hemicelluloses as evidenced by the loss ofmore » specific epitopes from the glycome profiles in enzyme-treated plant biomass. The glycome profiling data were further substantiated by oxime-NIMS, which identified hexose products from hydrolysis of cellulose, and pentose-only and mixed hexose-pentose products from the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The GH10 enzyme proved to be reactive with the broadest diversity of xylose-backbone polysaccharide epitopes, but was incapable of reacting with glucose-backbone polysaccharides. In contrast, the GH5 and GH11 enzymes studied here showed the ability to react with both glucose- and xylose-backbone polysaccharides. The identification of enzyme specificity for a wide diversity of polysaccharide structures provided by glycome profiling, and the correlated identification of soluble oligosaccharide hydrolysis products provided by oxime-NIMS, offers a unique combination to understand the hydrolytic capabilities and constraints of individual enzymes as they interact with plant biomass.« less

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Galangin and Its Effects on Murein Hydrolases of Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) Strain Mu50.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jing; Sun, Fengjun; Feng, Wei; Xie, Yonghong; Ren, Lijuan; Chen, Yongchuan

    2018-01-01

    Backgroud: Antibiotic treatment for infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains is challenging, and only a few effective and curative methods have been developed to combat these strains. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of galangin against S. aureus and its effects on the murein hydrolases of VISA strain Mu50. This is the first report on these effects of galangin, and it may help to improve the treatment for VISA infections by demonstrating the effective use of galangin. Firstly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth curve were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of galangin against S. aureus. Secondly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe morphological changes of VISA strain Mu50. Thirdly, Triton X-100-induced autolysis and cell wall hydrolysis assays were performed to determine the activities of the murein hydrolases of Mu50. Finally, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the expression of the murein hydrolase-related Mu50 genes. The results indicated that the MIC of galangin was 32 μg/mL against ATCC25293, N315, and Mu50, and galangin could significantly suppress the bacterial growth (p < 0.05) with concentrations of 4, 8 and 16 μg/mL, compared with control group (0 μg/mL). To explore the possible reasons of bacteriostatic effects of galangin, we observed morphological changes using TEM which showed that the division of Mu50 daughter cells treated with galangin was obviously inhibited. Considering the vital role of murein hydrolases in cellular division, assays were performed, and galangin markedly decreased Triton X-100-induced autolysis and cell wall hydrolysis. Galangin also significantly inhibited the expression of the murein hydrolase genes (atl, lytM, and lytN) and their regulatory genes (cidR, cidA, and cidB). Our findings indicated that galangin can effectively inhibit murein hydrolase activity as well as the

  17. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation ofmore » the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.« less

  18. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Organophosphorus and Thiocarbamate Pesticides Reveals Multiple Serine Hydrolase Targets in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    NOMURA, DANIEL K.; CASIDA, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and thiocarbamate (TC) agrochemicals are used worldwide as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, but their safety assessment in terms of potential off-targets remains incomplete. In this study, we used a chemoproteomic platform, termed activity-based protein profiling, to broadly define serine hydrolase targets in mouse brain of a panel of 29 OP and TC pesticides. Among the secondary targets identified, enzymes involved in degradation of endocannabinoid signaling lipids, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, were inhibited by several OP and TC pesticides. Blockade of these two enzymes led to elevations in brain endocannabinoid levels and dysregulated brain arachidonate metabolism. Other secondary targets include enzymes thought to also play important roles in the nervous system and unannotated proteins. This study reveals a multitude of secondary targets for OP and TC pesticides and underscores the utility of chemoproteomic platforms in gaining insights into biochemical pathways that are perturbed by these toxicants. PMID:21341672

  19. In vitro activation of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases by Nudix hydrolases is more widespread than assumed.

    PubMed

    Ochsner, Andrea M; Müller, Jonas E N; Mora, Carlos A; Vorholt, Julia A

    2014-08-25

    In the Gram-positive methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus, methanol oxidation is catalyzed by an NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh) that belongs to the type III alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) family. It was previously shown that the in vitro activity of B. methanolicus Mdh is increased by the endogenous activator protein Act, a Nudix hydrolase. Here we show that this feature is not unique, but more widespread among type III Adhs in combination with Act or other Act-like Nudix hydrolases. In addition, we studied the effect of site directed mutations in the predicted active site of Mdh and two other type III Adhs with regard to activity and activation by Act. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural insights into human microsomal epoxide hydrolase by combined homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and molecular docking calculations.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Katz, Aline; Pérez-Kempner, María Lucía; Ventura, Oscar N; Vázquez, Marta

    2017-04-01

    A new homology model of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase was derived based on multiple templates. The model obtained was fully evaluated, including MD simulations and ensemble-based docking, showing that the quality of the structure is better than that of only previously known model. Particularly, a catalytic triad was clearly identified, in agreement with the experimental information available. Analysis of intermediates in the enzymatic mechanism led to the identification of key residues for substrate binding, stereoselectivity, and intermediate stabilization during the reaction. In particular, we have confirmed the role of the oxyanion hole and the conserved motif (HGXP) in epoxide hydrolases, in excellent agreement with known experimental and computational data on similar systems. The model obtained is the first one that fully agrees with all the experimental observations on the system. Proteins 2017; 85:720-730. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and in silico structural characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase on the basis of close structural homolog.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Dalal, Vikram; Mahto, Jai Krishna; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-09-15

    Three bacterial strains capable of degrading phthalates namely Pseudomonas sp. PKDM2, Pseudomonas sp. PKDE1 and Pseudomonas sp. PKDE2 were isolated and characterized for their degradative potential. These strains efficiently degraded 77.4%-84.4% of DMP, 75.0%-75.7% of DEP and 71.7%-74.7% of DEHP, initial amount of each phthalate is 500mgL -1 of each phthalate, after 44h of incubation. GC-MS results reveal the tentative DEHP degradation pathway, where hydrolases mediate the breakdown of DEHP to phthalic acid (PA) via an intermediate MEHP. MEHP hydrolase is a serine hydrolase which is involved in the reduction of the MEHP to PA. The predicted 3D model of MEHP hydrolase from Pseudomonas mosselii was docked with phthalate monoesters (PMEs) such as MEHP, mono-n-hexyl phthalate (MHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-n-ethyl phthalate (MEP), respectively. Docking results show the distance between the carbonyl carbon of respective phthalate monoester and the hydroxyl group of catalytic serine lies in the range of 2.9 to 3.3Å, which is similar to the ES complex of other serine hydrolases. This structural study highlights the interaction and the role of catalytic residues of MEHP hydrolase involved in the biodegradation of PMEs to phthalate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How Does (E)-2-(Acetamidomethylene)succinate Bind to Its Hydrolase? From the Binding Process to the Final Result

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2013-01-01

    The binding of (E)-2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate (E-2AMS) to E-2AMS hydrolase is crucial for biological function of the enzyme and the last step reaction of vitamin B6 biological degradation. In the present study, several molecular simulation methods, including molecular docking, conventional molecular dynamics (MD), steered MD (SMD), and free energy calculation methods, were properly integrated to investigate the detailed binding process of E-2AMS to its hydrolase and to assign the optimal enzyme-substrate complex conformation. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding conformation with trans-form amide bond is energetically preferred conformation, in which E-2AMS's pose not only ensures hydrogen bond formation of its amide oxygen atom with the vicinal oxyanion hole but also provides probability of the hydrophobic interaction between its methyl moiety and the related enzyme's hydrophobic cavity. Several key residues, Arg146, Arg167, Tyr168, Arg179, and Tyr259, orientate the E-2AMS's pose and stabilize its conformation in the active site via the hydrogen bond interaction with E-2AMS. Sequentially, the binding process of E-2AMS to E-2AMS hydrolase was studied by SMD simulation, which shows the surprising conformational reversal of E-2AMS. Several important intermediate structures and some significant residues were identified in the simulation. It is stressed that Arg146 and Arg167 are two pivotal residues responsible for the conformational reversal of E-2AMS in the binding or unbinding. Our research has shed light onto the full binding process of the substrate to E-2AMS hydrolase, which could provide more penetrating insight into the interaction of E-2AMS with the enzyme and would help in the further exploration on the catalysis mechanism. PMID:23308285

  3. A Substrate-Assisted Mechanism of Nucleophile Activation in a Ser-His-Asp Containing C-C Bond Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzzini, Antonio C.; Bhowmik, Shiva; Ghosh, Subhangi

    The meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases utilize a Ser–His–Asp triad to hydrolyze a carbon–carbon bond. Hydrolysis of the MCP substrate has been proposed to proceed via an enol-to-keto tautomerization followed by a nucleophilic mechanism of catalysis. Ketonization involves an intermediate, ES red, which possesses a remarkable bathochromically shifted absorption spectrum. We investigated the catalytic mechanism of the MCP hydrolases using DxnB2 from Sphingomonas wittichii RW1. Pre-steady-state kinetic and LC ESI/MS evaluation of the DxnB2-mediated hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid to 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoic acid and benzoate support a nucleophilic mechanism catalysis. In DxnB2, the rate of ES red decay and product formation showed amore » solvent kinetic isotope effect of 2.5, indicating that a proton transfer reaction, assigned here to substrate ketonization, limits the rate of acylation. For a series of substituted MCPs, this rate was linearly dependent on MCP pK a2 (β nuc ~ 1). Structural characterization of DxnB2 S105A:MCP complexes revealed that the catalytic histidine is displaced upon substrate-binding. The results provide evidence for enzyme-catalyzed ketonization in which the catalytic His–Asp pair does not play an essential role. The data further suggest that ES red represents a dianionic intermediate that acts as a general base to activate the serine nucleophile. This substrate-assisted mechanism of nucleophilic catalysis distinguishes MCP hydrolases from other serine hydrolases.« less

  4. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Center for Children's Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; Holland, Nina T.

    2007-10-01

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC{sub 50} valuesmore » of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined.« less

  5. The lid domain of the MCP hydrolase DxnB2 contributes to the reactivity towards recalcitrant PCB metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Katherine C.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2013-01-01

    DxnB2 and BphD are meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases that catalyze C-C bond hydrolysis of the biphenyl metabolite 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA). BphD is a bottleneck in the bacterial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the Bph catabolic pathway due in part to inhibition by 3-Cl HOPDAs. By contrast, DxnB2 from Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3-Cl HOPDAs more efficiently. X-ray crystallographic studies of the catalytically inactive S105A variant of DxnB2 complexed with 3-Cl HOPDA revealed a binding mode in which C1 through C6 of the dienoate are coplanar. The chlorine substituent is accommodated by a hydrophobic pocket that is larger than the homologous site in BphDLB400 from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. The planar binding mode observed in the crystalline complex was consistent with the hyper- and hypsochromically-shifted absorption spectra of 3-Cl and 3,9,11-triCl HOPDA, respectively, bound to S105A in solution. Moreover, ESred, an intermediate possessing a bathochromically-shifted spectrum observed in the turnover of HOPDA, was not detected, suggesting that substrate destabilization was rate-limiting in the turnover of these PCB metabolites. Interestingly, electron density for the first α-helix of the lid domain was poorly defined in the dimeric DxnB2 structures, unlike in the tetrameric BphDLB400. Structural comparison of MCP hydrolases identified the NC-loop, connecting the lid to the α/β-hydrolase core domain, as a determinant in oligomeric state and suggests its involvement in catalysis. Finally, an increased mobility of the DxnB2 lid may contribute to the enzyme’s ability to hydrolyze PCB metabolites, highlighting how lid architecture contributes to substrate specificity in α/β-hydrolases. PMID:23879719

  6. Cloning and expression of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid α-ketoside hydrolase from oyster hepatopancreas†

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tetsuto; Shimada, Yoshimi; Pavlova, Nadejda V; Li, Su-Chen; Li, Yu-Teh

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that oyster hepatopancreas contained three unusual α-ketoside hydrolases: (i) a 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid α-ketoside hydrolase (α-Kdo-ase), (ii) a 3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid α-ketoside hydrolase and (iii) a bifunctional ketoside hydrolase capable of cleaving both the α-ketosides of Kdn and Neu5Ac (Kdn-sialidase). After completing the purification of Kdn-sialidase, we proceeded to clone the gene encoding this enzyme. Unexpectedly, we found that instead of expressing Kdn-sialidase, our cloned gene expressed α-Kdo-ase activity. The full-length gene, consisting of 1176-bp (392 amino acids, Mr 44,604), expressed an active recombinant α-Kdo-ase (R-α-Kdo-ase) in yeast and CHO-S cells, but not in various Escherichia coli strains. The deduced amino acid sequence contains two Asp boxes (S277PDDGKTW and S328TDQGKTW) commonly found in sialidases, but is devoid of the signature FRIP-motif of sialidase. The R-α-Kdo-ase effectively hydrolyzed the Kdo in the core-oligosaccharide of the structurally defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Re-LPS (Kdo2-Lipid A) from Salmonella minnesota R595 and E. coli D31m4. However, Rd-LPS from S. minnesota R7 that contained an extra outer core phosphorylated heptose was only slowly hydrolyzed. The complex type LPS from Neisseria meningitides A1 and M992 that contained extra 5–6 sugar units at the outer core were refractory to R-α-Kdo-ase. This R-α-Kdo-ase should become useful for studying the structure and function of Kdo-containing glycans. PMID:26362869

  7. Determination of frequencies of alleles, associated with the pseudodeficiency of lysosomal hydrolases, in population of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, N V; Gorovenko, N G

    2016-01-01

    The pseudodeficiency of lysosomal hydrolases described as a significant reduction in enzyme activi­ty in vitro in clinically healthy individuals, can lead to diagnostic errors in the process of biochemical analysis of lysosomal storage disease in case of its combination with pathology of another origin. Pseudodeficiency is mostly caused by some non-pathogenic changes in the corresponding gene. These changes lead to the in vitro lability of the enzyme molecule, whereas in vivo the enzyme retains its functional activity. To assess the prevalence of the most common lysosomal hydrolases pseudodeficiency alleles in Ukraine, we have determined the frequency of alleles c.1055A>G and c.* 96A>G in the ARSA gene, substitutions c.739C>T (R247W) and c.745C>T (R249W) in the HEXA gene, c.1726G>A (G576S) and c.2065G>A (E689K) in the GAA gene, c.937G>T (D313Y) in the GLA1 gene and c.898G>A (A300T) in the IDUA gene in a group of 117 healthy individuals from different regions of the country and 14 heterozygous carriers of pathogenic mutations in the HEXA gene (parents of children with confirmed diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease). The total frequency of haplotypes, associated with arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency, in healthy people in Ukraine (c.1055G/c.*96G and c.1055G/c.*96A haplotypes) was 10.3%. The frequency of c.739C>T (R247W) allele, associated with hexo­saminidase A pseudodeficiency, among Tay-Sachs carriers from Ukraine was 7.1%. The total frequency of α-glucosidase pseudodeficiency haplotypes in healthy individuals in Ukraine (c.1726A/c.2065A and c.1726G/c.2065A haplotypes) was 2.6%. No person among examined individuals with the substitution c.937G>T (D313Y) in the GLA1 gene and c.898G>A (A300T) in the IDUA gene was found. The differential diagnostics of lysosomal storage diseases requires obligatory determination of the presence of the pseudodeficiency alleles, particularly the ones with high incidence in the total population. Ignoring phenomenon of pseudodeficiency may

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and pharmacologic inhibition in horses with chronic severe laminitis.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A; Galuppo, L; Hood, D; Hwang, S H; Morisseau, C; Hammock, B D

    2017-05-01

    The roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipid mediators in inflammatory and neuropathic pain could be relevant in laminitis pain management. To determine soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity in the digital laminae, sEH inhibitor potency in vitro, and efficacy of a sEH inhibitor as an adjunct analgesic therapy in chronic laminitic horses. In vitro experiments and clinical case series. sEH activity was measured in digital laminae from euthanised healthy and laminitic horses (n = 5-6/group). Potency of 7 synthetic sEH inhibitors was determined in vitro using equine liver cytosol. One of them (t-TUCB; 0.1 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 24 h) was selected based on potency and stability, and used as adjunct therapy in 10 horses with severe chronic laminitis (Obel grades 2, one horse; 3-4, nine horses). Daily assessments of forelimb lifts, pain scores, physiologic and laboratory examinations were performed before (baseline) and during t-TUCB treatment. Data are presented as mean ± s.d. and 95% confidence intervals (CI). sEH activity in the digital laminae from laminitic horses (0.9±0.6 nmol/min/mg; 95% CI 0.16-1.55 nmol/min/mg) was significantly greater (P = 0.01) than in healthy horses (0.17±0.09 nmol/min/mg; CI 0.07-0.26 nmol/min/mg). t-TUCB as an adjunct analgesic up to 10 days (4.3±3 days) in laminitic horses was associated with significant reduction in forelimb lifts (36±22%; 95% CI 9-64%) and in pain scores (18±23%; 95% CI 2-35%) compared with baseline (P = 0.04). One horse developed gas colic and another corneal vascularisation in a blind eye during treatment. No other significant changes were observed. Absence of control group and evaluator blinding in case series. sEH activity is significantly higher in the digital laminae of actively laminitic compared with healthy horses, and use of a potent inhibitor of equine sEH as adjunct analgesic therapy appears to decrease signs of pathologic pain in laminitic horses. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Characterization of a carbon-carbon hydrolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lack, Nathan A; Yam, Katherine C; Lowe, Edward D; Horsman, Geoff P; Owen, Robin L; Sim, Edith; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2010-01-01

    In the recently identified cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate hydrolase (HsaD) is proposed to catalyze the hydrolysis of a carbon-carbon bond in 4,5-9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-tri-oxoandrosta-1(10),2-diene-4-oic acid (DSHA), the cholesterol meta-cleavage product (MCP) and has been implicated in the intracellular survival of the pathogen. Herein, purified HsaD demonstrated 4-33 times higher specificity for DSHA (k(cat)/K(m) = 3.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) m(-1) s(-1)) than for the biphenyl MCP 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and the synthetic analogue 8-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-6-oxoocta-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPODA), respectively. The S114A variant of HsaD, in which the active site serine was substituted with alanine, was catalytically impaired and bound DSHA with a K(d) of 51 +/- 2 mum. The S114A.DSHA species absorbed maximally at 456 nm, 60 nm red-shifted versus the DSHA enolate. Crystal structures of the variant in complex with HOPDA, HOPODA, or DSHA to 1.8-1.9 Aindicate that this shift is due to the enzyme-induced strain of the enolate. These data indicate that the catalytic serine catalyzes tautomerization. A second role for this residue is suggested by a solvent molecule whose position in all structures is consistent with its activation by the serine for the nucleophilic attack of the substrate. Finally, the alpha-helical lid covering the active site displayed a ligand-dependent conformational change involving differences in side chain carbon positions of up to 6.7 A, supporting a two-conformation enzymatic mechanism. Overall, these results provide novel insights into the determinants of specificity in a mycobacterial cholesterol-degrading enzyme as well as into the mechanism of MCP hydrolases.

  10. Characterization of a Carbon-Carbon Hydrolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Involved in Cholesterol Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Nathan A.; Yam, Katherine C.; Lowe, Edward D.; Horsman, Geoff P.; Owen, Robin L.; Sim, Edith; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2010-01-01

    In the recently identified cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate hydrolase (HsaD) is proposed to catalyze the hydrolysis of a carbon-carbon bond in 4,5–9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-tri-oxoandrosta-1(10),2-diene-4-oic acid (DSHA), the cholesterol meta-cleavage product (MCP) and has been implicated in the intracellular survival of the pathogen. Herein, purified HsaD demonstrated 4–33 times higher specificity for DSHA (kcat/Km = 3.3 ± 0.3 × 104 m−1 s−1) than for the biphenyl MCP 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and the synthetic analogue 8-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-6-oxoocta-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPODA), respectively. The S114A variant of HsaD, in which the active site serine was substituted with alanine, was catalytically impaired and bound DSHA with a Kd of 51 ± 2 μm. The S114A·DSHA species absorbed maximally at 456 nm, 60 nm red-shifted versus the DSHA enolate. Crystal structures of the variant in complex with HOPDA, HOPODA, or DSHA to 1.8–1.9 Åindicate that this shift is due to the enzyme-induced strain of the enolate. These data indicate that the catalytic serine catalyzes tautomerization. A second role for this residue is suggested by a solvent molecule whose position in all structures is consistent with its activation by the serine for the nucleophilic attack of the substrate. Finally, the α-helical lid covering the active site displayed a ligand-dependent conformational change involving differences in side chain carbon positions of up to 6.7 Å, supporting a two-conformation enzymatic mechanism. Overall, these results provide novel insights into the determinants of specificity in a mycobacterial cholesterol-degrading enzyme as well as into the mechanism of MCP hydrolases. PMID:19875455

  11. The crystallization and structural analysis of cellulases (and other glycoside hydrolases): strategies and tactics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shirley M; Davies, Gideon J

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of cellulases, and other glycoside hydrolases, are a central feature of research in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. 3-D structure is used to inform protein engineering campaigns, both academic and industrial, which are typically used to improve the stability or activity of an enzyme. Examples of classical protein engineering goals include higher thermal stability, reduced metal-ion dependency, detergent and protease resistance, decreased product inhibition, and altered specificity. 3-D structure may also be used to interpret the behavior of enzyme variants that are derived from screening or random mutagenesis approaches, with a view to establishing an iterative design process. In other areas, 3-D structure is used as one of the many tools to probe enzymatic catalysis, typically dovetailing with physical organic chemistry approaches to provide complete reaction mechanisms for enzymes by visualizing catalytic site interactions at different stages of the reaction. Such mechanistic insight is not only fundamentally important, impacting on inhibitor and drug design approaches with ramifications way beyond cellulose hydrolysis, but also provides the framework for the design of enzyme variants to use as biocatalysts for the synthesis of bespoke oligosaccharides. Here we review some of the strategies and tactics that may be applied to the X-ray structure solution of cellulases (and other carbohydrate-active enzymes). The general approach is first to decide why you are doing the work, then to establish correct domain boundaries for truncated constructs (typically the catalytic domain only), and finally to pursue crystallization of pure, homogeneous, and monodisperse protein with appropriate ligand and additive combinations. Cellulase-specific strategies are important for the delineation of domain boundaries, while glycoside hydrolases generally also present challenges and opportunities for the selection and optimization of

  12. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers. PMID:27904341

  13. Signal transduction in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea. Regulation of secretory hydrolase expression during development and in response to resources.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Chang, S C

    1997-01-01

    Carnivory in plants has developed as an evolutionary adaptation to nutrient-poor environments. A significant investment of the resources of a carnivorous plant is committed to producing the traps, attractants, and digestive enzymes needed for the carnivory. The cost:benefit ratio of carnivory can be improved by either maximizing the prey capture rate or by reducing the metabolic commitment toward carnivory. Using the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea, we have investigated whether the expression of the hydrolytic enzymes needed for digestion is regulated in response to the presence of prey. Expression of protease, RNase, nuclease, and phosphatase activities could be induced in the fluid of nonactive traps by the addition of nucleic acids, protein, or reduced nitrogen, suggesting that hydrolase expression is induced upon perception of the appropriate chemical signal. Hydrolase expression was also developmentally controlled since expression commenced upon opening of a trap, increased for several days, and in the absence of prey largely ceased within 2 weeks. Nevertheless, the traps remained competent to induce expression in response to the appropriate signals. These data suggest that in young traps hydrolase expression is developmentally regulated, which is later replaced by a signal transduction mechanism, and they demonstrate the ability of a carnivorous species to respond to the availability of resources. PMID:9414556

  14. Signal transduction in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea. Regulation of secretory hydrolase expression during development and in response to resources.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Chang, S C

    1997-12-01

    Carnivory in plants has developed as an evolutionary adaptation to nutrient-poor environments. A significant investment of the resources of a carnivorous plant is committed to producing the traps, attractants, and digestive enzymes needed for the carnivory. The cost:benefit ratio of carnivory can be improved by either maximizing the prey capture rate or by reducing the metabolic commitment toward carnivory. Using the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea, we have investigated whether the expression of the hydrolytic enzymes needed for digestion is regulated in response to the presence of prey. Expression of protease, RNase, nuclease, and phosphatase activities could be induced in the fluid of nonactive traps by the addition of nucleic acids, protein, or reduced nitrogen, suggesting that hydrolase expression is induced upon perception of the appropriate chemical signal. Hydrolase expression was also developmentally controlled since expression commenced upon opening of a trap, increased for several days, and in the absence of prey largely ceased within 2 weeks. Nevertheless, the traps remained competent to induce expression in response to the appropriate signals. These data suggest that in young traps hydrolase expression is developmentally regulated, which is later replaced by a signal transduction mechanism, and they demonstrate the ability of a carnivorous species to respond to the availability of resources.

  15. Folding anomalies of neuroligin3 caused by a mutation in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Taylor, Palmer

    2010-09-06

    Proteins of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family share a common structural fold, but perform a diverse set of functions. We have been studying natural mutations occurring in association with congenital disorders in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain of neuroligin (NLGN), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Starting from the autism-related R451C mutation in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain of NLGN3, we had previously shown that the Arg to Cys substitution is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of the mutant protein and that a similar trafficking defect is observed when the mutation is inserted at the homologous positions in AChE and BChE. Herein we show further characterization of the R451C mutation in NLGN3 when expressed in HEK-293, and by protease digestion sensitivity, we reveal that the phenotype results from protein misfolding. However, the presence of an extra Cys does not interfere with the formation of disulfide bonds as shown by reaction with PEG-maleimide and estimation of the molecular mass changes. These findings highlight the role of proper protein folding in protein processing and localization. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FOLDING ANOMALIES OF NEUROLIGIN3 CAUSED BY A MUTATION IN THE α/β-HYDROLASE FOLD DOMAIN

    PubMed Central

    De Jaco, Antonella; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Taylor, Palmer

    2017-01-01

    Proteins of the α/β-hydrolase fold family share a common structural fold, but perform a diverse set of functions. We have been studying natural mutations occurring in association with congenital disorders in the α/β-hydrolase fold domain of neuroligin (NLGN), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Starting from the autism-related R451C mutation in the α/β-hydrolase fold domain of NLGN3, we had previously shown that the Arg to Cys substitution is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of the mutant protein and that a similar trafficking defect is observed when the mutation is inserted at the homologous positions in AChE and BChE. Herein we show further characterization of the R451C mutation in NLGN3 when expressed in HEK-293, and by protease digestion sensitivity, we reveal that the phenotype results from protein misfolding. However, the presence of an extra Cys doesn’t interfere with the formation of disulfide bonds as shown by reaction with PEG-maleimide and estimation of the molecular mass changes. These findings highlight the role of proper protein folding in protein processing and localization. PMID:20227402

  17. An appraisal of eighteen commonly consumed edible plants as functional food based on their antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yian Hoon; Choo, Candy; Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2015-11-01

    Eighteen edible plants were assessed for their antioxidant potential based on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, vitamin C content and various lipophilic antioxidants. The inhibitory activities of the plant extracts against the enzymatic activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were also evaluated. The antioxidant and starch hydrolase activities of the plants varied widely across a single batch of analysis. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging EC50 values varied between 298 and 1984 Trolox equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 91 and 533 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, respectively. The total phenolics and vitamin C contents varied between 32 and 125 mg gallic acid equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 96 and 285 µg g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. All the plants contained neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and α- and β-carotene in varying amounts. Coccinia grandis, Asparagus racemosus, Costus speciosus, Amaranthus viridis and Annona muricata displayed the highest inhibitory activities against starch hydrolases. They were the most efficient against the breakdown of seven starches exposed to the two enzymes as well. Overall, the edible plants were observed to display a high antioxidant potential with starch hydrolase inhibitory properties, which were beneficial in their being recognized as functional food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The cell wall hydrolase Pmp23 is important for assembly and stability of the division ring in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jacq, Maxime; Arthaud, Christopher; Manuse, Sylvie; Mercy, Chryslène; Bellard, Laure; Peters, Katharina; Gallet, Benoit; Galindo, Jennifer; Doan, Thierry; Vollmer, Waldemar; Brun, Yves V; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Vernet, Thierry; Grangeasse, Christophe; Morlot, Cecile

    2018-05-15

    Bacterial division is intimately linked to synthesis and remodeling of the peptidoglycan, a cage-like polymer that surrounds the bacterial cell, providing shape and mechanical resistance. The bacterial division machinery, which is scaffolded by the cytoskeleton protein FtsZ, includes proteins with enzymatic, structural or regulatory functions. These proteins establish a complex network of transient functional and/or physical interactions which preserve cell shape and cell integrity. Cell wall hydrolases required for peptidoglycan remodeling are major contributors to this mechanism. Consistent with this, their deletion or depletion often results in morphological and/or division defects. However, the exact function of most of them remains elusive. In this work, we show that the putative lysozyme activity of the cell wall hydrolase Pmp23 is important for proper morphology and cell division in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our data indicate that active Pmp23 is required for proper localization of the Z-ring and the FtsZ-positioning protein MapZ. In addition, Pmp23 localizes to the division site and interacts directly with the essential peptidoglycan synthase PBP2x. Altogether, our data reveal a new regulatory function for peptidoglycan hydrolases.

  19. Dynamic Perturbation of the Active Site Determines Reversible Thermal Inactivation in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 12.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xukai; Li, Wen; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2017-02-27

    The temperature dependence of enzyme catalysis is highly debated. Specifically, how high temperatures induce enzyme inactivation has broad implications for both fundamental and applied science. Here, we explored the mechanism of the reversible thermal inactivation in glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) using comparative molecular dynamics simulations. First, we investigated the distribution of structural flexibility over the enzyme and found that the active site was the general thermal-sensitive region in GH12 cellulases. The dynamic perturbation of the active site before enzyme denaturation was explored through principal-component analysis, which indicated that variations in the collective motion and conformational ensemble of the active site may precisely correspond to enzyme transition from its active form to the inactive form. Furthermore, the degree of dynamic perturbation of the active site was found to be negatively correlated with the melting temperatures of GH12 enzymes, further proving the importance of the dynamic stability of the active site. Additionally, analysis of the residue-interaction network revealed that the active site in thermophilic enzyme was capable of forming additional contacts with other amino acids than those observed in the mesophilic enzyme. These interactions are likely the key mechanisms underlying the differences in rigidity of the active site. These findings provide further biophysical insights into the reversible thermal inactivation of enzymes and potential applications in future protein engineering.

