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Sample records for a4 hydrolase lta4h

  1. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic. PMID:28303931

  2. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic.

  3. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  4. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  5. Genetic regulation of expression of leukotriene A4 hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the concurrent organ-specific and systemic inflammatory responses lead to airway remodelling and vascular dysfunction. Although a major common risk factor for COPD, cigarette smoke alone cannot explain the progression of this disease; there is increasing evidence that genetic predisposition also plays a role in COPD susceptibility and progression. A key enzyme in chronic lung inflammation is leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H). With its aminopeptidase activity, LTA4H degrades the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide PGP. In this study, we used the luciferase reporter gene analysis system and quantitative trait locus analysis to explore the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the putative promoter region of LTA4H on LTA4H expression. We show that not only is the putative promoter of LTA4H larger than previously reported but also that SNPs in the expanded promoter region regulate expression of LTA4H both in cell-based systems and in peripheral blood samples from human subjects. These findings provide significant evidence for an active region upstream of the previously reported LTA4H promoter, which may have implications related to ongoing inflammatory processes in chronic lung disease. PMID:27730172

  6. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China.

  7. Discovery of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Inhibitors Using Metabolomics Biased Fragment Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.; Mamat, B; Magnusson, O; Christensen, J; Haraldsson, M; Mishra, R; Pease, B; Hansen, E; Singh, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel fragment library termed fragments of life (FOL) for structure-based drug discovery. The FOL library includes natural small molecules of life, derivatives thereof, and biaryl protein architecture mimetics. The choice of fragments facilitates the interrogation of protein active sites, allosteric binding sites, and protein-protein interaction surfaces for fragment binding. We screened the FOL library against leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) by X-ray crystallography. A diverse set of fragments including derivatives of resveratrol, nicotinamide, and indole were identified as efficient ligands for LTA4H. These fragments were elaborated in a small number of synthetic cycles into potent inhibitors of LTA4H representing multiple novel chemotypes for modulating leukotriene biosynthesis. Analysis of the fragment-bound structures also showed that the fragments comprehensively recapitulated key chemical features and binding modes of several reported LTA4H inhibitors.

  8. Product formation controlled by substrate dynamics in leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Tholander, Fredrik; Kumar, Ramakrishnan B; Qureshi, Abdul Aziz; Niegowski, Damian; Hasan, Mahmudul; Thunnissen, Marjolein; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2014-02-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) (EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme with both an epoxide hydrolase and an aminopeptidase activity. LTA4H from the African claw toad, Xenopus laevis (xlLTA4H) has been shown to, unlike the human enzyme, convert LTA4 to two enzymatic metabolites, LTB4 and another biologically active product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4 (5(S),12R-dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid). In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this product we have characterized the structure and function of xlLTA4H. We solved the structure of xlLTA4H to a resolution of 2.3Å. It is a dimeric structure where each monomer has three domains with the active site in between the domains, similar as to the human structure. An important difference between the human and amphibian enzyme is the phenylalanine to tyrosine exchange at position 375. Our studies show that mutating F375 in xlLTA4H to tyrosine abolishes the formation of the LTB4 isomeric product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4. In an attempt to understand how one amino acid exchange leads to a new product profile as seen in the xlLTA4H, we performed a conformer analysis of the triene part of the substrate LTA4. Our results show that the Boltzmann distribution of substrate conformers correlates with the observed distribution of products. We suggest that the observed difference in product profile between the human and the xlLTA4H arises from different level of discrimination between substrate LTA4 conformers.

  9. Role of leukotriene A4 hydrolase aminopeptidase in the pathogenesis of emphysema1

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Mikell; Wang, Kan; Burdick, Marie; Park, Sunhye; Cha, Josiah; Jeffrey, Erin; Sherman, Nicholas; Shim, Y. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a bi-functional enzyme with an epoxy hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities. We hypothesize that the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity alleviates neutrophilic inflammation, which contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema by clearing Proline-Glycine-Proline (PGP), a tri-amino acid chemokine known to induce chemotaxis of neutrophils. To investigate the biological contributions made by the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity in CS-induced emphysema, we exposed wild type mice to CS over five months while treating them with a vehicle or a pharmaceutical agent (4MDM) that selectively augments the LTA4H aminopeptidase without affecting the bio-production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Emphysematous phenotypes were assessed by pre mortem lung physiology with a small animal ventilator and by postmortem histologic morphometry. CS exposure acidified the airspaces and induced localization of the LTA4H protein into the nuclei of the epithelial cells. This resulted in accumulation of PGP in the airspaces by suppressing the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity. When the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity was selectively augmented by 4MDM, the levels of PGP in the BALF and infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs were significant reduced without affecting the levels of LTB4. This protected murine lungs from CS-induced emphysematous alveolar remodeling. In conclusion, CS exposure promotes the development of CS-induced emphysema by suppressing the enzymatic activities of the LTA4H aminopeptidase in lung tissues and accumulating PGP and neutrophils in the airspaces. However, restoring the LTA4 aminopeptidase activity with a pharmaceutical agent protected murine lungs from developing CS-induced emphysema. PMID:24771855

  10. Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Nguyen T T; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Tram, Trinh T B; Thao, Le T P; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Ha, Vu T N; Bang, Nguyen D; Chau, Tran T H; Lan, Nguyen H; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen V V; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen T H; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals.

  11. Discovery of novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitors based on piperidine and piperazine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sandanayaka, Vincent; Mamat, Bjorn; Bhagat, Nikhil; Bedell, Louis; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Sigthorsdottir, Heida; Andrésson, Thorkell; Kiselyov, Alex; Gurney, Mark; Singh, Jasbir

    2010-05-01

    Novel piperidine and piperazine derivatives have been designed and tested as inhibitors of LTA(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H). Most potent compounds showed good potency in both enzymatic and functional human whole blood assay. Crystallography studies further confirmed observed structure-activity relationship and LTA(4)H binding mode for analogs from the piperidine series.

  12. Identification of benzofuran central cores for the inhibition of leukotriene A(4) hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Wendy; Blevitt, Jonathan M; Booker, Jamila N; Chrovian, Christa C; Crawford, Shelby; de Leon, Aimee Rose; Deng, Xiaohu; Fourie, Anne M; Grice, Cheryl A; Herman, Krystal; Karlsson, Lars; Kearney, Aaron M; Lee-Dutra, Alice; Liang, Jimmy; Luna, Rosa; Pippel, Dan; Rao, Navin; Riley, Jason P; Santillán, Alejandro; Savall, Brad; Tanis, Virginia M; Xue, Xiaohua; Young, Arlene L

    2013-02-01

    Leukotrienes (LT's) are known to play a physiological role in inflammatory immune response. Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a cystolic enzyme that stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of LTA(4) to LTB(4). LTB(4) is a known pro-inflammatory mediator. This paper describes the identification and synthesis of substituted benzofurans as LTH(4)H inhibitors. The benzofuran series demonstrated reduced mouse and human whole blood LTB(4) levels in vitro and led to the identification one analog for advanced profiling. Benzofuran 28 showed dose responsive target engagement and provides a useful tool to explore a LTA(4)H inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  13. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L B; Mold, David E; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-11-29

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients' sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs.

  14. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L. B.; Mold, David E.; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients’ sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs. PMID:27856749

  15. Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2014-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ∼0.5 μM) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 μM. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ω-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

  16. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L.; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Methods Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. Results A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non

  17. Crystal structure of the cold-active aminopeptidase from Colwellia psychrerythraea, a close structural homologue of the human bifunctional leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Bauvois, Cédric; Jacquamet, Lilian; Huston, Adrienne L; Borel, Franck; Feller, Georges; Ferrer, Jean-Luc

    2008-08-22

    The crystal structure of a cold-active aminopeptidase (ColAP) from Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been determined, extending the number of crystal structures of the M1 metallopeptidase family to four among the 436 members currently identified. In agreement with their sequence similarity, the overall structure of ColAP displayed a high correspondence with leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), a human bifunctional enzyme that converts leukotriene A4 (LTA4) in the potent chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Indeed, both enzymes are composed of three domains, an N-terminal saddle-like domain, a catalytic thermolysin-like domain, and a less conserved C-terminal alpha-helical flat spiral domain. Together, these domains form a deep cavity harboring the zinc binding site formed by residues included in the conserved HEXXHX(18)H motif. A detailed structural comparison of these enzymes revealed several plausible determinants of ColAP cold adaptation. The main differences involve specific amino acid substitutions, loop content and solvent exposure, complexity and distribution of ion pairs, and differential domain flexibilities. Such elements may act synergistically to allow conformational flexibility needed for an efficient catalysis in cold environments. Furthermore, the region of ColAP corresponding to the aminopeptidase active site of LTA4H is much more conserved than the suggested LTA4 substrate binding region. This observation supports the hypothesis that this region of the LTA4H active site has evolved in order to fit the lipidic substrate.

  18. Leukotriene A4 hydrolase: Selective abrogation of leukotriene B4 formation by mutation of aspartic acid 375

    PubMed Central

    Rudberg, Peter C.; Tholander, Fredrik; Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2002-01-01

    Leukotriene A4 (LTA4, 5S-trans-5,6-oxido-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) hydrolase (LTA4H)/aminopeptidase is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4, 5S,12R-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid), a classical chemoattractant and immune modulating lipid mediator. Two chemical features are key to the bioactivity of LTB4, namely, the chirality of the 12R-hydroxyl group and the cis-trans-trans geometry of the conjugated triene structure. From the crystal structure of LTA4H, a hydrophilic patch composed of Gln-134, Tyr-267, and Asp-375 was identified in a narrow and otherwise hydrophobic pocket, believed to bind LTA4. In addition, Asp-375 belongs to peptide K21, a previously characterized 21-residue active site-peptide to which LTA4 binds during suicide inactivation. In the present report we used site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography to show that Asp-375, but none of the other candidate residues, is specifically required for the epoxide hydrolase activity of LTA4H. Thus, mutation of Asp-375 leads to a selective loss of the enzyme's ability to generate LTB4 whereas the aminopeptidase activity is preserved. We propose that Asp-375, possibly assisted by Gln-134, acts as a critical determinant for the stereoselective introduction of the 12R-hydroxyl group and thus the biological activity of LTB4. PMID:11917124

  19. Purification and characterization of porcine skeletal muscle aminopeptidase T, a novel metallopeptidase homologous to leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Mohammed Alamgir; Matsuda, Shinji; Mizutani, Osamu; Rao, Shengbin; Migita, Koshiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2011-01-01

    A novel aminopeptidase, Aminopeptidase T (APase T), was purified from porcine skeletal muscle following successive column chromatography: twice on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and Sephacryl S-200 HR using Leu-β-naphthylamide (LeuNap) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 69 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH towards LeuNap of the enzyme was about 7. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by bestatin and was negatively affected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Chlorine-activated APase T liberated Leu, Ala, Met, Pro, and Arg from Nap derivatives. The APase T gene consisted of an ORF of 1,836 bp encoding a protein of 611 amino acid residues. The APase T was highly homologous to bovine, human, and mouse Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H), a bifunctional enzyme which exhibits APase and epoxide hydrolase activity.

  20. Leukotriene A4 hydrolase haplotype, diet and atherosclerosis: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process resulting from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators generated from arachidonic acid, and genetic polymorphisms involved in leukotriene metabolism are implicated in atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study are to examine whether genetic variants in key leukotriene enzymes are associated with atherosclerosis, and whether dietary intake of competing leukotriene substrates modifies the effect of leukotriene variants on atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was assessed by common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using ultrasound. Sequence variants within arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) genes were analyzed with 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 169 Caucasian twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and carotid atherosclerosis, and gene × diet interactions were examined by generalized estimating equation controlling for potential confounders. A six-SNP haplotype in LTA4H, designated HapE, was significantly associated with carotid IMT after adjusting for known coronary risk factors. Twins carrying HapE had a much lower IMT compared to twins not carrying (695 μm vs. 750 μm, p = 0.0007). Moreover, dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids strongly augmented the cardioprotective effect of HapE among those with this haplotype but not those without, suggesting a haplotype × diet interaction (interaction P(HapE×n-3) = 0.03, P(HapE×n-6) = 0.015). We identified a novel leukotriene haplotype that appears to be protective toward subclinical atherosclerosis. This association is modified by dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Testicular distribution and toxicity of a novel LTA4H inhibitor in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.D. La, D.

    2014-07-01

    JNJ 40929837, a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor in drug development, was reported to induce testicular toxicity in rats. The mechanism of toxicity was considered to be rodent specific and not relevant to humans. To further investigate this finding in rats, the distribution and toxicokinetics of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites, M1 and M2, were investigated. A quantitative whole body autoradiography study showed preferential distribution and retention of JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity in the testes consistent with the observed site of toxicity. Subsequent studies with unlabeled JNJ 40929837 showed different metabolite profiles between the plasma and testes. Following a single oral 50 mg/kg dose of JNJ 40929837, M2 was the primary metabolite in plasma whereas M1 was the primary metabolite in testes. The exposure of M1 was 386-fold higher in the testes compared to plasma whereas M2 had limited exposure in testes. Furthermore, the T{sub max} of M1 was 48 h in testes suggesting a large accumulation potential of this metabolite in testes compared to plasma. Following six months of repeated daily oral dosing, M1 accumulated approximately five-fold in the testes whereas the parent did not accumulate. These results indicate that the toxicokinetic profiles of JNJ 40929837 and its two metabolites in testes are markedly different compared to plasma and support the importance of understanding the toxicokinetic profiles of compounds and their metabolites in organs/tissues where toxicity is observed. - Highlights: • JNJ 40929837-derived radioactivity preferentially distributed into testes • Primary metabolite flip-flop in plasma and testes • The primary metabolite in testes accumulated 5-fold but not parent.