  20. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase promotes the resolution of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zihui; Yang, Qian; Qian, Guojun; Qian, Jing; Zeng, Wenjiao; Gu, Jie; Chu, Tianqing; Zhu, Ning; Zhang, Wenhong; Yan, Dapeng; He, Rui; Chu, Yiwei

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infection is the most common risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). Innate immune responses induced by Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) molecules are essential for lung defense but can lead to tissue injury. Little is known about how MAMP molecules are degraded in the lung or how MAMP degradation/inactivation helps prevent or ameliorate the harmful inflammation that produces ALI. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) is a host lipase that inactivates Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS). We report here that alveolar macrophages increase AOAH expression upon exposure to LPS and that Aoah+/+ mice recover more rapidly than do Aoah-/- mice from ALI induced by nasally instilled LPS or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aoah-/- mouse lungs had more prolonged leukocyte infiltration, greater pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and longer-lasting alveolar barrier damage. We also describe evidence that the persistently bioactive LPS in Aoah-/- alveoli can stimulate alveolar macrophages directly and epithelial cells indirectly to produce chemoattractants that recruit neutrophils to the lung and may prevent their clearance. Distinct from the prolonged tolerance observed in LPS-exposed Aoah-/- peritoneal macrophages, alveolar macrophages that lacked AOAH maintained or increased their responses to bioactive LPS and sustained inflammation. Inactivation of LPS by AOAH is a previously unappreciated mechanism for promoting resolution of pulmonary inflammation/injury induced by Gram-negative bacterial infection. PMID:28622363

  1. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal HydrolaseL3 Correlates with Human Sperm Count, Motility and Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijiao; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina; Cheng, Zhi; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) belongs to the group of deubiquitinating enzymes and plays a part in apoptosis of germ cells and the differentiation of spermatocytes into spermatids. However, the exact role of UCHL3 in human spermatogenesis and sperm function remains unknown. Here we examined the level and activity of UCHL3 in spermatozoa from men with asthenozoospermia (A), oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or normozoospermia (N). Immunofluorescence indicated that UCHL3 was mainly localized in the acrosome and throughout the flagella, and western blotting revealed a lower level in A or OA compared with N (p < 0.05). The catalytic activity of UCHL3 was decreased in spermatozoa from A or OA (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). The level and activity of UCHL3 were positively correlated with sperm count, concentration and motility. The UCHL3 level was positively correlated with the normal fertilization rate (FR) and percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The UCHL3 activity was also positively correlated with FR, the percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation and high-quality embryos rate of IVF. Aforementioned correlations were not manifested in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These findings suggest that UCHL3 may play a role in male infertility.

  2. Evolution, substrate specificity and subfamily classification of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5).

    PubMed

    Aspeborg, Henrik; Coutinho, Pedro M; Wang, Yang; Brumer, Harry; Henrissat, Bernard

    2012-09-20

    The large Glycoside Hydrolase family 5 (GH5) groups together a wide range of enzymes acting on β-linked oligo- and polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates from a large spectrum of organisms. The long and complex evolution of this family of enzymes and its broad sequence diversity limits functional prediction. With the objective of improving the differentiation of enzyme specificities in a knowledge-based context, and to obtain new evolutionary insights, we present here a new, robust subfamily classification of family GH5. About 80% of the current sequences were assigned into 51 subfamilies in a global analysis of all publicly available GH5 sequences and associated biochemical data. Examination of subfamilies with catalytically-active members revealed that one third are monospecific (containing a single enzyme activity), although new functions may be discovered with biochemical characterization in the future. Furthermore, twenty subfamilies presently have no characterization whatsoever and many others have only limited structural and biochemical data. Mapping of functional knowledge onto the GH5 phylogenetic tree revealed that the sequence space of this historical and industrially important family is far from well dispersed, highlighting targets in need of further study. The analysis also uncovered a number of GH5 proteins which have lost their catalytic machinery, indicating evolution towards novel functions. Overall, the subfamily division of GH5 provides an actively curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation for glycogenomics; the subfamily assignments are openly accessible via the Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme database at http://www.cazy.org/GH5.html.

  3. Förster resonance energy transfer competitive displacement assay for human soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wang, Peng; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for the hydrolysis of various fatty acid epoxides to their corresponding 1,2-diols, is becoming an attractive pharmaceutical target. These fatty acid epoxides, particularly epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in human homeostatic and inflammation processes. Therefore, inhibition of human sEH, which stabilizes EETs in vivo, brings several beneficial effects to human health. Although there are several catalytic assays available to determine the potency of sEH inhibitors, measuring the in vitro inhibition constant (Ki) for these inhibitors using catalytic assay is laborious. In addition, koff, which has been recently suggested to correlate better with the in vivo potency of inhibitors, has never been measured for sEH inhibitors. To better measure the potency of sEH inhibitors, a reporting ligand, 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(1-(2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetyl) piperidin-4-yl)urea (ACPU), was designed and synthesized. With ACPU, we have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based competitive displacement assay using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence from sEH. In addition, the resulting assay allows us to measure the Ki values of very potent compounds to the picomolar level and to obtain relative koff values of the inhibitors. This assay provides additional data to evaluate the potency of sEH inhibitors. PMID:23219719

  4. Slow-binding inhibition of carboxylesterase and other serine hydrolases by chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1993-01-01

    The chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-132b) undergoes oxidative metabolism in rats to give a range of metabolites, including chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde [Harris and Anders (1991) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 4, 180]. The present experiments were undertaken after studies to characterize an unidentified metabolite of HCFC-132b revealed that chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde was toxic in vivo: rats given chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde died showing signs of cholinergic stimulation. Because some fluoroketones are known inhibitors of hydrolases, including acetylcholinesterase, the inhibitory effects of chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde on acetylcholinesterase (electric eel and human erythrocyte), on pseudocholinesterase (horse serum), on carboxylesterase (pig liver), and on alpha-chymotrypsin (bovine pancreas) were studied. In aqueous solution, the ratio chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde:chlorodifluroacetaldehyde hydrate, as determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was 1:157. Chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde was a slow-binding inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterases, of pseudocholinesterase, and of carboxylesterase; the Ki values, corrected for the aldehyde:hydrate ratio, were 150 nM, 1.7 nM, 3.7 nM, and 23 pM, respectively, as determined by final velocity of the progress curves; the kon values were 9.1 x 10(4), 1.1 x 10(5), 3.2 x 10(4), and 9.2 x 10(5) M-1 min-1, respectively. Chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde did not inhibit alpha-chymotrypsin. Acetaldehyde and trichloroacetaldehyde were classical competitive inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. These results show that hydrochlorofluorocarbon metabolites may exert significant biological effects.

  5. The response to selection in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 structures: A comparative quantitative genetics approach

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 (GH13) is both evolutionarily diverse and relevant to many industrial applications. Its members hydrolyze starch into smaller carbohydrates and members of the family have been bioengineered to improve catalytic function under industrial environments. We introduce a framework to analyze the response to selection of GH13 protein structures given some phylogenetic and simulated dynamic information. We find that the TIM-barrel (a conserved protein fold consisting of eight α-helices and eight parallel β-strands that alternate along the peptide backbone, common to all amylases) is not selectable since it is under purifying selection. We also show a method to rank important residues with higher inferred response to selection. These residues can be altered to effect change in properties. In this work, we define fitness as inferred thermodynamic stability. We show that under the developed framework, residues 112Y, 122K, 124D, 125W, and 126P are good candidates to increase the stability of the truncated α-amylase protein from Geobacillus thermoleovorans (PDB code: 4E2O; α-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1). Overall, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a framework for the analysis of protein structures for any other fitness landscape. PMID:29698417

  6. Molecular characterization of a family 5 glycoside hydrolase suggests an induced-fit enzymatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo V; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Prates, Érica T; de Araujo, Evandro A; Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Camilo, Cesar M; Kadowaki, Marco A; Neto, Mario de O; Popov, Alexander; Skaf, Munir S; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) play fundamental roles in the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomaterials. Here, we report the full-length structure of a cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlCel5B), a member of the GH5 subfamily 4 that is entirely dependent on its two ancillary modules (Ig-like module and CBM46) for catalytic activity. Using X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that the C-terminal CBM46 caps the distal N-terminal catalytic domain (CD) to establish a fully functional active site via a combination of large-scale multidomain conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms. The Ig-like module is pivoting the packing and unpacking motions of CBM46 relative to CD in the assembly of the binding subsite. This is the first example of a multidomain GH relying on large amplitude motions of the CBM46 for assembly of the catalytically competent form of the enzyme.

  7. Coffee pulp koji of Aspergillus sojae as stable immobilized catalyst of chlorogenate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Osao; Ano, Yoshitaka; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Shinagawa, Emiko; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2008-11-01

    Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.42, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight of 180,000 consisting of two identical subunits of 88 kDa. Equimolar quinate (QA) and caffeate (CA) were confirmed on hydrolysis of chlorogenate (CGA). The purified CHase was only useful for a laboratory scale hydrolysis of CGA. For practical QA and CA production using scaled up hydrolysis of vegetable extracts of natural CGA resources, the enzyme activity of purified CHase decreased and denatured irreversibly. Preparation of coffee pulp koji and its application to QA and CA production were proposed instead of purified CHase. When coffee pulp koji was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, CHase survived without any appreciable loss of enzyme activity while vegetative mycelial growth and spore germination were terminated. The heated coffee pulp koji thus prepared was effective itself as stable immobilized catalyst of CHase for QA and CA production from vegetable CGA resources such as coffee powders, coffee pulp, and others.

  8. The Molecular Basis for Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)/Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Favia, Angelo D; Convertino, Marino; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-06-20

    The design of multitarget-directed ligands is a promising strategy for discovering innovative drugs. Here, we report a mechanistic study that clarifies key aspects of the dual inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by a new multitarget-directed ligand named ARN2508 (2-[3-fluoro-4-[3-(hexylcarbamoyloxy)phenyl]phenyl]propanoic acid). This potent dual inhibitor combines, in a single scaffold, the pharmacophoric elements often needed to block FAAH and COX, that is, a carbamate moiety and the 2-arylpropionic acid functionality, respectively. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ARN2508 uses a noncovalent mechanism of inhibition to block COXs, while inhibiting FAAH via the acetylation of the catalytic Ser241, in line with previous experimental evidence for covalent FAAH inhibition. This study proposes the molecular basis for the dual FAAH/COX inhibition by this novel hybrid scaffold, stimulating further experimental studies and offering new insights for the rational design of novel anti-inflammatory agents that simultaneously act on FAAH and COX. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    St John, Franz J.; Dietrich, Diane; Crooks, Casey; Pozharski, Edwin; González, Javier M.; Bales, Elizabeth; Smith, Kennon; Hurlbert, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the α-1,2-linked glucuronate (GA) appendage of GX. Limit hydrolysis of this substrate produces a series of aldouronates each containing a single GA substituted on the xylose penultimate to the reducing terminus. In this work, the structural and biochemical characterization of xylanase 30A from Clostridium papyro­solvens (CpXyn30A) is presented. This xylanase possesses a high degree of amino-acid identity to the canonical GH30-8 enzymes, but lacks the hallmark β8–α8 loop region which in part defines the function of this GH30 subfamily and its role in GA recognition. CpXyn30A is shown to have a similarly low activity on all xylan substrates, while hydrolysis of xylohexaose revealed a competing transglycosylation reaction. These findings are directly compared with the model GH30-8 enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, XynC. Despite its high sequence identity to the GH30-8 enzymes, CpXyn30A does not have any apparent specificity for the GA appendage. These findings confirm that the typically conserved β8–α8 loop region of these enzymes influences xylan substrate specificity but not necessarily β-1,4-xylanase function. PMID:25372685

  10. Immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis with the nucleoside hydrolase-DNA vaccine of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-León, R; Paraguai de Souza, E; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Santos, F N; Myashiro, L M; Pinheiro, R O; Dumonteil, E; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    2006-05-29

    The nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) of Leishmania (L.) donovani is a vital enzyme which releases purines or pyrimidines of foreign DNA to be used in the synthesis of parasite DNA. As a bivalent DNA vaccine, the VR1012-NH36 was immunoprotective against visceral and cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. In this work we tested the immunotherapy against Leishmania (L.) chagasi infection, using two doses of 100 or 20 microg VR1012-NH36 vaccine (i.m. route), and, as a possible immunomodulator, aqueous garlic extract (8 mg/kg/day by the i.p. route), which was effective in immunotherapy of cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. Liver parasitic load was significantly reduced following treatment with 100 microg (91%) and 20 microg (77%) of the DNA vaccine, and by 20 microg DNA vaccine and garlic extract (76%) (p=0.023). Survival was 33% for saline controls, 100% for the 100 microg vaccine, and 83 and 67% for the 20 microg vaccine with and without garlic extract addition, respectively. Garlic treatment alone did not reduce parasite load (p>0.05), but increased survival (100%). The NH36-DNA vaccine was highly effective as a new tool for the therapy and control of visceral leishmaniasis, while the mild protective effect of garlic might be related to an unspecific enhancement of IFN-gamma secretion.

  11. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors' therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted.

  12. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Raymond D.; Mao, Shennen A.; Glorioso, Jaime; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Fisher, James E.; Amiot, Bruce; Rinaldo, Piero; Harding, Cary O.; Marler, Ronald; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of tyrosine metabolism. The most severe form of the disease presents acutely during infancy, and is characterized by severe liver involvement, most commonly resulting in death if untreated. Generation of FAH+/− pigs was previously accomplished by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockout in fibroblasts and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently, these animals were outbred and crossed to produce the first FAH−/− pigs. FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopthy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH−/− pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH−/− pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes. PMID:24879068

  13. Functional characterization of a thermostable endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 45 from Fomitopsis palustris.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ju-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2018-05-22

    A gene encoding an endoglucanase belonging to subfamily C of glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) was identified in the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein displayed hydrolytic activities toward various substrates such as carboxymethyl cellulose, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, glucomannan, lichenan, and β-glucan. In particular, the enzyme had a unique catalytic efficiency on β-1,4-glucans rather than mixed β-1,3/1,4-glucans as compared to other GH45 endoglucanases. The fungal enzyme was relatively thermostable, retaining more than 91.4% activity at 80 °C for 1 h. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the mutants N95D and D117N had significantly reduced enzymatic activities, indicating that both residues are essential for the catalytic reaction. Our study expands knowledge and understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GH45 subfamily C enzymes and also suggests that this thermostable endoglucanase from F. palustris has great potential in industrial applications.

  14. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase limits niacin-induced vasodilation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, A. B.; Clifton, H.L.; Yang, J.; Hegedus, C.; Hammock, B. D.; Schaefer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemias is limited by the common side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. Flushing is thought to be due to release of the vasodilatory prostanoids PGD2 and PGE2 from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Arachidonic acid is also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system which is regulated, in part, by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Methods: These experiments used an established murine model in which ear tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler to test the hypothesis that inhibition of sEH would limit niacin-induced flushing. Results: Niacin-induced flushing was reduced from 506 ± 126 to 213 ± 39 % in sEH knockout animals. Pharmacologic treatment with 3 structurally distinct sEH inhibitors similarly reduced flushing in a dose dependent manner, with maximal reduction to 143±15% of baseline flow using a concentration of 1 mg/kg TPAU (1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl) urea). Systemically administered PGD2 caused ear vasodilation which was not changed by either pharmacologic sEH inhibition or by sEH gene deletion. Conclusions: Inhibition of sEH markedly reduces niacin-induced flushing in this model without an apparent effect on the response to PGD2. sEH inhibition may be a new therapeutic approach to limit flushing in humans. PMID:22526297

  15. Plants as a source of butyrylcholinesterase variants designed for enhanced cocaine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Larrimore, Katherine E; Barcus, Matthew; Kannan, Latha; Gao, Yang; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Brimijoin, Stephen; Mor, Tsafrir

    2013-03-25

    Cocaine addiction affects millions of people with disastrous personal and social consequences. Cocaine is one of the most reinforcing of all drugs of abuse, and even those who undergo rehabilitation and experience long periods of abstinence have more than 80% chance of relapse. Yet there is no FDA-approved treatment to decrease the likelihood of relapse in rehabilitated addicts. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated a promising potential treatment option with the help of the serum enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which is capable of breaking down naturally occurring (-)-cocaine before the drug can influence the reward centers of the brain or affect other areas of the body. This activity of wild-type (WT) BChE, however, is relatively low. This prompted the design of variants of BChE which exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity against (-)-cocaine. Plants are a promising means to produce large amounts of these cocaine hydrolase variants of BChE, cheaply, safely with no concerns regarding human pathogens and functionally equivalent to enzymes derived from other sources. Here, in expressing cocaine-hydrolyzing mutants of BChE in Nicotiana benthamiana using the MagnICON virus-assisted transient expression system, and in reporting their initial biochemical analysis, we provide proof-of-principle that plants can express engineered BChE proteins with desired properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The response to selection in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 structures: A comparative quantitative genetics approach.

    PubMed

    Hleap, Jose Sergio; Blouin, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 (GH13) is both evolutionarily diverse and relevant to many industrial applications. Its members hydrolyze starch into smaller carbohydrates and members of the family have been bioengineered to improve catalytic function under industrial environments. We introduce a framework to analyze the response to selection of GH13 protein structures given some phylogenetic and simulated dynamic information. We find that the TIM-barrel (a conserved protein fold consisting of eight α-helices and eight parallel β-strands that alternate along the peptide backbone, common to all amylases) is not selectable since it is under purifying selection. We also show a method to rank important residues with higher inferred response to selection. These residues can be altered to effect change in properties. In this work, we define fitness as inferred thermodynamic stability. We show that under the developed framework, residues 112Y, 122K, 124D, 125W, and 126P are good candidates to increase the stability of the truncated α-amylase protein from Geobacillus thermoleovorans (PDB code: 4E2O; α-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1). Overall, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a framework for the analysis of protein structures for any other fitness landscape.

  17. Occurrence of urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors from the plants in the order Brassicales

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Seiya; Morisseau, Christophe; Harris, Todd R.; Inceoglu, Bora

    2017-01-01

    Recently, dibenzylurea-based potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors were identified in Pentadiplandra brazzeana, a plant in the order Brassicales. In an effort to generalize the concept, we hypothesized that plants that produce benzyl glucosinolates and corresponding isothiocyanates also produce these dibenzylurea derivatives. Our overall aim here was to examine the occurrence of urea derivatives in Brassicales, hoping to find biologically active urea derivatives from plants. First, plants in the order Brassicales were analyzed for the presence of 1, 3-dibenzylurea (compound 1), showing that three additional plants in the order Brassicales produce the urea derivatives. Based on the hypothesis, three dibenzylurea derivatives with sEH inhibitory activity were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) roots. Topical application of one of the identified compounds (compound 3, human sEH IC50 = 222 nM) effectively reduced pain in rat inflammatory pain model, and this compound was bioavailable after oral administration in mice. The biosynthetic pathway of these urea derivatives was investigated using papaya (Carica papaya) seed as a model system. Finally, a small collection of plants from the Brassicales order was grown, collected, extracted and screened for sEH inhibitory activity. Results show that several plants of the Brassicales order could be potential sources of urea-based sEH inhibitors. PMID:28472063

  18. Effects of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 deficiency on mouse ova.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Sayaka; Hamasaki, Hiroko; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Hara, Kenshiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-01

    Maternal proteins are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during oocyte maturation in mice. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is highly and specifically expressed in mouse ova and is involved in the polyspermy block. However, the role of UCHL1 in the underlying mechanism of polyspermy block is poorly understood. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis to identify maternal proteins that were relevant to the role of UCHL1 in mouse ova using UCHL1-deficient gad. Furthermore, we assessed morphological features in gad mouse ova using transmission electron microscopy. NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing (NALP) family proteins and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones were identified by proteomic analysis. We also found that the 'maternal antigen that embryos require' (NLRP5 (MATER)) protein level increased significantly in gad mouse ova compared with that in wild-type mice. In an ultrastructural study, gad mouse ova contained less ER in the cortex than in wild-type mice. These results provide new insights into the role of UCHL1 in the mechanism of polyspermy block in mouse ova.

  19. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species

    PubMed Central

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D.; Damián Santos, Maura L.; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana. PMID:26300895

  20. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species.

    PubMed

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D; Damián Santos, Maura L; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana.

  1. The activity of hydrolases of larval stages of Anisakis simplex (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Lopieńska-Biernat, Elzbieta; Zółtowska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    Activity of hydrolases during the third and fourth larval stage of Anisakis simplex was identified by applying the API ZYM test method. In A. simplex larvae the activity of phosphatases was high, particularly that of acid phosphatase (40 nmol/mg(-1)). Among esterases lack of activity of lipase (C14) is worth noticing while the activity of esterases (C4) and (C8) was high. The activity of those later two enzymes was higher in L3 larvae than in L4 larvae. The highest activity in the subclass of glucosidases was recorded for beta-fucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. A higher activity in L3 larvae than in L4 larvae was recorded for: beta-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (2-fold) and beta-fucosidase (3-fold). Differently the activity of beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase was higher in L4 larvae than in L3 larvae. The tests did not show activity of alpha-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase and alpha-mannosidase on both larval forms.

  2. Structural studies of the nudix hydrolase DR1025 from deinococcus radiodurans and its ligand complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ranatunga, Wasantha; Hill, Emma E.; Mooster, Jana L.

    We have determined the crystal structure, at 1.4, of the Nudix hydrolase DR1025 from the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The protein forms an intertwined homodimer by exchanging N-terminal segments between chains. We have identified additional conserved elements of the Nudix fold, including the metal-binding motif, a kinked b-strand characterized by a proline two positions upstream of the Nudix consensus sequence, and participation of the N-terminal extension in the formation of the substrate-binding pocket. Crystal structures were also solved of DR1025 crystallized in the presence of magnesium and either a GTP analog or Ap4A (both at 1.6 resolution). Inmore » the Ap4Aco-crystal, the electron density indicated that the product of asymmetric hydrolysis, ATP, was bound to the enzyme. The GTP analog bound structure showed that GTP was bound almost identically as ATP. Neither nucleoside triphosphate was further cleaved.« less

  3. Fusion of agarase and neoagarobiose hydrolase for mono-sugar production from agar.

    PubMed

    Alkotaini, Bassam; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Beom Soo

    2017-02-01

    In enzymatic saccharification of agar, endo- and exo-agarases together with neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) are important key enzymes for the sequential hydrolysis reactions. In this study, a bifunctional endo/exo-agarase was fused with NABH for production of mono-sugars (D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose) from agar using only one fusion enzyme. Two fusion enzymes with either bifunctional agarase (Sco3476) or NABH (Zg4663) at the N-terminus, Sco3476-Zg4663 (SZ) and Zg4663-Sco3476 (ZS), were constructed. Both fusion enzymes exhibited their optimal agarase and NABH activities at 40 and 35 °C, respectively. Fusions SZ and ZS enhanced the thermostability of the NABH activity, while only fusion SZ showed a slight enhancement in the NABH catalytic efficiency (K cat /K M ) from 14.8 (mg/mL) -1  s -1 to 15.8 (mg/mL) -1  s -1 . Saccharification of agar using fusion SZ resulted in 2-fold higher mono-sugar production and 3-fold lower neoagarobiose accumulation when compared to the physical mixture of Sco3476 and Zg4663. Therefore, this fusion has the potential to reduce enzyme production cost, decrease intermediate accumulation, and increase mono-sugar yield in agar saccharification.

  4. A sensitive and specific radiochromatographic assay of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, M; Bari, M; Agrò, A F

    1999-02-15

    A radiochromatographic method has been set up in order to determine fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity, based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and on-line scintillation counting. The reaction products were separated using a C18 column eluted with methanol-water-acetic acid and quantitated with an external standard. Baseline separation of the acid product from the substrate was completed in less than 4 min, with a detection limit of 2.5 fmol arachidonic acid at a signal to noise ratio of 4:1. The method enabled to determine the kinetic constants (i.e., apparent Km of 2.0 +/- 0.2 microM and Vmax of 800 +/- 75 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1 toward anandamide) and the substrate specificity of human brain FAAH, as well as the extent of enzyme inhibition by some anandamide congeners. The femtomole sensitivity and the accuracy of the method allow detection and characterization of the activity of FAAH in very minute tissue samples or in samples where the enzymatic activity is very low. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Heterogeneous expression and biological function of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuier; Qiao, Guanglei; Min, Daliu; Zhang, Zhichang; Lin, Feng; Yang, Qingcheng; Feng, Tao; Tang, Lina; Sun, Yuanjue; Zhao, Hui; Li, Hongtao; Yu, Wenxi; Yang, Yumei; Shen, Zan; Yao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), a member of the UCH class of DUBs, has been reported as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of UCHL1 in osteosarcoma is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating the roles of UCHL1 in regulating the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we found that UCHL1 was elevated in osteosarcoma compared with normal bone tissue. Moreover, UCHL1 expression level was correlated with tumor maximum diameter, high rate of lung metastases and short survival time. Then, we found that knockdown of UCHL1 in osteosarcoma cell MG63 inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased cell population in the G1 phase. Several cyclins promoting G1/S phase transition were reduced after UCHL1 knockdown, including cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, cyclin E1 and CDK6. Moreover, inhibition of UCHL1 in MG63 cells dramatically induced cell apoptosis. We also found that down-regulation of UCHL1 in MG63 significantly inhibited cell invasion. Then, we found that there was a positive correlation between UCHL1 expression level and the Akt and ERK phosphorylation status. Finally, in vivo data showed that knockdown of UCHL1 inhibited osteosarcoma growth in nude mice. These results indicate that UCHL1 could work as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein features as determinants of wild-type glycoside hydrolase thermostability.

    PubMed

    Geertz-Hansen, Henrik Marcus; Kiemer, Lars; Nielsen, Morten; Stanchev, Kiril; Blom, Nikolaj; Brunak, Søren; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

    2017-11-01

    Thermostable enzymes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels have significant advantages over enzymes with more moderate themostability due to the challenging application conditions. Experimental discovery of thermostable enzymes is highly cost intensive, and the development of in-silico methods guiding the discovery process would be of high value. To develop such an in-silico method and provide the data foundation of it, we determined the melting temperatures of 602 fungal glycoside hydrolases from the families GH5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 43, and AA9 (formerly GH61). We, then used sequence and homology modeled structure information of these enzymes to develop the ThermoP melting temperature prediction method. Futhermore, in the context of thermostability, we determined the relative importance of 160 molecular features, such as amino acid frequencies and spatial interactions, and exemplified their biological significance. The presented prediction method is made publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ThermoP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cholesterol ester hydrolase inhibitors reduce the production of synaptotoxic amyloid-β oligomers.

    PubMed

    McHale-Owen, Harriet; Bate, Clive

    2018-03-01

    The production of amyloid-β (Aβ) is the key factor driving pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing concentrations of Aβ within the brain cause synapse degeneration and the dementia that is characteristic of AD. Here the factors that affect the release of disease-relevant forms Aβ were studied in a cell model. 7PA2 cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein released soluble Aβ oligomers that caused synapse damage in cultured neurons. Supernatants from 7PA2 cells treated with the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor squalestatin contained similar concentrations of Aβ 42 to control cells but did not cause synapse damage in neuronal cultures. These supernatants contained reduced concentrations of Aβ 42 oligomers and increased concentrations of Aβ 42 monomers. Treatment of 7PA2 cells with platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists had similar effects; it reduced concentrations of Aβ 42 oligomers and increased concentrations of Aβ 42 monomers in cell supernatants. PAF activated cholesterol ester hydrolases (CEH), enzymes that released cholesterol from stores of cholesterol esters. Inhibition of CEH also reduced concentrations of Aβ 42 oligomers and increased concentrations of Aβ 42 monomers in cell supernatants. The Aβ monomers produced by treated cells protected neurons against Aβ oligomer-induced synapse damage. These studies indicate that pharmacological manipulation of cells can alter the ratio of Aβ monomer:oligomer released and consequently their effects on synapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Balancing the stability and the catalytic specificities of OP hydrolases with enhanced V-agent activities.

    PubMed

    Reeves, T E; Wales, M E; Grimsley, J K; Li, P; Cerasoli, D M; Wild, J R

    2008-06-01

    Rational site-directed mutagenesis and biophysical analyses have been used to explore the thermodynamic stability and catalytic capabilities of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and its genetically modified variants. There are clear trade-offs in the stability of modifications that enhance catalytic activities. For example, the H254R/H257L variant has higher turnover numbers for the chemical warfare agents VX (144 versus 14 s(-1) for the native enzyme (wild type) and VR (Russian VX, 465 versus 12 s(-1) for wild type). These increases are accompanied by a loss in stability in which the total Gibb's free energy for unfolding is 19.6 kcal/mol, which is 5.7 kcal/mol less than that of the wild-type enzyme. X-ray crystallographic studies support biophysical data that suggest amino acid residues near the active site contribute to the chemical and thermal stability through hydrophobic and cation-pi interactions. The cation-pi interactions appear to contribute an additional 7 kcal/mol to the overall global stability of the enzyme. Using rational design, it has been possible to make amino acid changes in this region that restored the stability, yet maintained effective V-agent activities, with turnover numbers of 68 and 36 s(-1) for VX and VR, respectively. This study describes the first rationally designed, stability/activity balance for an OPH enzyme with a legitimate V-agent activity, and its crystal structure.

  9. Structure-Based Optimization of Arylamides as Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Eldrup, Anne B.; Soleymanzadeh, Fariba; Taylor, Steven J.

    2009-11-04

    Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is hypothesized to lead to an increase in circulating levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, resulting in the potentiation of their in vivo pharmacological properties. As part of an effort to identify inhibitors of sEH with high and sustained plasma exposure, we recently performed a high throughput screen of our compound collection. The screen identified N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide as a potent inhibitor of sEH. Further profiling of this lead revealed short metabolic half-lives in microsomes and rapid clearance in the rat. Consistent with these observations, the determination of the in vitro metabolic profile of N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide in rat livermore » microsomes revealed extensive oxidative metabolism and a propensity for metabolite switching. Lead optimization, guided by the analysis of the solid-state costructure of N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide bound to human sEH, led to the identification of a class of potent and selective inhibitors. An inhibitor from this class displayed an attractive in vitro metabolic profile and high and sustained plasma exposure in the rat after oral administration.« less

  10. Regulation of synaptic structure by ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Anna E; Djakovic, Stevan N; Salehi, Afshin; Wilson, Scott M; Masliah, Eliezer; Patrick, Gentry N

    2009-06-17

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is selectively and abundantly expressed in the brain, and its activity is required for normal synaptic function. Here, we show that UCH-L1 functions in maintaining normal synaptic structure in hippocampal neurons. We found that UCH-L1 activity is rapidly upregulated by NMDA receptor activation, which leads to an increase in the levels of free monomeric ubiquitin. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of UCH-L1 significantly reduces monomeric ubiquitin levels and causes dramatic alterations in synaptic protein distribution and spine morphology. Inhibition of UCH-L1 activity increases spine size while decreasing spine density. Furthermore, there is a concomitant increase in the size of presynaptic and postsynaptic protein clusters. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of ubiquitin restores normal synaptic structure in UCH-L1-inhibited neurons. These findings point to a significant role of UCH-L1 in synaptic remodeling, most likely by modulating free monomeric ubiquitin levels in an activity-dependent manner.