  2. Discovery of 4-[(2S)-2-{[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenoxy]methyl}-1-pyrrolidinyl]butanoic acid (DG-051) as a novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sandanayaka, Vincent; Mamat, Bjorn; Mishra, Rama K; Winger, Jennifer; Krohn, Michael; Zhou, Li-Ming; Keyvan, Monica; Enache, Livia; Sullins, David; Onua, Emmanuel; Zhang, Jun; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Sigthorsdottir, Heida; Thorlaksdottir, Audur; Sigthorsson, Gudmundur; Thorsteinnsdottir, Margret; Davies, Douglas R; Stewart, Lance J; Zembower, David E; Andresson, Thorkell; Kiselyov, Alex S; Singh, Jasbir; Gurney, Mark E

    2010-01-28

    Both in-house human genetic and literature data have converged on the identification of leukotriene 4 hydrolase (LTA(4)H) as a key target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. We combined fragment-based crystallography screening with an iterative medicinal chemistry effort to optimize inhibitors of LTA(4)H. Ligand efficiency was followed throughout our structure-activity studies. As applied within the context of LTA(4)H inhibitor design, the chemistry team was able to design a potent compound 20 (DG-051) (K(d) = 26 nM) with high aqueous solubility (>30 mg/mL) and high oral bioavailability (>80% across species) that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke. The structural biology-chemistry interaction described in this paper provides a sound alternative to conventional screening techniques. This is the first example of a gene-to-clinic paradigm enabled by a fragment-based drug discovery effort.

  3. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Torres, María José; Fierro, Angélica; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Romero-Parra, Javier; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Faúndez, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase is a soluble enzyme with epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities catalysing the conversion of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene B4 and the hydrolysis of the peptide proline-glycine-proline. Imbalances in leukotriene B4 synthesis are related to several pathologic conditions. Currently there are no available drugs capable to modulate the synthesis of leukotriene B4 or to block its receptors. Here we show the inhibitory profile of alpha lipoic acid on the activity of leukotriene A4 Hydrolase. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited both activities of the enzyme at concentrations lower than 10μM. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886, were unable to inhibit the activity of the enzyme. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells were differentiated to leukotriene A4 hydrolase expressing neutrophil-like cells. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of the cytosolic fraction from neutrophil-like cells but had no effect on the cytosolic fraction from undifferentiated cells. Docking and molecular dynamic approximations revealed that alpha lipoic acid participates in electrostatic interactions with K-565 and R-563, which are key residues for the carboxylate group recognition of endogenous substrates by the enzyme. Alpha lipoic acid is a compound widely used in clinical practice, most of its therapeutic effects are associated with its antioxidants properties, however, antioxidant effect alone is unable to explain all clinical effects observed with alpha lipoic acid. Our results invite to evaluate the significance of the inhibitory effect of alpha lipoic acid on the catalytic activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase using in vivo models.

  4. Hybrid Receptor-Bound/MM-GBSA-Per-residue Energy-Based Pharmacophore Modelling: Enhanced Approach for Identification of Selective LTA4H Inhibitors as Potential Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Appiah-Kubi, Patrick; Soliman, Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase has been identified as an enzyme with dual anti- and pro-inflammatory role, thus, the conversion of leukotriene to leukotriene B4 in the initiation stage of inflammation and the removal of the chemotactic Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. These findings make leukotriene A4 hydrolase an attractive drug target: suggesting an innovative approach towards the identification and design of novel class of compounds that can selectively inhibit leukotriene B4 synthesis while sparing the aminopeptidase activity. Previous inhibitors block the dual activity of the enzyme. Recently, a small lead molecule inhibitor denoted as ARM1 has been identified to block the hydrolase activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase whilst sparing the aminopeptidase activity. In this study, a hybrid receptor-bound/MM-GBSA-per-residue energy based pharmacophore modeling approach was implemented to identify potential selective hydrolase inhibitors of leukotriene A4 hydrolase. In this approach, active site residues that favorably contributed to the binding of the bound conformation of ARM1 were derived from MD ensembles and MM/GBSA thermodynamic calculations. These residues were then mapped to key pharmacophore features of ARM1. The generated pharmacophore model was used to search the ZINC database for 3D structures that match the pharmacophore. Five new compounds have been identified and proposed as potential epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitors of leukotriene A4 hydrolase. Molecular docking and MM/GBSA analyses revealed that, these top five lead-like compounds ZINC00142747, ZINC94260794, ZINC01382396, ZINC02508448, and ZINC53994447 showed better binding affinities to the hydrolase active site pocket compared to ARM1. Per-residue energy decomposition analysis revealed that amino acid residues Phe314, Tyr378, Pro382, Trp311, Val367, and Ala377 are key residues critical in the selective inhibition of these hits. Information highlighted in this study may guide the the design the next

  5. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C D; Rådmark, O; Fu, J Y; Matsumoto, T; Jörnvall, H; Shimizu, T; Samuelsson, B

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to leukotriene A4 hydrolase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antiserum. Several additional clones from human lung and placenta cDNA lambda g11 libraries were obtained by plaque hybridization with the 32P-labeled lung cDNA clone. One of these clones has an insert of 1910 base pairs that contains the complete protein-coding region. From the deduced primary structure, leukotriene A4 hydrolase is a 610 amino and protein with a calculated molecular weight of 69,140. No apparent homologies with microsomal epoxide hydrolases were found. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of a discrete mRNA of approximately equal to 2250 nucleotides in lung tissue and leukocytes. Images PMID:2821541

  6. Aminopeptidase B from the rat testis is a bifunctional enzyme structurally related to leukotriene-A4hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cadel, Sandrine; Foulon, Thierry; Viron, Annie; Balogh, Agnès; Midol-Monnet, Stéphanie; Noël, Nadine; Cohen, Paul

    1997-01-01

    An aminopeptidase B (Ap-B) was previously purified to homogeneity from rat testis extracts and characterized. In the present work, by using oligonucleotides selected on the basis of partial amino acid microsequences of pure Ap-B and PCR techniques, the nucleotide sequence of a 2.2-kb cDNA was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to a 648-residue protein (72.3 kDa) containing the canonical “HEXXHX18E” signature, which allowed its classification as a member of the M1 family of metallopeptidases. It exhibits 33% identity and 48% similarity with leukotriene-A4 hydrolase, a relation further supported by the capacity of Ap-B to hydrolyze leukotriene A4. Both enzymes also were closely related to a partially sequenced protein from Dictyostelium discoideum, which might constitute the putative common ancestor of either aminopeptidase or epoxide hydrolase, or both. Ap-B and its mRNA were detected in the germ line and in the Sertoli and peritubular cells of the seminiferous tubules. Because the enzyme was found in the medium conditioned by spermatocytes and spermatids and in the acrosome during spermatozoa formation, together these observations suggested an involvement of this exometallopeptidase in the secretory pathway. It is concluded that this ubiquitous enzyme may be involved in multiple processing mechanisms. PMID:9096329

  7. Novel zinc protease gene isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum is structurally related to mammalian leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Hou, L S

    2015-12-09

    The allantoicase (allC) gene of Dictyostelium discoideum allC RNAi mutant strain was silenced using the RNA interference technique. The mutant strain is motile, aggregated, and could not undergo further morphological development. The growth rate is high and the cells show a shortened cell cycle comparing with wild-type D. discoideum. However, the mechanisms regarding these actions remain unclear. mRNA differential display was used in this study to identify genetic differences. A novel D. discoideum gene (GenBank accession number: KC759140) encoding a new zinc protease was cloned. The amino acid sequence of the novel gene exhibited a conserved zinc-binding domain (HEX2HX18E) that allowed its classification into the M1 family of metallopeptidases. The gene encoded a 345-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 39.69 kDa and a theoretical pI of 6.05. This protein showed strong homology with leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase of Homo sapiens (41% identity and 60% similarity at the amino acid level). By analyzing quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data, this zinc protease gene was more highly expressed in D. discoideum allC RNAi mutant type than in wild-type KAx-3 cells during the trophophase. The novel zinc protease gene may function as an LTA4 hydrolase and contribute to the shortening of the allC RNAi mutant cell cycle.

  8. Trimeric crystal structure of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 beta-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus A4 and the structure of its complex with galactose.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Masafumi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Ohtsu, Naomi; Motoshima, Hidemasa; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2002-09-06

    The beta-galactosidase from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus A4 (A4-beta-Gal), is thermostable and belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH-42). As the first known structures of a GH-42 enzyme, we determined the crystal structures of free and galactose-bound A4-beta-Gal at 1.6A and 2.2A resolution, respectively. A4-beta-Gal forms a homotrimeric structure resembling a flowerpot. Each monomer has an active site located inside a large central tunnel. The N-terminal domain of A4-beta-Gal has a TIM barrel fold, as predicted from hydrophobic cluster analysis. The putative catalytic residues of A4-beta-Gal (Glu141 and Glu312) superimpose well with the catalytic residues of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. The environment around the catalytic nucleophile (Glu312) is similar to that in the case of E.coli beta-galactosidase, but the recognition mechanism for a substrate is different. Trp182 of the next subunit of the trimer constitutes a part of the active-site pocket, indicating that the trimeric structure is essential for the enzyme activity. Structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed that many features of the 4/7 superfamily are conserved in the A4-beta-Gal structure. On the basis of the results of 1H NMR spectroscopy, A4-beta-Gal was determined to be a "retaining" enzyme. Interestingly, the active site was similar with those of retaining enzymes, but the overall fold of the TIM barrel domain was very similar to that of an inverting enzyme, beta-amylase.

  9. Matrikines are key regulators in modulating the amplitude of lung inflammation in acute pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Beale, Rebecca C.; Peiró, Teresa; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive matrix fragments (matrikines) have been identified in a myriad of disorders, but their impact on the evolution of airway inflammation has not been demonstrated. We recently described a pathway where the matrikine and neutrophil chemoattractant proline–glycine–proline (PGP) could be degraded by the enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H). LTA4H classically functions in the generation of pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4, thus LTA4H exhibits opposing pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. The physiological significance of this secondary anti-inflammatory activity remains unknown. Here we show, using readily resolving pulmonary inflammation models, that loss of this secondary activity leads to more pronounced and sustained inflammation and illness owing to PGP accumulation. PGP elicits an exacerbated neutrophilic inflammation and protease imbalance that further degrades the extracellular matrix, generating fragments that perpetuate inflammation. This highlights a critical role for the secondary anti-inflammatory activity of LTA4H and thus has consequences for the generation of global LTA4H inhibitors currently being developed. PMID:26400771

  10. Glycoside hydrolases having multiple hydrolase activities

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zhiwei; Friedland, Gregory D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Chivian, Dylan C.; Simmons, Blake A

    2017-08-08

    Glycoside hydrolases having at least two different hydrolytic activities are provided. In one embodiment, an isolated recombinant hydrolase having at least two activities selected from a group including asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided. Further, a method of generating free sugars from a mixture comprising asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided.

  11. A Novel Glycoside Hydrolase Family 113 Endo-β-1,4-Mannanase from Alicyclobacillus sp. Strain A4 and Insight into the Substrate Recognition and Catalytic Mechanism of This Family

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Lu, Haiqiang; Xia, Mengjuan; Cui, Ying; Bai, Yingguo; Qian, Lichun; Luo, Huiying

    2016-01-01

    Few members of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 113 have been characterized, and information on substrate recognition by and the catalytic mechanism of this family is extremely limited. In the present study, a novel endo-β-1,4-mannanase of GH 113, Man113A, was identified in thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus sp. strain A4 and found to exhibit both hydrolytic and transglycosylation activities. The enzyme had a broad substrate spectrum, showed higher activities on glucomannan than on galactomannan, and released mannobiose and mannotriose as the main hydrolysis products after an extended incubation. Compared to the only functionally characterized and structure-resolved counterpart Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius ManA (AaManA) of GH 113, Man113A showed much higher catalytic efficiency on mannooligosaccharides, in the order mannohexaose ≈ mannopentaose > mannotetraose > mannotriose, and required at least four sugar units for efficient catalysis. Homology modeling, molecular docking analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed the vital roles of eight residues (Trp13, Asn90, Trp96, Arg97, Tyr196, Trp274, Tyr292, and Cys143) related to substrate recognition by and catalytic mechanism of GH 113. Comparison of the binding pockets and key residues of β-mannanases of different families indicated that members of GH 113 and GH 5 have more residues serving as stacking platforms to support −4 to −1 subsites than those of GH 26 and that the residues preceding the acid/base catalyst are quite different. Taken as a whole, this study elucidates substrate recognition by and the catalytic mechanism of GH 113 β-mannanases and distinguishes them from counterparts of other families. PMID:26921423

  12. A Novel Glycoside Hydrolase Family 113 Endo-β-1,4-Mannanase from Alicyclobacillus sp. Strain A4 and Insight into the Substrate Recognition and Catalytic Mechanism of This Family.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Lu, Haiqiang; Xia, Mengjuan; Cui, Ying; Bai, Yingguo; Qian, Lichun; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Few members of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 113 have been characterized, and information on substrate recognition by and the catalytic mechanism of this family is extremely limited. In the present study, a novel endo-β-1,4-mannanase of GH 113, Man113A, was identified in thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus sp. strain A4 and found to exhibit both hydrolytic and transglycosylation activities. The enzyme had a broad substrate spectrum, showed higher activities on glucomannan than on galactomannan, and released mannobiose and mannotriose as the main hydrolysis products after an extended incubation. Compared to the only functionally characterized and structure-resolved counter part Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius ManA (AaManA) of GH 113, Man113A showed much higher catalytic efficiency on mannooligosaccharides, in the order mannohexaose ≈ mannopentaose > mannotetraose > mannotriose, and required at least four sugar units for efficient catalysis. Homology modeling, molecular docking analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed the vital roles of eight residues (Trp13, Asn90, Trp96, Arg97, Tyr196, Trp274, Tyr292, and Cys143) related to substrate recognition by and catalytic mechanism of GH 113. Comparison of the binding pockets and key residues of β-mannanases of different families indicated that members of GH 113 and GH 5 have more residues serving as stacking platforms to support -4 to -1 subsites than those of GH 26 and that the residues preceding the acid/base catalyst are quite different. Taken as a whole, this study elucidates substrate recognition by and the catalytic mechanism of GH 113 β-mannanases and distinguishes them from counterparts of other families. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2017-07-11

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  14. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  15. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah [Davis, CA; Ward, Connie [Hamilton, MT; Cherry, Joel [Davis, CA; Jones, Aubrey [Davis, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Yi, Jung [Sacramento, CA

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  16. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  17. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by pathogenic fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogens are known to produce proteases that target host defense proteins. Here we describe polyglycine hydrolases, fungal proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine interdomain linker of targeted plant defense chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were puri...