  11. Halotolerant bacteria in the São Paulo Zoo composting process and their hydrolases and bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lilian C.G.; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Marem, Alyne; Kondo, Marcia Y.; Rocha, Rafael C.S.; Bertolini, Thiago; Silveira, Marghuel A.V.; da Cruz, João Batista; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Juliano, Luiz; Okamoto, Debora N.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications. PMID:26273248

  12. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Abishek; Kauter, Kathleen; Alam, Md Ashraful; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  13. Molecular characterization of a family 5 glycoside hydrolase suggests an induced-fit enzymatic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Marcelo V.; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Prates, Érica T.; de Araujo, Evandro A.; Pellegrini, Vanessa O. A.; Camilo, Cesar M.; Kadowaki, Marco A.; Neto, Mario De O.; Popov, Alexander; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) play fundamental roles in the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomaterials. Here, we report the full-length structure of a cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlCel5B), a member of the GH5 subfamily 4 that is entirely dependent on its two ancillary modules (Ig-like module and CBM46) for catalytic activity. Using X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that the C-terminal CBM46 caps the distal N-terminal catalytic domain (CD) to establish a fully functional active site via a combination of large-scale multidomain conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms. The Ig-like module is pivoting the packing and unpacking motions of CBM46 relative to CD in the assembly of the binding subsite. This is the first example of a multidomain GH relying on large amplitude motions of the CBM46 for assembly of the catalytically competent form of the enzyme.

  14. Hydrolase stabilization via entanglement in poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles: stability towards reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brett L; Johnson, Jermaine D; Walker, Jeremy P

    2012-07-27

    In the advancement of green syntheses and sustainable reactions, enzymatic biocatalysis offers extremely high reaction rates and selectivity that goes far beyond the reach of chemical catalysts; however, these enzymes suffer from typical environmental constraints, e.g. operational temperature, pH and tolerance to oxidative environments. A common hydrolase enzyme, diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2), has demonstrated a pronounced efficacy for the hydrolysis of a variety of substrates for potential toxin remediation, but suffers from the aforementioned limitations. As a means to enhance DFPase's stability in oxidative environments, enzymatic covalent immobilization within the polymeric matrix of poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) nanoparticles was performed. By modifying the enzyme's exposed lysine residues via thiolation, DFPase is utilized as a comonomer/crosslinker in a mild emulsion polymerization. The resultant polymeric polysulfide shell acts as a 'sacrificial barrier' by first oxidizing to polysulfoxides and polysulfones, rendering DFPase in an active state. DFPase-PPS nanoparticles thus retain activity upon exposure to as high as 50 parts per million (ppm) of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), while native DFPase is observed as inactive at 500 parts per billion (ppb). This trend is also confirmed by enzyme-generated (chloroperoxidase (CPO), EC 1.11.1.10) reactive oxygen species (ROS) including both HOCl (3 ppm) and ClO(2) (100 ppm).

  15. Lipid-lowering effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction: role of pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Musolino, V; Gliozzi, M; Carresi, C; Maiuolo, J; Mollace, R; Bosco, F; Scarano, F; Scicchitano, M; Maretta, A; Palma, E; Iannone, M; Morittu, V M; Gratteri, S; Muscoli, C; Fini, M; Mollace, V

    2017-01-01

    Bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) has been shown to positively modulate several mechanisms involved in metabolic syndrome, suggesting its use in therapy. In particular, it is able to induce a significant amelioration of serum lipid profile in hyperlipemic patients at different levels. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of BPF on cholesterol absorption physiologically mediated by pancreatic cholesterol ester hydrolase (pCEH). An in vitro activity assay was performed to study the effect of BPF on pCEH, whereas the rate of cholesterol absorption was evaluated through in vivo studies. In particular, male, Sprague-Dawley rats (200–225 g) were fed either normal chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, 5.5% peanut oil, and varying amounts of cholesterol (0 to 1.5%). BPF (10 mg/Kg) was daily administrated by means of a gastric gavage to animals fed with lipid supplemented diet for 4 weeks and, at the end of the study, plasma lipids and liver cholesteryl esters were measured in all experimental groups. Our results show that BPF was able to inhibit pCEH activity and this effect was confirmed, in vivo, via detection of lymphatic cholesteryl ester in rats fed with a cholesterol-rich diet. This evidence clarifies a further mechanism responsible for the hypolipemic properties of BPF previously observed in humans, confirming its beneficial effect in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Structure of the Ubiquitin Hydrolase UCH-L3 Complexed with a Suicide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Misaghi, S.; Galardy, P.J.; Meester, W.J.

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) comprise a family of small ubiquitin-specific proteases of uncertain function. Although no cellular substrates have been identified for UCHs, their highly tissue-specific expression patterns and the association of UCH-L1 mutations with human disease strongly suggest a critical role. The structure of the yeast UCH Yuh1-ubiquitin aldehyde complex identified an active site crossover loop predicted to limit the size of suitable substrates. We report the 1.45 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of human UCH-L3 in complex with the inhibitor ubiquitin vinylmethylester, an inhibitor that forms a covalent adduct with the active site cysteine of ubiquitin-specific proteases. This structuremore » confirms the predicted mechanism of the inhibitor and allows the direct comparison of a UCH family enzyme in the free and ligand-bound state. We also show the efficient hydrolysis by human UCH-L3 of a 13-residue peptide in isopeptide linkage with ubiquitin, consistent with considerable flexibility in UCH substrate size. We propose a model for the catalytic cycle of UCH family members which accounts for the hydrolysis of larger ubiquitin conjugates.« less

  17. Epoxide Hydrolase Conformational Heterogeneity for the Resolution of Bulky Pharmacologically Relevant Epoxide Substrates.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Hervás, Eila; Casadevall, Guillem; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Feixas, Ferran; Osuna, Sílvia

    2018-04-06

    The conformational landscape of Bacillus megaterium epoxide hydrolase (BmEH) and how it is altered by mutations that confer the enzyme the ability to accept bulky epoxide substrates has been investigated. Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled to active site volume calculations have unveiled relevant features of the enzyme conformational dynamics and function. Our long-timescale MD simulations identify key conformational states not previously observed by means of X-ray crystallography and short MD simulations that present the loop containing one of the catalytic residues, Asp239, in a wide-open conformation, which is likely involved in the binding of the epoxide substrate. Introduction of mutations M145S and F128A dramatically alters the conformational landscape of the enzyme. These singly mutated variants can accept bulky epoxide substrates due to the disorder induced by mutation in the α-helix containing the catalytic Tyr144 and some parts of the lid domain. These changes impact the enzyme active site, which is substantially wider and more complementary to the bulky pharmacologically relevant epoxide substrates. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lactulose production by a thermostable glycoside hydrolase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167.

    PubMed

    Letsididi, Rebaone; Hassanin, Hinawi Am; Koko, Marwa Yf; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-02-01

    Lactulose has various uses in the food and pharmaceutical fields. Thermostable enzymes have many advantages for industrial exploitation, including high substrate solubilities as well as reduced risk of process contamination. Enzymatic synthesis of lactulose employing a transgalactosylation reaction by a recombinant thermostable glycoside hydrolase (GH1) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167 was investigated. The optimal pH for lactulose production was found to be 4.5, while the optimal temperature was 85 °C, before it dropped moderately to 83% at 90 °C. However, the relative activity for lactulose synthesis dropped sharply to 35% at 95 °C. At optimal reaction conditions of 70% (w/w) initial sugar substrates with molar ratio of lactose to fructose of 1:4, 15 U mL -1 enzyme concentration and 85 °C, the time course reaction produced a maximum lactulose concentration of 108 g L -1 at 4 h, corresponding to a lactulose yield of 14% and 27 g L -1  h -1 productivity with 84% lactose conversion. The transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis was greatly influenced by the ratio of galactose donor to acceptor. This novel GH1 may be useful for process applications owing to its high activity in very concentrated substrate reaction media and promising thermostability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Diversity of bacteria and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 genes in cellulolytic consortia enriched from thermophilic biocompost.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Javier A; Sizova, Maria V; Lynd, Lee R

    2010-06-01

    The enrichment from nature of novel microbial communities with high cellulolytic activity is useful in the identification of novel organisms and novel functions that enhance the fundamental understanding of microbial cellulose degradation. In this work we identify predominant organisms in three cellulolytic enrichment cultures with thermophilic compost as an inoculum. Community structure based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries featured extensive representation of clostridia from cluster III, with minor representation of clostridial clusters I and XIV and a novel Lutispora species cluster. Our studies reveal different levels of 16S rRNA gene diversity, ranging from 3 to 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as variability in community membership across the three enrichment cultures. By comparison, glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GHF48) diversity analyses revealed a narrower breadth of novel clostridial genes associated with cultured and uncultured cellulose degraders. The novel GHF48 genes identified in this study were related to the novel clostridia Clostridium straminisolvens and Clostridium clariflavum, with one cluster sharing as little as 73% sequence similarity with the closest known relative. In all, 14 new GHF48 gene sequences were added to the known diversity of 35 genes from cultured species.

  20. [Substrate specificities of bile salt hydrolase 1 and its mutants from Lactobacillus salivarius].

    PubMed

    Bi, Jie; Fang, Fang; Qiu, Yuying; Yang, Qingli; Chen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    In order to analyze the correlation between critical residues in the catalytic centre of BSH and the enzyme substrate specificity, seven mutants of Lactobacillus salivarius bile salt hydrolase (BSH1) were constructed by using the Escherichia coli pET-20b(+) gene expression system, rational design and site-directed mutagenesis. These BSH1 mutants exhibited different hydrolytic activities against various conjugated bile salts through substrate specificities comparison. Among the residues being tested, Cys2 and Thr264 were deduced as key sites for BSH1 to catalyze taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid, respectively. Moreover, Cys2 and Thr264 were important for keeping the catalytic activity of BSH1. The high conservative Cys2 was not the only active site, other mutant amino acid sites were possibly involved in substrate binding. These mutant residues might influence the space and shape of the substrate-binding pockets or the channel size for substrate passing through and entering active site of BSH1, thus, the hydrolytic activity of BSH1 was changed to different conjugated bile salt.

  1. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2pm (A 2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structuremore » consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes

  2. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2pm (A 2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structuremore » consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes

  3. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.

    ABSTRACT Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2pm (A 2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consistingmore » of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation. IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling

  4. Ecto-diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A)-hydrolase is expressed as an ectoenzyme in a variety of mammalian and human cells and adds new aspects to the turnover of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, A; Ogilvie, A

    2000-01-01

    Ap4A and other dinucleotides participate in the regulation of hemostasis and blood pressure control. With the exception of two previously reported surface anchored ectoAp4A-hydrolases on bovine aortic endothelial and chromaffine cells, all Ap4A-hydrolases reported are intracellular or freely soluble. We demonstrated that ectoAp4A-hydrolases are present on a broad variety of cell types of different species: rat mesangial, bovine corneal epithelial, human Hep-G2 and peridontal cells. Ectoenzyme properties were evaluated on rat mesangium cells. Chromatography of purified plasma membranes on Sephacel 300 resulted in enrichment of ectoAp4A-hydrolase and in separation from ectoATPase. In contrast to ATPase, Ap4A-hydrolase was stable at room temperature. EctoAp4A-hydrolase also recognized ATP as substrate, and therefore is not highly specific. The molecular weight was 180 kD. Unlike ectoAMPase ectoAp4A-hydrolase was not attached via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-moiety. Concentrations of PI-PLC 10-100-fold higher than effective for ectoAMPase cleavage (10-100 mU/ml) plus extensively extended incubation times up to eight hours did not result in cleavage of ectoAp4A-hydrolase. The enzyme ectoAp4A-hydrolase might presage a direction for pharmaceutical manipulation in the control of blood pressure and hemostasis.

  5. Induction of rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase by thiazole and pyrazine: hydrolysis of 2-cyanoethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, S G; Kedderis, G L; Batra, R; Novak, R F

    1993-08-01

    Liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is active in the detoxification of epoxide-containing carcinogens. The effects of thiazole and pyrazine, constituents of tobacco and tobacco smoke as well as of a variety of foods, on the expression and regulation of mEH were examined in rats (200 mg/kg body wt/day, i.p., 1-3 days). Immunoblot analyses using rabbit anti-rat mEH antibody revealed a significant increase in mEH levels in hepatic microsomes isolated from either thiazole- or pyrazine-treated animals. Another protein (approximately 43 kd) cross-reacting with polyclonal mEH antibody was found to be increased concomitantly following pyrazine treatment. Northern and slot blot analyses showed substantial increases in mEH mRNA following either thiazole or pyrazine treatment. The level of mEH mRNA increased 17-fold at 24 h following thiazole treatment, relative to control. Approximately 20- and 16-fold increases in mEH mRNA were also observed at 48 and 72 h respectively following treatment with pyrazine. The level of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified mEH DNA derived from poly(A)+ RNA was clearly elevated following either thiazole or pyrazine treatment relative to that from untreated animals. Both sense and antisense strands of PCR-amplified mEH DNA were cloned into an M13mp19 phage vector in order to examine the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified mEH DNA derived from the poly(A)+ RNA isolated from thiazole- or pyrazine-treated animals. Sequence analyses revealed that the sequence of PCR-amplified DNA from the induced mRNA was identical to that published for mEH cDNA. Epoxide hydrolase activity toward the hydrolysis of 2-cyanoethylene oxide (CEO), the epoxide metabolite of the rat carcinogen acrylonitrile, was not significant in hepatic microsomes from untreated rats, but was substantially induced by treatment with thiazole or pyrazine. Microsomal hydrolysis activity was heat-sensitive and potently inhibited by 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, indicating that

  6. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and adverse event profile of GSK2256294, a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lucy; Boardley, Rebecca L.; Goyal, Navin S.; Robertson, Jonathan; Baldwin, Sandra J.; Newby, David E.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Tal‐Singer, Ruth; Mayer, Ruth J.; Cheriyan, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Aims Endothelial‐derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids may regulate vascular tone and are metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase enzymes (sEH). GSK2256294 is a potent and selective sEH inhibitor that was tested in two phase I studies. Methods Single escalating doses of GSK2256294 2–20 mg or placebo were administered in a randomized crossover design to healthy male subjects or obese smokers. Once daily doses of 6 or 18 mg or placebo were administered for 14 days to obese smokers. Data were collected on safety, pharmacokinetics, sEH enzyme inhibition and blood biomarkers. Single doses of GSK2256294 10 mg were also administered to healthy younger males or healthy elderly males and females with and without food. Data on safety, pharmacokinetics and biliary metabolites were collected. Results GSK2256294 was well‐tolerated with no serious adverse events (AEs) attributable to the drug. The most frequent AEs were headache and contact dermatitis. Plasma concentrations of GSK2256294 increased with single doses, with a half‐life averaging 25–43 h. There was no significant effect of age, food or gender on pharmacokinetic parameters. Inhibition of sEH enzyme activity was dose‐dependent, from an average of 41.9% on 2 mg (95% confidence interval [CI] –51.8, 77.7) to 99.8% on 20 mg (95% CI 99.3, 100.0) and sustained for up to 24 h. There were no significant changes in serum VEGF or plasma fibrinogen. Conclusions GSK2256294 was well‐tolerated and demonstrated sustained inhibition of sEH enzyme activity. These data support further investigation in patients with endothelial dysfunction or abnormal tissue repair, such as diabetes, wound healing or COPD. PMID:26620151

  7. Effects of a cocaine hydrolase engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase on metabolic profile of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Zheng, Xirong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zheng, Fang

    2016-11-25

    Accelerating cocaine metabolism through enzymatic hydrolysis at cocaine benzoyl ester is recognized as a promising therapeutic approach for cocaine abuse treatment. Our more recently designed A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G mutant of human BChE, denoted as cocaine hydrolase-3 (CocH3), has a considerably improved catalytic efficiency against cocaine and has been proven active in blocking cocaine-induced toxicity and physiological effects. In the present study, we have further characterized the effects of CocH3 on the detailed metabolic profile of cocaine in rats administrated intravenously (IV) with 5 mg/kg cocaine, demonstrating that IV administration of 0.15 mg/kg CocH3 dramatically changed the metabolic profile of cocaine. Without CocH3 administration, the dominant cocaine-metabolizing pathway in rats was cocaine methyl ester hydrolysis to benzoylecgonine (BZE). With the CocH3 administration, the dominant cocaine-metabolizing pathway in rats became cocaine benzoyl ester hydrolysis to ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and the other two metabolic pathways (i.e. cocaine methyl ester hydrolysis to BZE and cocaine oxidation to norcocaine) became insignificant. The CocH3-catalyzed cocaine benzoyl ester hydrolysis to EME was so efficient such that the measured maximum blood cocaine concentration (∼38 ng/ml) was significantly lower than the threshold blood cocaine concentration (∼72 ng/ml) required to produce any measurable physiological effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Active Site Desolvation and Thermostability Trade-Offs in the Evolution of Catalytically Diverse Triazine Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Elena; Carr, Paul D; Scott, Colin; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-11-15

    The desolvation of ionizable residues in the active sites of enzymes and the subsequent effects on catalysis and thermostability have been studied in model systems, yet little about how enzymes can naturally evolve to include active sites with highly reactive and desolvated charges is known. Variants of triazine hydrolase (TrzN) with significant differences in their active sites have been isolated from different bacterial strains: TrzN from Nocardioides sp. strain MTD22 contains a catalytic glutamate residue (Glu241) that is surrounded by hydrophobic and aromatic second-shell residues (Pro214 and Tyr215), whereas TrzN from Nocardioides sp. strain AN3 has a noncatalytic glutamine residue (Gln241) at an equivalent position, surrounded by hydrophilic residues (Thr214 and His215). To understand how and why these variants have evolved, a series of TrzN mutants were generated and characterized. These results show that desolvation by second-shell residues increases the pK a of Glu241, allowing it to act as a general acid at neutral pH. However, significant thermostability trade-offs are required to incorporate the ionizable Glu241 in the active site and to then enclose it in a hydrophobic microenvironment. Analysis of high-resolution crystal structures shows that there are almost no structural changes to the overall configuration of the active site due to these mutations, suggesting that the changes in activity and thermostability are purely based on the altered electrostatics. The natural evolution of these enzyme isoforms provides a unique system in which to study the fundamental process of charged residue desolvation in enzyme catalysis and its relative contribution to the creation and evolution of an enzyme active site.

  9. Construction of a rice glycoside hydrolase phylogenomic database and identification of targets for biofuel research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Cao, Peijian; Jung, Ki-Hong; Sharma, Manoj K.; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GH) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cell wall polymers and can have major effects on cell wall architecture. Taking advantage of the massive datasets available in public databases, we have constructed a rice phylogenomic database of GHs (http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gh/). This database integrates multiple data types including the structural features, orthologous relationships, mutant availability, and gene expression patterns for each GH family in a phylogenomic context. The rice genome encodes 437 GH genes classified into 34 families. Based on pairwise comparison with eight dicot and four monocot genomes, we identified 138 GH genes that are highly diverged between monocots and dicots, 57 of which have diverged further in rice as compared with four monocot genomes scanned in this study. Chromosomal localization and expression analysis suggest a role for both whole-genome and localized gene duplications in expansion and diversification of GH families in rice. We examined the meta-profiles of expression patterns of GH genes in twenty different anatomical tissues of rice. Transcripts of 51 genes exhibit tissue or developmental stage-preferential expression, whereas, seventeen other genes preferentially accumulate in actively growing tissues. When queried in RiceNet, a probabilistic functional gene network that facilitates functional gene predictions, nine out of seventeen genes form a regulatory network with the well-characterized genes involved in biosynthesis of cell wall polymers including cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes of rice. Two-thirds of the GH genes in rice are up regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments indicating a role in stress adaptation. Our analyses identify potential GH targets for cell wall modification. PMID:23986771

  10. The Quaternary Structure of a Glycoside Hydrolase Dictates Specificity toward β-Glucans*

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Mickael; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Freyd, Thibaud; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Garron, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    In the Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme (CAZy) database, glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) is a large family with more than 6,000 sequences. Among the 51 described GH5 subfamilies, subfamily GH5_26 contains members that display either endo-β(1,4)-glucanase or β(1,3;1,4)-glucanase activities. In this study, we focused on the GH5_26 enzyme from Saccharophagus degradans (SdGluc5_26A), a marine bacterium known for its capacity to degrade a wide diversity of complex polysaccharides. SdGluc5_26A displays lichenase activity toward β(1,3;1,4)-glucans with a side cellobiohydrolase activity toward β(1,4)-glucans. The three-dimensional structure of SdGluc5_26A adopts a stable trimeric quaternary structure also observable in solution. The N-terminal region of SdGluc5_26A protrudes into the active site of an adjacent monomer. To understand whether this occupation of the active site could influence its activity, we conducted a comprehensive enzymatic characterization of SdGluc5_26A and of a mutant truncated at the N terminus. Ligand complex structures and kinetic analyses reveal that the N terminus governs the substrate specificity of SdGluc5_26A. Its deletion opens the enzyme cleft at the −3 subsite and turns the enzyme into an endo-β(1,4)-glucanase. This study demonstrates that experimental approaches can reveal structure-function relationships out of reach of current bioinformatic predictions. PMID:26755730

  11. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  12. Members of Glycosyl-Hydrolase Family 17 of A. fumigatus Differentially Affect Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Nicolas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Mouyna, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling are essential for fungal growth and development. In the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the β(1,3)glucan is the major cell wall polysaccharide. This polymer is synthesized at the plasma membrane by a transmembrane complex, then released into the parietal space to be remodeled by enzymes, and finally incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. In the Glycosyl-Hydrolases family 17 (GH17) of A. fumigatus, two β(1,3)glucanosyltransferases, Bgt1p and Bgt2p, have been previously characterized. Disruption of BGT1 and BGT2 did not result in a phenotype, but sequence comparison and hydrophobic cluster analysis showed that three other genes in A. fumigatus belong to the GH17 family, SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3. In constrast to Δbgt1bgt2 mutants, single and multiple deletion of SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3 showed a decrease in conidiation associated with a higher conidial mortality and an abnormal conidial shape. Moreover, mycelium was also affected with a slower growth, stronger sensitivity to cell wall disturbing agents, and altered cell wall composition. Finally, the synthetic interactions between Bgt1p, Bgt2p, and the three other members, which support a functional cooperation in cell-wall assembly, were analyzed. Our data suggest that Scw4p, Scw11p, and Bgt3p are essential for cell wall integrity and might have antagonistic and distinct functions to Bgt1p and Bgt2p. PMID:29385695

  13. Identification of a dithiol-dependent nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deqing; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2006-09-01

    A putative nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) gene was identified in a database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of culture-derived S. neurona merozoites demonstrated a dithiol-dependent NTPase activity, consistent with the presence of a homologue to the TgNTPases of Toxoplasma gondii. A complete cDNA was obtained for the S. neurona gene and the predicted amino acid sequence shared 38% identity with the two TgNTPase isoforms from T. gondii. Based on the obvious homology, the S. neurona protein was designated SnNTP1. The SnNTP1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 714 amino acids with a predicted 22-residue signal peptide and an estimated mature molecular mass of 70kDa. Southern blot analysis of the SnNTP1 locus revealed that the gene exists as a single copy in the S. neurona genome, unlike the multiple gene copies that have been observed in T. gondii and Neospora caninum. Analyses of the SnNTP1 protein demonstrated that it is soluble and secreted into the culture medium by extracellular merozoites. Surprisingly, indirect immunofluorescence analysis of intracellular S. neurona revealed apical localisation of SnNTP1 and temporal expression characteristics that are comparable with the microneme protein SnMIC10. The absence of SnNTP1 during much of endopolygeny implies that this protein does not serve a function during intracellular growth and development of S. neurona schizonts. Instead, SnNTP1 may play a role in events that occur during or proximal to merozoite egress from and/or invasion into cells.

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of novel bacterial α-galactosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 31.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Megumi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) proteins have been reportedly identified as exo-α-glycosidases with activity for α-glucosides and α-xylosides. We focused on a GH31 subfamily, which contains proteins with low sequence identity (<24%) to the previously reported GH31 glycosidases and characterized two enzymes from Pedobacter heparinus and Pedobacter saltans. The enzymes unexpectedly exhibited α-galactosidase activity, but were not active on α-glucosides and α-xylosides. The crystal structures of one of the enzymes, PsGal31A, in unliganded form and in complexes with D-galactose or L-fucose and the catalytic nucleophile mutant in unliganded form and in complex with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, were determined at 1.85-2.30 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The overall structure of PsGal31A contains four domains and the catalytic domain adopts a (β/α)8-barrel fold that resembles the structures of other GH31 enzymes. Two catalytic aspartic acid residues are structurally conserved in the enzymes, whereas most residues forming the active site differ from those of GH31 α-glucosidases and α-xylosidases. PsGal31A forms a dimer via a unique loop that is not conserved in other reported GH31 enzymes; this loop is involved in its aglycone specificity and in binding L-fucose. Considering potential genes for α-L-fucosidases and carbohydrate-related proteins within the vicinity of Pedobacter Gal31, the identified Gal31 enzymes are likely to function in a novel sugar degradation system. This is the first report of α-galactosidases which belong to GH31 family. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Two Novel Glycoside Hydrolases Responsible for the Catabolism of Cyclobis-(1→6)-α-nigerosyl*

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Takayoshi; Miyano, Eri; Sadahiro, Juri; Okuyama, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    The actinobacterium Kribbella flavida NBRC 14399T produces cyclobis-(1→6)-α-nigerosyl (CNN), a cyclic glucotetraose with alternate α-(1→6)- and α-(1→3)-glucosidic linkages, from starch in the culture medium. We identified gene clusters associated with the production and intracellular catabolism of CNN in the K. flavida genome. One cluster encodes 6-α-glucosyltransferase and 3-α-isomaltosyltransferase, which are known to coproduce CNN from starch. The other cluster contains four genes annotated as a transcriptional regulator, sugar transporter, glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 31 protein (Kfla1895), and GH15 protein (Kfla1896). Kfla1895 hydrolyzed the α-(1→3)-glucosidic linkages of CNN and produced isomaltose via a possible linear tetrasaccharide. The initial rate of hydrolysis of CNN (11.6 s−1) was much higher than that of panose (0.242 s−1), and hydrolysis of isomaltotriose and nigerose was extremely low. Because Kfla1895 has a strong preference for the α-(1→3)-isomaltosyl moiety and effectively hydrolyzes the α-(1→3)-glucosidic linkage, it should be termed 1,3-α-isomaltosidase. Kfla1896 effectively hydrolyzed isomaltose with liberation of β-glucose, but displayed low or no activity toward CNN and the general GH15 enzyme substrates such as maltose, soluble starch, or dextran. The kcat/Km for isomaltose (4.81 ± 0.18 s−1 mm−1) was 6.9- and 19-fold higher than those for panose and isomaltotriose, respectively. These results indicate that Kfla1896 is a new GH15 enzyme with high substrate specificity for isomaltose, suggesting the enzyme should be designated an isomaltose glucohydrolase. This is the first report to identify a starch-utilization pathway that proceeds via CNN. PMID:27302067

  16. Bile Salt Hydrolase Activities: A Novel Target to Screen Anti-Giardia Lactobacilli?

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Thibault; Chaouch, Soraya; Thomas, Myriam; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Valle, Isabelle; Langella, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe; Polack, Bruno; Florent, Isabelle; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2018-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH)-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro. We showed that these activities were able to generate deconjugated bile salts that were toxic to the parasite. In the present study, a wide collection of lactobacilli strains from different ecological origins was screened to assay their anti-giardial effects. Our results revealed that the anti-parasitic effects of some of the strains tested were well-correlated with the expression of BSH-like activities. The two most active strains in vitro, La1 and Lactobacillus gasseri CNCM I-4884, were then tested for their capacity to influence G. duodenalis infection in a suckling mice model. Strikingly, only L. gasseri CNCM I-4884 strain was able to significantly antagonize parasite growth with a dramatic reduction of the trophozoites load in the small intestine. Moreover, this strain also significantly reduced the fecal excretion of Giardia cysts after 5 days of treatment, which could contribute to blocking the transmission of the parasite, in contrast of La1 where no effect was observed. This study represents a step toward the development of new prophylactic strategies to combat G. duodenalis infection in both humans and animals. PMID:29472903

  17. Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors on working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Thorndike, Eric B; Nikas, Spyros P; Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R; Justinova, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A delayed nonmatching-to-position procedure was used in rats. Illuminated nosepoke holes were used to provide sample cues (left versus right) and record responses (correct versus incorrect) after delays ranging from 0 to 28 s. Various test drugs were given acutely up to two times per week before daily sessions. One FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (3 mg/kg), decreased accuracy in the memory task. Four other FAAH inhibitors (URB597, URB694, PF-04457845, and ARN14633) and a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor (JZL184, which blocks the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol) had no effect. Testing of AM3506 in combination with antagonists for receptors known to be affected by anandamide and other fatty acid amides indicated that the impairment induced by AM3506 was mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and not by alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-alpha) or vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV1). FAAH inhibitors differ with respect to their potential for memory impairment, abuse liability, and probably other cannabis-like effects, and they should be evaluated individually for specific therapeutic and adverse effects.

  18. Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors on working memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Panlilio, Leigh V.; Thorndike, Eric B.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R.; Justinova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. Objectives We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Methods A delayed nonmatching-to-position procedure was used in rats. Illuminated nosepoke holes were used to provide sample cues (left versus right) and record responses (correct versus incorrect) after delays ranging from 0-28 seconds. Various test drugs were given acutely up to two times per week before daily sessions. Results One FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (3 mg/kg), decreased accuracy in the memory task. Four other FAAH inhibitors (URB597, URB694, PF-04457845, and ARN14633) and a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor (JZL184, which blocks the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol) had no effect. Testing of AM3506 in combination with antagonists for receptors known to be affected by anandamide and other fatty-acid amides indicated that the impairment induced by AM3506 was mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and not by alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-alpha) or vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV1). Conclusions FAAH inhibitors differ with respect to their potential for memory impairment, abuse liability, and probably other cannabis-like effects, and they should be evaluated individually for specific therapeutic and adverse effects. PMID:26558620

  19. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity by a fluorescence-based assay.