  18. Similarities between catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Qato, M; Whalen, R; Glomb, S

    1989-01-01

    Cytosolic epoxide hydrolase, measured as trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase activity, was isolated and purified from human and guinea pig liver cytosol. Antiserum to the guinea pig liver preparation reacted strongly with bovine liver catalase. We determined that this lack of selectivity of the antiserum was due to catalase contamination of the epoxide hydrolase preparation. We also determined that several commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with cytosolic epoxide hydrolase. Our human epoxide hydrolase preparation contained no detectable catalase contamination, yet antiserum to this protein also cross-reacted slightly with catalase, indicating some intrinsic similarity between the two enzymes. We conclude that catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase contain some similar immunogenic epitopes, and we surmise that similarities between the subunits of these two enzymes may lead to their partial copurification. Functional similarities between the two enzymes are also demonstrated, as several compounds that inhibit catalase are also shown to inhibit cytosolic epoxide hydrolase activity in the same concentration range and rank order.

  19. Blocking Macrophage Leukotriene B4 Prevents Endothelial Injury and Reverses Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wen; Jiang, Xinguo; Tamosiuniene, Rasa; Sung, Yon K.; Qian, Jin; Dhillon, Gundeep; Gera, Lajos; Farkas, Laszlo; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T.; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Fridlib, Marina; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Peters-Golden, Marc; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Nicolls, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious condition that affects mainly young and middle-aged women, and its etiology is poorly understood. A prominent pathological feature of PH is accumulation of macrophages near the arterioles of the lung. In both clinical tissue and the SU5416 (SU)/athymic rat model of severe PH, we found that the accumulated macrophages expressed high levels of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), the biosynthetic enzyme for leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Moreover, macrophage-derived LTB4 directly induced apoptosis in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Further, LTB4 induced proliferation and hypertrophy of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. We found that LTB4 acted through its receptor, BLT1, to induce PAEC apoptosis by inhibiting the protective endothelial sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1)–endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Blocking LTA4H decreased in vivo LTB4 levels, prevented PAEC apoptosis, restored Sphk1-eNOS signaling, and reversed fulminant PH in the SU/athymic rat model of PH. Antagonizing BLT1 similarly reversed established PH. Inhibition of LTB4 biosynthesis or signal transduction in SU-treated athymic rats with established disease also improved cardiac function and reopened obstructed arterioles; this approach was also effective in the monocrotaline model of severe PH. Human plexiform lesions, one hallmark of PH, showed increased numbers of macrophages, which expressed LTA4H, and patients with connective tissue disease–associated pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibited significantly higher LTB4 concentrations in the systemic circulation than did healthy subjects. These results uncover a possible role for macrophage-derived LTB4 in PH pathogenesis and identify a pathway that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. PMID:23986401

  20. Prediction of drug-drug interactions with carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide using a new in vitro assay for epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria; Bonnaillie, Pierre; Chanteux, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    1. Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug which is metabolized by CYP3A4 into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. This metabolite is then detoxified by epoxide hydrolase. As carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide has been associated with neurotoxicity, it is critical to identify whether a new antiepileptic drug has the potential to inhibit epoxide hydrolase and therefore increase carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide plasma levels. 2. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed to evaluate epoxide hydrolase activity by using carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide as probe substrate. The ability of this assay to predict drug-drug interactions (DDI) at the epoxide hydrolase level was also investigated. 3. To this aim, known inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase for which in vivo data are available were used. Firstly, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide hydrolase activity was determined in liver microsomes, cytosol and hepatocytes. Thereafter, the IC50 of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (progabide, valproic acid, valpromide and valnoctamide) was determined in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Finally, prediction of AUC increase was performed using the in vitro data generated. 4. Interestingly, epoxide hydrolase activity was found to be much higher in human hepatocytes compared to liver microsomes/cytosol. Even though assessed on a limited number of compounds, this study demonstrated that the use of hepatocytes seems to be a more relevant model to assess and predict DDI at the epoxide hydrolase level.

  1. A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Noerager, Brett D; Xu, Xin; Davis, Virginia A; Jones, Caleb W; Okafor, Svetlana; Whitehead, Alicia; Blalock, J Edwin; Jackson, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are key mediators of inflammatory processes throughout the body. In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatment induced elevated production and functionality of collagen-degrading enzymes and generation of PGP fragments. Meanwhile, LTA4H levels and triaminopeptidase activity declined with increasing concentrations of acrolein thereby sparing PGP from enzymatic destruction. These findings suggest that acrolein exacerbates the acute inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils and sets the stage for chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  2. Discovery of multitarget inhibitors by combining molecular docking with common pharmacophore matching.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dengguo; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zheng; He, Chong; Yang, Kun; Liu, Ying; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2008-12-25

    Multitarget drugs have been to be found effective in controlling complex diseases. However, how to design multitarget drugs presents a great challenge. We have developed a computer-assisted strategy to screen for multitarget inhibitors using a combination of molecular docking and common pharmacophore matching. This strategy was successfully applied to screen for dual-target inhibitors against both the human leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA4H-h) and the human nonpancreatic secretory phospholipase A2 (hnps-PLA2). Three compounds screened from the chemical database MDL Available Chemical Directory were found to inhibit these two enzymes at the 10 microM level. Moreover, one synthetic compound matching the common pharmacophores inhibits LTA4H-h and hnps-PLA2 with IC(50) values of 35 nM and 7.3 microM, respectively. The common pharmacophore model can also be used to search small molecule databases or collections of existing inhibitors, as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal multitarget inhibitors.

  3. Selective inhibition and selective induction of multiple microsomal epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M

    1986-03-01

    The inhibition in vitro and induction in vivo of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase have been studied. This microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity is distinguishable from the previously well-defined microsomal arene oxide hydrolase by a number of catalytic criteria. Two substituted chalcone oxides, 4-phenylchalcone oxide and 4'-phenylchalcone oxide, are potent inhibitors of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase, but have no apparent activity against benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase. Conversely, compounds that are potent inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase, including styrene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, and trichloropropene oxide, inhibit microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase only at very high (millimolar) concentrations. The chalcone oxides inhibit microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase noncompetitively, and have micromolar or nanomolar affinity constants for the enzyme. Attempts were made to induce microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase in vivo. Compounds that induced microsomal benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase levels in mice did not simultaneously induce trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase levels. Clofibrate was an exception; it induced levels of both enzymes to a small but statistically significant degree. The two microsomal hydrolase activities have, therefore, very different catalytic sites and appear to be under separate genetic control. 4-Phenylchalcone oxide and 4'-phenylchalcone oxide are selective inhibitors of microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase and may prove to be very useful in assessing the involvement of this enzyme in the metabolism of endogenous or xenobiotic epoxides.

  4. Hydrolase-like properties of a cofactor-independent dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Thierbach, Sven; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Dreiling, Alena; Hennecke, Ulrich; König, Simone; Fetzner, Susanne

    2012-05-29

    Mechanistic promiscuity: The (2-alkyl)-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone-cleaving dioxygenase Hod has an α/β-hydrolase fold and a Ser/His/Asp triad in its active site. Isatoic anhydride, a suicide substrate of serine hydrolases, inactivates Hod by covalent modification of the active-site serine, thus indicating that the α/β-hydrolase fold can accommodate dioxygenase chemistry without completely abandoning hydrolase-like properties.

  5. 1,2,3-Triazolylalkylribitol derivatives as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, A; McNaughton, M; Bal, G; Surpateanu, G; Van der Veken, P; De Prol, S; Versées, W; Steyaert, J; Apers, S; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2007-05-01

    A range of novel 1,2,3-triazolylalkylribitol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors. The most active compound (11a) has low micromolar potency and is structurally diverse from previously reported nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors, which, along with the simplicity of the chemistry involved in its synthesis, makes it a good lead for the further development of novel nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

  6. Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

  7. Structure and function of polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave polyglycine linkers of targeted plant defense chitinases. Unlike typical endoproteases that cleave a specific peptide bond, these 640 amino acid glycoproteins selectively cleave one of multiple peptide bonds within polyglyci...

  8. Dienelactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain B13.

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, K L; Schlömann, M; Knackmuss, H J; Ornston, L N

    1987-01-01

    Dienelactone hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.45) catalyzes the conversion of cis- or trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (dienelactone) to maleylacetate. An approximately 24-fold purification from extracts of 3-chlorobenzoate-grown Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 yielded a homogeneous preparation of the enzyme. The purified enzyme crystallized readily and proved to be a monomer with a molecular weight of about 30,000. Each dienelactone hydrolase molecule contains two cysteinyl side chains. One of these was readily titrated by stoichiometric amounts of p-chloromercuribenzoate, resulting in inactivation of the enzyme; the inactivation could be reversed by the addition of dithiothreitol. The other cysteinyl side chain appeared to be protected in the native protein against chemical reaction with p-chloromercuribenzoate. The properties of sulfhydryl side chains in dienelactone hydrolase resembled those that have been characterized for bacterial 4-carboxymethylbut-3-en-4-olide (enol-lactone) hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.24), which also are monomers with molecular weights of about 30,000. The amino acid composition of the dienelactone hydrolase resembled the amino acid composition of enol-lactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas putida, and alignment of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the dienelactone hydrolase with the corresponding sequence of an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus enol-lactone hydrolase revealed sequence identity at 8 of the 28 positions. These observations foster the hypothesis that the lactone hydrolases share a common ancestor. The lactone hydrolases differed in one significant property: the kcat of dienelactone hydrolase was 1,800 min-1, an order of magnitude below the kcat observed with enol-lactone hydrolases. The relatively low catalytic activity of dienelactone hydrolase may demand its production at the high levels observed for induced cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain B13. PMID:3804973

  9. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  11. Inhibition of Xenobiotic-Degrading Hydrolases by Organophosphinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    carboxylester hydrolases and pancreatic proteinases (3). The choice of organophosphinate candidates for pretreatment agents should be made with these factors...M 4 Q r 000 44 Table 11. Purification of arylester hydrolase Specific Total Total Activity Volume Activity Proteina (Umoles/ Purifi- Fraction (mL...reaction products after the racemic mixture was exposed to arylester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.2) or proteinases ; chiral-phase capillary gas-liquid

  12. Limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 belongs to a novel class of epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, M J; Overkamp, K M; de Bont, J A

    1998-10-01

    An epoxide hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 catalyzes the hydrolysis of limonene-1,2-epoxide to limonene-1,2-diol. The enzyme is induced when R. erythropolis is grown on monoterpenes, reflecting its role in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism. Limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase was purified to homogeneity. It is a monomeric cytoplasmic enzyme of 17 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. No cofactor was required for activity of this colorless enzyme. Maximal enzyme activity was measured at pH 7 and 50 degrees C. None of the tested inhibitors or metal ions inhibited limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity. Limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase has a narrow substrate range. Of the compounds tested, only limonene-1,2-epoxide, 1-methylcyclohexene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, and indene oxide were substrates. This report shows that limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase belongs to a new class of epoxide hydrolases based on (i) its low molecular mass, (ii) the absence of any significant homology between the partial amino acid sequence of limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase and amino acid sequences of known epoxide hydrolases, (iii) its pH profile, and (iv) the inability of 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone, diethylpyrocarbonate, 4-fluorochalcone oxide, and 1, 10-phenanthroline to inhibit limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity.

  13. Selective N-hydroxyhydantoin carbamate inhibitors of mammalian serine hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Martini, Michael L.; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Serine hydrolase inhibitors, which facilitate enzyme function assignment and are used to treat a range of human disorders, often act by an irreversible mechanism that involves covalent modification of the serine hydrolase catalytic nucleophile. The portion of mammalian serine hydrolases for which selective inhibitors have been developed, however, remains small. Here, we show that N-hydroxyhydantoin (NHH) carbamates are a versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be modified on both the staying (carbamylating) and leaving (NHH) groups to optimize potency and selectivity. Synthesis and screening of a small library of NHH carbamates by competitive activity-based protein profiling furnished selective, in vivo-active inhibitors and tailored activity-based probes for multiple mammalian serine hydrolases, including palmitoyl protein thioesterease-1 (PPT1), mutations of which cause the human disease infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26120000

  14. Bacterial growth does require peptidoglycan hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Waldemar

    2012-12-01

    Most bacteria surround their cytoplasmic membrane with a net-like, elastic heteropolymer, the peptidoglycan sacculus, to protect themselves from bursting due to the turgor and to maintain cell shape. It has been assumed that growing bacteria require peptidoglycan hydrolases to open meshes in the peptidoglycan net allowing the insertion of the newly synthesized material for surface expansion. However, peptidoglycan hydrolases essential for bacterial growth have long remained elusive. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology Singh et al. (2012) report the identification in Escherichia coli of three new DD-endopeptidases (Spr, YdhO and YebA) which are collectively required for peptidoglycan growth. Cells depleted of the three enzymes fail to incorporate new peptidoglycan, indicating that the cleavage of cross-links by the new endopeptidases is needed for surface growth of the sacculus. These results are corroborated by recent data showing that Bacillus subtilis cells require the DL-endopeptidase activity of CwlO or LytE for growth.