    PubMed

    Dato, Florian M; Maaßen, Andreas; Goldfuß, Bernd; Pietsch, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is involved in many human diseases, particularly cancer, pain and inflammation as well as neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, FAAH is an attractive target for the development of low-molecular-weight inhibitors as therapeutics, which requires robust assays that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries. Here, we report the development of a fluorometric assay based on FAAH's ability to effectively hydrolyze medium-chain fatty acid amides, introducing N-decanoyl-substituted 5-amino-2-methoxypyridine (D-MAP) as new amide substrate. D-MAP is cleaved by FAAH with an 8-fold larger specificity constant than the previously reported octanoyl-analog Oc-MAP (V max /K m of 1.09 and 0.134 mL min -1 mg -1 , respectively), with both MAP derivatives possessing superior substrate properties and much increased aqueous solubility compared to the respective p-nitroaniline compounds D-pNA and Oc-pNA. The new assay with D-MAP as substrate is highly sensitive using a lower enzyme concentration (1 μg mL -1 ) than literature-reported fluorimetric FAAH assays. In addition, D-MAP was validated in comparison to the substrate Oc-MAP for the characterization of FAAH inhibitors by means of the reference compounds URB597 and TC-F2 and was shown to be highly suitable for HTS in both kinetic and endpoint assays (Z' factors of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineering and introduction of de novo disulphide bridges in organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme for thermostability improvement.

    PubMed

    Farnoosh, Gholamreza; Khajeh, Khosro; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Aghamollaei, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    The organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) has been used to degrade organophosphorus chemicals, as one of the most frequently used decontamination methods. Under chemical and thermal denaturing conditions, the enzyme has been shown to unfold. To utilize this enzyme in various applications, the thermal stability is of importance. The engineering of de novo disulphide bridges has been explored as a means to increase the thermal stability of enzymes in the rational method of protein engineering. In this study, Disulphide by Design software, homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to select appropriate amino acid pairs for the introduction of disulphide bridge to improve protein thermostability. The thermostability of the wild-type and three selected mutant enzymes were evaluated by half-life, delta G inactivation (ΔGi) and structural studies (fluorescence and far-UV CD analysis). Data analysis showed that half-life of A204C/T234C and T128C/E153C mutants were increased up to 4 and 24 min, respectively; however, for the G74C/A78C mutant, the half-life was decreased up to 9 min. For the T128C/E124C mutant, both thermal stability and Catalytic efficiency (kcat) were also increased. The half-life and ΔGi results were correlated to the obtained information from structural studies by circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry and extrinsic fluorescence experiments; as rigidity increased in A204C/T2234C and T128C/E153C mutants, half-life and ΔGi also increased. For G74C/A78C mutant, these parameters decreased due to its higher flexibility. The results were submitted a strong evidence for the possibility to improve the thermostability of OPH enzyme by introducing a disulphide bridge after bioinformatics design, even though this design would not be always successful.

  2. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Alei; Liu, Fanghua; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ≥ 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future. PMID:26070087

  3. Who's on base? Revealing the catalytic mechanism of inverting family 6 glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Heather B.; Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.

    In several important classes of inverting carbohydrate-active enzymes, the identity of the catalytic base remains elusive, including in family 6 Glycoside Hydrolase (GH6) enzymes, which are key components of cellulase cocktails for cellulose depolymerization. Despite many structural and kinetic studies with both wild-type and mutant enzymes, especially on the Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) GH6 cellulase ( TrCel6A), the catalytic base in the single displacement inverting mechanism has not been definitively identified in the GH6 family. Here, we employ transition path sampling to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, which provides unbiased atomic-level understanding of key order parameters involved in cleavingmore » the strong glycosidic bond. Our hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations reveal a network of hydrogen bonding that aligns two active site water molecules that play key roles in hydrolysis: one water molecule drives the reaction by nucleophilic attack on the substrate and a second shuttles a proton to the putative base (D175) via a short water wire. We also investigated the case where the putative base is mutated to an alanine, an enzyme that is experimentally still partially active. The simulations predict that proton hopping along a water wire via a Grotthuss mechanism provides a mechanism of catalytic rescue. Further simulations reveal that substrate processive motion is 'driven' by strong electrostatic interactions with the protein at the product sites and that the -1 sugar adopts a 2S O ring configuration as it reaches its binding site. Lastly, this work thus elucidates previously elusive steps in the processive catalytic mechanism of this important class of enzymes.« less

  4. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; ...

    2015-12-18

    Background: Non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall. Results: In this study, we compared component enzyme affinities of a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase formulation, Cellic CTec2, towards extracted corn stover lignin usingmore » sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and p-nitrophenyl substrate activities to monitor component binding, activity loss, and total protein binding. Protein binding was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. β-D-glucosidases and xylanases, which do not have carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and are basic proteins, demonstrated the strongest binding at low ionic strength, suggesting that CBMs are not the dominant factor in enzyme adsorption to lignin. Despite strong adsorption to insoluble lignin, β-D-glucosidase and xylanase activities remained high, with process yields decreasing only 4–15 % depending on lignin concentration. Conclusion: We propose that specific enzyme adsorption to lignin from a mixture of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes is a competitive affinity where β-D-glucosidases and xylanases can displace CBM interactions with lignin. Process parameters, such as temperature, pH, and salt concentration influence the individual enzymes’ affinity for lignin, and both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are responsible for this binding phenomenon. Moreover, our results suggest that concern regarding loss of critical cell wall degrading enzymes to lignin adsorption may be unwarranted when complex

  5. Altered soluble epoxide hydrolase-derived oxylipins in patients with seasonal major depression: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Marie; Otoki, Yurika; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Levitt, Anthony J; Taha, Ameer Y; Swardfager, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Many cytochrome p450-derived lipids promote resolution of inflammation, in contrast to their soluble epoxide hydrolase(sEH)-derived oxylipin breakdown products. Here we compare plasma oxylipins and precursor fatty acids between seasons in participants with major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern (MDD-s). Euthymic participants with a history of MDD-s recruited in summer-fall were followed-up in winter. At both visits, a structured clinical interview (DSM-5 criteria) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were administered. Unesterified and total oxylipin pools were assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Precursor fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. In nine unmedicated participants euthymic at baseline who met depression criteria in winter, BDI-II scores increased from 4.9±4.4 to 19.9±7.7. Four sEH-derived oxylipins increased in winter compared to summer-fall with moderate to large effect sizes. An auto-oxidation product (unesterified epoxyketooctadecadienoic acid) and lipoxygenase-derived 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid also increased in winter. The cytochrome p450-derived 20-COOH-leukotriene B4 (unesterified) and total 14(15)-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the sEH-derived 14,15-dihydroxyeicostrienoic acid (unesterified), decreased in winter. We conclude that winter depression was associated with changes in cytochrome p450- and sEH-derived oxylipins, suggesting that seasonal shifts in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid metabolism mediated by sEH may underlie inflammatory states in symptomatic MDD-s. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the sleep-wake patterns in mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Wills, Derek N; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Henriksen, Steven J

    2004-08-01

    Oleamide and anandamide are fatty acid amides implicated in the regulatory mechanisms of sleep processes. However, due to their prompt catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), their pharmacologic and behavioral effects, in vivo, disappear rapidly. To determine if, in the absence of FAAH, the hypnogenic fatty acid amides induce an increase of sleep, we characterized the sleep-wake patters in FAAH-knockout mice [FAAH (-/-)] before and after sleep deprivation. FAAH (-/-), FAAH (+/-), and FAAH (+/+) mice were implanted chronically for sleep, body temperature (Tb), and locomotor activity (LMA) recordings. Sleep-wake states were recorded during a 24-hour baseline session followed by 8 hours of sleep deprivation. Recovery recordings were done during the 16 hours following sleep deprivation. Total amount of wake, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep were calculated and compared between genotypes. The electroencephalographic spectral analysis was performed by fast Fourier transform analysis. Telemetry recordings of Tb and LMA were carried out continuously during 4 days under baseline conditions. N/A. FAAH (-/-) mice and their heterozygote (+/-) and control (+/+) littermates were used. Sleep deprivation. FAAH (-/-) mice possess higher values of slow-wave sleep and more intense episodes of slow-wave sleep than do control littermates under baseline conditions that are not related to differences in Tb and LMA. A rebound of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep as well an increase in the levels of slow-wave activity were observed after sleep deprivation in all genotypes. These findings support the role of fatty acid amides as possible modulators of sleep and indicate that the homeostatic mechanisms of sleep in FAAH (-/-) mice are not disrupted.

  7. A Compact Viral Processing Proteinase/Ubiquitin Hydrolase from the OTU Family

    PubMed Central

    Chenon, Mélanie; Andreani, Jessica; Guerois, Raphaël; Jupin, Isabelle; Bressanelli, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) - a member of the alphavirus-like supergroup of viruses - serves as a model system for positive-stranded RNA virus membrane-bound replication. TYMV encodes a precursor replication polyprotein that is processed by the endoproteolytic activity of its internal cysteine proteinase domain (PRO). We recently reported that PRO is actually a multifunctional enzyme with a specific ubiquitin hydrolase (DUB) activity that contributes to viral infectivity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the 150-residue PRO. Strikingly, PRO displays no homology to other processing proteinases from positive-stranded RNA viruses, including that of alphaviruses. Instead, the closest structural homologs of PRO are DUBs from the Ovarian tumor (OTU) family. In the crystal, one molecule's C-terminus inserts into the catalytic cleft of the next, providing a view of the N-terminal product complex in replication polyprotein processing. This allows us to locate the specificity determinants of PRO for its proteinase substrates. In addition to the catalytic cleft, at the exit of which the active site is unusually pared down and solvent-exposed, a key element in molecular recognition by PRO is a lobe N-terminal to the catalytic domain. Docking models and the activities of PRO and PRO mutants in a deubiquitylating assay suggest that this N-terminal lobe is also likely involved in PRO's DUB function. Our data thus establish that DUBs can evolve to specifically hydrolyze both iso- and endopeptide bonds with different sequences. This is achieved by the use of multiple specificity determinants, as recognition of substrate patches distant from the cleavage sites allows a relaxed specificity of PRO at the sites themselves. Our results thus shed light on how such a compact protein achieves a diversity of key functions in viral genome replication and host-pathogen interaction. PMID:23966860

  8. Genetic enhancement of microsomal epoxide hydrolase improves metabolic detoxification but impairs cerebral blood flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Marowsky, Anne; Haenel, Karen; Bockamp, Ernesto; Heck, Rosario; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Mule, Nandkishor; Kindler, Diana; Rudin, Markus; Arand, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a detoxifying enzyme for xenobiotic compounds. Enzymatic activity of mEH can be greatly increased by a point mutation, leading to an E404D amino acid exchange in its catalytic triad. Surprisingly, this variant is not found in any vertebrate species, despite the obvious advantage of accelerated detoxification. We hypothesized that this evolutionary avoidance is due to the fact that the mEH plays a dualistic role in detoxification and control of endogenous vascular signaling molecules. To test this, we generated mEH E404D mice and assessed them for detoxification capacity and vascular dynamics. In liver microsomes from these mice, turnover of the xenobiotic compound phenanthrene-9,10-oxide was four times faster compared to WT liver microsomes, confirming accelerated detoxification. mEH E404D animals also showed faster metabolization of a specific class of endogenous eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Significantly higher DHETs/EETs ratios were found in mEH E404D liver, urine, plasma, brain and cerebral endothelial cells compared to WT controls, suggesting a broad impact of the mEH mutant on endogenous EETs metabolism. Because EETs are strong vasodilators in cerebral vasculature, hemodynamics were assessed in mEH E404D and WT cerebral cortex and hippocampus using cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Basal CBV 0 levels were similar between mEH E404D and control mice in both brain areas. But vascular reactivity and vasodilation in response to the vasodilatory drug acetazolamide were reduced in mEH E404D forebrain compared to WT controls by factor 3 and 2.6, respectively. These results demonstrate a critical role for mEH E404D in vasodynamics and suggest that deregulation of endogenous signaling pathways is the undesirable gain of function associated with the E404D variant.

  9. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Lebrun, Régine; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser(35)-Asp(307)-His(310)) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site.

  10. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Peng, Ran; Fan, Qingsong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan; Morisseau, Christophe; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. β-Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus brevis useful for baicalin hydrolysis belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 30.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, Haruko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Uchibori, Yoshie; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ashida, Hisashi; Kita, Keiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-D-glucuronide) is one of the major flavonoid glucuronides found in traditional herbal medicines. Because its aglycone, baicalein, is absorbed more quickly and shows more effective properties than baicalin, the conversion of baicalin into baicalein by β-glucuronidase (GUS) has drawn the attention of researchers. Recently, we have found that Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans can convert baicalin to baicalein. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize the converting enzyme from L. brevis subsp. coagulans. First, we purified this enzyme from the cell-free extracts of L. brevis subsp. coagulans and cloned its gene. Surprisingly, this enzyme was found to be a GUS belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 30 (designated as LcGUS30), and its amino acid sequence has little similarity with any GUS belonging to GH families 1, 2, and 79 that have been reported so far. We then established a high-level expression and simple purification system of the recombinant LcGUS30 in Escherichia coli. The detailed analysis of the substrate specificity revealed that LcGUS30 has strict specificity toward glycon but not toward aglycones. Interestingly, LcGUS30 prefers baicalin rather than estrone 3-(β-D-glucuronide), one of the human endogenous steroid hormones. These results indicated that L. brevis subsp. coagulans and LcGUS30 should serve as powerful tools for the construction of a safe bioconversion system for baicalin. In addition, we propose that this novel type of GUS forms a new group in subfamily 3 of GH family 30.

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of glycoside hydrolase family 79 β-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Michikawa, Mari; Ichinose, Hitomi; Momma, Mitsuru; Biely, Peter; Jongkees, Seino; Yoshida, Makoto; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Withers, Stephen G; Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2012-04-20

    We present the first structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 79 β-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum, both as a product complex with β-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and as its trapped covalent 2-fluoroglucuronyl intermediate. This enzyme consists of a catalytic (β/α)(8)-barrel domain and a β-domain with irregular Greek key motifs that is of unknown function. The enzyme showed β-glucuronidase activity and trace levels of β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities. In conjunction with mutagenesis studies, these structures identify the catalytic residues as Glu(173) (acid base) and Glu(287) (nucleophile), consistent with the retaining mechanism demonstrated by (1)H NMR analysis. Glu(45), Tyr(243), Tyr(292)-Gly(294), and Tyr(334) form the catalytic pocket and provide substrate discrimination. Consistent with this, the Y292A mutation, which affects the interaction between the main chains of Gln(293) and Gly(294) and the GlcA carboxyl group, resulted in significant loss of β-glucuronidase activity while retaining the side activities at wild-type levels. Likewise, although the β-glucuronidase activity of the Y334F mutant is ~200-fold lower (k(cat)/K(m)) than that of the wild-type enzyme, the β-glucosidase activity is actually 3 times higher and the β-xylosidase activity is only 2.5-fold lower than the equivalent parameters for wild type, consistent with a role for Tyr(334) in recognition of the C6 position of GlcA. The involvement of Glu(45) in discriminating against binding of the O-methyl group at the C4 position of GlcA is revealed in the fact that the E45D mutant hydrolyzes PNP-β-GlcA approximately 300-fold slower (k(cat)/K(m)) than does the wild-type enzyme, whereas 4-O-methyl-GlcA-containing oligosaccharides are hydrolyzed only 7-fold slower.

  13. Liver transplantation for treatment of severe S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Ferreira, Carlos; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Zhao, Xueqing; Arning, Erland; Zhang, Shucha; Zeisel, Steven H; Escolar, Maria L; Presnick, Nancy; Puffenberger, Erik G; Vugrek, Oliver; Kovacevic, Lucija; Wagner, Conrad; Mazariegos, George V; Mudd, S Harvey; Soltys, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    A child with severe S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) deficiency (AHCY c.428A>G, p.Tyr143Cys; c.982T>G, p.Tyr328Asp) presented at 8 months of age with growth failure, microcephaly, global developmental delay, myopathy, hepatopathy, and factor VII deficiency. Plasma methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) were markedly elevated and the molar concentration ratio of AdoMet:AdoHcy, believed to regulate a myriad of methyltransferase reactions, was 15% of the control mean. Dietary therapy failed to normalize biochemical markers or alter the AdoMet to AdoHcy molar concentration ratio. At 40 months of age, the proband received a liver segment from a healthy, unrelated living donor. Mean AdoHcy decreased 96% and the AdoMet:AdoHcy concentration ratio improved from 0.52±0.19 to 1.48±0.79 mol:mol (control 4.10±2.11 mol:mol). Blood methionine and AdoMet were normal and stable during 6 months of follow-up on an unrestricted diet. Average calculated tissue methyltransferase activity increased from 43±26% to 60±22%, accompanied by signs of increased transmethylation in vivo. Factor VII activity increased from 12% to 100%. During 6 postoperative months, head growth accelerated 4-fold and the patient made promising gains in gross motor, language, and social skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Who's on base? Revealing the catalytic mechanism of inverting family 6 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGES

    Mayes, Heather B.; Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.; ...

    2016-06-01

    In several important classes of inverting carbohydrate-active enzymes, the identity of the catalytic base remains elusive, including in family 6 Glycoside Hydrolase (GH6) enzymes, which are key components of cellulase cocktails for cellulose depolymerization. Despite many structural and kinetic studies with both wild-type and mutant enzymes, especially on the Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) GH6 cellulase ( TrCel6A), the catalytic base in the single displacement inverting mechanism has not been definitively identified in the GH6 family. Here, we employ transition path sampling to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, which provides unbiased atomic-level understanding of key order parameters involved in cleavingmore » the strong glycosidic bond. Our hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations reveal a network of hydrogen bonding that aligns two active site water molecules that play key roles in hydrolysis: one water molecule drives the reaction by nucleophilic attack on the substrate and a second shuttles a proton to the putative base (D175) via a short water wire. We also investigated the case where the putative base is mutated to an alanine, an enzyme that is experimentally still partially active. The simulations predict that proton hopping along a water wire via a Grotthuss mechanism provides a mechanism of catalytic rescue. Further simulations reveal that substrate processive motion is 'driven' by strong electrostatic interactions with the protein at the product sites and that the -1 sugar adopts a 2S O ring configuration as it reaches its binding site. Lastly, this work thus elucidates previously elusive steps in the processive catalytic mechanism of this important class of enzymes.« less

  15. A plasmid borne, functionally novel glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 endoxylanase from solventogenic Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Diane; Crooks, Casey; Balogun, Peter; deSerrano, Vesna; Pozharski, Edwin; Smith, James Kennon; Bales, Elizabeth; Hurlbert, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) β-1,4-endoxylanases are known for their appendage-dependent function requiring recognition of an α-1,2-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA) common to glucuronoxylans for hydrolysis. Structural studies have indicated that the GlcA moiety of glucuronoxylans is coordinated through six hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge. These GlcA-dependent endoxylanases do not have significant activity on xylans that do not bear GlcA substitutions such as unsubstituted linear xylooligosaccharides or cereal bran arabinoxylans. In the present study, we present the structural and biochemical characteristics of xylanase 30A from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaXyn30A) which was originally selected for study due to predicted structural differences within the GlcA coordination loops. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that this Gram-positive-derived GH30-8 more closely resembles Gram-negative derived forms of these endoxylanases: a hypothesis borne out in the developed crystallographic structure model of the CaXyn30A catalytic domain (CaXyn30A-CD). CaXyn30A-CD hydrolyzes xylans to linear and substituted oligoxylosides showing the greatest rate with the highly arabinofuranose (Araf)-substituted cereal arabinoxylans. CaXyn30A-CD hydrolyzes xylooligosaccharides larger than xylotriose and shows an increased relative rate of hydrolysis for xylooligosaccharides containing α-1,2-linked arabinofuranose substitutions. Biochemical analysis confirms that CaXyn30A benefits from five xylose-binding subsites which extend from the −3 subsite to the +2 subsite of the binding cleft. These studies indicate that CaXyn30A is a GlcA-independent endoxylanase that may have evolved for the preferential recognition of α-1,2-Araf substitutions on xylan chains. PMID:29626157

  16. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth

    Background: Non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall. Results: In this study, we compared component enzyme affinities of a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase formulation, Cellic CTec2, towards extracted corn stover lignin usingmore » sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and p-nitrophenyl substrate activities to monitor component binding, activity loss, and total protein binding. Protein binding was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. β-D-glucosidases and xylanases, which do not have carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and are basic proteins, demonstrated the strongest binding at low ionic strength, suggesting that CBMs are not the dominant factor in enzyme adsorption to lignin. Despite strong adsorption to insoluble lignin, β-D-glucosidase and xylanase activities remained high, with process yields decreasing only 4–15 % depending on lignin concentration. Conclusion: We propose that specific enzyme adsorption to lignin from a mixture of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes is a competitive affinity where β-D-glucosidases and xylanases can displace CBM interactions with lignin. Process parameters, such as temperature, pH, and salt concentration influence the individual enzymes’ affinity for lignin, and both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are responsible for this binding phenomenon. Moreover, our results suggest that concern regarding loss of critical cell wall degrading enzymes to lignin adsorption may be unwarranted when complex

  17. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition heightens anandamide signaling without producing reinforcing effects in primates

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mangieri, Regina A.; Bortolato, Marco; Chefer, Svetlana I.; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Clapper, Jason R.; King, Alvin R.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Yasar, Sevil; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Background CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain are known to participate in the regulation of reward-based behaviors, however, the contribution of each of the endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), to these behaviors remains undefined. To address this question, we assessed the effects of URB597, a selective anandamide deactivation inhibitor, as a reinforcer of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior in squirrel monkeys. Methods We investigated the reinforcing effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 in monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide or cocaine, and quantified brain endocannabinoid levels using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We measured brain FAAH activity using an ex vivo enzyme assay. Results URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, intravenous) blocked FAAH activity and increased anandamide levels throughout the monkey brain. This effect was accompanied by a marked compensatory decrease in 2-AG levels. Monkeys did not self-administer URB597 and the drug did not promote reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior previously maintained by THC, anandamide, or cocaine. Pretreatment with URB597 did not modify self-administration of THC or cocaine even though, as expected, it significantly potentiated anandamide self-administration. Conclusions In the monkey brain, the FAAH inhibitor URB597 increases anandamide levels while causing a compensatory down-regulation in 2-AG levels. These effects are accompanied by a striking lack of reinforcing properties, which distinguishes URB597 from direct-acting cannabinoid agonists such as THC. Our results reveal an unexpected functional heterogeneity within the endocannabinoid signaling system, and suggest that FAAH inhibitors might be used therapeutically without risk of abuse or triggering of relapse to drug abuse. PMID:18814866

  18. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 79 β-Glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Michikawa, Mari; Ichinose, Hitomi; Momma, Mitsuru; Biely, Peter; Jongkees, Seino; Yoshida, Makoto; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Withers, Stephen G.; Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present the first structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 79 β-glucuronidase from Acidobacterium capsulatum, both as a product complex with β-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and as its trapped covalent 2-fluoroglucuronyl intermediate. This enzyme consists of a catalytic (β/α)8-barrel domain and a β-domain with irregular Greek key motifs that is of unknown function. The enzyme showed β-glucuronidase activity and trace levels of β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities. In conjunction with mutagenesis studies, these structures identify the catalytic residues as Glu173 (acid base) and Glu287 (nucleophile), consistent with the retaining mechanism demonstrated by 1H NMR analysis. Glu45, Tyr243, Tyr292–Gly294, and Tyr334 form the catalytic pocket and provide substrate discrimination. Consistent with this, the Y292A mutation, which affects the interaction between the main chains of Gln293 and Gly294 and the GlcA carboxyl group, resulted in significant loss of β-glucuronidase activity while retaining the side activities at wild-type levels. Likewise, although the β-glucuronidase activity of the Y334F mutant is ∼200-fold lower (kcat/Km) than that of the wild-type enzyme, the β-glucosidase activity is actually 3 times higher and the β-xylosidase activity is only 2.5-fold lower than the equivalent parameters for wild type, consistent with a role for Tyr334 in recognition of the C6 position of GlcA. The involvement of Glu45 in discriminating against binding of the O-methyl group at the C4 position of GlcA is revealed in the fact that the E45D mutant hydrolyzes PNP-β-GlcA approximately 300-fold slower (kcat/Km) than does the wild-type enzyme, whereas 4-O-methyl-GlcA-containing oligosaccharides are hydrolyzed only 7-fold slower. PMID:22367201

  19. Characterization of a thermostable glycoside hydrolase (CMbg0408) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167.

    PubMed

    Letsididi, Rebaone; Hassanin, Hinawi Am; Koko, Marwa Yf; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Mu, Wanmeng

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthermophilic archaea capable of functioning optimally at very high temperatures are a good source of unique and industrially important thermostable enzymes. A glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-galactosidase gene (BglB) from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (CMbg0408) displayed optimum activity at 110 °C and pH 5.0. It also retained 92% and 70% of its maximal activity at 115 and 120 °C, respectively. The enzyme was completely thermostable and active after 120 min of incubation at 80 and 90 °C. It also showed broad substrate specificity with activities of 8876 ± 185 U mg -1 for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, 4464 ± 172 U mg -1 for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, 1486 ± 68 U mg -1 for o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, 2250 ± 86 U mg -1 for o-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside and 175 ± 4 U mg -1 for lactose. A catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) of 3059 ± 122 mmol L -1  s -1 and K m value of 8.1 ± 0.08 mmol L -1 were displayed towards p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. As a result of its remarkable thermostability and high activity at high temperatures, this novel β-galactosidase may be useful for food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Expression Levels and Folding of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Enzyme in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Khajeh, Khosro; Farnoosh, Gholamreza; Hassanpour, Kazem; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) is a type of organophosphate-degrading enzyme which is widely used in the bioremediation process. Objectives: In this study, the periplasmic and cytoplasmic productions and the activity of recombinant OPH in Escherichia coli were investigated and compared using two pET systems (pET21a and pET26b). Materials and Methods: The sequence encoding the opd gene was synthesized and expressed in the form of inclusion body using pET21a-opd and in the periplasmic space in pET26b-opd. Results: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed a band of about 37 kDa with a maximum expression level at 30°C from pET21a-opd.However, the obtained results of the periplasmic space extraction of OPH (pET26b-opd) showed a very weak band, while the cytoplasmic expression of OPH (pET21a-opd) produced a strong protein band. Conclusions: The activities studied by the production of PNP were determined by following the increase at 410 nm. The maximum PNP was produced at 30°C with an optical density of 10.62 in the presence of cytoplasmic expression of OPH (pET21a-opd). Consequently, our results suggest cytoplasmic expression system as an appropriate candidate with a high amount of OPH in spite of inclusion body formation, which needs an additional refolding step. PMID:26870308

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis impairs dendritic cell functions through the serine hydrolase Hip1.

    PubMed

    Madan-Lala, Ranjna; Sia, Jonathan Kevin; King, Rebecca; Adekambi, Toidi; Monin, Leticia; Khader, Shabaana A; Pulendran, Bali; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful human pathogen that primarily resides in host phagocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and interferes with their functions. Although multiple strategies used by M. tuberculosis to modulate macrophage responses have been discovered, interactions between M. tuberculosis and DCs are less well understood. DCs are the primary APCs of the immune system and play a central role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis impairs DC cytokine secretion, maturation, and Ag presentation through the cell envelope-associated serine hydrolase, Hip1. Compared to wild-type, a hip1 mutant strain of M. tuberculosis induced enhanced levels of the key Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12, as well as other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-23, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18) in DCs via MyD88- and TLR2/9-dependent pathways, indicating that Hip1 restricts optimal DC inflammatory responses. Infection with the hip1 mutant also induced higher levels of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, indicating that M. tuberculosis impairs DC maturation through Hip1. Further, we show that M. tuberculosis promotes suboptimal Ag presentation, as DCs infected with the hip1 mutant showed increased capacity to present Ag to OT-II- and early secreted antigenic target 6-specific transgenic CD4 T cells and enhanced Th1 and Th17 polarization. Overall, these data show that M. tuberculosis impairs DC functions and modulates the nature of Ag-specific T cell responses, with important implications for vaccination strategies.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis impairs dendritic cell functions through the serine hydrolase Hip1

    PubMed Central

    Madan-Lala, Ranjna; Sia, Jonathan Kevin; King, Rebecca; Adekambi, Toidi; Monin, Leticia; Khader, Shabaana A; Pulendran, Bali; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a highly successful human pathogen that primarily resides in host phagocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and interferes with their functions. While multiple strategies used by Mtb to modulate macrophage responses have been discovered, interactions between Mtb and DCs are less well understood. DCs are the primary antigen presenting acells (APCs) of the immune system and play a central role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. In this study we show that Mtb impairs DC cytokine secretion, maturation and antigen presentation through the cell envelope-associated serine hydrolase Hip1. Compared to wild type, a hip1 mutant strain of Mtb induced enhanced levels of the key T helper 1 (Th1)-inducing cytokine IL-12, as well as other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-23, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18) in DCs via MyD88- and TLR2/9-dependent pathways, indicating that Hip1 restricts optimal DC inflammatory responses. Infection with the hip1 mutant also induced higher levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, CD40 and CD86, indicating that Mtb impairs DC maturation through Hip1. Further, we show that Mtb promotes sub-optimal antigen presentation, as DCs infected with the hip1 mutant showed increased capacity to present antigen to OT-II- and early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6)-specific transgenic CD4 T cells and enhanced Th1 and Th17 polarization. Overall, these data show that Mtb impairs DC functions and modulates the nature of antigen-specific T cell responses, with important implications for vaccination strategies. PMID:24659689

  3. Identification of Genes Encoding Conjugated Bile Salt Hydrolase and Transport in Lactobacillus johnsonii 100-100

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Christopher A.; Savage, Dwayne C.