  15. Bacterial CS2 Hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Strains Are Homologous to the Archaeal Catenane CS2 Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Smeulders, Marjan J.; Pol, Arjan; Venselaar, Hanka; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Hermans, John; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS2 is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a property used in industrial biofiltration of CS2-polluted airstreams. We report on the mechanism of bacterial CS2 conversion in the extremely acidophilic A. thiooxidans strains S1p and G8. The bacterial CS2 hydrolases were highly abundant. They were purified and found to be homologous to the only other described (archaeal) CS2 hydrolase from Acidianus strain A1-3, which forms a catenane of two interlocked rings. The enzymes cluster in a group of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) homologues that may comprise a subclass of CS2 hydrolases within the β-CA family. Unlike CAs, the CS2 hydrolases did not hydrate CO2 but converted CS2 and COS with H2O to H2S and CO2. The CS2 hydrolases of A. thiooxidans strains G8, 2Bp, Sts 4-3, and BBW1, like the CS2 hydrolase of Acidianus strain A1-3, exist as both octamers and hexadecamers in solution. The CS2 hydrolase of A. thiooxidans strain S1p forms only octamers. Structure models of the A. thiooxidans CS2 hydrolases based on the structure of Acidianus strain A1-3 CS2 hydrolase suggest that the A. thiooxidans strain G8 CS2 hydrolase may also form a catenane. In the A. thiooxidans strain S1p enzyme, two insertions (positions 26 and 27 [PD] and positions 56 to 61 [TPAGGG]) and a nine-amino-acid-longer C-terminal tail may prevent catenane formation. PMID:23836868

  16. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  17. Glycoside Hydrolases across Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Across many environments microbial glycoside hydrolases support the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates, a critical function in many ecosystems. Little is known about how the microbial composition of a community and the potential for carbohydrate processing relate to each other. Here, using 1,934 metagenomic datasets, we linked changes in community composition to variation of potential for carbohydrate processing across environments. We were able to show that each ecosystem-type displays a specific potential for carbohydrate utilization. Most of this potential was associated with just 77 bacterial genera. The GH content in bacterial genera is best described by their taxonomic affiliation. Across metagenomes, fluctuations of the microbial community structure and GH potential for carbohydrate utilization were correlated. Our analysis reveals that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of complex microbial communities. PMID:27992426

  18. Localization of Acid Hydrolases in Protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Henry C.; Wagner, George J.; Siegelman, Harold W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of techniques to isolate and purify relatively large quantities of intact vacuoles from mature tissues permits direct biochemical analysis of this ubiquitous mature plant cell organelle. Vacuoles and a fraction enriched in soluble cytoplasmic constituents were quantitatively prepared from Hippeastrum flower petal protoplasts. Vacuolar lysate and soluble cytoplasmic fractions were examined for acid hydrolase activities commonly associated with animal lysosomes, and pH optima were determined. Esterase, protease, carboxypeptidase, β-galactosidase, α-glycosidase and β-glycosidase, not found in the vacuole lysate fraction, were components of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Acid phosphatase, RNase and DNase were present in both fractions. Vacuolar enzyme activities were also examined as a function of flower development from bud through senescent stages. The data obtained are not consistent with the concept that the mature plant cell vacuole functions as a generalized lysosome. PMID:16660001

  19. A simplified electrostatic model for hydrolase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara; Prausnitz, John M

    2015-07-01

    Toward the development of an electrostatic model for enzyme catalysis, the active site of the enzyme is represented by a cavity whose surface (and beyond) is populated by electric charges as determined by pH and the enzyme's structure. The electric field in the cavity is obtained from electrostatics and a suitable computer program. The key chemical bond in the substrate, at its ends, has partial charges with opposite signs determined from published force-field parameters. The electric field attracts one end of the bond and repels the other, causing bond tension. If that tension exceeds the attractive force between the atoms, the bond breaks; the enzyme is then a successful catalyst. To illustrate this very simple model, based on numerous assumptions, some results are presented for three hydrolases: hen-egg white lysozyme, bovine trypsin and bovine ribonuclease. Attention is given to the effect of pH.

  20. Starch hydrolase inhibitors from edible plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Tingting; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with gradual deterioration in glucose metabolism, which causes multiple systemic complications. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a concern in the management of type 2 diabetes. Of all the available antidiabetic therapeutic methods, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase is postulated to be a preventive treatment. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended as being beneficial for mitigation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this review, recent discoveries of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors from edible plants are described along with their chemical structures. Their inhibition mechanisms, the type of each glucosidase and amylase, and measurement methods for the inhibitory activity are also given. Finally, recent progress on low glycemic index foods incorporated with plants containing starch hydrolase inhibitors is summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of Francisella tularensis peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Teresa E.; Romanov, Vladimir; Lam, Robert; Gothe, Scott A.; Peddi, Srinivasa R.; Razumova, Ekaterina B.; Lipman, Richard S. A.; Branstrom, Arthur A.; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.

    2011-01-01

    The rational design of novel antibiotics for bacteria involves the identification of inhibitors for enzymes involved in essential biochemical pathways in cells. In this study, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and structure of the enzyme peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, was performed. The structure of F. tularensis peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase is comparable to those of other bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases, with most residues in the active site conserved amongst the family. The resultant reagents, structural data and analyses provide essential information for the structure-based design of novel inhibitors for this class of proteins. PMID:21505237

  2. Activity of murein hydrolases in synchronized cultures of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hakenbeck, R; Messer, W

    1977-01-01

    Murein hydrolase activities were analyzed in synchronized cultures of Escherichia coli B/r. Cell wall-bound murein hydrolase activities, including the penicillin-sensitive endopeptidase, increased discontinuously during the cell cycle and showed maximum activity at a cell age of 30 to 35 min (generation time, 43 min). Maximum activity was observed at the same time that the rate of cell wall synthesis reached its maximum. These oscillations depended on the termination of replication: no increase in hydrolase activity was found if deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was inhibited at an early time in the life cycle. In contrast, the activity of another murein hydrolase that was not tightly bound to the membrane (transglycosylase) increased exponentially with time, even when deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was inhibited. PMID:321419

  3. Peptide hydrolase activities of the mucosa of human small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Heizer, William D.; Laster, Leonard

    1969-01-01

    Few studies have been published on peptide hydrolase activities of human small intestine mucosa. We developed methods to screen tissue extracts for such enzymes and to quantitate hydrolase activities for dipeptides containing the aromatic amino acid L-phenylalanine. The screening procedure indicated glycyl-L-proline hydrolase activity was reduced in biopsy specimens from patients with flattened intestinal mucosa. To explore this further, we established optimal assay conditions for hydrolase activities (a) glycyl-L-proline, (b) L-phenylalanyl-L-proline, (c) L-alanyl-L-phenylalanine, and (d) L-phenylalanylglycine. Biopsy specimens from patients with various intestinal disorders, but without flattened mucosa, and from three patients with flattened mucosa, showed a disproportionate reduction in activities (a) and (b), with the reduction being significantly more marked in the latter patients. We suggest that intestinal imidopeptide hydrolase activities, such as (a) and (b), are sensitive to changes in intestinal disease generally, particularly to the altered physiology associated with flattening of the mucosa, and are secondary to, rather than a cause of, the intestinal pathology. Our finding that intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity tended to parallel imidopeptide hydrolase activity, and that activity (a) was partially localized to the particulate fraction of mucosal homogenate, suggested that imidopeptide hydrolase activities may be located in the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and that, like alkaline phosphatase activity, they may be reduced in flattened mucosae, in part at least because of the pathologic changes in the microvilli. In our studies of control subjects we did not detect peptide hydrolase activity deficiency analogous to asymptomatic disaccharidase deficiency. Images PMID:5765024

  4. Alterations of structure and hydrolase activity of parkinsonism-associated human ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 variants.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kaori; Li, Hang; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Osaka, Hitoshi; Wang, Yu-Lai; Hara, Yoko; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Manago, Yoshimasa; Amano, Taiju; Noda, Mami; Aoki, Shunsuke; Wada, Keiji

    2003-04-25

    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a neuron-specific ubiquitin recycling enzyme. A mutation at residue 93 and polymorphism at residue 18 within human UCH-L1 are linked to familial Parkinson's disease and a decreased Parkinson's disease risk, respectively. Thus, we constructed recombinant human UCH-L1 variants and examined their structure (using circular dichroism) and hydrolase activities. We confirmed that an I93M substitution results in a decrease in kcat (45.6%) coincident with an alteration in alpha-helical content. These changes may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, an S18Y substitution results in an increase in kcat (112.6%) without altering the circular dichroistic spectrum. These data suggest that UCH-L1 hydrolase activity may be inversely correlated with Parkinson's disease risk and that the hydrolase activity is protective against the disease. Furthermore, we found that oxidation of UCH-L1 by 4-hydroxynonenal, a candidate for endogenous mediator of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death, results in a loss of hydrolase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that further studies of altered UCH-L1 hydrolase function may provide new insights into a possible common pathogenic mechanism between familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease.

  5. Investigation of the mechanism of phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, T.W.; Olsen, D.B.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Mariano, P.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors are presently studying enzymes which catalyze the formation and cleavage of carbon phosphorous bonds. In 1970 LaNauze et. al. reported the isolation of one enzyme of interest - phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase from a mutant of Bacillus cereus. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoaldehyde to acetaldehyde and inorganic phosphate. They have isolated phosphonatase from wild type B. cereus (grown on 2-aminoethylphosphonate as the P/sub i/ source) and have used /sup 1/H-NMR and /sup 31/P-NMR techniques to determine the products of the enzyme reaction as phosphate and acetaldehyde. The mechanism of the enzyme could involve the formation of a Schiff base between phosphonoacetaldehyde and lysine or it might only require Mg/sup + +/, an essential cofactor for activity. To distinguish between these possibilities they have begun to look at the Schiff base formation in more detail. NaBH/sub 4/ was found to inactivate the enzyme in the presence of substrate but not in its absence. This is consistent with results obtained for the enzyme isolated from the mutant bacteria. In addition treatment of the wild type enzyme with tritiated NaBH/sub 4/ resulted in significant incorporation of radiolabel into the protein as compared to the control. These results tentatively suggest that hydrolysis proceeds via a covalent imine intermediate.

  6. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  7. Germline genetics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and its specific subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang; Kumar, Abhishek; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Claes; Folprecht, Gunnar; Löffler, Harald; Krämer, Alwin; Försti, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a fatal cancer diagnosed through metastases at various organs. Little is known about germline genetics of CUP which appears worth of a search in view of reported familial associations in CUP. In the present study, samples from CUP patients were identified from 2 Swedish biobanks and a German clinical trial, totaling 578 CUP patients and 7628 regionally matched controls. Diagnostic data specified the organ where metastases were diagnosed. We carried out a genome-wide association study on CUP cases and controls. In the whole sample set, 6 loci reached an allelic p-value in the range of 10−7 and were supported by data from the three centers. Three associations were located next to non-coding RNA genes. rs2660852 flanked 5′UTR of LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase), rs477145 was intronic to TIAM1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastases) and rs2835931 was intronic to KCNJ6 (potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6). In analysis of subgroups of CUP patients (smokers, non-smokers and CUP with liver metastases) genome-wide significant associations were noted. For patients with liver metastases associations on chromosome 6 and 11, the latter including a cluster of genes DHCR7 and NADSYN1, encoding key enzymes in cholesterol and NAD synthesis, and KRTAP5-7, encoding a keratin associated protein. This first GWAS on CUP provide preliminary evidence that germline genes relating to inflammation (LTA4H), metastatic promotion (TIAM1) in association with lipid metabolic disturbance (chromosome 11 cluster) may contribute to the risk of CUP. PMID:26959888

  8. Leukotriene Haplotype × Diet Interaction on Carotid Artery Hypertrophy and Atherosclerosis in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinying; Roman, Mary J.; Devereux, Richard B.; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Haack, Karin; Best, Lyle G.; Cole, Shelley A.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gene × diet interaction plays an important role in atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disorder. Leukotrienes are the most potent inflammatory mediators, and genetic variants encoding leukotriene genes have been implicated in atherosclerosis. This study tests nutrigenetic interaction of a previously defined leukotriene haplotype on carotid artery hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in American Indians. Methods This study included 3,402 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Carotid artery measurements, including intima-media thickness (IMT), vascular mass, and plaque, were assessed using ultrasound. Eleven tagSNPs in the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were genotyped in all subjects. Main haplotype effect and haplotype × diet interaction were examined by generalized estimating equation, adjusting for known risk factors. Results There was no significant main effect of haplotype or diet on any of the carotid artery measures. However, a previously defined LTA4H haplotype, called HapE, significantly interacted with dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on both IMT (P HapE x n3 = 0.018, P HapE x n6 = 0.040) and vascular mass (P HapE x n3 = 0.012, P HapE x n6 = 0.018), but not plaque. The direction of this nutrigenetic interaction on IMT was consistent with that reported in a recent study of Caucasian twins. Conclusion Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly modifies the effect of a leukotriene haplotype on carotid artery hypertrophy but not atherosclerosis in American Indians, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors. Replication of nutrigenetic interaction in two distinct ethnic groups suggests the robustness and generalizability of our findings to diverse populations. PMID:24529139

  9. Leukotriene haplotype × diet interaction on carotid artery hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Roman, Mary J; Devereux, Richard B; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Haack, Karin; Best, Lyle G; Cole, Shelley A; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Gene × diet interaction plays an important role in atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disorder. Leukotrienes are the most potent inflammatory mediators, and genetic variants encoding leukotriene genes have been implicated in atherosclerosis. This study tests nutrigenetic interaction of a previously defined leukotriene haplotype on carotid artery hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in American Indians. This study included 3402 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Carotid artery measurements, including intima-media thickness (IMT), vascular mass, and plaque, were assessed using ultrasound. Eleven tagSNPs in the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were genotyped in all subjects. Main haplotype effect and haplotype × diet interaction were examined by generalized estimating equation, adjusting for known risk factors. There was no significant main effect of haplotype or diet on any of the carotid artery measures. However, a previously defined LTA4H haplotype, called HapE, significantly interacted with dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on both IMT (P(HapE × n3) = 0.018, P(HapE × n6) = 0.040) and vascular mass (P(HapE × n3) = 0.012, P(HapE × n6) = 0.018), but not plaque. The direction of this nutrigenetic interaction on IMT was consistent with that reported in a recent study of Caucasian twins. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly modifies the effect of a leukotriene haplotype on carotid artery hypertrophy but not atherosclerosis in American Indians, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors. Replication of nutrigenetic interaction in two distinct ethnic groups suggests the robustness and generalizability of our findings to diverse populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Fong, Louise Y Y; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J; Guttridge, Denis C; Farber, John L

    2008-03-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced forestomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive biomarkers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B p65 and leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2-/- forestomachs displayed strong LTA(4)H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alternative pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer.

  11. Human Valacyclovir Hydrolase/Biphenyl Hydrolase-Like Protein Is a Highly Efficient Homocysteine Thiolactonase

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew G.; Rademacher, Peter M.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Rettie, Allan E.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 104 M−1s−1, orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  12. Dynamic hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse in tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sueldo, Daniela; Ahmed, Ali; Misas-Villamil, Johana; Colby, Tom; Tameling, Wladimir; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2014-08-01

    Hydrolases such as subtilases, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) and the proteasome play important roles during plant programmed cell death (PCD). We investigated hydrolase activities during PCD using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which displays the active proteome using probes that react covalently with the active site of proteins. We employed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings undergoing synchronized hypersensitive cell death by co-expressing the avirulence protein Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum and the tomato resistance protein Cf-4. Cell death is blocked in seedlings grown at high temperature and humidity, and is synchronously induced by decreasing temperature and humidity. ABPP revealed that VPEs and the proteasome are not differentially active, but that activities of papain-like cysteine proteases and serine hydrolases, including Hsr203 and P69B, increase before hypersensitive tissue collapse, whereas the activity of a carboxypeptidase-like enzyme is reduced. Similar dynamics were observed for these enzymes in the apoplast of tomato challenged with C. fulvum. Unexpectedly, these challenged plants also displayed novel isoforms of secreted putative VPEs. In the absence of tissue collapse at high humidity, the hydrolase activity profile is already altered completely, demonstrating that changes in hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Physarum polymalic acid hydrolase: Recombinant expression and enzyme activation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Wolfgang; Haindl, Markus; Holler, Eggehard

    2008-12-19

    As a platform for syntheses of nanoconjugates in antitumor drug delivery, polymalic acid together with its tailoring specific exohydrolase is purified from plasmodium cultures of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, a member of the phylum myxomycota. Polymalic acid hydrolase is expressed in an inactive form that functions as a molecular adapter for polymalic acid trafficking within the plasmodium and is activated only during secretion. Activation follows specific protein tyrosine phosphorylation and dissociation from plasma membranes. Purified inactive Physarum polymalic acid hydrolase, recombinantly expressed in yeast Saccharomyces, is activated on a preparative basis by the addition of plasma membrane fragments from plasmodia of P. polycephalum. Activation of polymalic acid hydrolase and inhibition of polymalic acid synthesis by protein tyrosine phosphorylation are complementary events and could indicate a joint signal response to plasma membrane damage.

  14. Discovery libraries targeting the major enzyme classes: the serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Otrubova, Katerina; Srinivasan, Venkat; Boger, Dale L

    2014-08-15

    Two libraries of modestly reactive ureas containing either electron-deficient acyl anilines or acyl pyrazoles were prepared and are reported as screening libraries for candidate serine hydrolase inhibitors. Within each library is a small but powerful subset of compounds that serve as a chemotype fragment screening library capable of subsequent structural diversification. Elaboration of the pyrazole-based ureas provided remarkably potent irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, apparent Ki=100-200 pM) complementary to those previously disclosed enlisting electron-deficient aniline-based ureas.

  15. Discovery libraries targeting the major enzyme classes: the serine hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Otrubova, Katerina; Srinivasan, Venkat; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    Two libraries of modestly reactive ureas containing either electron-deficient acyl anilines or acyl pyrazoles were prepared and are reported as screening libraries for candidate serine hydrolase inhibitors. Within each library is a small but powerful subset of compounds that serve as a chemotype fragment screening library capable of subsequent diversification. Elaboration of the pyrazole-based ureas provided remarkably potent irreversible structural inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, apparent Ki = 100-200 pM) complementary to those previously disclosed enlisting electron-deficient aniline-based ureas. PMID:25037918

  16. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process.

  17. ENGINEERING OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN HYDROLASES FOR CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophages are viruses exclusively infecting bacteria and therefore offer suitable tools for their detection and control. At the end of their multiplication cycle, most phages lyse their hosts from within by means of an endolysin (peptidoglycan hydrolase), thereby enabling release of the phage p...

  18. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. Their action usually generates a small hole through which the phage tail crosses the cell envelope to inject the phage genetic m...

  19. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF METABOLICALLY STABLE INHIBITORS OF MAMMALIAN MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as polyaromatic toxicants. Additionally, polymorphism studies have underlined a potential role of this enzyme in relation to a number of diseases, such as emphysema, spontaneous abortion, eclampsia ...

  1. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  2. Novel microbial epoxide hydrolases for biohydrolysis of glycidyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kotik, Michael; Brichac, Jiri; Kyslík, Pavel

    2005-12-06

    Microbial isolates from biofilters and petroleum-polluted bioremediation sites were screened for the presence of enantioselective epoxide hydrolases active towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, benzyl glycidyl ether, and allyl glycidyl ether. Out of 270 isolated strains, which comprised bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, four were selected based on the enantioselectivities of their epoxide hydrolases determined in biotransformation reactions. The enzyme of Aspergillus niger M200 preferentially hydrolyses (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether to (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with a relatively high enantioselectivity (the enantiomeric ratio E is about 30 at a reaction temperature of 28 degrees C). Epoxide hydrolases of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa M002 and Rhodococcus fascians M022 hydrolyse benzyl glycidyl ether with relatively low enantioselectivities, the former reacting predominantly with the (S)-enantiomer, the latter preferring the (R)-enantiomer. Enzymatic hydrolysis of allyl glycidyl ether by Cryptococcus laurentii M001 proceeds with low enantioselectivity (E=3). (R)-tert-Butyl glycidyl ether with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of over 99%, and (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with an ee-value of 86% have been prepared on a gram-scale using whole cells of A. niger M200. An enantiomeric ratio of approximately 100 has been determined under optimised biotransformation conditions with the partially purified epoxide hydrolase from A. niger M200. The regioselectivity of this enzyme was determined to be total for both (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether and (R)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether.

  3. Recognition of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a defined pep...

  4. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  5. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  6. The role of human glutathione transferases and epoxide hydrolases in the metabolism of xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Seidegård, J; Ekström, G

    1997-01-01

    Human glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of electrophilic compounds of both exogenous and endogenous origin. GSTs are generally recognized as detoxifying enzymes by catalyzing the conjugation of these compounds with glutathione, but they may also be involved in activation of some carcinogens. The memmalian GSTs can be differentiated into four classes of cytosolic enzymes and two membrane bound enzymes. Human epoxide hydrolases (EHs) catalyze the addition of water to epoxides to form the corresponding dihydrodiol. The enzymatic hydration is essentially irreversible and produces mainly metabolites of lower reactivity that can be conjugated and excreted. The reaction of EHs is therefore generally regarded as detoxifying. The mammalian EHs can be distinguished by their physical and enzymatic properties. Microsomal EH (mEH) exhibits a broad substrate specificity, while the soluble EH (sEH) is an enzyme with a "complementary" substrate specificity to mEH. Cholesterol EH and leukotriene A4 hydrolase are two EHs with very limited substrate specificity. The activities of either GSTs or EHs expressed in vivo exhibit a relatively large interindividual variation, which might be explained by induction, inhibition, or genetic factors. These variations in levels or activities of individual isoenzymes are of importance with respect to an individual's susceptibility to genotoxic effects. This article gives a general overview of GSTs and EHs, discussing the modulation of activities, determination of these enzymes ex vivo, and the polymorphic expression of some isoenzymes. PMID:9255563

  7. Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Hydrolase Activities of Mutant Esterases from the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Farnsworth, Claire A.; Coppin, Chris W.; Teese, Mark G.; Liu, Jian-Wei; Scott, Colin; Zhang, Xing; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran) which each confer organophosphate (OP) hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes’ active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4–6 fold increase in activity (more in one case) of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively. PMID:24204917

  8. Organophosphate and pyrethroid hydrolase activities of mutant Esterases from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Farnsworth, Claire A; Coppin, Chris W; Teese, Mark G; Liu, Jian-Wei; Scott, Colin; Zhang, Xing; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2013-01-01

    Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran) which each confer organophosphate (OP) hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case) of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.

  9. Consolidation of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 : a dual domain 4/7 hydrolase family consisting of two structurally distinct groups

    Treesearch

    Franz J. St John; Javier M. Gonzalez; Edwin Pozharski

    2010-01-01

    In this work glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 30 (GH30) is analyzed and shown to consist of its currently classified member sequences as well as several homologous sequence groups currently assigned within family GH5. A large scale amino acid sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree were generated and GH30 groups and subgroups were designated. A partial rearrangement...

  10. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  11. Diversity and Biocatalytic Potential of Epoxide Hydrolases Identified by Genome Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, Bert; Kingma, Jaap; Arand, Michael; Wubbolts, Marcel G.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2006-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the biodegradation of organic compounds and are potentially useful in enantioselective biocatalysis. An analysis of various genomic databases revealed that about 20% of sequenced organisms contain one or more putative epoxide hydrolase genes. They were found in all domains of life, and many fungi and actinobacteria contain several putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding genes. Multiple sequence alignments of epoxide hydrolases with other known and putative α/β-hydrolase fold enzymes that possess a nucleophilic aspartate revealed that these enzymes can be classified into eight phylogenetic groups that all contain putative epoxide hydrolases. To determine their catalytic activities, 10 putative bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes and 2 known bacterial epoxide hydrolase genes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The production of active enzyme was strongly improved by fusion to the maltose binding protein (MalE), which prevented inclusion body formation and facilitated protein purification. Eight of the 12 fusion proteins were active toward one or more of the 21 epoxides that were tested, and they converted both terminal and nonterminal epoxides. Four of the new epoxide hydrolases showed an uncommon enantiopreference for meso-epoxides and/or terminal aromatic epoxides, which made them suitable for the production of enantiopure (S,S)-diols and (R)-epoxides. The results show that the expression of epoxide hydrolase genes that are detected by analyses of genomic databases is a useful strategy for obtaining new biocatalysts. PMID:16597997

  12. Cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases are immunologically distinguishable from each other in the rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Hammock, B D; Vogel, U; Oesch, F

    1981-04-10

    Antibodies raised to homogeneous rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase were used to distinguish microsomal epoxide hydrolase from epoxide hydrolase of cytosolic origin in mice and rats. Using double diffusion analysis in agarose gels, we show that anti-rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase forms a single precipitin line with solubilized microsomes from rat and mouse liver, but no reaction is seen with the corresponding cytosolic fractions. Rat or mouse microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity (using benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide as substrate) can be completely precipitated out of solubilized preparations by the antibody, which is equipotent against rat and mouse microsomal epoxide hydrolase. No precipitation of cytosolic hydrolase activity (using trans-beta-ethyl styrene oxide as substrate) is seen with any concentration of the antibody tested. Thus, in the case of microsomal epoxide hydrolase, extensive immunological cross-reactivity exists between the two species, rat and mouse. In contrast, no cross-reactivity is detectable between cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, even when enzymes from the same species are compared. We conclude that microsomal and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase activities represent distinct and immunologically non-cross-reactive protein species.

  13. Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisseau, Christophe; Goodrow, Marvin H.; Dowdy, Deanna; Zheng, Jiang; Greene, Jessica F.; Sanborn, James R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1999-08-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide, which is active as the epoxide, but reduce cytotoxicity of leukotoxin, which is activated by epoxide hydrolase to its toxic diol. They also reduce toxicity of leukotoxin in vivo in mice and prevent symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome. These potent inhibitors may be valuable tools for testing hypotheses of involvement of diol and epoxide lipids in chemical mediation in vitro or in vivo systems.

  14. pHluorin-based in vivo assay for hydrolase screening.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sascha; Enzelberger, Markus; Trauthwein, Harald; Schmid, Rolf D; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2005-05-01

    pHluorin, a pH-sensitive mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP), acts as a sensor for intracellular pH shifts, triggered by hydrolytic enzymes. This principle was used to develop a pHluorin-based in vivo assay for hydrolase screening. The presented assay was evaluated for Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells, producing heterologous pHluorin and an esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus which is considered as a model hydrolase. Subsequently, the utility of this detection system was also demonstrated with recombinantly expressed hydantoinase and amidase in E. coli. This in vivo assay also shows capability for readout with flow cytometric devices. Population shifts of pHluorin-expressing E. coli cells were easily recognized due to pH changes caused by substrate hydrolysis.

  15. Production, crystallization and structure determination of a mycobacterial glucosylglycerate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Cereija, Tatiana Barros; Alarico, Susana; Empadinhas, Nuno; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2017-09-01

    Glucosylglycerate hydrolase is highly conserved among rapidly growing mycobacteria and has been found to be involved in recovery from nitrogen starvation by promoting the rapid mobilization of the glucosylglycerate that accumulates under these conditions. Here, the production, crystallization and structure determination of glucosylglycerate hydrolase from Mycobacterium hassiacum using two-wavelength anomalous diffraction of selenomethionine-substituted crystals are described. The monoclinic (space group P21) crystals diffracted to ∼2.0 Å resolution at a synchrotron-radiation source and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 3.07 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 59.9%. The quality of the experimental phases allowed the automated building of 1677 of the 1792 residues in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Alpha/Beta-hydrolase fold enzymes: structures, functions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, M

    2000-09-01

    The alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family of enzymes is rapidly becoming one of the largest group of structurally related enzymes with diverse catalytic functions. Members in this family include acetylcholinesterase, dienelactone hydrolase, lipase, thioesterase, serine carboxypeptidase, proline iminopeptidase, proline oligopeptidase, haloalkane dehalogenase, haloperoxidase, epoxide hydrolase, hydroxynitrile lyase and others. The enzymes all have a Nucleophile-His-Acid catalytic triad evolved to efficiently operate on substrates with different chemical composition or physicochemical properties and in various biological contexts. For example, acetylcholine esterase catalyzes the cleavage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, at a rate close to the limits of diffusion of substrate to the active site of the enzyme. Dienelactone hydrolase uses substrate-assisted catalysis to degrade aromatic compounds. Lipases act adsorbed at the water/lipid interface of their neutral water-insoluble ester substrates. Most lipases have their active site buried under secondary structure elements, a flap, which must change conformation to allow substrate to access the active site. Thioesterases are involved in a multitude of biochemical processes including bioluminiscence, fatty acid- and polyketide biosynthesis and metabolism. Serine carboxypeptidases recognize the negatively charged carboxylate terminus of their peptide substrates. Haloalkane dehalogenase is a detoxifying enzyme that converts halogenated aliphatics to the corresponding alcohols, while haloperoxidase catalyzes the halogenation of organic compounds. Hydroxynitrile lyase cleaves carbon-carbon bonds in cyanohydrins with concomitant hydrogen cyanide formation as a defense mechanism in plants. This paper gives an overview of catalytic activities reported for this family of enzymes by discussing selected examples. The current state of knowledge of the molecular basis for catalysis and substrate specificity is outlined

  17. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Purba, Endang R; Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cell growth, but the contribution of sEH to embryonic development is not well understood. In this study, Xenopus sEH cDNA was isolated from embryos of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus sEH was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified. The epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase activities of purified sEH were investigated. The Xenopus sEH did not show phosphatase activity toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate or several lysophosphatidic acids although it had EH activity. The amino acid sequence of Xenopus sEH was compared with that reported previously. We found amino acid substitutions of the 29th Thr to Asn and the 146th Arg to His and prepared a sEH mutant (N29T/H146R), designed as mutant 1. Neither wild-type sEH nor mutant 1 had phosphatase activity. Additional substitution of the 11th Gly with Asp was found by comparison with human sEH which has phosphatase activity, but the Xenopus sEH mutant G11D prepared as mutant 2 did not have phosphatase activity. The epoxide hydrolase activity of sEH seemed to be similar to that of human sEH, while Xenopus sEH did not have phosphatase activity toward several substrates that human sEH metabolizes.