    1998-01-01

    Cytosolic extracts of Lactobacillus johnsonii 100-100 (previously reported as Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100) contain four heterotrimeric isozymes composed of two peptides, α and β, with conjugated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. We now report cloning, from the genome of strain 100-100, a 2,977-bp DNA segment that expresses BSH activity in Escherichia coli. The sequencing of this segment showed that it contained one complete and two partial open reading frames (ORFs). The 3′ partial ORF (927 nucleotides) was predicted by BLAST and confirmed with 5′ and 3′ deletions to be a BSH gene. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to extend and complete the 948-nucleotide sequence of the BSH gene 3′ of the cloned segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 5′ partial ORF (651 nucleotides) was about 80% similar to the C-terminal half of the largest, complete ORF (1,353 nucleotides), and these two putative proteins were similar to several amine, multidrug resistance, and sugar transport proteins of the major facilitator superfamily. E. coli DH5α cells transformed with a construct containing these ORFs, in concert with an extracellular factor produced by strain 100-100, demonstrated levels of uptake of [14C]taurocholic acid that were increased as much as threefold over control levels. [14C]Cholic acid was taken up in similar amounts by strain DH5α pSportI (control) and DH5α p2000 (transport clones). These findings support a hypothesis that the ORFs are conjugated bile salt transport genes which may be arranged in an operon with BSH genes. PMID:9721268

  4. The Nodulation Factor Hydrolase of Medicago truncatula: Characterization of an Enzyme Specifically Cleaving Rhizobial Nodulation Signals1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Yue; Wong, Kam-Bo; Feddermann, Nadja; Boller, Thomas; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nodule formation induced by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial nodulation factors (NFs), modified chitin oligosaccharides with a fatty acid moiety. Certain NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by plant chitinases. However, the most abundant NF of Sinorhizobium meliloti, an O-acetylated and sulfated tetramer, is resistant to hydrolysis by all plant chitinases tested so far. Nevertheless, this NF is rapidly degraded in the host rhizosphere. Here, we identify and characterize MtNFH1 (for Medicago truncatula Nod factor hydrolase 1), a legume enzyme structurally related to defense-related class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18). MtNFH1 lacks chitinase activity but efficiently hydrolyzes all tested NFs of S. meliloti. The enzyme shows a high cleavage preference, releasing exclusively lipodisaccharides from NFs. Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of MtNFH1 were compared with those of class V chitinases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which cannot hydrolyze tetrameric NFs of S. meliloti. The Michaelis-Menten constants of MtNFH1 for NFs are in the micromolar concentration range, whereas nonmodified chitin oligosaccharides represent neither substrates nor inhibitors for MtNFH1. The three-dimensional structure of MtNFH1 was modeled on the basis of the known structure of class V chitinases. Docking simulation of NFs to MtNFH1 predicted a distinct binding cleft for the fatty acid moiety, which is absent in the class V chitinases. Point mutation analysis confirmed the modeled NF-MtNFH1 interaction. Silencing of MtNFH1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced NF degradation in the rhizosphere of M. truncatula. In conclusion, we have found a novel legume hydrolase that specifically inactivates NFs. PMID:24082029

  5. PehN, a Polygalacturonase Homologue with a Low Hydrolase Activity, Is Coregulated with the Other Erwinia chrysanthemi Polygalacturonases

    PubMed Central

    Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Shevchik, Vladimir E.; Nasser, William

    2002-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes an arsenal of pectinolytic enzymes, including at least eight endo-pectate lyases encoded by pel genes, which play a major role in the soft-rot disease caused by this bacterium on various plants. E. chrysanthemi also produces some hydrolases that cleave pectin. Three adjacent hydrolase genes, pehV, pehW, and pehX, encoding exo-poly-α-d-galacturonosidases, have been characterized. These enzymes liberate digalacturonides from the nonreducing end of pectin. We report the identification of a novel gene, named pehN, encoding a protein homologous to the glycosyl hydrolases of family 28, which includes mainly polygalacturonases. PehN has a low hydrolase activity on polygalacturonate and on various pectins. PehN action favors the activity of the secreted endo-pectate lyases, mainly PelB and PelC, and that of the periplasmic exo-pectate lyase PelX. However, removal of the pehN gene does not significantly alter the virulence of E. chrysanthemi. Regulation of pehN transcription was analyzed by using gene fusions. Like other pectinase genes, pehN transcription is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, catabolite repression, osmolarity, anaerobiosis, nitrogen starvation, and the presence of calcium ions. The transcription of pehN is modulated by the repressor KdgR, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and by cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), the global activator of sugar catabolism. The regulator PecS, which represses the transcription of the pel genes but activates that of pehV, pehW, and pehX, also activates transcription of pehN. The three regulators KdgR, PecS, and CRP act by direct interaction with the pehN promoter region. The sequences involved in the binding of these three regulators and of RNA polymerase have been precisely defined. Analysis of the simultaneous binding of these proteins indicates that CRP and RNA polymerase bind

  6. A Cocaine Hydrolase Engineered from Human Butyrylcholinesterase Selectively Blocks Cocaine Toxicity and Reinstatement of Drug Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Anker, Justin J; Gliddon, Luke A; LaFleur, David; Shah, R; Zhao, Qinghai; Singh, M; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2008-01-01

    Successive rational mutations of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) followed by fusion to human serum albumin have yielded an efficient hydrolase that offers realistic options for therapy of cocaine overdose and abuse. This albumin-BChE prevented seizures in rats given a normally lethal cocaine injection (100 mg/kg, i.p.), lowered brain cocaine levels even when administered after the drug, and provided rescue after convulsions commenced. Moreover, it selectively blocked cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in rats that had previously self-administered cocaine. The enzyme treatment was well tolerated and may be worth exploring for clinical application in humans. PMID:18199998

  7. Silica Gel for Enhanced Activity and Hypochlorite Protection of Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase in Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Aukema, Kelly G; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-11-03

    Chlorinated isocyanuric acids are widely used water disinfectants that generate hypochlorite, but with repeated application, they build up cyanuric acid (CYA) that must be removed to maintain disinfection. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-treated Escherichia coli cells expressing cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) from Moorella thermoacetica exhibited significantly high CYA degradation rates and provided protection against enzyme inactivation by hypochlorite (chlorine). APTES coating or encapsulation of cells had two benefits: (i) overcoming diffusion limitations imposed by the cell wall and (ii) protecting against hypochlorite inactivation of CAH activity. Cells encapsulated in APTES gels degraded CYA three times faster than nonfunctionalized tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) gels, and cells coated with APTES degraded CYA at a rate of 29 µmol/min per mg of CAH protein, similar to the rate with purified enzyme. UV spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the higher rates were due to APTES increasing membrane permeability and enhancing cyanuric acid diffusion into the cytoplasm to reach the CAH enzyme. Purified CAH enzyme was shown to be rapidly inactivated by hypochlorite. APTES aggregates surrounding cells protected via the amine groups reacting with hypochlorite as shown by pH changes, zeta potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. APTES-encapsulated E. coli cells expressing CAH degraded cyanuric acid at high rates in the presence of 1 to 10 ppm hypochlorite, showing effectiveness under swimming pool conditions. In contrast, CAH activity in TEOS gels or free cells was completely inactivated by hypochlorite. These studies show that commercially available silica materials can selectively enhance, protect, and immobilize whole-cell biocatalysts for specialized applications. Hypochlorite is used in vast quantities for water disinfection, killing bacteria on surfaces, and washing and whitening. In pools, spas, and other

  8. 4,6-α-glucanotransferase, a novel enzyme that structurally and functionally provides an evolutionary link between glycoside hydrolase enzyme families 13 and 70.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Slavko; Grijpstra, Pieter; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Malik, Amarila; Oetari, Ariyanti; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2011-11-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri 121 uses the glucosyltransferase A (GTFA) enzyme to convert sucrose into large amounts of the α-D-glucan reuteran, an exopolysaccharide. Upstream of gtfA lies another putative glucansucrase gene, designated gtfB. Previously, we have shown that the purified recombinant GTFB protein/enzyme is inactive with sucrose. Various homologs of gtfB are present in other Lactobacillus strains, including the L. reuteri type strain, DSM 20016, the genome sequence of which is available. Here we report that GTFB is a novel α-glucanotransferase enzyme with disproportionating (cleaving α1→4 and synthesizing α1→6 and α1→4 glycosidic linkages) and α1→6 polymerizing types of activity on maltotetraose and larger maltooligosaccharide substrates (in short, it is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase). Characterization of the types of compounds synthesized from maltoheptaose by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), methylation analysis, and 1-dimensional ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed that only linear products were made and that with increasing degrees of polymerization (DP), more α1→6 glycosidic linkages were introduced into the final products, ranging from 18% in the incubation mixture to 33% in an enriched fraction. In view of its primary structure, GTFB clearly is a member of the glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) family, comprising enzymes with a permuted (β/α)₈ barrel that use sucrose to synthesize α-D-glucan polymers. The GTFB enzyme reaction and product specificities, however, are novel for the GH70 family, resembling those of the GH13 α-amylase type of enzymes in using maltooligosaccharides as substrates but differing in introducing a series of α1→6 glycosidic linkages into linear oligosaccharide products. We conclude that GTFB represents a novel evolutionary intermediate between the GH13 and GH70 enzyme families, and we speculate about its origin.

  9. Enhanced staphylolytic activity of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 HydH5 virion associated peptidoglycan hydrolase: fusions, deletions and synergy with LysH5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases have a potential as antimicrobial agents due to their ability to lyse Gram positive bacteria on contact. In this work, our aim was to improve the lytic activity of HydH5, a virion associated peptidoglycan hydrolase from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriopha...

  10. The impact of nonpolar lipids on the regulation of the steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Isabella; Korber, Martina; Athenstaedt, Karin; Daum, Günther

    2017-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae degradation of steryl esters is catalyzed by the steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p, Yeh1p and Yeh2p. The two steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p localize to lipid droplets, a cell compartment storing steryl esters and triacylglycerols. In the present study we investigated regulatory aspects of these two hydrolytic enzymes, namely the gene expression level, protein amount, stability and enzyme activity of Tgl1p and Yeh1p in strains lacking both or only one of the two major nonpolar lipids, steryl esters and triacylglycerols. In a strain lacking both nonpolar lipids and consequently lipid droplets, Tgl1p as well as Yeh1p were present at low amount, became highly unstable compared to wild-type cells, and lost their enzymatic activity. Under these conditions both steryl ester hydrolases were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lack of steryl esters alone was not sufficient to cause an altered intracellular localization of Tgl1p and Yeh1p. Surprisingly, the stability of Tgl1p and Yeh1p was markedly reduced in a strain lacking triacylglycerols, but their capacity to mobilize steryl esters remained unaffected. We also tested a possible cross-regulation of Tgl1p and Yeh1p by analyzing the behavior of each hydrolase in the absence of its counterpart steryl ester hydrolases. In summary, this study demonstrates a strong regulation of the two lipid droplet associated steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p due to the presence/absence of their host organelle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipoxin Generation Is Related to Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Activity in Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Emiko; Dutile, Stefanie; Kazani, Shamsah; Wechsler, Michael E.; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Douda, David Nobuhiro; Tabet, Yacine; Khaddaj-Mallat, Rayan; Sirois, Marco; Sirois, Chantal; Rizcallah, Edmond; Rousseau, Éric; Martin, Richard; Sutherland, E. Rand; Castro, Mario; N. Jarjour, Nizar; Israel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Severe asthma is characterized by airway inflammatory responses associated with aberrant metabolism of arachidonic acid. Lipoxins (LX) are arachidonate-derived pro-resolving mediators that are decreased in severe asthma, yet mechanisms for defective LX biosynthesis and a means to increase LXs in severe asthma remain to be established. Objectives: To determine if oxidative stress and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity are linked to decreased LX biosynthesis in severe asthma. Methods: Aliquots of blood, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from asthma subjects for mediator determination. Select samples were exposed to t-butyl-hydroperoxide or sEH inhibitor (sEHI) before activation. Peripheral blood leukocyte–platelet aggregates were monitored by flow cytometry, and bronchial contraction was determined with cytokine-treated human lung sections. Measurements and Main Results: 8-Isoprostane levels in sputum supernatants were inversely related to LXA4 in severe asthma (r = −0.55; P = 0.03) and t-butyl-hydroperoxide decreased LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 biosynthesis by peripheral blood leukocytes. LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 levels were inversely related to sEH activity in sputum supernatants and sEHIs significantly increased 14,15-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid and 15-epi-LXA4 generation by severe asthma whole blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells. The abundance of peripheral blood leukocyte–platelet aggregates was related to asthma severity. In a concentration-dependent manner, LXs significantly inhibited platelet-activating factor–induced increases in leukocyte–platelet aggregates (70.8% inhibition [LXA4 100 nM], 78.3% inhibition [15-epi-LXA4 100 nM]) and 15-epi-LXA4 markedly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α–induced increases in bronchial contraction. Conclusions: LX levels were decreased by oxidative stress and sEH activity. Inhibitors of sEH increased LXs that mediated antiphlogistic actions, suggesting a new therapeutic approach

  12. PET Imaging of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase with [ 18F]DOPP in Nonhuman Primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Wey, Hsiao -Ying; Shoup, Timothy M.

    Here, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates endocannabinoid signaling. [ 11C]CURB, an irreversibly binding FAAH inhibitor, has been developed for clinical research imaging with PET. However, no fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer for FAAH has yet advanced to human studies. [ 18F]DOPP ([ 18F]3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate) has been identified as a promising 18F-labeled analogue based on rodent studies. The goal of this work is to evaluate [ 18F]DOPP in nonhuman primates to support its clinical translation. High specific activity [ 18F]DOPP (5–6 Ci·μmol –1) was administered intravenously (iv) to three baboons (2M/1F, 3–4 years old). The distribution and pharmacokinetics were quantified followingmore » a 2 h dynamic imaging session using a simultaneous PET/MR scanner. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor, URB597, was carried out at 200 or 300 μg/kg iv, 10 min prior to [ 18F]DOPP administration. Rapid arterial blood sampling for the first 3 min was followed by interval sampling with metabolite analysis to provide a parent radiotracer plasma input function that indicated ~95% baseline metabolism at 60 min and a reduced rate of metabolism after pretreatment with URB597. Regional distribution data were analyzed with 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue compartment models (TCMs), with and without irreversible trapping since [ 18F]DOPP covalently links to the active site of FAAH. Consistent with previous findings for [ 11C]CURB, the 2TCM with irreversible binding was found to provide the best fit for modeling the data in all regions. The composite parameter λk 3 was therefore used to evaluate whole brain (WB) and regional binding of [ 18F]DOPP. Pretreatment studies showed inhibition of λk 3 across all brain regions (WB baseline: 0.112 mL/cm3/min; 300 μg/kg URB597: 0.058 mL/cm 3/min), suggesting that [ 18F]DOPP binding is specific for FAAH, consistent with previous rodent data.« less

  13. Influence of silencing soluble epoxide hydrolase with RNA interference on cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Du, Guangsheng; Lv, Jiagao; He, Li; Ma, Yexin

    2011-06-01

    In order to investigate the influence of silencing soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX), two plasmids containing siRNA sequences specific to sEH were constructed and transfected into the primary cultured cardiomyocytes by using FuGENE HD transfection agents. The mRNA and protein expression levels of sEH were detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively, and the plasmids that silenced sEH most significantly were selected, and renamed EH-R. The plasmids carrying a nonspecific siRNA coding sequence (PCN) served as the negative control. Cardiomyocytes were divided into four groups: control group, DOX group, PCN+DOX group, and EH-R+DOX group. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was induced by DOX at a concentration of 1 μmol/L. Apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes was determined by flow cytometery. The protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of sEH was down-regulated by EH-R plasmid. The expression levels of sEH mRNA and protein in the EH-R+DOX group were significantly decreased as compared with other groups (P<0.01). As compared with the control group, the apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes in three DOX-treated groups was obviously increased, the expression levels of Bax increased, and those of Bcl-2 decreased (P<0.01). However, the expression levels of Bax were decreased, those of Bcl-2 increased and the apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes obviously decreased in EH-R+DOX group when compared with those in the DOX group and the PCN+DOX group (P<0.01 for each). It was concluded that the recombinant plasmids could be successfully constructed, and transfected into the primary cultured cardiomyocytes. They could ameliorate the DOX-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis by selectively inhibiting the expression of sEH with RNAi and increasing the expression of Bcl-2.

  14. Purification and Characterization of Allophanate Hydrolase (AtzF) from Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP

    PubMed Central

    Shapir, Nir; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    AtzF, allophanate hydrolase, is a recently discovered member of the amidase signature family that catalyzes the terminal reaction during metabolism of s-triazine ring compounds by bacteria. In the present study, the atzF gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was cloned and expressed as a His-tagged protein, and the protein was purified and characterized. AtzF had a deduced subunit molecular mass of 66,223, based on the gene sequence, and an estimated holoenzyme molecular mass of 260,000. The active protein did not contain detectable metals or organic cofactors. Purified AtzF hydrolyzed allophanate with a kcat/Km of 1.1 × 104 s−1 M−1, and 2 mol of ammonia was released per mol allophanate. The substrate range of AtzF was very narrow. Urea, biuret, hydroxyurea, methylcarbamate, and other structurally analogous compounds were not substrates for AtzF. Only malonamate, which strongly inhibited allophanate hydrolysis, was an alternative substrate, with a greatly reduced kcat/Km of 21 s−1 M−1. Data suggested that the AtzF catalytic cycle proceeds through a covalent substrate-enzyme intermediate. AtzF reacts with malonamate and hydroxylamine to generate malonohydroxamate, potentially derived from hydroxylamine capture of an enzyme-tethered acyl group. Three putative catalytically important residues, one lysine and two serines, were altered by site-directed mutagenesis, each with complete loss of enzyme activity. The identity of a putative serine nucleophile was probed using phenyl phosphorodiamidate that was shown to be a time-dependent inhibitor of AtzF. Inhibition was due to phosphoroamidation of Ser189 as shown by liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The modified residue corresponds in sequence alignments to the nucleophilic serine previously identified in other members of the amidase signature family. Thus, AtzF affects the cleavage of three carbon-to-nitrogen bonds via a mechanism similar to that of enzymes

  15. A constitutive expression system for glycosyl hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolases in Hypocrea jecorina

    DOE PAGES

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Baker, John O.; ...

    2015-03-18

    One of the primary industrial-scale cellulase producers is the ascomycete fungus, Hypocrea jecorina, which produces and secretes large quantities of diverse cellulolytic enzymes. Perhaps the single most important biomass degrading enzyme is cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1or Cel7A) due to its enzymatic proficiency in cellulose depolymerization. However, production of Cel7A with native-like properties from heterologous expression systems has proven difficult. In this study, we develop a protein expression system in H. jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) useful for production and secretion of heterologous cellobiohydrolases from glycosyl hydrolase family 7. Building upon previous work in heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi, we have integrated amore » native constitutive enolase promoter with the native cbh1 signal sequence. The results are the following: The constitutive eno promoter driving the expression of Cel7A allows growth on glucose and results in repression of the native cellulase system, severely reducing background endo- and other cellulase activity and greatly simplifying purification of the recombinant protein. Coupling this system to a Δcbh1 strain of H. jecorina ensures that only the recombinant Cel7A protein is produced. Two distinct transformant colony morphologies were observed and correlated with high and null protein production. Production levels in ‘fast’ transformants are roughly equivalent to those in the native QM6a strain of H. jecorina, typically in the range of 10 to 30 mg/L when grown in continuous stirred-tank fermenters. ‘Slow’ transformants showed no evidence of Cel7A production. Specific activity of the purified recombinant Cel7A protein is equivalent to that of native protein when assayed on pretreated corn stover, as is the thermal stability and glycosylation level. Purified Cel7A produced from growth on glucose demonstrated remarkably consistent specific activity. Purified Cel7A from the same strain grown on lactose

  16. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  18. PET Imaging of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase with [ 18F]DOPP in Nonhuman Primates

    DOE PAGES

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Wey, Hsiao -Ying; Shoup, Timothy M.; ...

    2014-07-08

    Here, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates endocannabinoid signaling. [ 11C]CURB, an irreversibly binding FAAH inhibitor, has been developed for clinical research imaging with PET. However, no fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer for FAAH has yet advanced to human studies. [ 18F]DOPP ([ 18F]3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate) has been identified as a promising 18F-labeled analogue based on rodent studies. The goal of this work is to evaluate [ 18F]DOPP in nonhuman primates to support its clinical translation. High specific activity [ 18F]DOPP (5–6 Ci·μmol –1) was administered intravenously (iv) to three baboons (2M/1F, 3–4 years old). The distribution and pharmacokinetics were quantified followingmore » a 2 h dynamic imaging session using a simultaneous PET/MR scanner. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor, URB597, was carried out at 200 or 300 μg/kg iv, 10 min prior to [ 18F]DOPP administration. Rapid arterial blood sampling for the first 3 min was followed by interval sampling with metabolite analysis to provide a parent radiotracer plasma input function that indicated ~95% baseline metabolism at 60 min and a reduced rate of metabolism after pretreatment with URB597. Regional distribution data were analyzed with 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue compartment models (TCMs), with and without irreversible trapping since [ 18F]DOPP covalently links to the active site of FAAH. Consistent with previous findings for [ 11C]CURB, the 2TCM with irreversible binding was found to provide the best fit for modeling the data in all regions. The composite parameter λk 3 was therefore used to evaluate whole brain (WB) and regional binding of [ 18F]DOPP. Pretreatment studies showed inhibition of λk 3 across all brain regions (WB baseline: 0.112 mL/cm3/min; 300 μg/kg URB597: 0.058 mL/cm 3/min), suggesting that [ 18F]DOPP binding is specific for FAAH, consistent with previous rodent data.« less

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase produces analgesia by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Leon; Luo, Lin; Palmer, James A; Sutton, Steven; Wilson, Sandy J; Barbier, Ann J; Breitenbucher, James Guy; Chaplan, Sandra R; Webb, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The reversible fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor OL135 reverses mechanical allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and mild thermal injury (MTI) models in the rat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the cannabinoid and opioid systems in mediating this analgesic effect. Elevated brain concentrations of anandamide (350 pmol g−1 of tissue vs 60 pmol g−1 in vehicle-treated controls) were found in brains of rats given OL135 (20 mg kg−1) i.p. 15 min prior to 20 mg kg−1 i.p. anandamide. Predosing rats with OL135 (2–60 mg kg−1 i.p.) 30 min before administration of an irreversible FAAH inhibitor (URB597: 0.3 mg kg−1 intracardiac) was found to protect brain FAAH from irreversible inactivation. The level of enzyme protection was correlated with the OL135 concentrations in the same brains. OL135 (100 mg kg−1 i.p.) reduced by 50% of the maximum possible efficacy (MPE) mechanical allodynia induced by MTI in FAAH+/+mice (von Frey filament measurement) 30 min after dosing, but was without effect in FAAH−/− mice. OL135 given i.p. resulted in a dose-responsive reversal of mechanical allodynia in both MTI and SNL models in the rat with an ED50 between 6 and 9 mg kg−1. The plasma concentration at the ED50 in both models was 0.7 μM (240 ng ml−1). In the rat SNL model, coadministration of the selective CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (5 mg kg−1 i.p.), with 20 mg kg−1 OL135 blocked the OL135-induced reversal of mechanical allodynia, but the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716A (5 mg kg−1 i.p.) was without effect. In the rat MTI model neither SR141716A or SR144528 (both at 5 mg kg−1 i.p.), or a combination of both antagonists coadministered with OL135 (20 mg kg−1) blocked reversal of mechanical allodynia assessed 30 min after dosing. In both the MTI model and SNL models in rats, naloxone (1 mg kg−1, i.p. 30 min after OL135) reversed the analgesia

  20. Genomic and expression analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum) family of glycosyl hydrolase 35 genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several β-galactosidases of the Glycosyl Hydrolase 35 (GH35) family have been characterized, and many of these modify cell wall components, including pectins, xyloglucans, and arabinogalactan proteins. The phloem fibres of flax (Linum usitatissimum) have gelatinous-type cell walls that are rich in crystalline cellulose and depend on β-galactosidase activity for their normal development. In this study, we investigate the transcript expression patterns and inferred evolutionary relationships of the complete set of flax GH35 genes, to better understand the functions of these genes in flax and other species. Results Using the recently published flax genome assembly, we identified 43 β-galactosidase-like (BGAL) genes, based on the presence of a GH35 domain. Phylogenetic analyses of their protein sequences clustered them into eight sub-families. Sub-family B, whose members in other species were known to be expressed in developing flowers and pollen, was greatly under represented in flax (p-value < 0.01). Sub-family A5, whose sole member from arabidopsis has been described as its primary xyloglucan BGAL, was greatly expanded in flax (p-value < 0.01). A number of flax BGALs were also observed to contain non-consensus GH35 active sites. Expression patterns of the flax BGALs were investigated using qRT-PCR and publicly available microarray data. All predicted flax BGALs showed evidence of expression in at least one tissue. Conclusion Flax has a large number of BGAL genes, which display a distinct distribution among the BGAL sub-families, in comparison to other closely related species with available whole genome assemblies. Almost every flax BGAL was expressed in fibres, the majority of which expressed predominately in fibres as compared to other tissues, suggesting an important role for the expansion of this gene family in the development of this species as a fibre crop. Variations displayed in the canonical GH35 active site suggest a variety of roles

  1. Genomic and expression analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum) family of glycosyl hydrolase 35 genes.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-05-23

    Several β-galactosidases of the Glycosyl Hydrolase 35 (GH35) family have been characterized, and many of these modify cell wall components, including pectins, xyloglucans, and arabinogalactan proteins. The phloem fibres of flax (Linum usitatissimum) have gelatinous-type cell walls that are rich in crystalline cellulose and depend on β-galactosidase activity for their normal development. In this study, we investigate the transcript expression patterns and inferred evolutionary relationships of the complete set of flax GH35 genes, to better understand the functions of these genes in flax and other species. Using the recently published flax genome assembly, we identified 43 β-galactosidase-like (BGAL) genes, based on the presence of a GH35 domain. Phylogenetic analyses of their protein sequences clustered them into eight sub-families. Sub-family B, whose members in other species were known to be expressed in developing flowers and pollen, was greatly under represented in flax (p-value < 0.01). Sub-family A5, whose sole member from arabidopsis has been described as its primary xyloglucan BGAL, was greatly expanded in flax (p-value < 0.01). A number of flax BGALs were also observed to contain non-consensus GH35 active sites. Expression patterns of the flax BGALs were investigated using qRT-PCR and publicly available microarray data. All predicted flax BGALs showed evidence of expression in at least one tissue. Flax has a large number of BGAL genes, which display a distinct distribution among the BGAL sub-families, in comparison to other closely related species with available whole genome assemblies. Almost every flax BGAL was expressed in fibres, the majority of which expressed predominately in fibres as compared to other tissues, suggesting an important role for the expansion of this gene family in the development of this species as a fibre crop. Variations displayed in the canonical GH35 active site suggest a variety of roles unique to flax, which will require

  2. Identification of Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Constructs with Synergistic Staphylolytic Activity in Cow's Milk

    PubMed Central

    Verbree, Carolin T.; Dätwyler, Steven M.; Meile, Susanne; Eichenseher, Fritz; Donovan, David M.; Loessner, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) have been suggested as novel therapeutics for the treatment of bovine mastitis. However, activity in the presence of cow's milk is an important requirement for drugs administered into the bovine udder. We have screened a library of >170 recombinant PGHs, including engineered bacteriophage endolysins, for enzymes with activity against Staphylococcus aureus in milk, using a microtiter plate-based protocol. Nine suitable PGH constructs were identified by this approach and further compared in time-kill assays for their efficacy against S. aureus in heat-treated milk. The three most active enzymes (lysostaphin, Ami2638A, and CHAPK_CWT-LST) reduced S. aureus in milk to undetectable numbers within minutes at nanomolar concentrations. Due to their different peptidoglycan cleavage sites, these PGH constructs revealed synergistic activity in most combinations, as demonstrated by checkerboard assays, spot assays, and time-kill experiments. Furthermore, they proved active against a selection of staphylococcal mastitis isolates from different geographical regions when applied individually or in synergistic combination. The most effective PGH combination completely eradicated S. aureus from milk, with no more bacteria being detected within 24 h after addition of the enzymes, corresponding to a reduction of >9 log units compared to the control. Efficacy was also retained at different inoculum levels (3 versus 6 log CFU/ml) and when S. aureus was grown in milk as opposed to broth prior to the experiments. In raw cow's milk, CHAPK_CWT-LST showed reduced efficacy, whereas both Ami2638A and lysostaphin retained their activity, reducing bacterial numbers by >3.5 log units within 3 h. IMPORTANCE Staphylococci and S. aureus in particular are a major cause of bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland in cows associated with high costs and risks for consumers of milk products. S. aureus-induced mastitis, commonly treated by intramammary

  3. Corrected and Republished from: Identification of Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Constructs with Synergistic Staphylolytic Activity in Cow's Milk

    PubMed Central

    Verbree, Carolin T.; Dätwyler, Steven M.; Meile, Susanne; Eichenseher, Fritz; Donovan, David M.; Loessner, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) have been suggested as novel therapeutics for the treatment of bovine mastitis. However, activity in the presence of cow's milk is an important requirement for drugs administered into the bovine udder. We have used a microtiter plate-based protocol to screen a library of >170 recombinant PGHs, including engineered bacteriophage endolysins, for enzymes with activity against Staphylococcus aureus in milk. Eight suitable PGH constructs were identified by this approach, and their efficacies against S. aureus in heat-treated milk were compared by time-kill assays. The two most active enzymes (lysostaphin and CHAPK_CWT-LST) reduced S. aureus numbers in milk to undetectable levels within minutes at nanomolar concentrations. Due to their different peptidoglycan cleavage sites, these PGH constructs revealed synergistic activity, as demonstrated by checkerboard assays, spot assays, and time-kill experiments. Furthermore, they proved active against a selection of staphylococcal mastitis isolates from different geographical regions when applied individually or in synergistic combination. The PGH combination completely eradicated S. aureus from milk: no more bacteria were detected within 24 h after the addition of the enzymes, corresponding to a reduction of >9 log units from the level in the control. Efficacy was also retained at different inoculum levels (3 log versus 6 log CFU/ml) and when S. aureus was grown in milk as opposed to broth prior to the experiments. In raw cow's milk, CHAPK_CWT-LST showed reduced efficacy, whereas lysostaphin retained its activity, reducing bacterial numbers by >3.5 log units within 3 h. IMPORTANCE Staphylococci, and S. aureus in particular, are a major cause of bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland in cows that is associated with high costs and risks for consumers of milk products. S. aureus-induced mastitis, commonly treated by intramammary infusion of antibiotics, is characterized by

  4. The putative endocannabinoid transport blocker LY2183240 is a potent inhibitor of FAAH and several other brain serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessica P; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2006-08-02

    How lipid transmitters move within and between cells to communicate signals remains an important and largely unanswered question. Integral membrane transporters, soluble lipid-binding proteins, and metabolic enzymes have all been proposed to collaboratively regulate lipid signaling dynamics in vivo. Assignment of the relative contributions made by each of these classes of proteins requires selective pharmacological agents to perturb their individual functions. Recently, LY2183240, a heterocyclic urea inhibitor of the putative endocannabinoid (EC) transporter, was shown to disrupt the cellular uptake of the lipid EC anandamide and promote analgesia in vivo. Here, we show that LY2183240 is a potent, covalent inhibitor of the EC-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). LY2183240 inactivates FAAH by carbamylation of the enzyme's serine nucleophile. More global screens using activity-based proteomic probes identified several additional serine hydrolases that are also inhibited by LY2183240. These results indicate that the blockade of anandamide uptake observed with LY2183240 may be due primarily to the inactivation of FAAH, providing further evidence that this enzyme serves as a metabolic driving force that promotes the diffusion of anandamide into cells. More generally, the proteome-wide target promiscuity of LY2183240 designates the heterocyclic urea as a chemotype with potentially excessive protein reactivity for drug design.