  18. Human lung hydrolases delineate Mycobacterium tuberculosis-macrophage interactions and the capacity to control infection.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Jesús; Sasindran, Smitha J; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Turner, Joanne; Schlesinger, Larry S; Torrelles, Jordi B

    2011-07-01

    Pulmonary surfactant contains homeostatic and antimicrobial hydrolases. When Mycobacterium tuberculosis is initially deposited in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli, as well as following release from lysed macrophages, bacilli are in intimate contact with these lung surfactant hydrolases. We identified and measured several hydrolases in human alveolar lining fluid and lung tissue that, at their physiological concentrations, dramatically modified the M. tuberculosis cell envelope. Independent of their action time (15 min to 12 h), the effects of the hydrolases on the M. tuberculosis cell envelope resulted in a significant decrease (60-80%) in M. tuberculosis association with, and intracellular growth of the bacteria within, human macrophages. The cell envelope-modifying effects of the hydrolases also led to altered M. tuberculosis intracellular trafficking and induced a protective proinflammatory response to infection. These findings add a new concept to our understanding of M. tuberculosis-macrophage interactions (i.e., the impact of lung surfactant hydrolases on M. tuberculosis infection).

  19. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  20. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, at the levels of the whole genome and individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. For several glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51), we present a detailed literature review together with an examination of the family structures. This analysis of individual families revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and eudicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within GH families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for

  1. Contribution of hydrolase and phosphatase domains in soluble epoxide hydrolase to vascular endothelial growth factor expression and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Ami; Sakamoto, Koichi; Suzuki, Sachiko; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an important pharmacological target because it metabolizes potent bioactive substrates, epoxyeicosatrienoinc acids (EETs) and other lipid epoxide. EETs have a variety of biological functions including angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. However, the regulation and physiological function of sEH is not well understood. In this study, we found that hypoxia significantly suppressed the expression of sEH in mouse liver and a human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B. Hypoxia promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells or carcinoma cells. Knockdown of sEH in Hep3B cells induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and cell growth, both of which were suppressed by overexpression of sEH. sEH has phosphatase activity as well as epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity. We prepared mutant clones which lacking EH or phosphatase activity using the amino acid change Asp335Ser or Asp9Ala, respectively. The effects of WT sEH on cell growth were lost by mutation of either the EH domain or phosphatase domain. However, mutation of the phosphatase domain but not EH domain did not influence the expression of VEGF. These results suggest that sEH plays an important role in the physiology of cells including proliferation and that the epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase domains of sEH have different biological functions.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of epoxide hydrolase induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Hobara, T.; Ogino, K.; Takemoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Imamura, A.; Koshiro, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Sakai, T.

    1987-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolation of potentially toxic, electrophilic epoxides that are often generated during cytochrome P-450 catalyzed monooxigenation, forming the corresponding transdihydrodiols. It is well-known that trichloroethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidase systems to trichloroethylene oxide, which decomposes to other metabolites. As trichloroethylene is an epoxide, epoxide hydrolase is suspected to catalyze the hydrolation of trichloroethylene oxide. No reports have appeared about the relationship between trichloroethylene and epoxide hydrolase. In this report, the authors studied the effect of trichloroethylene on epoxide hydrolase immunohistochemically.

  3. The Responses of Rat Intestinal Brush Border and Cytosol Peptide Hydrolase Activities to Variation in Dietary Protein Content DIETARY REGULATION OF INTESTINAL PEPTIDE HYDROLASES

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, J. Alex; McCarthy, Denis M.; Kim, Young S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content on small intestinal brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities have been investigated. One group of rats was fed a high protein diet (55% casein) and another group was fed a low protein diet (10% casein). After 1 wk, brush border peptide hydrolase activity (L-leucyl-β-naphthylamide as substrate) and cytosol peptide hydrolase activity (L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate) were determined in mucosae taken from the proximal, middle, and distal small intestine. As judged by several parameters, brush border peptide hydrolase activity was significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet when data for corresponding segments were compared. In contrast, no significant difference was seen in cytosol peptide hydrolase activity. In a second study, brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities were determined in the proximal intestine by utilizing an additional three peptide substrates: L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-phenylalanylglycine, and glycyl-L-phenylalanine. Sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were also determined. As before, brush border peptide hydrolase activities were significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet. However, activities of the nonproteolytic brush border enzymes did not vary significantly with diet. In contrast to the results obtained with L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate for the cytosol enzymes, cytosol activity against the three additional peptide substrates was greater in rats fed the high protein diet. It is suggested that the brush border peptide hydrolase response to variation in dietary protein content represents a functional adaptation analogous to the regulation of intestinal disaccharidases by dietary carbohydrates. The implication of the differential responses of the cytosol peptide hydrolases is uncertain, since little is known of the functional role of these nonorgan-specific enzymes. PMID:4430719

  4. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  5. Structure of a soluble epoxide hydrolase identified in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carolina; De Oliveira, Gabriel S; Adriani, Patrícia P; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dias, Marcio V B

    2017-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that have high biotechnological interest for the fine and transformation industry. Several of these enzymes have enantioselectivity, which allows their application in the separation of enantiomeric mixtures of epoxide substrates. Although two different families of EHs have been described, those that have the α/β-hidrolase fold are the most explored for biotechnological purpose. These enzymes are functionally very well studied, but only few members have three-dimensional structures characterised. Recently, a new EH from the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reseei (TrEH) has been discovered and functionally studied. This enzyme does not have high homology to any other EH structure and have an enatiopreference for (S)-(-) isomers. Herein we described the crystallographic structure of TrEH at 1.7Å resolution, which reveals features of its tertiary structure and active site. TrEH has a similar fold to the other soluble epoxide hydrolases and has the two characteristic hydrolase and cap domains. The enzyme is predominantly monomeric in solution and has also been crystallised as a monomer in the asymmetric unit. Although the catalytic residues are conserved, several other residues of the catalytic groove are not, and might be involved in the specificity for substrates and in the enantioselectivy of this enzyme. In addition, the determination of the crystallographic structure of TrEH might contribute to the rational site direct mutagenesis to generate an even more stable enzyme with higher efficiency to be used in biotechnological purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymatic degradation of monocrotophos by extracellular fungal OP hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena

    2013-11-01

    The present study explores the potential of extracellular fungal organophosphate (OP) hydrolase for the degradation of monocrotophos. Extracellular OP hydrolases were isolated and purified from five different fungal isolates viz. Aspergillus niger (M1), Aspergillus flavus (M2), Penicillium aculeatum (M3), Fusarium pallidoroseum (M4), and Macrophomina sp. (M5) by AmSO4 precipitation, dialysis, and G-100 chromatography. M3 showed highest percentage yield of 68.81 followed by 55.41 % for M1. Each of the purified enzyme fraction constituted of two different subunits of 33- and 67-kDa molecular weight. Optimum enzyme fraction (150 μg ml(-1)) rapidly degraded monocrotophos within 120 h in phosphorus-free liquid culture medium (CZM) with K deg of 0.0368, 0.0138, 0.048, 0.016, 0.0138, and 0.048 day(-1) and half-life of 0.79, 2.11, 0.6, 1.8, and 2.11 days for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively. The results were further confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared which indicate the disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. The overall order of enzymatic degradation was found to be P. aculeatum > A. niger > F. pallidoroseum > A. flavus = Macrophomina sp. Hence, the study concludes that extracellular OP hydrolases efficiently degraded monocrotophos and could be used as a potential candidate for the detoxification of this neurotoxin pesticide.

  7. Inhibiting an epoxide hydrolase virulence strategy protects CFTR**

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Bruce A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, Cif's mechanism of action has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. Here, we show that Cif's hydrolase activity is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. We also uncover a small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system. Our results provide a basis for targeting Cif's distinctive virulence chemistry and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:26136396

  8. Inverting hydrolases and their use in enantioconvergent biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Markus; Faber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the more abundant occurrence of racemic compounds compared to prochiral or meso forms, most enantiomerically pure products are obtained via racemate resolution. This review summarizes (chemo)enzymatic enantioconvergent processes based on the use of hydrolytic enzymes, which are able to invert a stereocenter during catalysis that can overcome the 50%-yield limitation of kinetic resolution. Recent developments are presented in the fields of inverting or retaining sulfatases, epoxide hydrolases and dehalogenases, which allow the production of secondary alcohols or vicinal diols at a 100% theoretical yield from a racemate via enantioconvergent processes. PMID:23809848

  9. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-07-19

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo, using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and α-β hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome.

  10. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and alpha-beta hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome. PMID:23701408

  11. Parathion hydrolase specified by the Flavobacterium opd gene: relationship between the gene and protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-01-01

    The sequence of a 1,693-base-pair plasmid DNA fragment from Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 containing the parathion hydrolase gene (opd) was determined. Within this sequence, there is only one open reading frame large enough to encode the 35,000-dalton membrane-associated hydrolase protein purified from Flavobacterium extracts. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the purified Flavobacterium hydrolase demonstrated that serine is the amino-terminal residue of the hydrolase protein. The amino-terminal serine corresponds to a TCG codon located 87 base pairs downstream of the presumptive ATG initiation codon in the nucleotide sequence. The amino acid composition of the purified protein agrees well with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence, using serine as the amino-terminal residue. These data suggest that the parathion hydrolase protein is processed at its amino terminus in Flavobacterium sp. Construction in Escherichia coli of a lacZ-opd gene fusion in which the first 33 amino-terminal residues of opd were replaced by the first 5 residues of lacZ resulted in the production of an active hydrolase identical in molecular mass to the hydrolase isolated from Flavobacterium sp. E. coli cells containing the lacZ-opd fusion showed higher levels of hydrolase activity than did cells containing the parent plasmid. Images PMID:2556372

  12. Parathion hydrolase specified by the Flavobacterium opd gene: relationship between the gene and protein.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-12-01

    The sequence of a 1,693-base-pair plasmid DNA fragment from Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 containing the parathion hydrolase gene (opd) was determined. Within this sequence, there is only one open reading frame large enough to encode the 35,000-dalton membrane-associated hydrolase protein purified from Flavobacterium extracts. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the purified Flavobacterium hydrolase demonstrated that serine is the amino-terminal residue of the hydrolase protein. The amino-terminal serine corresponds to a TCG codon located 87 base pairs downstream of the presumptive ATG initiation codon in the nucleotide sequence. The amino acid composition of the purified protein agrees well with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence, using serine as the amino-terminal residue. These data suggest that the parathion hydrolase protein is processed at its amino terminus in Flavobacterium sp. Construction in Escherichia coli of a lacZ-opd gene fusion in which the first 33 amino-terminal residues of opd were replaced by the first 5 residues of lacZ resulted in the production of an active hydrolase identical in molecular mass to the hydrolase isolated from Flavobacterium sp. E. coli cells containing the lacZ-opd fusion showed higher levels of hydrolase activity than did cells containing the parent plasmid.

  13. Recognition and cleavage of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn. Polyglycine hydrolases are novel proteins in terms of activity and sequence. The objective of the study is to und...

  14. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we ann...

  15. Hydration of vinyl ether groups by unsaturated glycoside hydrolases and their role in bacterial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Itoh, Takafumi; Maruyama, Yukie; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku

    2007-12-01

    Many pathogenic microorganisms invade mammalian and/or plant cells by producing polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (lyases and hydrolases). Mammalian glycosaminoglycans and plant pectins that form part of the cell surface matrix are typical targets for these microbial enzymes. Unsaturated glycoside hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolytic release of an unsaturated uronic acid from oligosaccharides, which are produced through the reaction of matrix-degrading polysaccharide lyase. This enzymatic ability suggests that unsaturated glycoside hydrolases function as virulence factors in microbial infection. This review focuses on the molecular identification, bacterial distribution, and structure/function relationships of these enzymes. In contrast to general glycoside hydrolases, in which the catalytic mechanism involves the retention or inversion of an anomeric configuration, unsaturated glycoside hydrolases uniquely trigger the hydrolysis of vinyl ether groups in unsaturated saccharides but not of their glycosidic bonds.

  16. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T Molinate Hydrolase, a Novel Cobalt-Dependent Amidohydrolase ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Junca, Howard; Gales, Luís; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Nunes, Olga C.

    2011-01-01

    A new pathway of molinate mineralization has recently been described. Among the five members of the mixed culture able to promote such a process, Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T has been observed to promote the initial breakdown of the herbicide into ethanethiol and azepane-1-carboxylate. In the current study, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for molinate hydrolysis was identified and heterologously expressed, and the resultant active protein was purified and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a 465-amino-acid protein of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily with a predicted molecular mass of 50.9 kDa. Molinate hydrolase shares the highest amino acid sequence identity (48 to 50%) with phenylurea hydrolases of Arthrobacter globiformis and Mycobacterium brisbanense. However, in contrast to previously described members of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily, molinate hydrolase contains cobalt as the only active-site metal. PMID:21840982

  17. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  18. Mechanistic Investigations of Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens*

    PubMed Central

    Jongkees, Seino A. K.; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct 1H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

  19. Structure of unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase complexed with substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Takafumi; Ochiai, Akihito; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku . E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-09-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain 168 YteR has been identified as a novel enzyme 'unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase' classified in glycoside hydrolase family 105. This enzyme acts specifically on unsaturated rhamnogalacturonan (RG) produced from plant cell wall RG type-I treated with RG lyases, releasing unsaturated galacturonic acid ({delta}GalA) from the substrate. The most likely candidate catalytic residue is Asp-143. Here, we show the structure of D143N in complex with unsaturated RG disaccharide (substrate) determined at 1.9 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This structural feature directly contributes to the postulation of the enzyme reaction mechanism. YteR triggers the hydration of vinyl ether group in {delta}GalA, but not of glycoside bond, by using Asp-143 as a general acid and base catalyst. Asp-143 donates proton to the double bond of {delta}GalA as an acid catalyst and also deprotonates a water molecule as a base catalyst. Deprotonated water molecule attacks the C5 atom of {delta}GalA.

  20. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.

  1. Structural model for family 32 of glycosyl-hydrolase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pons, T; Olmea, O; Chinea, G; Beldarraín, A; Márquez, G; Acosta, N; Rodríguez, L; Valencia, A

    1998-11-15

    A structural model is presented for family 32 of the glycosyl-hydrolase enzymes based on the beta-propeller fold. The model is derived from the common prediction of two different threading methods, TOPITS and THREADER. In addition, we used a correlated mutation analysis and prediction of active-site residues to corroborate the proposed model. Physical techniques (circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry) confirmed two aspects of the prediction, the proposed all-beta fold and the multi-domain structure. The most reliable three-dimensional model was obtained using the structure of neuraminidase (1nscA) as template. The analysis of the position of the active site residues in this model is compatible with the catalytic mechanism proposed by Reddy and Maley (J. Biol. Chem. 271:13953-13958, 1996), which includes three conserved residues, Asp, Glu, and Cys. Based on this analysis, we propose the participation of one more conserved residue (Asp 162) in the catalytic mechanism. The model will facilitate further studies of the physical and biochemical characteristics of family 32 of the glycosyl-hydrolases.

  2. Peripheral FAAH and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors are synergistically antinociceptive.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Wagner, Karen; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-07-01

    We need better medicines to control acute and chronic pain. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) catalyze the deactivating hydrolysis of two classes of bioactive lipid mediators--fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and epoxidized fatty acids (EpFAs), respectively--which are biogenetically distinct but share the ability to attenuate pain responses and inflammation. In these experiments, we evaluated the antihyperalgesic activity of small-molecule inhibitors of FAAH and sEH, administered alone or in combination, in two pain models: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in mice and streptozocin-induced allodynia in rats. When administered separately, the sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidine-4-yl)urea (TPPU) and the peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitor URB937 were highly active in the two models. The combination TPPU plus URB937 was markedly synergistic, as assessed using isobolographic analyses. The results of these experiments reveal the existence of a possible functional crosstalk between FAEs and EpFAs in regulating pain responses. Additionally, the results suggest that combinations of sEH and FAAH inhibitors might be exploited therapeutically to achieve greater analgesic efficacy.

  3. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-03

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  4. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  5. Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ∼3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries.

  6. A molecular model for the active site of S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jerry C.; Borchardt, Ronald T.; Vedani, Angelo

    1991-06-01

    S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase, EC 3.3.1.1.), a specific target for antiviral drug design, catalyzes the hydrolysis of AdoHcy to adenosine (Ado) and homocysteine (Hcy) as well as the synthesis of AdoHcy from Ado and Hcy. The enzyme isolated from different sources has been shown to contain tightly bound NAD+. Based on the 2.0 Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of dogfish lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is functionally homologous to AdoHcy hydrolase, and the primary sequence of rat liver AdoHcy hydrolase, we have derived a molecular model of an extended active site for AdoHcy hydrolase. The computational mutation was performed using the software MUTAR (Yeh et al., University of Kansas, Lawrence), followed by molecular mechanics optimizations using the programs AMBER (Singh et al., University of California, San Francisco) and YETI (Vedani, University of Kansas). Solvation of the model structure was achieved by use of the program SOLVGEN (Jacober, University of Kansas); 56 water molecules were explicitly included in all refinements. Some of these may be involved in the catalytic reaction. We also studied a model of the complex of AdoHcy hydrolase with NAD+, as well as the ternary complexes of the redox reaction catalyzed by AdoHcy hydrolase and has been used to differentiate the relative binding strength of inhibitors.

  7. Identification and characterization of a new epoxide hydrolase from mouse liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Oesch, F

    1983-12-25

    A new microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH2) has been identified and characterized. This enzyme has properties which distinguish it from previously described cytosolic (cEH) or membrane-bound (mEH1) epoxide hydrolases. The enzyme is an integral microsomal protein which is not dissociated from the membrane by repeated washing, high ionic strength salt, or chaotropic agent solutions, or by sonication. It is very different from the normally described microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH1) as shown by its different substrate specificity and kinetic properties and by immunological criteria. In contrast to the hitherto described microsomal epoxide hydrolase, mEH1, the new enzyme effectively catalyzes the hydration of transdisubstituted oxiranes such as trans-stilbene oxide and trans-beta-ethyl styrene oxide and has no appreciable activity toward benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide. It is also structurally distinct, in that it does not cross-react with antibodies raised against the normally described microsomal epoxide hydrolase mEH1. This newly described microsomal epoxide hydrolase probably represents an important factor in the control of reactive epoxides; its location in the membrane ensures access to lipophilic epoxides generated by membrane-bound monooxygenases, and its substrate specificity is such that it can hydrolyze epoxides poorly metabolized by the previously described microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

  8. Characterization of multiple epoxide hydrolase activities in mouse liver nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M

    1986-10-01

    A nuclear envelope-associated epoxide hydrolase in mouse liver that hydrates trans-stilbene oxide has been identified and characterized. This epoxide hydrolase is distinct from the enzyme in nuclear envelopes that hydrates benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide and other arene oxides. This distinction was demonstrated by the criteria of pH optima, response to specific inhibitors in vitro, and precipitation by specific antibodies. The new epoxide hydrolase had a pH optimum of 6.8, was poorly inhibited by trichloropropene oxide, was potently inhibited by 4-phenylchalcone oxide, and did not bind to antiserum against benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide hydrolase. This nuclear enzyme is similar in many of its properties to cytosolic and microsomal trans-stilbene oxide hydrolases and may be nuclear envelope-bound form of these other epoxide hydrolases. It differed from these other trans-stilbene oxide hydrolases in that its affinities for both trans-stilbene oxide (measured as apparent Km) and 4-phenylchalcone oxide (measured as I50) were 4- to 20-fold lower than those of either the cytosolic or microsomal forms.

  9. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  10. A Proton Wire and Water Channel Revealed in the Crystal Structure of Isatin Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan K.; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Etzerodt, Michael; Morth, J. Preben

    2014-01-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to a novel family of metalloenzymes that include the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The product state, mimicked by bound thioisatinate, reveals a water molecule that bridges the thioisatinate to a proton wire in an adjacent water channel and thus allows the proton released by the reaction to escape only when the product is formed. The functional proton wire present in isatin hydrolase isoform b represents a unique catalytic feature common to all hydrolases is here trapped and visualized for the first time. The local molecular environment required to coordinate thioisatinate allows stronger and more confident identification of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora. PMID:24917679

  11. Retinyl ester hydrolases and their roles in vitamin A homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Renate; Taschler, Ulrike; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, dietary vitamin A intake is essential for the maintenance of adequate retinoid (vitamin A and metabolites) supply of tissues and organs. Retinoids are taken up from animal or plant sources and subsequently stored in form of hydrophobic, biologically inactive retinyl esters (REs). Accessibility of these REs in the intestine, the circulation, and their mobilization from intracellular lipid droplets depends on the hydrolytic action of RE hydrolases (REHs). In particular, the mobilization of hepatic RE stores requires REHs to maintain steady plasma retinol levels thereby assuring constant vitamin A supply in times of food deprivation or inadequate vitamin A intake. In this review, we focus on the roles of extracellular and intracellular REHs in vitamin A metabolism. Furthermore, we will discuss the tissue-specific function of REHs and highlight major gaps in the understanding of RE catabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism.

  12. Sulfonyl Fluoride Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Bharatan, Indu; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Nasr, Mahmoud L.; Bowman, Anna L.; Zvonok, Nikolai; Li, Jing; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human FAAH we show that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride (AM3506) has similar inhibitory activity for both the rat and the human enzyme, while rapid dilution assays and mass spectrometry analysis suggest that the compound is a covalent modifier for FAAH and inhibits its action in an irreversible manner. Our SAR results are highlighted by molecular docking of key analogs. PMID:23083016

  13. Ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 significance for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Suong, Dang Ngoc Anh; Thao, Dang Thi Phuong; Masamitsu, Yamaguchi; Thuoc, Tran Linh

    2014-07-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is an abundant multifunctional neuron protein. It plays an important role in maintaining the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), vital for recognizing and degrading dysfunctional proteins in organisms. In recent decades, UCH-L1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and diabetes. However, the mechanisms of UCH-L1 involvement have yet to be revealed in detail. Since UCH-L1 contributes many different functions to cell metabolism, its role and regulation might be more complex than previously thought and it has become a research target in many laboratories. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to the actions of UCH-L1 in several human diseases.

  14. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: Gene structure, expression and deletion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts epoxides to their corresponding diols through the addition of a water molecule. sEH readily hydrolyzes lipid signaling molecules, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), epoxidized lipids produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cytochrome p450s. Through its metabolism of the EETs and other lipid mediators, sEH contributes to the regulation of vascular tone, nociception, angiogenesis and the inflammatory response. Because of its central physiological role in disease states such as cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, hypertension, and pain sEH is being investigated as a therapeutic target. This review begins with a brief introduction to sEH protein structure and function. sEH evolution and gene structure are then discussed before human small nucleotide polymorphisms and mammalian gene expression are described in the context of several disease models. The review ends with an overview of studies that have employed the sEH knockout mouse model. PMID:23701967

  15. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions. Part 3. Hydrolases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-11-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the hydrolase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: The reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 145 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  16. Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1986-03-01

    There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

  17. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55

    DOE PAGES

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; ...

    2015-03-09

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define themore » active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Furthermore, application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.« less

  18. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  19. A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity

    Treesearch

    Franz J. St John; Diane Dietrich; Casey Crooks; Edwin Pozharski; Javier M. González; Elizabeth Bales; Kennon Smith; Jason C. Hurlbert

    2014-01-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the

  20. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  1. High-throughput cloning, expression and purification of glycoside hydrolases using Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC).

    PubMed

    Camilo, Cesar M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques have led to an explosion in the amount of available genome sequencing data and this provided an inexhaustible source of uncharacterized glycoside hydrolases (GH) to be studied both structurally and enzymatically. Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC), an interesting alternative to traditional, restriction enzyme-based cloning, and commercial recombinatorial cloning, was adopted and optimized successfully for a high throughput cloning, expression and purification pipeline. Using this platform, 130 genes encoding mainly uncharacterized glycoside hydrolases from 13 different organisms were cloned and submitted to a semi-automated protein expression and solubility screening in Escherichia coli, resulting in 73 soluble targets. The high throughput approach proved to be a powerful tool for production of recombinant glycoside hydrolases for further structural and biochemical characterization and confirmed that thioredoxin fusion tag (TRX) is a better choice to increase solubility of recombinant glycoside hydrolases expressed in E. coli, when compared to His-tag alone.

  2. Mode of action of xylogalacturonan hydrolase towards xylogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    XGH (xylogalacturonan hydrolase; GH 28) is an enzyme that is capable of degrading XGA (xylogalacturonan), which is a polymer of α-D-galacturonic acid, highly substituted with β-D-xylose. XGA is present in cell walls of various plants and exudates, such as gum tragacanth. XGA oligosaccharides were derived from an XGH digestion of gum tragacanth, then fractionated, and analysed for their sugar composition and structure by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight MS and nanospray MS. Several oligosaccharides from XGA were identified with different galacturonic acid/xylose ratios including five oligosaccharide isomers. Although XGH can act as an endo-enzyme, product-progression profiling showed that the disaccharide GalAXyl was predominantly produced from XGA by XGH, which indicated also an exolytic action. The latter was further supported by degradation studies of purified oligosaccharide GalA4Xyl3. It was shown that XGH acted from the non-reducing end towards the reducing end of this oligosaccharide, and showed the processive character of XGH. The results from this study further show that although XGH prefers to act between two xylosidated GalA units, it tolerates unsubstituted GalA units in its −1 and +1 subsites. PMID:15560751

  3. An integrated molecular docking and rescoring method for predicting the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Yang, Xiao; Li, Guo-Bo; Fan, Kai-Ge; Yin, Peng-Fei; Chen, Xiang-Gui

    2016-04-01

    The enzymatic chemistry method is currently the most widely used method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but the enzymes used, such as cholinesterases, lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low concentrations of OP pesticides present in given samples. Serine hydrolase is considered an ideal enzyme source in seeking high-sensitivity enzymes used for OP pesticide detection. However, it is difficult to systematically evaluate sensitivities of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides by in vitro experiments. This study aimed to establish an in silico method to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides. A serine hydrolase database containing 219 representative serine hydrolases was constructed. Based on this database, an integrated molecular docking and rescoring method was established, in which the AutoDock Vina program was used to produce the binding poses of OP pesticides to various serine hydrolases and the ID-Score method developed recently by us was adopted as a rescoring method to predict their binding affinities. In retrospective case studies, this method showed good performance in predicting the sensitivities of known serine hydrolases to two OP pesticides: paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The sensitivity spectrum of the 219 collected serine hydrolases to 37 commonly used OP pesticides was finally obtained using this method. Overall, this study presented a promising in silico tool to predict the sensitivity spectrum of various serine hydrolases to OP pesticides, which will help in finding high-sensitivity serine hydrolases for OP pesticide detection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The leukotriene B4-leukotriene B4 receptor axis promotes cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by modulating neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Lin, Yuli; Ma, Shuai; Zheng, Yin; Yang, Xuguang; Li, Bingji; Yu, Wenyan; Xu, Qingqing; Liu, Tingyan; Hao, Chuanming; He, Rui; Ding, Feng

    2017-03-15

    Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent and widely used in treatment of various solid organ malignancies, including head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancers. However, the induction of acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of its main side effects. Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1) mediates the majority of physiological effects of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent lipid chemoattractant generated at inflammation sites, but the role of the LTB4-BLT1 axis in cisplatin-induced AKI remains unknown. Here we found upregulated LTB4 synthesis and BLT1 expression in the kidney after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin was found to directly upregulate gene expression of leukotriene A4 hydrolase and stimulate LTB4 production in renal tubular epithelial cells. Reduced kidney structural/functional damage, inflammation, and apoptosis were observed in BLT1(-/-) mice, as well as in wild-type mice treated with the LTA4H inhibitor SC-57461A and the BLT1 antagonist U-75302. Neutrophils were likely the target of this pathway, as BLT1 absence induced a significant decrease in infiltrating neutrophils in the kidney. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from wild-type mice restored kidney injury in BLT1(-/-) mice following cisplatin challenge. Thus, the LTB4-BLT1 axis contributes to cisplatin-induced AKI by mediating kidney recruitment of neutrophils, which induce inflammation and apoptosis in the kidney. Hence, the LTB4-BLT1 axis could be a potential therapeutic target in cisplatin-induced AKI.