  5. [Soil hydrolase characteristics in late soil-thawing period in subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yu, Sheng; Yang, Yu-Lian; Wang, Ao

    2011-05-01

    Late soil-thawing period is a critical stage connecting winter and growth season. The significant temperature fluctuation at this stage might have strong effects on soil ecological processes. In order to understand the soil biochemical processes at this stage in the subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan, soil samples were collected from the representative forests including primary fir forest, fir and birch mixed forest, and secondary fir forest in March 5-April 25, 2009, with the activities of soil invertase, urease, and phosphatase (neutral, acid and alkaline phosphatases) measured. In soil frozen period, the activities of the three enzymes in test forests still kept relatively higher. With the increase of soil temperature, the activities of hydrolases at the early stage of soil-thawing decreased rapidly after a sharp increase, except for neutral phosphatease. Thereafter, there was an increase in the activities of urease and phosphatase. Relative to soil mineral layer, soil organic layer had higher hydrolase activity in late soil-thawing period, and showed more obvious responses to the variation of soil temperature.

  6. A saposin-like domain influences the intracellular localization, stability, and catalytic activity of human acyloxyacyl hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Staab, J F; Ginkel, D L; Rosenberg, G B; Munford, R S

    1994-09-23

    Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that acts on bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and many glycerolipids, is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide that undergoes internal disulfide linkage before being proteolytically processed into two subunits. The larger subunit contains an amino acid sequence (Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly) that is found at the active sites of many lipases, while the smaller subunit has amino acid sequence similarity to saposins (sphingolipid activator proteins), cofactors for sphingolipid glycohydrolases. We show here that both acyloxyacyl hydrolase subunits are required for catalytic activity toward LPS and glycerophosphatidylcholine. In addition, mutations that truncate or delete the small subunit have profound effects on the intracellular localization, proteolytic processing, and stability of the enzyme in baby hamster kidney cells. Remarkably, proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein increases the activity of the enzyme toward LPS by 10-20-fold without altering its activity toward glycerophosphatidylcholine. Proper orientation of the two subunits thus seems very important for the substrate specificity of this unusual enzyme.

  7. Profile of Secreted Hydrolases, Associated Proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the Degradation of Hemicellulose

    PubMed Central

    Currie, D. H.; Guss, A. M.; Herring, C. D.; Giannone, R. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Lankford, P. K.; Brown, S. D.; Hettich, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, grows robustly on insoluble hemicellulose, which requires a specialized suite of secreted and transmembrane proteins. We report here the characterization of proteins secreted by this organism. Cultures were grown on hemicellulose, glucose, xylose, starch, and xylan in pH-controlled bioreactors, and samples were analyzed via spotted microarrays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Key hydrolases and transporters employed by T. saccharolyticum for growth on hemicellulose were, for the most part, hitherto uncharacterized and existed in two clusters (Tsac_1445 through Tsac_1464 for xylan/xylose and Tsac_1344 through Tsac_1349 for starch). A phosphotransferase system subunit, Tsac_0032, also appeared to be exclusive to growth on glucose. Previously identified hydrolases that showed strong conditional expression changes included XynA (Tsac_1459), XynC (Tsac_0897), and a pullulanase, Apu (Tsac_1342). An omnipresent transcript and protein making up a large percentage of the overall secretome, Tsac_0361, was tentatively identified as the primary S-layer component in T. saccharolyticum, and deletion of the Tsac_0361 gene resulted in gross morphological changes to the cells. The view of hemicellulose degradation revealed here will be enabling for metabolic engineering efforts in biofuel-producing organisms that degrade cellulose well but lack the ability to catabolize C5 sugars. PMID:24907337

  8. Profile of secreted hydrolases, associated proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the degradation of hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Currie, D H; Guss, A M; Herring, C D; Giannone, R J; Johnson, C M; Lankford, P K; Brown, S D; Hettich, R L; Lynd, L R

    2014-08-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, grows robustly on insoluble hemicellulose, which requires a specialized suite of secreted and transmembrane proteins. We report here the characterization of proteins secreted by this organism. Cultures were grown on hemicellulose, glucose, xylose, starch, and xylan in pH-controlled bioreactors, and samples were analyzed via spotted microarrays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Key hydrolases and transporters employed by T. saccharolyticum for growth on hemicellulose were, for the most part, hitherto uncharacterized and existed in two clusters (Tsac_1445 through Tsac_1464 for xylan/xylose and Tsac_1344 through Tsac_1349 for starch). A phosphotransferase system subunit, Tsac_0032, also appeared to be exclusive to growth on glucose. Previously identified hydrolases that showed strong conditional expression changes included XynA (Tsac_1459), XynC (Tsac_0897), and a pullulanase, Apu (Tsac_1342). An omnipresent transcript and protein making up a large percentage of the overall secretome, Tsac_0361, was tentatively identified as the primary S-layer component in T. saccharolyticum, and deletion of the Tsac_0361 gene resulted in gross morphological changes to the cells. The view of hemicellulose degradation revealed here will be enabling for metabolic engineering efforts in biofuel-producing organisms that degrade cellulose well but lack the ability to catabolize C5 sugars. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Structure of a Novel Carbaryl Hydrolase Gene (cehA) from Rhizobium sp. Strain AC100

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masayuki; Fukui, Mitsuru; Hayano, Kouichi; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2002-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, which is capable of degrading carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate), was isolated from soil treated with carbaryl. This bacterium hydrolyzed carbaryl to 1-naphthol and methylamine. Carbaryl hydrolase from the strain was purified to homogeneity, and its N-terminal sequence, molecular mass (82 kDa), and enzymatic properties were determined. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed 1-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate indicating that the enzyme is an esterase. We then cloned the carbaryl hydrolase gene (cehA) from the plasmid DNA of the strain and determined the nucleotide sequence of the 10-kb region containing cehA. No homologous sequences were found by a database homology search using the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cehA gene. Six open reading frames including the cehA gene were found in the 10-kb region, and sequencing analysis shows that the cehA gene is flanked by two copies of insertion sequence-like sequence, suggesting that it makes part of a composite transposon. PMID:11872471

  10. Screening glycosynthase libraries with a fluoride chemosensor assay independently of enzyme specificity: identification of a transitional hydrolase to synthase mutant.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Eduardo; Aragunde, Hugo; Planas, Antoni

    2014-03-01

    Glycosynthases have become efficient tools for the enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides, glycoconjugates and polysaccharides. Enzyme-directed evolution approaches are applied to improve the performance of current glycosynthases and engineer specificity for non-natural substrates. However, simple and general screening methods are required since most of the reported assays are specific for each particular enzyme. In the present paper, we report a general screening assay that is independent of enzyme specificity, and implemented in an HTS (high-throughput screening) format for the screening of cell extracts in directed evolution experiments. Fluoride ion is a general by-product released in all glycosynthase reactions with glycosyl fluoride donors. The new assay is based on the use of a specific chemical sensor (a silyl ether of a fluorogenic methylumbelliferone) to transduce fluoride concentration into a fluorescence signal. As a proof-of-concept, it has been applied to a nucleophile saturation mutant library of Bacillus licheniformis 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase. Beyond the expected mutations at the glutamic acid (catalytic) nucleophile, other variants have been shown to acquire glycosynthase activity. Surprisingly, an aspartic acid for glutamic acid replacement renders a highly active glycosynthase, but still retains low hydrolase activity. It appears as an intermediate state between glycosyl hydrolase and glycosynthase.

  11. Serum concentration of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-L1 in detecting severity of traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, A. M. P.; Japardi, I.; Hakim, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    One of the main problems with ahead injury is assessing the severity. While physical examination and imaging had limitations, neuronal damage markers, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), released in theblood may provide valuable information about diagnosis the traumatic brain injury (TBI).Analyzing the concentrations of serum ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), there must have a neuronal injury biomarker, in theTBI patients serum and their association with clinical characteristics and outcome. There were 80 TBI subjects, and there are mild, moderate, and severe involved in this study of case- control. By using ELISA, we studied the profile of serum UCH-L1 levels for TBI patients. TheUCH-L1 serum level of moderate and severe head injury is higher than in mild head injury (p<.001), but we didn’t find aspecific difference between moderate and severe head injury patients. There is no particular correlation found between serum UCH-L1 level and outcome. Serum levels of UCH-L1 appear to have potential clinical utility in diagnosing TBI but do not correlate with outcome.

  12. Gene-centric metagenomics of the fiber-adherent bovine rumen microbiome reveals forage specific glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Brulc, Jennifer M; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Miller, Margret E Berg; Wilson, Melissa K; Yannarell, Anthony C; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert E; Frank, Edward D; Emerson, Joanne B; Wacklin, Pirjo; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A

    2009-02-10

    The complex microbiome of the rumen functions as an effective system for the conversion of plant cell wall biomass to microbial protein, short chain fatty acids, and gases. As such, it provides a unique genetic resource for plant cell wall degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuels. The rumen and gastrointestinal tract harbor a dense and complex microbiome. To gain a greater understanding of the ecology and metabolic potential of this microbiome, we used comparative metagenomics (phylotype analysis and SEED subsystems-based annotations) to examine randomly sampled pyrosequence data from 3 fiber-adherent microbiomes and 1 pooled liquid sample (a mixture of the liquid microbiome fractions from the same bovine rumens). Even though the 3 animals were fed the same diet, the community structure, predicted phylotype, and metabolic potentials in the rumen were markedly different with respect to nutrient utilization. A comparison of the glycoside hydrolase and cellulosome functional genes revealed that in the rumen microbiome, initial colonization of fiber appears to be by organisms possessing enzymes that attack the easily available side chains of complex plant polysaccharides and not the more recalcitrant main chains, especially cellulose. Furthermore, when compared with the termite hindgut microbiome, there are fundamental differences in the glycoside hydrolase content that appear to be diet driven for either the bovine rumen (forages and legumes) or the termite hindgut (wood).

  13. Profile of Secreted Hydrolases, Associated Proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the Degradation of Hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Devin; Guss, Adam M; Herring, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, grows robustly on insoluble hemicellulose, which requires a specialized suite of secreted and transmembrane proteins. We report here the characterization of proteins secreted by this organism. Cultures were grown on hemicellulose, glucose, xylose, starch, and xylan in pH-controlled bioreactors, and samples were analyzed via spotted microarrays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Key hydrolases and transporters employed by T. saccharolyticum for growth on hemicellulose were, for the most part, hitherto uncharacterized and existed in two clusters (Tsac_1445 through Tsac_1464 for xylan/xylose and Tsac_1344 through Tsac_1349 for starch). A phosphotransferase system subunit, Tsac_0032, also appeared tomore » be exclusive to growth on glucose. Previously identified hydrolases that showed strong conditional expression changes included XynA (Tsac_1459), XynC (Tsac_0897), and a pullulanase, Apu (Tsac_1342). An omnipresent transcript and protein making up a large percentage of the overall secretome, Tsac_0361, was tentatively identified as the primary S-layer component in T. saccharolyticum, and deletion of the Tsac_0361 gene resulted in gross morphological changes to the cells. The view of hemicellulose degradation revealed here will be enabling for metabolic engineering efforts in biofuel-producing organisms that degrade cellulose well but lack the ability to catabolize C5 sugars« less

  14. Elucidation of hydrolysis mechanisms for fatty acid amide hydrolase and its Lys142Ala variant via QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Tubert-Brohman, Ivan; Acevedo, Orlando; Jorgensen, William L

    2006-12-27

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a serine hydrolase that degrades anandamide, an endocannabinoid, and oleamide, a sleep-inducing lipid, and has potential applications as a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. Remarkably, FAAH hydrolyzes amides and esters with similar rates; however, the normal preference for esters reemerges when Lys142 is mutated to alanine. To elucidate the hydrolysis mechanisms and the causes behind this variation of selectivity, mixed quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were carried out to obtain free-energy profiles for alternative mechanisms for the enzymatic hydrolyses. The methodology features free-energy perturbation calculations in Monte Carlo simulations with PDDG/PM3 as the QM method. For wild-type FAAH, the results support a mechanism, which features proton transfer from Ser217 to Lys142, simultaneous proton transfer from Ser241 to Ser217, and attack of Ser241 on the substrate's carbonyl carbon to yield a tetrahedral intermediate, which subsequently undergoes elimination with simultaneous protonation of the leaving group by a Lys142-Ser217 proton shuttle. For the Lys142Ala mutant, a striking multistep sequence is proposed with simultaneous proton transfer from Ser241 to Ser217, attack of Ser241 on the carbonyl carbon of the substrate, and elimination of the leaving group and its protonation by Ser217. Support comes from the free-energy results, which well reproduce the observation that the Lys142Ala mutation in FAAH decreases the rate of hydrolysis for oleamide significantly more than for methyl oleate.

  15. Rapid kinetic characterization of glycosyl hydrolases based on oxime derivatization and nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E; Heins, Richard; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Bergeman, Lai F; Shi, Jian; Aschenbrener, Ryan; Deutsch, Sam; Singh, Seema; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K; Fox, Brian G; Northen, Trent R

    2014-07-18

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are critical to cycling of plant biomass in the environment, digestion of complex polysaccharides by the human gut microbiome, and industrial activities such as deployment of cellulosic biofuels. High-throughput sequencing methods show tremendous sequence diversity among GHs, yet relatively few examples from the over 150,000 unique domain arrangements containing GHs have been functionally characterized. Here, we show how cell-free expression, bioconjugate chemistry, and surface-based mass spectrometry can be used to study glycoside hydrolase reactions with plant biomass. Detection of soluble products is achieved by coupling a unique chemical probe to the reducing end of oligosaccharides in a stable oxime linkage, while the use of (13)C-labeled monosaccharide standards (xylose and glucose) allows quantitation of the derivatized glycans. We apply this oxime-based nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) method to characterize the functional diversity of GHs secreted by Clostridium thermocellum, a model cellulolytic organism. New reaction specificities are identified, and differences in rates and yields of individual enzymes are demonstrated in reactions with biomass substrates. Numerical analyses of time series data suggests that synergistic combinations of mono- and multifunctional GHs can decrease the complexity of enzymes needed for the hydrolysis of plant biomass during the production of biofuels.

  16. A novel organophosphorus hydrolase-based biosensor using mesoporous carbons and carbon black for the detection of organophosphate nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Hwan; Park, Jae Yeon; Min, Kyoungseon; Cha, Hyung Joon; Choi, Suk Soon; Yoo, Young Je

    2010-03-15

    To detect organophosphate chemicals, which are used both as pesticides and as nerve agents, a novel biosensor based on organophosphorus hydrolase was developed. By using mesoporous carbon (MC) and carbon black (CB) as an anodic layer, the sensitivity of the sensor to p-nitrophenol (PNP), which is the product of the organophosphorus hydrolase reaction, was greatly improved. The MC/CB/glass carbon (GC) layer exhibited an enhanced amperometric response relative to a carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified electrode because it promoted electron transfer of enzymatically generated phenolic compounds (p-nitrophenol). The well-ordered nanopores, many edge-plane-like defective sites (EDSs), and high surface area of the MC resulted in increased sensitivity, and allowed for nanomolar-range detection of the analyte paraoxon. Thus, MCs are suitable for use in real-time biosensors. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the biosensor had a detection limit of 0.12 microM (36 ppb) and a sensitivity of 198 nA/microM for paraoxon. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. pKa cycling of the general acid/base in glycoside hydrolase families 33 and 34.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Griffiths, Thomas M

    2014-03-28

    Glycoside hydrolase families 33 and 34 catalyse the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues from sialyl oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates with a net retention of the stereochemistry at the anomeric centre. It is generally believed that the conserved aspartic acid in the active site functions as a general acid to protonate the hydroxyl group of the departing aglycone during glycosylation, and then as a general base to facilitate the nucleophilic attack of the water molecule on the intermediate state during the deglycosylation reaction. The dual role of the general acid/base places specific demands upon its protonation state, and thus pKa values. However, it is not fully understood how this catalytic residue can achieve such pKa cycling during catalysis. We present both MM and combined QM/MM simulations to characterise the pKa values of the proposed catalytic general acid/base in the glycoside hydrolase families 33 and 34. Collectively, our study suggests that the binding of anionic substrates and the local solvation properties along with the neutralisation of the nearby glutamic acid upon glycosylation modulate the electrostatic environment around the general acid/base to achieve its proper protonation states.

  18. Discovery of glycine sulfonamides as dual inhibitors of sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase α and α/β-hydrolase domain 6.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Freek J; Deng, Hui; Baggelaar, Marc P; Allarà, Marco; van der Wel, Tom; den Dulk, Hans; Ligresti, Alessia; van Esbroeck, Annelot C M; McGuire, Ross; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Overkleeft, Herman S; van der Stelt, Mario

    2014-08-14

    sn-1-Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGL-α) is the main enzyme responsible for the production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the central nervous system. Glycine sulfonamides have recently been identified by a high throughput screening campaign as a novel class of inhibitors for this enzyme. Here, we report on the first structure-activity relationship study of glycine sulfonamide inhibitors and their brain membrane proteome-wide selectivity on serine hydrolases with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We found that (i) DAGL-α tolerates a variety of biaryl substituents, (ii) the sulfonamide is required for inducing a specific orientation of the 2,2-dimethylchroman substituent, and (iii) a carboxylic acid is essential for its activity. ABPP revealed that the sulfonamide glycine inhibitors have at least three off-targets, including α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6). Finally, we identified LEI-106 as a potent, dual DAGL-α/ABHD6 inhibitor, which makes this compound a potential lead for the discovery of new molecular therapies for diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Crystal Structure of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55 β-1,3-Glucanase from the Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Takuya; Fushinobu, Shinya; Kawai, Rie; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 55 consists of β-1,3-glucanases mainly from filamentous fungi. A β-1,3-glucanase (Lam55A) from the Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium hydrolyzes β-1,3-glucans in the exo-mode with inversion of anomeric configuration and produces gentiobiose in addition to glucose from β-1,3/1,6-glucans. Here we report the crystal structure of Lam55A, establishing the three-dimensional structure of a member of glycoside hydrolase 55 for the first time. Lam55A has two β-helical domains in a single polypeptide chain. These two domains are separated by a long linker region but are positioned side by side, and the overall structure resembles a rib cage. In the complex, a gluconolactone molecule is bound at the bottom of a pocket between the two β-helical domains. Based on the position of the gluconolactone molecule, Glu-633 appears to be the catalytic acid, whereas the catalytic base residue could not be identified. The substrate binding pocket appears to be able to accept a gentiobiose unit near the cleavage site, and a long cleft runs from the pocket, in accordance with the activity of this enzyme toward various β-1,3-glucan oligosaccharides. In conclusion, we provide important features of the substrate-binding site at the interface of the two β-helical domains, demonstrating an unexpected variety of carbohydrate binding modes. PMID:19193645

  20. Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (phiIPLA88) contains a virion-associated muralytic enzyme (HydH5) encoded by orf58, which is located in the morphogenetic module. Comparative bioinformatic analysis revealed that HydH5 significantly resembled other peptidoglycan hydrolases encode...

  1. Enzymatic characteristics of an ApaH-like phosphatase, PrpA, and a diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, ApaH, from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masashi; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2014-09-17

    We characterized the activities of the Myxococcus xanthus ApaH-like phosphatases PrpA and ApaH, which share homologies with both phosphoprotein phosphatases and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases. PrpA exhibited a phosphatase activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), tyrosine phosphopeptide and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, and a weak hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. In the presence of Mn(2+), PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into AMP and ATP, whereas in the presence of Co(2+) PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into two molecules of ADP. ApaH exhibited high phosphatase activity towards pNPP, and hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. Mn(2+) was required for ApaH-mediated pNPP dephosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis, whereas Co(2+) was required for ApnA hydrolysis. Thus, PrpA and ApaH may function mainly as a tyrosine protein phosphatase and an ApnA hydrolase, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rsd balances (p)ppGpp level by stimulating the hydrolase activity of SpoT during carbon source downshift in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Park, Young-Ha; Seok, Yeong-Jae

    2018-06-18

    Bacteria respond to nutritional stresses by changing the cellular concentration of the alarmone (p)ppGpp. This control mechanism, called the stringent response, depends on two enzymes, the (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA and the bifunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase SpoT in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Because SpoT is the only enzyme responsible for (p)ppGpp hydrolysis in these bacteria, SpoT activity needs to be tightly regulated to prevent the uncontrolled accumulation of (p)ppGpp, which is lethal. To date, however, no such regulation of SpoT (p)ppGpp hydrolase activity has been documented in E. coli In this study, we show that Rsd directly interacts with SpoT and stimulates its (p)ppGpp hydrolase activity. Dephosphorylated HPr, but not phosphorylated HPr, of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system could antagonize the stimulatory effect of Rsd on SpoT (p)ppGpp hydrolase activity. Thus, we suggest that Rsd is a carbon source-dependent regulator of the stringent response in E. coli . Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 5 B-1,4-endoglucanase (Rr-eng-1) from the Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) ß-1,4-endoglucanses, a.k.a. cellulases, are important parasitism genes that facilitate root penetration and migration by plant-parasitic nematodes. The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a sedentary semi-endoparasite of >300 plant species for which li...

  4. Nanobody based immunoassay for human soluble epoxide hydrolase detection using polyHRP for signal enhancement—the rediscovery of polyHRP

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, cancer, pain and multiple cardiovascular related diseases. A variable domain of a heavy chain only antibody (termed sdAb, nanobody or VHH) possesses advantages of small size, high ...

  5. 4-alkyl-L-(Dehydro)proline biosynthesis in actinobacteria involves N-terminal nucleophile-hydrolase activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase homolog for C-C bond cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guannan; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Wen

    2017-07-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs), ubiquitous in glutathione metabolism for γ-glutamyl transfer/hydrolysis, are N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase fold proteins that share an autoproteolytic process for self-activation. γ-GT homologues are widely present in Gram-positive actinobacteria where their Ntn-hydrolase activities, however, are not involved in glutathione metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that the formation of 4-Alkyl-L-(dehydro)proline (ALDP) residues, the non-proteinogenic α-amino acids that serve as vital components of many bioactive metabolites found in actinobacteria, involves unprecedented Ntn-hydrolase activity of γ-GT homologue for C-C bond cleavage. The related enzymes share a key Thr residue, which acts as an internal nucleophile for protein hydrolysis and then as a newly released N-terminal nucleophile for carboxylate side-chain processing likely through the generation of an oxalyl-Thr enzyme intermediate. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the biosynthesis of various ALDP residues/associated natural products, highlight the versatile functions of Ntn-hydrolase fold proteins, and particularly generate interest in thus far less-appreciated γ-GT homologues in actinobacteria.

  6. 18F-FNDP for PET Imaging of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Horti, Andrew G; Wang, Yuchuan; Minn, Il; Lan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Koehler, Raymond C; Alkayed, Nabil J; Dannals, Robert F; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-11-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme located within cytosol and peroxisomes that converts epoxides to the corresponding diols and hydrolyzes phosphate monoesters. It serves to inactivate epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are generated in the brain to couple neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow in normal and pathologic states. Altered regulation of sEH was observed previously in various neuropathologic disorders including vascular dementia and stroke. Inhibitors of sEH are pursued as agents to mitigate neuronal damage after stroke. We developed N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-6- 18 F-fluoronicotinamide ( 18 F-FNDP), which proved highly specific for imaging of sEH in the mouse and nonhuman primate brain with PET. 18 F-FNDP was synthesized from the corresponding bromo precursor. sEH inhibitory activity of 18 F-FNDP was measured using an sEH inhibitor screening assay kit. Biodistribution was undertaken in CD-1 mice. Binding specificity was assayed in CD-1 and sEH knock-out mice and Papio anubis (baboon) through pretreatment with an sEH inhibitor to block sEH binding. Dynamic PET imaging with arterial blood sampling was performed in 3 baboons, with regional tracer binding quantified using distribution volume. The metabolism of 18 F-FNDP in baboons was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. 18 F-FNDP (inhibition binding affinity constant, 1.73 nM) was prepared in 1 step in a radiochemical yield of 14% ± 7%, specific radioactivity in the range of 888-3,774 GBq/μmol, and a radiochemical purity greater than 99% using an automatic radiosynthesis module. The time of preparation was about 75 min. In CD-1 mice, regional uptake followed the pattern of striatum > cortex > hippocampus > cerebellum, consistent with the known brain distribution of sEH, with 5.2% injected dose per gram of tissue at peak uptake. Blockade of 80%-90% was demonstrated in all brain regions. Minimal radiotracer uptake was present in sEH knock-out mice. PET baboon

  7. Hydrogen bonding in the mechanism of GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildvan, A. S.; Xia, Z.; Azurmendi, H. F.; Legler, P. M.; Balfour, M. R.; Lairson, L. L.; Withers, S. G.; Gabelli, S. B.; Bianchet, M. A.; Amzel, L. M.

    2006-06-01

    GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolase (GDPMH) from E. coli catalyzes the hydrolysis of GDP-α- D-sugars to GDP and β- D-sugars by nucleophilic substitution with inversion at the anomeric C1 of the sugar, with general base catalysis by His-124. The 1.3 Å X-ray structure of the GDPMH-Mg 2+-GDP complex was used to model the complete substrate, GDP-mannose into the active site. The substrate is linked to the enzyme by 12 hydrogen bonds, as well as by the essential Mg 2+. In addition, His-124 was found to participate in a hydrogen bonded triad: His-124-NδH⋯Tyr-127-OH⋯Pro-120(C dbnd6 O). The contributions of these hydrogen bonds to substrate binding and to catalysis were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The hydrogen bonded triad detected in the X-ray structure was found to contribute little to catalysis since the Y127F mutation of the central residue shows only 2-fold decreases in both kcat and Km. The GDP leaving group is activated by the essential Mg 2+ which contributes at least 10 5-fold to kcat, and by nine hydrogen bonds, including those from Tyr-103, Arg-37, Arg-52, and Arg-65 (via an intervening water), each of which contribute factors to kcat ranging from 24- to 309-fold. Both Arg-37 and Tyr-103 bind the β-phosphate of the leaving GDP and are only 5.0 Å apart. Accordingly, the R37Q/Y103F double mutant shows partially additive effects of the two single mutants on kcat, indicating cooperativity of Arg-37 and Tyr-103 in promoting catalysis. The extensive activation of the GDP leaving group suggests a mechanism with dissociative character with a cationic oxocarbenium-like transition state and a half-chair conformation of the sugar ring, as found with glycosidase enzymes. Accordingly, Asp-22 which contributes 10 2.1- to 10 2.6-fold to kcat, is positioned to both stabilize a developing cationic center at C1 and to accept a hydrogen bond from the C2-OH of the mannosyl group, and His-88, which contributes 10 2.3-fold to kcat, is positioned to accept

  8. Comparative Community Proteomics Demonstrates the Unexpected Importance of Actinobacterial Glycoside Hydrolase Family 12 Protein for Crystalline Cellulose Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hiras, Jennifer; Wu, Yu-Wei; Deng, Kai

    ABSTRACT Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacteriumThermobispora bisporathat were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulases fromT. bispora,more » the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite ofT. bisporahydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered. IMPORTANCECellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on earth, and its enzymatic hydrolysis is a key reaction in the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to biofuels. The glycoside hydrolases that depolymerize crystalline cellulose have been primarily characterized from isolates. In this study, we demonstrate that adapting microbial consortia from compost to grow on crystalline cellulose generated communities whose soluble enzymes exhibit differential abilities to

  9. Characterization of a C—C Bond Hydrolase from Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 with Novel Specificities towards Polychlorinated Biphenyl Metabolites▿

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Stephen Y. K.; Ke, Jiyuan; Denis, Geoffroy; Horsman, Geoff P.; Fortin, Pascal D.; Whiting, Cheryl J.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2007-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 degrades chlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins via meta cleavage. We used inverse PCR to amplify dxnB2, a gene encoding one of three meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases identified in the organism that are homologues of BphD involved in biphenyl catabolism. Purified DxnB2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of 8-OH 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (HOPDA) approximately six times faster than for HOPDA at saturating substrate concentrations. Moreover, the specificity of DxnB2 for HOPDA (kcat/Km = 1.2 × 107 M−1 s−1) was about half that of the BphDs of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and Rhodococcus globerulus P6, two potent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading strains. Interestingly, DxnB2 transformed 3-Cl and 4-OH HOPDAs, compounds that inhibit the BphDs and limit PCB degradation. DxnB2 had a higher specificity for 9-Cl HOPDA than for HOPDA but a lower specificity for 8-Cl HOPDA (kcat/Km = 1.7 × 106 M−1 s−1), the chlorinated analog of 8-OH HOPDA produced during dibenzofuran catabolism. Phylogenetic analyses based on structure-guided sequence alignment revealed that DxnB2 belongs to a previously unrecognized class of MCP hydrolases, evolutionarily divergent from the BphDs although the physiological substrates of both enzyme types are HOPDAs. However, both classes of enzymes have mainly small hydrophobic residues lining the subsite that binds the C-6 phenyl of HOPDA, in contrast to the bulky hydrophobic residues (Phe106, Phe135, Trp150, and Phe197) found in the class II enzymes that prefer substrates possessing a C-6 alkyl. Thr196 and/or Asn203 appears to be an important determinant of specificity for DxnB2, potentially forming hydrogen bonds with the 8-OH substituent. This study demonstrates that the substrate specificities of evolutionarily divergent hydrolases may be useful for degrading mixtures of pollutants, such as PCBs. PMID:17416660

  10. Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures.

    PubMed

    Huijghebaert, S M; Hofmann, A F

    1986-07-01

    The influence of the chemical structure of the amino acid (or amino acid analogue) moiety of a number of synthetic cholyl amidates on deconjugation by cholylglycine hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens was studied in vitro at pH 5.4. Conjugates with alkyl homologues of glycine were hydrolyzed more slowly as the number of methylene units increased (cholylglycine greater than cholyl-beta-alanine greater than cholyl-gamma-aminobutyrate). In contrast, for conjugates with the alkyl homologues of taurine, cholylaminopropane sulfonate was hydrolyzed slightly faster than cholyltaurine, whereas cholylaminomethane sulfonate was hydrolyzed much more slowly. When glycine was replaced by other neutral alpha-amino acids, rates of hydrolysis decreased with increasing steric hindrance near the amide bond (cholyl-L-alpha-alanine much much greater than cholyl-L-leucine much greater than cholyl-L-valine greater than cholyl-L-tyrosine much greater than cholyl-D-valine). Conjugation with acidic or basic amino acids also greatly reduced the rates of hydrolysis, as cholyl-L-aspartate, cholyl-L-cysteate, cholyl-L-lysine, and cholyl-L-histidine were all hydrolyzed at a rate less than one-tenth that of cholylglycine. Methyl esterification of the carboxylic group of the amino acid moiety reduced the hydrolysis, but such substrates (cholylglycine methyl ester and cholyl-beta-alanine methyl ester) were completely hydrolyzed after overnight incubation with excess of enzyme. In contrast, cholyl-cholamine was not hydrolyzed at all, suggesting that a negative charge at the end of the side chain is required for optimal hydrolysis. Despite the lack of specificity for the amino acid moiety, a bile salt moiety was required, as the cholylglycine hydrolase did not display general carboxypeptidase activity for other non-bile acid substrates containing a terminal amide bond: hippuryl-L-phenylalanine and hippuryl-L-arginine, as well as oleyltaurine and oleylglycine, were not hydrolyzed. Fecal bacterial

  11. Stabilization of an α/β-hydrolase by introducing proline residues: salicylic binding protein 2 from tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Jones, Bryan J.; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2015-01-01

    α/β-Hydrolases are important enzymes for biocatalysis, but their stability often limits their application. As a model α/β-hydrolase, we investigated a plant esterase, salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 shows typical stability to urea (unfolding free energy 6.9±1.5 kcal/mol) and to heat inactivation (T1/215 min 49.2±0.5 °C). Denaturation in urea occurs in two steps, but heat inactivation occurs in a single step. The first unfolding step in urea eliminates catalytic activity. Surprisingly, we found that the first unfolding likely corresponds to the unfolding of the larger catalytic domain. Replacing selected amino acid residues with proline stabilized SABP2. Proline restricts the flexibility of the unfolded protein, thereby shifting the equilibrium toward the folded conformation. Seven locations for proline substitution were chosen either by amino acid sequence alignment with a more stable homolog or by targeting flexible regions in SABP2. Introducing proline in the catalytic domain stabilized SABP2 to the first unfolding in urea for three of five cases: L46P (+0.2 M urea), S70P (+0.1) and E215P (+0.9). Introducing proline in the cap domain did not (two of two cases), supporting the assignment that the first unfolding corresponds to the catalytic domain. Proline substitutions in both domains stabilized SABP2 to heat inactivation: L46P (ΔT1/215 min = +6.4 °C), S70P (+5.4), S115P (+1.8), S141P (+4.9), and E215P (+4.2). Combining substitutions did not further increase the stability to urea denaturation, but dramatically increased resistance to heat inactivation: L46P-S70P ΔT1/215 min = +25.7 °C. This straightforward proline substitution approach may also stabilize other α/β-hydrolases. PMID:26110207

  12. Crystal Structure of Homoserine Transacetylase from Haemophilus Influenzae Reveals a New Family of alpha/beta-Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza,I.; Nazi, I.; Korczynska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Homoserine transacetylase catalyzes one of the required steps in the biosynthesis of methionine in fungi and several bacteria. We have determined the crystal structure of homoserine transacetylase from Haemophilus influenzae to a resolution of 1.65 A. The structure identifies this enzyme to be a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase structural superfamily. The active site of the enzyme is located near the end of a deep tunnel formed by the juxtaposition of two domains and incorporates a catalytic triad involving Ser143, His337, and Asp304. A structural basis is given for the observed double displacement kinetic mechanism of homoserine transacetylase. Furthermore, the propertiesmore » of the tunnel provide a rationale for how homoserine transacetylase catalyzes a transferase reaction vs. hydrolysis, despite extensive similarity in active site architecture to hydrolytic enzymes.« less

  13. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-α nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB1-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for α-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-α) when and where they are naturally released in the brain. Using a passive-avoidance task in rats, we found that memory acquisition was enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or by the PPAR-α agonist WY14643, and these enhancements were blocked by the PPAR-α antagonist MK886. These findings demonstrate novel mechanisms for memory enhancement by activation of PPAR-α, either directly by administering a PPAR-α agonist or indirectly by administering a FAAH inhibitor. PMID:19403796

  14. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Helia Harumi

    Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296bp and G+C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty acid amide hydrolase-morphine interaction influences ventilatory response to hypercapnia and postoperative opioid outcomes in children.

    PubMed

    Chidambaran, Vidya; Pilipenko, Valentina; Spruance, Kristie; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Niu, Jing; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Zhang, Kejian; Kaufman, Kenneth; Vinks, Alexander A; Martin, Lisa J; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. We hypothesized that FAAH variants will predict risk of morphine-related adverse outcomes due to opioid-endocannabinoid interactions. In 101 postsurgical adolescents receiving morphine analgesia, we prospectively studied ventilatory response to 5% CO 2 (HCVR), respiratory depression (RD) and vomiting. Blood was collected for genotyping and morphine pharmacokinetics. We found significant FAAH-morphine interaction for missense (rs324420) and several regulatory variants, with HCVR (p < 0.0001) and vomiting (p = 0.0339). HCVR was more depressed in patients who developed RD compared with those who did not (p = 0.0034), thus FAAH-HCVR association predicts risk of impending RD from morphine use. FAAH genotypes predict risk for morphine-related adverse outcomes.

  16. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of 6-­aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase from Arthrobacter sp. KI72

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Taku; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Shibata, Naoki; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the structure–function relationship between 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase (EII) from Arthrobacter sp. and a cryptic protein (EII′) which shows 88% sequence identity to EII, a hybrid protein (named Hyb-24) of EII and EII′ was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in MES buffer pH 6.5. The crystal belongs to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.37, c = 113.09 Å. Diffraction data were collected from native and methylmercuric chloride derivative crystals to resolutions of 1.75 and 1.80 Å, respectively. PMID:16511198

  17. Pain and beyond: fatty acid amides and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pillarisetti, Sivaram; Alexander, Christopher W; Khanna, Ish

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for the hydrolysis of several important endogenous fatty acid amides (FAAs), including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Because specific FAAs interact with cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, they are often referred to as 'endocannabinoids' or 'endovanilloids'. Initial interest in this area, therefore, has focused on developing FAAH inhibitors to augment the actions of FAAs and reduce pain. However, recent literature has shown that these FAAs - through interactions with unique receptors (extracellular and intracellular) - can induce a diverse array of effects that include appetite suppression, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, vasodilation, cardiac function and inflammation. This review gives an overview of FAAs and diverse FAAH inhibitors and their potential therapeutic utility in pain and non-pain indications.

  18. Exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: The enzyme responsible for degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Dale L.; Sato, Haruhiko; Lerner, Aaron E.; Hedrick, Michael P.; Fecik, Robert A.; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Wilkie, Gordon D.; Austin, Bryce J.; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2000-01-01

    The development of exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of oleamide (an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid), and anandamide (an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors) is detailed. The inhibitors may serve as useful tools to clarify the role of endogenous oleamide and anandamide and may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of sleep disorders or pain. The combination of several features—an optimal C12–C8 chain length, π-unsaturation introduction at the corresponding arachidonoyl Δ8,9/Δ11,12 and oleoyl Δ9,10 location, and an α-keto N4 oxazolopyridine with incorporation of a second weakly basic nitrogen provided FAAH inhibitors with Kis that drop below 200 pM and are 102–103 times more potent than the corresponding trifluoromethyl ketones. PMID:10805767

  19. Crystal structure of Anoxybacillus α-amylase provides insights into maltose binding of a new glycosyl hydrolase subclass

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Kian Piaw; Othman, Noor Farhan Binti; Teh, Aik-Hong; Ho, Kok Lian; Chan, Kok-Gan; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Goh, Kian Mau; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2016-01-01

    A new subfamily of glycosyl hydrolase family GH13 was recently proposed for α-amylases from Anoxybacillus species (ASKA and ADTA), Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTA, Pizzo, and GtamyII), Bacillus aquimaris (BaqA), and 95 other putative protein homologues. To understand this new GH13 subfamily, we report crystal structures of truncated ASKA (TASKA). ASKA is a thermostable enzyme capable of producing high levels of maltose. Unlike GTA, biochemical analysis showed that Ca2+ ion supplementation enhances the catalytic activities of ASKA and TASKA. The crystal structures reveal the presence of four Ca2+ ion binding sites, with three of these binding sites are highly conserved among Anoxybacillus α-amylases. This work provides structural insights into this new GH13 subfamily both in the apo form and in complex with maltose. Furthermore, structural comparison of TASKA and GTA provides an overview of the conformational changes accompanying maltose binding at each subsite. PMID:26975884

  20. Crystal structure of Anoxybacillus α-amylase provides insights into maltose binding of a new glycosyl hydrolase subclass.

    PubMed

    Chai, Kian Piaw; Othman, Noor Farhan Binti; Teh, Aik-Hong; Ho, Kok Lian; Chan, Kok-Gan; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Goh, Kian Mau; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2016-03-15

    A new subfamily of glycosyl hydrolase family GH13 was recently proposed for α-amylases from Anoxybacillus species (ASKA and ADTA), Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTA, Pizzo, and GtamyII), Bacillus aquimaris (BaqA), and 95 other putative protein homologues. To understand this new GH13 subfamily, we report crystal structures of truncated ASKA (TASKA). ASKA is a thermostable enzyme capable of producing high levels of maltose. Unlike GTA, biochemical analysis showed that Ca(2+) ion supplementation enhances the catalytic activities of ASKA and TASKA. The crystal structures reveal the presence of four Ca(2+) ion binding sites, with three of these binding sites are highly conserved among Anoxybacillus α-amylases. This work provides structural insights into this new GH13 subfamily both in the apo form and in complex with maltose. Furthermore, structural comparison of TASKA and GTA provides an overview of the conformational changes accompanying maltose binding at each subsite.

  1. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases--a XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-12

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  2. Two sides of the same coin: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases in host infection by the parasitic plant Cuscuta

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Stian; Popper, Zoë A.; Krause, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta develops haustoria that enable it to feed on other plants. Recent findings corroborate the long-standing theory that cell wall modifications are required in order for the parasite to successfully infect a host, and further suggest that changes to xyloglucan through the activity of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are essential. On the other hand, XTH expression was also detected in resistant tomato upon an attack by Cuscuta, which suggests that both host and parasite use these enzymes in their “arms race.” Here, we summarize existing data on the cell wall-modifying activities of XTHs during parasitization and present a model suggesting how XTHs might function to make the host's resources accessible to Cuscuta. PMID:26852915

  3. Two sides of the same coin: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases in host infection by the parasitic plant Cuscuta.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Stian; Popper, Zoë A; Krause, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta develops haustoria that enable it to feed on other plants. Recent findings corroborate the long-standing theory that cell wall modifications are required in order for the parasite to successfully infect a host, and further suggest that changes to xyloglucan through the activity of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are essential. On the other hand, XTH expression was also detected in resistant tomato upon an attack by Cuscuta, which suggests that both host and parasite use these enzymes in their "arms race." Here, we summarize existing data on the cell wall-modifying activities of XTHs during parasitization and present a model suggesting how XTHs might function to make the host's resources accessible to Cuscuta.

  4. Discovery of potent inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase by combinatorial library design and structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; McDonald, Joseph J; Kolodziej, Steve A; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Williams, Jennifer M; Warren, Chad J; O'Neal, Janet M; Skepner, Jill E; Roberds, Steven L

    2011-03-10

    Structure-based virtual screening was applied to design combinatorial libraries to discover novel and potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. X-ray crystal structures revealed unique interactions for a benzoxazole template in addition to the conserved hydrogen bonds with the catalytic machinery of sEH. By exploitation of the favorable binding elements, two iterations of library design based on amide coupling were employed, guided principally by the docking results of the enumerated virtual products. Biological screening of the libraries demonstrated as high as 90% hit rate, of which over two dozen compounds were single digit nanomolar sEH inhibitors by IC(50) determination. In total the library design and synthesis produced more than 300 submicromolar sEH inhibitors. In cellular systems consistent activities were demonstrated with biochemical measurements. The SAR understanding of the benzoxazole template provides valuable insights into discovery of novel sEH inhibitors as therapeutic agents.

  5. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein‐S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khare, P.; Jaiswal, A. K.; Tripathi, C. D. P.; Sundar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania‐infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up‐regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)‐γ, interleukin (IL)−12 and down‐regulated IL‐10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed‐type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1‐type cytokines, IFN‐γ and IL‐12 and down‐regulation of IL‐4, IL‐10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. PMID:26898994

  6. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khare, P; Jaiswal, A K; Tripathi, C D P; Sundar, S; Dube, A

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania-infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up-regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12 and down-regulated IL-10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed-type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1-type cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12 and down-regulation of IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Actin polymerization drives septation of Listeria monocytogenes namA hydrolase mutants, demonstrating host correction of a bacterial defect.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Francis; McMullen, P David; Freitag, Nancy E

    2011-04-01

    The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall presents a structural barrier that requires modification for protein secretion and large-molecule transport as well as for bacterial growth and cell division. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes adjusts cell wall architecture to promote its survival in diverse environments that include soil and the cytosol of mammalian cells. Here we provide evidence for the enzymatic flexibility of the murein hydrolase NamA and demonstrate that bacterial septation defects associated with a loss of NamA are functionally complemented by physical forces associated with actin polymerization within the host cell cytosol. L. monocytogenes ΔnamA mutants formed long bacterial chains during exponential growth in broth culture; however, normal septation could be restored if mutant cells were cocultured with wild-type L. monocytogenes bacteria or by the addition of exogenous NamA. Surprisingly, ΔnamA mutants were not significantly attenuated for virulence in mice despite the pronounced exponential growth septation defect. The physical force of L. monocytogenes-mediated actin polymerization within the cytosol was sufficient to sever ΔnamA mutant intracellular chains and thereby enable the process of bacterial cell-to-cell spread so critical for L. monocytogenes virulence. The inhibition of actin polymerization by cytochalasin D resulted in extended intracellular bacterial chains for which septation was restored following drug removal. Thus, despite the requirement for NamA for the normal septation of exponentially growing L. monocytogenes cells, the hydrolase is essentially dispensable once L. monocytogenes gains access to the host cell cytosol. This phenomenon represents a notable example of eukaryotic host cell complementation of a bacterial defect.

  8. Gene Encoding the Hydrolase for the Product of the meta-Cleavage Reaction in Testosterone Degradation by Comamonas testosteroni

    PubMed Central

    Horinouchi, Masae; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Takako; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-01-01

    In a previous study we isolated the meta-cleavage enzyme gene, tesB, that encodes an enzyme that carries out a meta-cleavage reaction in the breakdown of testosterone by Comamonas testeroni TA441 (M. Horinouchi et al., Microbiology 147:3367-3375, 2001). Here we report the isolation of a gene, tesD, that encodes a hydrolase which acts on the product of the meta-cleavage reaction. We isolated tesD by using a Tn5 mutant of TA441 that showed limited growth on testosterone. TesD exhibited ca. 40% identity in amino acid sequence with BphDs, known hydrolases of biphenyl degradation in Pseudomonas spp. The TesD-disrupted mutant showed limited growth on testosterone, and the culture shows an intense yellow color. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the culture of TesD-disrupted mutant incubated with testosterone detected five major intermediate compounds, one of which, showing yellow color under neutral conditions, was considered to be the product of the meta-cleavage reaction. The methylation product was analyzed and identified as methyl-4,5-9,10-diseco-3-methoxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oate, indicating that the substrate of TesD in testosterone degradation is 4,5-9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid. 4,5-9,10-Diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid was transformed by Escherichia coli-expressed TesD. Downstream of tesD, we identified tesE, F, and G, which encode for enzymes that degrade one of the products of 4,5-9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oic acid converted by TesD. PMID:12676694

  9. Chlorophyll Degradation: The Tocopherol Biosynthesis-Related Phytol Hydrolase in Arabidopsis Seeds Is Still Missing1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Tianqi; Ren, Guodong; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Zhou, Yongming; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhang, Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    Phytyl diphosphate (PDP) is the prenyl precursor for tocopherol biosynthesis. Based on recent genetic evidence, PDP is supplied to the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway primarily by chlorophyll degradation and sequential phytol phosphorylation. Three enzymes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are known to be capable of removing the phytol chain from chlorophyll in vitro: chlorophyllase1 (CLH1), CLH2, and pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (PPH), which specifically hydrolyzes pheophytin. While PPH, but not chlorophyllases, is required for in vivo chlorophyll breakdown during Arabidopsis leaf senescence, little is known about the involvement of these phytol-releasing enzymes in tocopherol biosynthesis. To explore the origin of PDP for tocopherol synthesis, seed tocopherol concentrations were determined in Arabidopsis lines engineered for seed-specific overexpression of PPH and in single and multiple mutants in the three genes encoding known dephytylating enzymes. Except for modestly increasing tocopherol content observed in the PPH overexpressor, none of the remaining lines exhibited significantly reduced tocopherol concentrations, suggesting that the known chlorophyll-derived phytol-releasing enzymes do not play major roles in tocopherol biosynthesis. Tocopherol content of seeds from double mutants in NONYELLOWING1 (NYE1) and NYE2, regulators of chlorophyll degradation, had modest reduction compared with wild-type seeds, although mature seeds of the double mutant retained significantly higher chlorophyll levels. These findings suggest that NYEs may play limited roles in regulating an unknown tocopherol biosynthesis-related phytol hydrolase. Meanwhile, seeds of wild-type over-expressing NYE1 had lower tocopherol levels, suggesting that phytol derived from NYE1-dependent chlorophyll degradation probably doesn’t enter tocopherol biosynthesis. Potential routes of chlorophyll degradation are discussed in relation to tocopherol biosynthesis. PMID:25059706

  10. Structural Analysis of a Family 101 Glycoside Hydrolase in Complex with Carbohydrates Reveals Insights into Its Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Katie J; Suits, Michael D L; Deng, Lehua; Vocadlo, David J; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2015-10-16

    O-Linked glycosylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications of proteins. Within the secretory pathway of higher eukaryotes, the core of these glycans is frequently an N-acetylgalactosamine residue that is α-linked to serine or threonine residues. Glycoside hydrolases in family 101 are presently the only known enzymes to be able to hydrolyze this glycosidic linkage. Here we determine the high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain comprising a fragment of GH101 from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, SpGH101, in the absence of carbohydrate, and in complex with reaction products, inhibitor, and substrate analogues. Upon substrate binding, a tryptophan lid (residues 724-WNW-726) closes on the substrate. The closing of this lid fully engages the substrate in the active site with Asp-764 positioned directly beneath C1 of the sugar residue bound within the -1 subsite, consistent with its proposed role as the catalytic nucleophile. In all of the bound forms of the enzyme, however, the proposed catalytic acid/base residue was found to be too distant from the glycosidic oxygen (>4.3 Å) to serve directly as a general catalytic acid/base residue and thereby facilitate cleavage of the glycosidic bond. These same complexes, however, revealed a structurally conserved water molecule positioned between the catalytic acid/base and the glycosidic oxygen. On the basis of these structural observations we propose a new variation of the retaining glycoside hydrolase mechanism wherein the intervening water molecule enables a Grotthuss proton shuttle between Glu-796 and the glycosidic oxygen, permitting this residue to serve as the general acid/base catalytic residue. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A beta-l-Arabinopyranosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis is a novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 27.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Hitomi; Fujimoto, Zui; Honda, Mariko; Harazono, Koichi; Nishimoto, Yukifumi; Uzura, Atsuko; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-09-11

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of plant cell surface proteoglycans and are considered to be involved in plant growth and development. Because AGPs are very complex molecules, glycoside hydrolases capable of degrading AGPs are powerful tools for analyses of the AGPs. We previously reported such enzymes from Streptomyces avermitilis. Recently, a beta-l-arabinopyranosidase was purified from the culture supernatant of the bacterium, and its corresponding gene was identified. The primary structure of the protein revealed that the catalytic module was highly similar to that of glycoside hydrolase family 27 (GH27) alpha-d-galactosidases. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed as a secreted 64-kDa protein using a Streptomyces expression system. The specific activity toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-l-arabinopyranoside was 18 micromol of arabinose/min/mg, which was 67 times higher than that toward p- nitrophenyl-alpha-d-galactopyranoside. The enzyme could remove 0.1 and 45% l-arabinose from gum arabic or larch arabinogalactan, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the protein had a GH27 catalytic domain, an antiparallel beta-domain containing Greek key motifs, another antiparallel beta-domain forming a jellyroll structure, and a carbohydrate-binding module family 13 domain. Comparison of the structure of this protein with that of alpha-d-galactosidase showed a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid to glutamic acid) in the catalytic pocket of beta-l-arabinopyranosidase, and a space for the hydroxymethyl group on the C-5 carbon of d-galactose bound to alpha-galactosidase was changed in beta-l-arabinopyranosidase. Mutagenesis study revealed that the residue is critical for modulating the enzyme activity. This is the first report in which beta-l-arabinopyranosidase is classified as a new member of the GH27 family.

  12. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  13. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  14. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  15. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  16. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  17. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  18. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  19. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  20. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  1. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  2. 12 CFR 261a.4 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge where...

  3. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  4. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  5. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  6. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  7. The effects of metyrapone, chalcone epoxide, benzil, clotrimazole and related compounds on the activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in situ, in purified form and in reconstituted systems towards different substrates.

    PubMed

    Seidegård, J; DePierre, J W; Guenthner, T M; Oesch, F

    1986-09-01

    The influence of metyrapone, chalcone epoxide, benzil and clotrimazole on the activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase towards styrene oxide, benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide, estroxide and androstene oxide was investigated. The studies were performed using liver microsomes from rats, rabbits, mice and humans; epoxide hydrolase purified from rat liver microsomes to apparent homogeneity; and the purified enzyme incorporated into liposomes composed of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine or total rat liver microsomal lipids. All four effectors were found to activate the hydrolysis of styrene oxide by epoxide hydrolase in situ in rat liver microsomal membranes, in agreement with earlier findings. Epoxide hydrolase activity towards styrene oxide in liver microsomes from mouse, rabbit and man was also increased by all four effectors. The most striking effect was a 680% activation by clotrimazole in rat liver microsomes. However, none of the effectors activated microsomal epoxide hydrolase more than 50% when benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide, estroxide or androstene oxide was used as substrate. Indeed, clotrimazole was found to inhibit microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity towards estroxide 30-50% and towards androstene oxide 60-90%. The effects of these four compounds were found to be virtually identical in the preparations from rats, rabbits, mice and humans. The effects of metyrapone, chalcone epoxide, benzil and clotrimazole on purified epoxide hydrolase were qualitatively the same as those on epoxide hydrolase in intact microsomes, but much smaller in magnitude. These effects were increased in magnitude only slightly by incorporation of the purified enzyme into liposomes made from egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine. However, when incorporation into liposomes composed of total microsomal lipids was performed, the effects seen were essentially of the same magnitude as with intact microsomes. When the extent of activation was plotted against effector concentration, three different patterns were

  8. Mechanism-based inhibition of HsaD: a C-C bond hydrolase essential for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ali; Keany, Sebastian; Eleftheriadou, Olga; Ballet, Romain; Cheng, Hung-Yuan; Sim, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death by a bacterial pathogen worldwide. Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms means prioritizing identification of targets for antituberculars. 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate hydrolase (HsaD), part of the cholesterol metabolism operon, is vital for survival within macrophage. The C-C bond hydrolase, HsaD, has a serine protease-like catalytic triad. We tested a range of serine protease and esterase inhibitors for their effects on HsaD activity. As well as providing a potential starting point for drug development, the data provides evidence for the mechanism of C-C bond hydrolysis. This screen also provides a route to initiate development of fragment-based inhibitors. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-1 - Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(4). 1.401(a)(4)-1 Section 1.401(a)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(a)(4)-1 Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4). (a) In general. Section 401(a)(4...). (b) Requirements a plan must satisfy—(1) In general. In order to satisfy section 401(a)(4), a plan...

  10. Insights into the mechanism and inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling.

    PubMed

    Lodola, Alessio; Mor, Marco; Sirirak, Jitnapa; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2009-04-01

    FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is a promising target for the treatment of several central nervous system and peripheral disorders. Combined QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) calculations have elucidated the role of its unusual catalytic triad in the hydrolysis of oleamide and oleoylmethyl ester substrates, and have identified the productive inhibitor-binding orientation for the carbamoylating compound URB524. These are potentially crucial insights for designing new covalent inhibitors of this drug target.

  11. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Donovan, David M; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between HydH5 and lysostaphin has been assessed. The lytic activity of the five proteins (HydH5, HydH5Lyso, HydH5SH3b, CHAPSH3b and lysostaphin) was confirmed using commercial whole extended shelf-life milk (ESL) in challenge assays with 10(4) CFU/mL of the strain S. aureus Sa9. HydH5, HydH5Lyso and HydH5SH3b (3.5 µM) kept the staphylococcal viable counts below the control cultures for 6 h at 37°C. The effect is apparent just 15 minutes after the addition of the lytic enzyme. Of note, lysostaphin and CHAPSH3b showed the highest staphylolytic protection as they were able to eradicate the initial staphylococcal challenge immediately or 15 min after addition, respectively, at lower concentration (1 µM) at 37°C. CHAPSH3b showed the same antistaphyloccal effect at room temperature (1.65 µM). No re-growth was observed for the remainder of the experiment (up to 6 h). CHAPSH3b activity (1.65 µM) was also assayed in raw (whole and skim) and pasteurized (whole and skim) milk. Pasteurization of milk clearly enhanced CHAPSH3b staphylolytic activity in both whole and skim milk at both temperatures. This effect was most dramatic at room temperature as this protein was able to reduce S. aureus viable counts to undetectable levels immediately after addition with no re-growth detected for the duration of the experiment (360 min). Furthermore, CHAPSH3b protein is known to be heat tolerant and retained some lytic activity after pasteurization treatment and after storage at 4°C for 3 days. These results might facilitate the use of the peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusions, particularly CHAPSH3b, as biocontrol

  12. Omeprazole increases the efficacy of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a PGE{sub 2} induced pain model

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inceoglu, Bora; Yang, Jun

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent endogenous analgesic metabolites produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450s (P450s). Metabolism of EETs by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduces their activity, while their stabilization by sEH inhibition decreases both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that increasing the level of EETs through induction of P450s by omeprazole (OME), can influence pain related signaling by itself, and potentiate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of sEH inhibitor. Rats were treated with OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days), sEH inhibitor TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) + TPPU (3 mg/kg/day,more » p.o., last 3 days of OME dose) dissolved in vehicle PEG400, and their effect on hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) induced by PGE{sub 2} was monitored. While OME treatment by itself exhibited variable effects on PGE{sub 2} induced hyperalgesia, it strongly potentiated the effect of TPPU in the same assay. The significant decrease in pain with OME + TPPU treatment correlated with the increased levels of EETs in plasma and increased activities of P450 1A1 and P450 1A2 in liver microsomes. The results show that reducing catabolism of EETs with a sEH inhibitor yielded a stronger analgesic effect than increasing generation of EETs by OME, and combination of both yielded the strongest pain reducing effect under the condition of this study. - Highlights: • The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor TPPU is anti-hyperalgesic. • Omeprazole potentiates the anti-hyperalgesic actions of TPPU. • This potentiation is associated with increased P450 activity. • The potentiation is associated with an increase in fatty acid epoxide/diol ratio. • Joint use of sEH inhibitors and P450 inducers could result in drug–drug interactions.« less

  13. The Vital Function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for Hydrolase Biosensor Design and Its Application in Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH–NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned bymore » OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P–S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.« less

  14. Pth1/Vam3p is the syntaxin homolog at the vacuolar membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for the delivery of vacuolar hydrolases.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A; Jones, E W

    1998-01-01

    The PEP12 homolog Pth1p (Pep twelve homolog 1) is predicted to be similar in size to Pep12p, the endosomal syntaxin homolog that mediates docking of Golgi-derived transport vesicles and, like other members of the syntaxin family, is predicted to be a cytoplasmically oriented, integral membrane protein with a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Kinetic analyses indicate that deltapth1/vam3 mutants fail to process the soluble vacuolar hydrolase precursors and that PrA, PrB and most of CpY accumulate within the cell in their Golgi-modified P2 precursor forms. This is in contrast to a pep12 mutant in which P2CpY is secreted from the cell. Furthermore, pep12 is epistatic to pth1/vam3 with respect to the CpY secretion phenotype. Alkaline phosphatase, a vacuolar membrane hydrolase, accumulates in its precursor form in the deltapth1/vam3 mutant. Maturation of pro-aminopeptidase I, a hydrolase precursor delivered directly to the vacuole from the cytoplasm, is also blocked in the deltapth1/vam3 mutant. Subcellular fractionation localizes Pth1/Vam3p to vacuolar membranes. Based on these data, we propose that Pth1/Vam3p is the vacuolar syntaxin/t-SNARE homolog that participates in docking of transport vesicles at the vacuolar membrane and that the function of Pth1/Vam3p impinges on at least three routes of protein delivery to the yeast vacuole. PMID:9475723

  15. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  17. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  18. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  19. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  20. Comparative Bioinformatic Analysis of Active Site Structures in Evolutionarily Remote Homologues of α,β-Hydrolase Superfamily Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, D A; Arzhanik, V K; Svedas, V K

    2011-01-01

    Comparative bioinformatic analysis is the cornerstone of the study of enzymes' structure-function relationship. However, numerous enzymes that derive from a common ancestor and have undergone substantial functional alterations during natural selection appear not to have a sequence similarity acceptable for a statistically reliable comparative analysis. At the same time, their active site structures, in general, can be conserved, while other parts may largely differ. Therefore, it sounds both plausible and appealing to implement a comparative analysis of the most functionally important structural elements - the active site structures; that is, the amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. A computer algorithm has been developed to create a library of enzyme active site structures based on the use of the PDB database, together with programs of structural analysis and identification of functionally important amino acid residues and cavities in the enzyme structure. The proposed methodology has been used to compare some α,β-hydrolase superfamily enzymes. The insight has revealed a high structural similarity of catalytic site areas, including the conservative organization of a catalytic triad and oxyanion hole residues, despite the wide functional diversity among the remote homologues compared. The methodology can be used to compare the structural organization of the catalytic and substrate binding sites of various classes of enzymes, as well as study enzymes' evolution and to create of a databank of enzyme active site structures.

  1. Identification of N-ethylmethylamine as a novel scaffold for inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase by crystallographic fragment screening.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasushi; Tanabe, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2015-05-15

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential target for the treatment of inflammation and hypertension. X-ray crystallographic fragment screening was used to identify fragment hits and their binding modes. Eight fragment hits were identified via soaking of sEH crystals with fragment cocktails, and the co-crystal structures of these hits were determined via individual soaking. Based on the binding mode, N-ethylmethylamine was identified as a promising scaffold that forms hydrogen bonds with the catalytic residues of sEH, Asp335, Tyr383, and Tyr466. Compounds containing this scaffold were selected from an in-house chemical library and assayed. Although the starting fragment had a weak inhibitory activity (IC50: 800μM), we identified potent inhibitors including 2-({[2-(adamantan-1-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)phenol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity (IC50: 0.51μM). This corresponded to a more than 1500-fold increase in inhibitory activity compared to the starting fragment. Co-crystal structures of the hit compounds demonstrate that the binding of N-ethylmethylamine to catalytic residues is similar to that of the starting fragment. We therefore consider crystallographic fragment screening to be appropriate for the identification of weak but promising fragment hits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Gacura, Matthew D; Sprockett, Daniel D; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    Fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this study we developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from 40 fungal genomes. The primers were used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communities were up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystem type were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and Functional Analyses of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme with an Unexpected [beta]-Fucosidase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Park, David S.; Bae, Brian

    2012-02-15

    We present characterization of PbFucA, a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5) from Prevotella bryantii B{sub 1}4. While GH5 members typically are xylanases, PbFucA shows no activity toward xylan polysaccharides. A screen against a panel of p-nitrophenol coupled sugars identifies PbFucA as a {beta}-D-fucosidase. We also present the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution structure of PbFucA and use structure-based mutational analysis to confirm the role of catalytically essential residues. A comparison of the active sites of PbFucA with those of family 5 and 51 glycosidases reveals that while the essential catalytic framework is identical between these enzymes, the steric contours of the respectivemore » active site clefts are distinct and likely account for substrate discrimination. Our results show that members of this cluster of orthologous group (COG) 5520 have {beta}-D-fucosidase activities, despite showing an overall sequence and structural similarity to GH-5 xylanases.« less

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 16 β-Agarase from a Mangrove Soil Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Zhimao; Su, Hongfei; Zhang, Si

    2016-01-01

    A mangrove soil metagenomic library was constructed and a β-agarase gene designated as AgaML was isolated by functional screening. The gene encoded for a 659-amino-acids polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 71.6 kDa. The deduced polypeptide sequences of AgaML showed the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase family 16 β-agarase from Microbulbifer agarilyticus in the GenBank database. AgaML was cloned and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified recombinant protein, AgaML, showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax values toward agarose were 4.6 mg·mL−1 and 967.5 μM·min−1·mg−1, respectively. AgaML hydrolyzed the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agar to generate neoagarotetraose (NA4) and neoagarohexaose (NA6) as the main products. These characteristics suggest that AgaML has potential application in cosmetic, pharmaceuticals and food industries. PMID:27548158

  5. Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolases from Cellulose-Depleting Communities Enriched from Casts of Two Earthworm Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Beloqui, Ana; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; López-Cortés, Nieves; Ghazi, Azam; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Polaina, Julio; Strittmatter, Axel W.; Reva, Oleg; Waliczek, Agnes; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    The guts and casts of earthworms contain microbial assemblages that process large amounts of organic polymeric substrates from plant litter and soil; however, the enzymatic potential of these microbial communities remains largely unexplored. In the present work, we retrieved carbohydrate-modifying enzymes through the activity screening of metagenomic fosmid libraries from cellulose-depleting microbial communities established with the fresh casts of two earthworm species, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris, as inocula. Eight glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) from the A. caliginosa-derived community were multidomain endo-β-glucanases, β-glucosidases, β-cellobiohydrolases, β-galactosidase, and β-xylosidases of known GH families. In contrast, two GHs derived from the L. terrestris microbiome had no similarity to any known GHs and represented two novel families of β-galactosidases/α-arabinopyranosidases. Members of these families were annotated in public databases as conserved hypothetical proteins, with one being structurally related to isomerases/dehydratases. This study provides insight into their biochemistry, domain structures, and active-site architecture. The two communities were similar in bacterial composition but significantly different with regard to their eukaryotic inhabitants. Further sequence analysis of fosmids and plasmids bearing the GH-encoding genes, along with oligonucleotide usage pattern analysis, suggested that those apparently originated from Gammaproteobacteria (pseudomonads and Cellvibrio-like organisms), Betaproteobacteria (Comamonadaceae), and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhizobiales). PMID:20622123

  6. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; ...

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  7. Enhancement of epoxide hydrolase production by 60 Co gamma and UV irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huo-Xi; OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Hu, Zhong-Ce

    2017-05-01

    An effective epoxide hydrolase (EH) production strain was mutagenized using 60 Co gamma and UV irradiation. Among positive mutant strains, the EH activity of C2-44 reached 33.7 U/g, which was 267% as much as that of the original Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103. Compared with the wild type, there were significant changes in morphology for C2-44, including the color of mycelia on the slants and the shape of conidial head. In addition, glucose and soybean cake were the optimal carbon and nitrogen source in terms of EH activity for the mutant C2-44 instead of soluble starch and peptone for the wild-type strain. The reaction time required to reach 99% enantiomeric excesses of (S)-epichlorohydrin from racemic substrate was shortened significantly by the mutant C2-44. This phenomenon was probably explained by the higher V max for hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin by C2-44 compared with Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Attia, Mohamed A.; Rogowski, Artur

    Here, lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1!3)/β(1!4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1!3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activitymore » profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1!3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1!3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species.« less

  9. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Attia, Mohamed A.; Rogowski, Artur; ...

    2017-10-20

    Here, lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1!3)/β(1!4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1!3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activitymore » profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1!3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1!3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species.« less

  10. Dysfunction in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Is Associated with Depressive-Like Behavior in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K. Yaragudri; Xie, Shan; Psychoyos, Delphine; Hungund, Basalingappa L.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.

    2012-01-01

    Background While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. Methodology/Principal Findings The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD). Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA) were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder. PMID:22606285

  11. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K Yaragudri; Xie, Shan; Psychoyos, Delphine; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Cooper, Thomas B; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M

    2012-01-01

    While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD). Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA) were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  12. Unraveling the stereochemical and dynamic aspects of the catalytic site of bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Kabra, Ashish; Shahid, Salman; Pal, Ravi Kant; Yadav, Rahul; Pulavarti, S.V.S. Rama Krishna; Jain, Anupam; Tripathi, Sarita; Arora, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth; EC 3.1.1.29) hydrolyzes the peptidyl-tRNAs accumulated in the cytoplasm and thereby prevents cell death by alleviating tRNA starvation. X-ray and NMR studies of Vibrio cholerae Pth (VcPth) and mutants of its key residues involved in catalysis show that the activity and selectivity of the protein depends on the stereochemistry and dynamics of residues H24, D97, N118, and N14. D97-H24 interaction is critical for activity because it increases the nucleophilicity of H24. The N118 and N14 have orthogonally competing interactions with H24, both of which reduce the nucleophilicity of H24 and are likely to be offset by positioning of a peptidyl-tRNA substrate. The region proximal to H24 and the lid region exhibit slow motions that may assist in accommodating the substrate. Helix α3 exhibits a slow wobble with intermediate time scale motions of its N-cap residue N118, which may work as a flypaper to position the scissile ester bond of the substrate. Overall, the dynamics of interactions between the side chains of N14, H24, D97, and N118, control the catalysis of substrate by this enzyme. PMID:28096445

  13. Cloning, Production and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 Enzyme from the Gut Microbiota of the Termite Coptotermes curvignathus.

    PubMed

    Woon, James Sy-Keen; King, Patricia Jie Hung; Mackeen, Mukram Mohamed; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Wan Seman, Wan Mohd Khairulikhsan; Broughton, William J; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba

    2017-07-01

    Coptotermes curvignathus is a termite that, owing to its ability to digest living trees, serves as a gold mine for robust industrial enzymes. This unique characteristic reflects the presence of very efficient hydrolytic enzyme systems including cellulases. Transcriptomic analyses of the gut of C. curvignathus revealed that carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) were encoded by 3254 transcripts and that included 69 transcripts encoding glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GHF7) enzymes. Since GHF7 enzymes are useful to the biomass conversion industry, a gene encoding for a GHF7 enzyme (Gh1254) was synthesized, sub-cloned and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Expressed GH1254 had an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa, but purification was hampered by its low expression levels in shaken flasks. To obtain more of the enzyme, GH1254 was produced in a bioreactor that resulted in a fourfold increase in crude enzyme levels. The purified enzyme was active towards soluble synthetic substrates such as 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside, 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside and 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-lactoside but was non-hydrolytic towards Avicel or carboxymethyl cellulose. GH1254 catalyzed optimally at 35 °C and maintained 70% of its activity at 25 °C. This enzyme is thus potentially useful in food industries employing low-temperature conditions.

  14. Anaerobic accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from algae enhanced by damaging cell structure and promoting hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Xutao; Duan, Xu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Yinguang

    2018-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) produced from harvested algae by anaerobic fermentation with uncontrolled pH was limited due to the solid cell structure of algae. This study, therefore, was undertaken to enhance the generation of SCFAs from algae by controlling the fermentation pH. pH influenced not only the total SCFAs production, but the percentage of individual SCFA. The maximal yield of SCFAs occurred at pH 10.0 and fermentation time of 6 d (3161 mg COD/L), which mainly contained acetic and iso-valeric acids and was nearly eight times that at uncontrolled pH (392 mg COD/L). Mechanism exploration revealed at alkaline pH, especially at pH 10.0, not only the cell structure of algae was damaged effectively, but also activities and relative quantification of hydrolases as well as the abundance of microorganisms responsible for organics hydrolysis and SCFAs production were improved. Also, the released microcystins from algae were removed efficiently during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physalin B inhibits Rhodnius prolixus hemocyte phagocytosis and microaggregation by the activation of endogenous PAF-acetyl hydrolase activities.

    PubMed

    Castro, D P; Figueiredo, M B; Genta, F A; Ribeiro, I M; Tomassini, T C B; Azambuja, P; Garcia, E S

    2009-06-01

    The effects of physalin B (a natural secosteroidal chemical from Physalis angulata, Solanaceae) on phagocytosis and microaggregation by hemocytes of 5th-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus were investigated. In this insect, hemocyte phagocytosis and microaggregation are known to be induced by the platelet-activating factor (PAF) or arachidonic acid (AA) and regulated by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and PAF-acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) activities. Phagocytic activity and formation of hemocyte microaggregates by Rhodnius hemocytes were strongly blocked by oral treatment of this insect with physalin B (1mug/mL of blood meal). The inhibition induced by physalin B was reversed for both phagocytosis and microaggregation by exogenous arachidonic acid (10microg/insect) or PAF (1microg/insect) applied by hemocelic injection. Following treatment with physalin B there were no significant alterations in PLA(2) activities, but a significant enhancement of PAF-AH was observed. These results show that physalin B inhibits hemocytic activity by depressing insect PAF analogous (iPAF) levels in hemolymph and confirm the role of PAF-AH in the cellular immune reactions in R. prolixus.

  16. [Blue-light induced expression of S-adenosy-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like gene in Mucor amphibiorum RCS1].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Shu; Fu, Mingjia; Zhong, Guolin

    2013-09-04

    To determine blue-light induced expression of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like (sahhl) gene in fungus Mucor amphibiorum RCS1. In the random process of PCR, a sequence of 555 bp was obtained from M. amphibiorum RCS1. The 555 bp sequence was labeled with digoxin to prepare the probe for northern hybridization. By northern hybridization, the transcription of sahhl gene was analyzed in M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia culture process from darkness to blue light to darkness. Simultaneously real-time PCR method was used to the sahhl gene expression analysis. Compared with the sequence of sahh gene from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and some fungi species, a high homology of the 555 bp sequence was confirmed. Therefore, the preliminary confirmation has supported that the 555 bp sequence should be sahhl gene from M. amphibiorum RCS1. Under the dark pre-culture in 24 h, a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene in the mycelia can be detected by northern hybridization and real-time PCR in the condition of 24 h blue light. But a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene were not found in other detection for the dark pre-culture of 48 h, even though M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia were induced by blue light. Blue light can induce the expression of sahhl gene in the vigorous growth of M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia.

  17. In Vivo Selection of Transplanted Hepatocytes by Pharmacological Inhibition of Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase in Wild-type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Nicole K; Wursthorn, Karsten; Haft, Annelise; Pelz, Carl; Clarke, Gregory; Newell, Amy H; Olson, Susan B; Harding, Cary O; Finegold, Milton J; Bateman, Raymond L; Witte, John F; McClard, Ronald; Grompe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Genetic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) deficiency is unique in that healthy gene-corrected hepatocytes have a strong growth advantage and can repopulate the diseased liver. Unfortunately, similar positive selection of gene-corrected cells is absent in most inborn errors of liver metabolism and it is difficult to reach the cell replacement index required for therapeutic benefit. Therefore, methods to transiently create a growth advantage for genetically modified hepatocytes in any genetic background would be advantageous. To mimic the selective pressure of Fah deficiency in normal animals, an efficient in vivo small molecule inhibitor of FAH, 4-[(2-carboxyethyl)-hydroxyphosphinyl]-3-oxobutyrate (CEHPOBA) was developed. Microarray analysis demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of FAH produced highly similar gene expression changes to genetic deficiency. As proof of principle, hepatocytes lacking homogentisic acid dioxygenase (Hgd) and hence resistant to FAH inhibition were transplanted into sex-mismatched wild-type recipients. Time course analyses of 4–6 weeks of CEHPOBA administration after transplantation showed a linear relationship between treatment length and replacement index. Compared to controls, recipients treated with the FAH-inhibitor had 20–100-fold increases in liver repopulation. We conclude that pharmacological inhibition of FAH is a promising approach to in vivo selection of hepatocytes. PMID:22871666

  18. Comparative Community Proteomics Demonstrates the Unexpected Importance of Actinobacterial Glycoside Hydrolase Family 12 Protein for Crystalline Cellulose Hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hiras, Jennifer; Wu, Yu -Wei; Deng, Kai; ...

    2016-08-23

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacterium Thermobispora bispora that were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulasesmore » from T. bispora, the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite of T. bispora hydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered.« less

  19. Comparative Community Proteomics Demonstrates the Unexpected Importance of Actinobacterial Glycoside Hydrolase Family 12 Protein for Crystalline Cellulose Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hiras, Jennifer; Wu, Yu -Wei; Deng, Kai

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacterium Thermobispora bispora that were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulasesmore » from T. bispora, the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite of T. bispora hydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered.« less

  20. Selective and slow-binding inhibition of shikonin derivatives isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon on glycosyl hydrolase 33 and 34 sialidases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Young Min; Park, Su-Jin; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun; Ryu, Young Bae; Lee, Woo Song

    2012-03-01

    Sialidases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sialic acid residues from various glycoconjugates, which are widely found in a number of viral and microbial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the biological evaluation of isolated six shikonins (1-6) and three shikonofurans (7-9) from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The nine isolated compounds 1-9 showed strong and selective inhibition of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 33 and -34 sialidases activities. In GH33 bacterial-sialidase inhibition assay, the inhibitory activities against GH33 siadliase of all shikonofuran derivatives (7-9) were greater than shikonin derivatives (1-6). Shikonofuran E (8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity toward GH33 sialidases (IC(50)=0.24μM). Moreover, our detailed kinetic analysis of these species unveiled that they are all competitive and simple reversible slow-binding inhibitors. Otherwise, they showed different inhibitory capacities and kinetic modes to GH34 viral-sialidase activity. All the naphthoquinone derivatives (1-6) were of almost equal efficiency with IC(50) value of 40μM and shikonofurans (7-9) did not show the significant inhibitory effect to GH34 sialidase. Kinetic analyses indicated that naphthoquinones acted via a noncompetitive mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  2. Conformational Change in the Active Site of Streptococcal Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolase Through Site-Directed Mutagenesis at Asp-115.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Yusuke; Oiki, Sayoko; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (UGL) degrades unsaturated disaccharides generated from mammalian extracellular matrices, glycosaminoglycans, by polysaccharide lyases. Two Asp residues, Asp-115 and Asp-175 of Streptococcus agalactiae UGL (SagUGL), are completely conserved in other bacterial UGLs, one of which (Asp-175 of SagUGL) acts as a general acid and base catalyst. The other Asp (Asp-115 of SagUGL) also affects the enzyme activity, although its role in the enzyme reaction has not been well understood. Here, we show substitution of Asp-115 in SagUGL with Asn caused a conformational change in the active site. Tertiary structures of SagUGL mutants D115N and D115N/K370S with negligible enzyme activity were determined at 2.00 and 1.79 Å resolution, respectively, by X-ray crystallography. The side chain of Asn-115 is drastically shifted in both mutants owing to the interaction with several residues, including Asp-175, by formation of hydrogen bonds. This interaction between Asn-115 and Asp-175 probably prevents the mutants from triggering the enzyme reaction using Asp-175 as an acid catalyst.

  3. Enhancing the Activity of Peptide-Based Artificial Hydrolase with Catalytic Ser/His/Asp Triad and Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengfan; Lv, Yuqi; Liu, Xiaojing; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-06-08

    In this study, an artificial hydrolase was developed by combining the catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad with N-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF), followed by coassembly of the peptides into nanofibers (CoA-HSD). The peptide-based nanofibers provide an ideal supramolecular framework to support the functional groups. Compared with the self-assembled catalytic nanofibers (SA-H), which contain only the catalytic histidine residue, the highest activity of CoA-HSD occurs when histidine, serine, and aspartate residues are at a ratio of 40:1:1. This indicates that the well-ordered nanofiber structure and the synergistic effects of serine and aspartate residues contribute to the enhancement in activity. Additionally, for the first time, molecular imprinting was applied to further enhance the activity of the peptide-based artificial enzyme (CoA-HSD). p-NPA was used as the molecular template to arrange the catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad residues in the proper orientation. As a result, the activity of imprinted coassembled CoA-HSD nanofibers is 7.86 times greater than that of nonimprinted CoA-HSD and 13.48 times that of SA-H.

  4. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Binding in Brain of Cannabis Users: Imaging with the Novel Radiotracer [11C]CURB

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Isabelle; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Williams, Belinda; Le Foll, Bernard; Rusjan, Pablo; Mizrahi, Romina; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Payer, Doris E.; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J.; Tong, Junchao

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the major mechanisms for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide is hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and inhibitors of the enzyme were suggested as potential treatment for human cannabis dependence. However, the status of brain FAAH in cannabis use disorder is unknown. Methods Brain FAAH binding was measured with positron emission tomography and [11C]CURB in 22 healthy control subjects and ten chronic, frequent cannabis users during early abstinence. The FAAH genetic polymorphism (rs324420) and blood, urine and hair levels of cannabinoids and metabolites were determined. Results In cannabis users FAAH binding was significantly lower by 14–20% across the brain regions examined as compared to matched control subjects (overall Cohen’s d=0.96). Lower binding was negatively correlated with cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine and was associated with higher trait impulsiveness. Conclusions Lower FAAH binding levels in the brain may be a consequence of chronic and recent cannabis exposure and could contribute to cannabis withdrawal. This effect should be considered in the development of novel treatment strategies for cannabis use disorder that target FAAH and endocannabinoids. Further studies are needed to examine possible changes in FAAH binding during prolonged cannabis abstinence and whether lower FAAH binding predates drug use. PMID:27345297

  5. The role of nonbonded interactions in the conformational dynamics of organophosphorous hydrolase adsorbed onto functionalized mesoporous silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diego E B; Lins, Roberto D; Pascutti, Pedro G; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A

    2010-01-14

    The enzyme organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide variety of organophosphorous compounds with high catalytic efficiency and broad substrate specificity. The immobilization of OPH in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) surfaces increases significantly its catalytic specific activity, as compared to the enzyme in solution, with important applications for the detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Experimental measurements of immobilization efficiency as a function of the charge and coverage percentage of different functional groups have been interpreted as electrostatic forces being the predominant interactions underlying the adsorption of OPH onto FMS surfaces. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for OPH in bulk solution and adsorbed onto two distinct interaction potential models of the FMS functional groups to investigate the relative contributions of nonbonded interactions to the conformational dynamics and adsorption of the protein. Our results support the conclusion that electrostatic interactions are responsible for the binding of OPH to the FMS surface. However, these results also show that van der Waals forces are detrimental for interfacial adhesion. In addition, it is found that OPH adsorption onto the FMS models favors a protein conformation whose active site is fully accessible to the substrate, in contrast to the unconfined protein.

  6. Isolation, Identification and Partial Characterization of a Lactobacillus casei Strain with Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity from Pulque.

    PubMed

    González-Vázquez, R; Azaola-Espinosa, A; Mayorga-Reyes, L; Reyes-Nava, L A; Shah, N P; Rivera-Espinoza, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, from pulque, Lactobacillus spp. capable of survival in simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions. Nine Gram-positive rods were isolated; however, only one strain (J57) shared identity with Lactobacillus and was registered as Lactobacillus casei J57 (GenBank accession: JN182264). The other strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The most significant observation during the test of tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions (acidity, gastric juice and bile salts) was that L. casei J57 showed a rapid decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the viable population at 0 h. Bile salts were the stress condition that most affected its survival, from which deoxycholic acid and the mix of bile salts (oxgall) were the most toxic. L. casei J57 showed bile salt hydrolase activity over primary and secondary bile salts as follows: 44.91, 671.72, 45.27 and 61.57 U/mg to glycocholate, taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, the control strain (L. casei Shirota) only showed activity over tauroconjugates. These results suggest that L. casei J57 shows potential for probiotic applications.

  7. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Huet, Joëlle, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resultingmore » from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.« less

  9. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ukachukwu, Chiamaka U.; Freeman, Dana M.; Quirk, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase), a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition. PMID:28742822

  10. Structural Analysis of a Family 81 Glycoside Hydrolase Implicates Its Recognition of β-1,3-Glucan Quaternary Structure.

    PubMed

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Fillo, Alexander; Massel, Patricia; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-09-05

    Family 81 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which are known to cleave β-1,3-glucans, are found in archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses. Here we examine the structural and functional features of the GH81 catalytic module, BhGH81, from the Bacillus halodurans protein BH0236 to probe the molecular basis of β-1,3-glucan recognition and cleavage. BhGH81 displayed activity on laminarin, curdlan, and pachyman, but not scleroglucan; the enzyme also cleaved β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides as small as β-1,3-glucotriose. The crystal structures of BhGH81 in complex with various β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides revealed distorted sugars in the -1 catalytic subsite and an arrangement consistent with an inverting catalytic mechanism having a proposed conformational itinerary of 2 S 0 → 2,5 B ‡ → 5 S 1 . Notably, the architecture of the catalytic site, location of an adjacent ancillary β-1,3-glucan binding site, and the surface properties of the enzyme indicate the likely ability to recognize the double and/or triple-helical quaternary structures adopted by β-1,3-glucans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct determination of protonation states and visualization of hydrogen bonding in a glycoside hydrolase with neutron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qun; Parks, Jerry M; Hanson, B Leif; Fisher, Suzanne Zoe; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E; Graham, David E; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2015-10-06

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes apply acid/base chemistry to catalyze the decomposition of complex carbohydrates. These ubiquitous enzymes accept protons from solvent and donate them to substrates at close to neutral pH by modulating the pKa values of key side chains during catalysis. However, it is not known how the catalytic acid residue acquires a proton and transfers it efficiently to the substrate. To better understand GH chemistry, we used macromolecular neutron crystallography to directly determine protonation and ionization states of the active site residues of a family 11 GH at multiple pD (pD=pH+0.4) values. The general acid glutamate (Glu) cycles between two conformations, upward and downward, but is protonated only in the downward orientation. We performed continuum electrostatics calculations to estimate the pKa values of the catalytic Glu residues in both the apo- and substrate-bound states of the enzyme. The calculated pKa of the Glu increases substantially when the side chain moves down. The energy barrier required to rotate the catalytic Glu residue back to the upward conformation, where it can protonate the glycosidic oxygen of the substrate, is 4.3 kcal/mol according to free energy simulations. These findings shed light on the initial stage of the glycoside hydrolysis reaction in which molecular motion enables the general acid catalyst to obtain a proton from the bulk solvent and deliver it to the glycosidic oxygen.

  12. Structural insights into binding of inhibitors to soluble epoxide hydrolase gained by fragment screening and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Eiki

    2014-04-15

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a component of the arachidonic acid cascade and is a candidate target for therapies for hypertension or inflammation. Although many sEH inhibitors are available, their scaffolds are not structurally diverse, and knowledge of their specific interactions with sEH is limited. To obtain detailed structural information about protein-ligand interactions, we conducted fragment screening of sEH, analyzed the fragments using high-throughput X-ray crystallography, and determined 126 fragment-bound structures at high resolution. Aminothiazole and benzimidazole derivatives were identified as novel scaffolds that bind to the catalytic triad of sEH with good ligand efficiency. We further identified fragment hits that bound to subpockets of sEH called the short and long branches. The water molecule conserved in the structure plays an important role in binding to the long branch, whereas Asp496 and the main chain of Phe497 form hydrogen bonds with fragment hits in the short branch. Fragment hits and their crystal structures provide structural insights into ligand binding to sEH that will facilitate the discovery of novel and potent inhibitors of sEH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potent and selective alpha-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors of the anandamide and oleamide catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Romero, F Anthony; Du, Wu; Hwang, Inkyu; Rayl, Thomas J; Kimball, F Scott; Leung, Donmienne; Hoover, Heather S; Apodaca, Richard L; Breitenbucher, J Guy; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Boger, Dale L

    2007-03-08

    A study of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 2f (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed, targeting the 5-position of the oxazole. Examination of a series of substituted benzene derivatives (12-14) revealed that the optimal position for substitution was the meta-position with selected members approaching or exceeding the potency of 2f. Concurrent with these studies, the effect of substitution on the pyridine ring of 2f was also examined. A series of small, nonaromatic C5-substituents was also explored and revealed that the K(i) follows a well-defined correlation with the Hammett sigma(p) constant (rho = 3.01, R2 = 0.91) in which electron-withdrawing substituents enhance potency, leading to inhibitors with K(i)s as low as 400 pM (20n). Proteomic-wide screening of the inhibitors revealed that most are exquisitely selective for FAAH over all other mammalian proteases, reversing the 100-fold preference of 20a (C5 substituent = H) for the enzyme TGH.

  14. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide shares discriminative stimulus effects with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Gamage, Thomas F; Warner, Jonathan A; Nguyen, Thanh K; Grainger, Darren B; Wiley, Jenny L; Vann, Robert E

    2011-04-10

    The endogenous cannabinoid system has been noted for its therapeutic potential, as well as the psychoactivity of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, less is known about the psychoactivity of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid ligand. Thus, the goals of this study were to establish AEA as a discriminative stimulus in transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (i.e., FAAH -/- mice unable to rapidly metabolize AEA), evaluate whether THC or oleamide, a fatty acid amide, produced AEA-like responding, and assess for CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. Mice readily discriminated between 6mg/kg AEA and vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. AEA dose-dependently generalized to itself. THC elicited full AEA-like responding, whereas oleamide failed to substitute. The CB(1) antagonist rimonabant attenuated AEA- and THC-induced AEA-appropriate responding, demonstrating CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. These findings suggest that, in the absence of FAAH, AEA produces intoxication comparable to THC, and consequently to marijuana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition does not prevent cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after aortic constriction in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lisa A; Olzinski, Alan R; Upson, John J; Zhao, Shufang; Wang, Tao; Eisennagel, Stephen H; Hoang, Bao; Tunstead, James R; Marino, Joseph P; Willette, Robert N; Jucker, Beat M; Behm, David J

    2013-04-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, substrates for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), exhibit vasodilatory and antihypertrophic activities. Inhibitors of sEH might therefore hold promise as heart failure therapeutics. We examined the ability of sEH inhibitors GSK2188931 and GSK2256294 to modulate cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and function after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rats and mice. GSK2188931 administration was initiated in rats 1 day before TAC, whereas GSK2256294 treatment was initiated in mice 2 weeks after TAC. Four weeks later, cardiovascular function was assessed, plasma was collected for drug and sEH biomarker concentrations, and left ventricle was isolated for messenger RNA and histological analyses. In rats, although GSK2188931 prevented TAC-mediated increases in certain genes associated with hypertrophy and fibrosis (α-skeletal actin and connective tissue growth factor), the compound failed to attenuate TAC-induced increases in left ventricle mass, posterior wall thickness, end-diastolic volume and pressure, and perivascular fibrosis. Similarly, in mice, GSK2256294 did not reverse cardiac remodeling or systolic dysfunction induced by TAC. Both compounds increased the sEH substrate/product (leukotoxin/leukotoxin diol) ratio, indicating sEH inhibition. In summary, sEH inhibition does not prevent cardiac remodeling or dysfunction after TAC. Thus, targeting sEH seems to be insufficient for reducing pressure overload hypertrophy.

  16. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase lowers portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats by ameliorating endothelial dysfunction and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wensheng; Zhu, Yiming; Lin, Jiayun; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Chihao; Luo, Meng

    2017-07-01

    Epoxyeicostrienoic acids (EETs) are arachidonic acid derived meditators which are catalyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to less active dihydroeicostrienoics acids (DHETS). The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of sEH inhibition on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, hepatic endothelial dysfunction, and hepatic fibrosis in CCl4 cirrhotic rats. The sEH inhibitor,trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid (t-TUCB) was administered to stabilize hepatic EETs by gavage at a dose of 1mg/kg/d. Our results showed that hepatic sEH expression was markedly increased in portal hypertension, and led to a lower ratio of EETs/DHETs which was effectively reversed by t-TUCB administration. t-TUCB significantly decreased portal pressure without significant changes in systemic hemodynamics, which was associated with the attenuation of intrahepatic vascular resistance (IHVR) and liver fibrosis. t-TUCB ameliorated endothelial dysfunction, increased hepatic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, t-TUCB significantly reduced alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) expression and liver fibrosis, which was associated with a decrease in NF-κB signaling. Taken together, inhibition of sEH reduces portal pressure, liver fibrosis and attenuates hepatic endothelial dysfunction in cirrhotic rats. Our results indicate that sEH inhbitors may be useful in the treatment of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure of thiocyan