  5. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-05

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.

  6. Repurposing Suzuki Coupling Reagents as a Directed Fragment Library Targeting Serine Hydrolases and Related Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are susceptible to potent reversible inhibition by boronic acids. Large collections of chemically diverse boronic acid fragments are commercially available because of their utility in coupling chemistry. We repurposed the approximately 650 boronic acid reagents in our collection as a directed fragment library targeting serine hydrolases and related enzymes. Highly efficient hits (LE > 0.6) often result. The utility of the approach is illustrated with the results against autotaxin, a phospholipase implicated in cardiovascular disease. PMID:28564542

  7. Compositional profile of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  8. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes.

  9. A New Family of Biuret Hydrolases Involved in S-Triazine Ring Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Stephan M.; Durchschein, Katharina; Richman, Jack E.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Biuret is an intermediate in the bacterial metabolism of s-triazine ring compounds and is occasionally used as a ruminant feed supplement. We used bioinformatics to identify a biuret hydrolase, an enzyme that has previously resisted efforts to stabilize, purify and characterize. This newly discovered enzyme is a member of the cysteine hydrolase superfamily, a family of enzymes previously not found to be involved in s-triazine metabolism. The gene from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841 encoding biuret hydrolase was synthesized, transformed into Escherichia coli, and expressed. The enzyme was purified and found to be stable. Biuret hydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of biuret to allophanate and ammonia. The kcat/KM of 1.7 × 105 M−1s−1 and the relatively low KM of 23 ± 4 μM together suggested that this enzyme acts uniquely on biuret physiologically. This is supported by the fact that of the 34 substrate analogs of biuret tested, only two demonstrated reactivity, both at less than 5% of the rate determined for biuret. Biuret hydrolase does not react with carboxybiuret, the product of the enzyme immediately preceding biuret hydrolase in the metabolic pathway for cyanuric acid. This suggests an unusual metabolic strategy of an enzymatically-produced intermediate undergoing non-enzymatic decarboxylation to produce the substrate for the next enzyme in the pathway. PMID:21897878

  10. Human Lung Hydrolases Delineate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Macrophage Interactions and the Capacity To Control Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcos, Jesus; Sasindran, Smitha J.; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Turner, Joanne; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant contains homeostatic and antimicrobial hydrolases. When Mycobacterium tuberculosis is initially deposited in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli, as well as following release from lysed macrophages, bacilli are in intimate contact with these lung surfactant hydrolases. We identified and measured several hydrolases in human alveolar lining fluid and lung tissue that, at their physiological concentrations, dramatically modified the M. tuberculosis cell envelope. Independent of their action time (15 min to 12 h), the effects of the hydrolases on the M. tuberculosis cell envelope resulted in a significant decrease (60–80%) in M. tuberculosis association with, and intracellular growth of the bacteria within, human macrophages. The cell envelope-modifying effects of the hydrolases also led to altered M. tuberculosis intracellular trafficking and induced a protective proin-flammatory response to infection. These findings add a new concept to our understanding of M. tuberculosis–macrophage inter-actions (i.e., the impact of lung surfactant hydrolases on M. tuberculosis infection). PMID:21602490

  11. A Phylogenetically Informed Comparison of GH1 Hydrolases between Arabidopsis and Rice Response to Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yun-Ying; Yang, Jing-Fang; Liu, Tie-Yuan; Su, Zhen-Feng; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Fan, Tao; Ye, Neng-Hui; Feng, Zhen; Wang, Ling-Juan; Hao, Ge-Fei; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Ying-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases Family 1 (GH1) comprises enzymes that can hydrolyze β-O-glycosidic bond from a carbohydrate moiety. The plant GH1 hydrolases participate in a number of developmental processes and stress responses, including cell wall modification, plant hormone activation or deactivation and herbivore resistance. A large number of members has been observed in this family, suggesting their potential redundant functions in various biological processes. In this study, we have used 304 sequences of plant GH1 hydrolases to study the evolution of this gene family in plant lineage. Gene duplication was found to be a common phenomenon in this gene family. Although many members of GH1 hydrolases showed a high degree of similarity in Arabidopsis and rice, they showed substantial tissue specificity and differential responses to various stress treatments. This differential regulation implies each enzyme may play a distinct role in plants. Furthermore, some of salt-responsive Arabidopsis GH1 hydrolases were selected to test their genetic involvement in salt responses. The knockout mutants of AtBGLU1 and AtBGLU19 were observed to be less-sensitive during NaCl treatment in comparison to the wild type seedlings, indicating their participation in salt stress response. In summary, Arabidopsis and rice GH1 glycoside hydrolases showed distinct features in their evolutionary path, transcriptional regulation and genetic functions. PMID:28392792

  12. Purification and characterization of three parathion hydrolases from gram-negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-02-01

    Three unique parathion hydrolases were purified from gram-negative bacterial isolates and characterized. All three purified enzymes had roughly comparable affinities for ethyl parathion and had broad temperature optima at ca. 40 degrees C. The membrane-bound hydrolase of Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 35,000 daltons (Da) and was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and by metal salts such as CuCl2. The cytosolic hydrolase of strain B-1 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 43,000 Da and was stimulated by DTT and inhibited by CuCl2. The membrane-bound hydrolase of strain SC was composed of four identical subunits of 67,000 Da and was inhibited by DTT and stimulated by CuCl2. The substrate ranges of the three enzymes also differed, as evidenced by their relative affinities for parathion and the related organophosphate insecticide O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). The B-1 hydrolase displayed equal affinity for both compounds, the Flavobacterium enzyme showed twofold-lower affinity for EPN than for parathion, and the SC hydrolase displayed no activity toward EPN. The range in characteristics of these three enzymes can be exploited in different waste disposal strategies.

  13. Purification and characterization of three parathion hydrolases from gram-negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S

    1989-01-01

    Three unique parathion hydrolases were purified from gram-negative bacterial isolates and characterized. All three purified enzymes had roughly comparable affinities for ethyl parathion and had broad temperature optima at ca. 40 degrees C. The membrane-bound hydrolase of Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 35,000 daltons (Da) and was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and by metal salts such as CuCl2. The cytosolic hydrolase of strain B-1 was composed of a single subunit of approximately 43,000 Da and was stimulated by DTT and inhibited by CuCl2. The membrane-bound hydrolase of strain SC was composed of four identical subunits of 67,000 Da and was inhibited by DTT and stimulated by CuCl2. The substrate ranges of the three enzymes also differed, as evidenced by their relative affinities for parathion and the related organophosphate insecticide O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). The B-1 hydrolase displayed equal affinity for both compounds, the Flavobacterium enzyme showed twofold-lower affinity for EPN than for parathion, and the SC hydrolase displayed no activity toward EPN. The range in characteristics of these three enzymes can be exploited in different waste disposal strategies. Images PMID:2541658

  14. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  15. Kinetic characterization of a cocaine hydrolase engineered from mouse butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Geng, Liyi; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Zheng, Xirong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    Mouse butyrylcholinesterase (mBChE) and an mBChE-based cocaine hydrolase (mCocH, i.e. the A¹⁹⁹S/S²²⁷A/S²⁸⁷G/A³²⁸W/Y³³²G mutant) have been characterized for their catalytic activities against cocaine, i.e. naturally occurring (-)-cocaine, in comparison with the corresponding human BChE (hBChE) and an hBChE-based cocaine hydrolase (hCocH, i.e. the A¹⁹⁹S/F²²⁷A/S²⁸⁷G/A³²⁸W/Y³³²G mutant). It has been demonstrated that mCocH and hCocH have improved the catalytic efficiency of mBChE and hBChE against (-)-cocaine by ~8- and ~2000-fold respectively, although the catalytic efficiencies of mCocH and hCocH against other substrates, including acetylcholine (ACh) and butyrylthiocholine (BTC), are close to those of the corresponding wild-type enzymes mBChE and hBChE. According to the kinetic data, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) of mBChE against (-)-cocaine is comparable with that of hBChE, but the catalytic efficiency of mCocH against (-)-cocaine is remarkably lower than that of hCocH by ~250-fold. The remarkable difference in the catalytic activity between mCocH and hCocH is consistent with the difference between the enzyme-(-)-cocaine binding modes obtained from molecular modelling. Further, both mBChE and hBChE demonstrated substrate activation for all of the examined substrates [(-)-cocaine, ACh and BTC] at high concentrations, whereas both mCocH and hCocH showed substrate inhibition for all three substrates at high concentrations. The amino-acid mutations have remarkably converted substrate activation of the enzymes into substrate inhibition, implying that the rate-determining step of the reaction in mCocH and hCocH might be different from that in mBChE and hBChE.

  16. A new group of exo-acting family 28 glycoside hydrolases of Aspergillus niger that are involved in pectin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S.; Zandleven, Joris S.; Benen, Jaques A. E.; Awad, Hanem; Kools, Harrie J.; Beldman, Gerrit; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Van Den Berg, Johan A.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger is an industrial producer of pectin-degrading enzymes. The recent solving of the genomic sequence of A. niger allowed an inventory of the entire genome of the fungus for potential carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. By applying bioinformatics tools, 12 new genes, putatively encoding family 28 glycoside hydrolases, were identified. Seven of the newly discovered genes form a new gene group, which we show to encode exoacting pectinolytic glycoside hydrolases. This group includes four exo-polygalacturonan hydrolases (PGAX, PGXA, PGXB and PGXC) and three putative exo-rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases (RGXA, RGXB and RGXC). Biochemical identification using polygalacturonic acid and xylogalacturonan as substrates demonstrated that indeed PGXB and PGXC act as exo-polygalacturonases, whereas PGXA acts as an exo-xylogalacturonan hydrolase. The expression levels of all 21 genes were assessed by microarray analysis. The results from the present study demonstrate that exo-acting glycoside hydrolases play a prominent role in pectin degradation. PMID:16822232

  17. Expression of leukotriene biosynthetic enzymes in tonsillar tissue of children with obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective nonrandomized study.

    PubMed

    Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Hatzinikolaou, Souzana; Baltatzis, George E; Lianou, Loukia; Maragozidis, Panagiotis; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Chrousos, George; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2014-10-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) potentially promote adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have identified CysLTs and their receptors in tonsillar tissue from children with OSA. To demonstrate expression of the leukotriene biosynthetic enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H), and leukotriene C(4) synthase (LTC(4)S) in T and B tonsillar lymphocytes from pediatric patients with OSA. It was hypothesized that children with OSA have greater expression of biosynthetic enzymes for CysLTs (5-LO, FLAP, and LTC(4)S) in their tonsillar tissue than do children with recurrent tonsillitis (RT), who were enrolled as controls. This prospective, nonrandomized study was performed at a tertiary care university hospital on 13 children with OSA and adenotonsillar hypertrophy undergoing adenotonsillectomy and 12 children without OSA also undergoing tonsillectomy for RT. Tonsillar tissue from children with OSA or RT was examined for 5-LO, FLAP, LTA(4)H, and LTC(4)S expression under real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), flow cytometry (FC), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CM). Expression of biosynthetic enzymes for CysLTs (5-LO, FLAP, and LTC(4)S) was the main outcome measure. Patients with OSA and control patients with RT were compared for numbers of copies of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC(4)S messenger RNA (by RT-qPCR) in T or B tonsillar lymphocytes and proportions of CD3(+) or CD19(+) tonsillar lymphocytes that expressed 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC(4)S (by FC). Messenger RNA for all 4 enzymes was detected in T and B lymphocytes from both study groups, and expression of all biosynthetic enzymes was demonstrated in participants with OSA and RT by FC. Patients with OSA differed from controls in the proportions (median [10th-90th percentile]) of LTC(4)S(+) CD3(+) T lymphocytes (23.31% [8.64%-50.07%] vs 10.81% [3.48%-23.32%], respectively) (P = .01) and

  18. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila. PMID:27761137

  19. ADP-Ribosylarginine Hydrolase Regulates Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Jiro; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Chengyu; Stylianou, Mario; Hoffmann, Victoria; Lizak, Martin J.; Glasgow, Connie G.; Moss, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of uncertain significance in cancer. In this study, we evaluated the consequences for cancer susceptibility in the mouse of a genetic deletion of the enzyme responsible for removing mono-ADP–ribose moieties from arginines in cellular proteins. Specifically, we analyzed cancer susceptibility in animals lacking the ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase (ARH1) that cleaves the ADP ribose–protein bond. ARH1−/− cells or ARH1−/− cells overexpressing an inactive mutant ARH1 protein (ARH1−/− +dm) had higher proliferation rates than either wild-type ARH1+/+ cells or ARH1−/− cells engineered to express the wild-type ARH1 enzyme. More significantly, ARH1−/− and ARH1+/− mice spontaneously developed lymphomas, adenocarcinomas, and metastases more frequently than wild-type ARH1+/+ mice. In ARH1+/− mice, we documented in all arising tumors mutation of the remaining wild-type allele (or loss of heterozygosity), illustrating the strict correlation that existed between tumor formation and absence of ARH1 gene function. Our findings show that proper control of protein ADP-ribosylation levels affected by ARH1 is essential for cancer suppression. PMID:21697277

  20. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase regulates cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Jiro; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Chengyu; Stylianou, Mario; Hoffmann, Victoria; Lizak, Martin J; Glasgow, Connie G; Moss, Joel

    2011-08-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of uncertain significance in cancer. In this study, we evaluated the consequences for cancer susceptibility in the mouse of a genetic deletion of the enzyme responsible for removing mono-ADP-ribose moieties from arginines in cellular proteins. Specifically, we analyzed cancer susceptibility in animals lacking the ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase (ARH1) that cleaves the ADP ribose-protein bond. ARH1(-/-) cells or ARH1(-/-) cells overexpressing an inactive mutant ARH1 protein (ARH1(-/-)+dm) had higher proliferation rates than either wild-type ARH1(+/+) cells or ARH1(-/-) cells engineered to express the wild-type ARH1 enzyme. More significantly, ARH1(-/-) and ARH1(+/-) mice spontaneously developed lymphomas, adenocarcinomas, and metastases more frequently than wild-type ARH1(+/+) mice. In ARH1(+/-) mice, we documented in all arising tumors mutation of the remaining wild-type allele (or loss of heterozygosity), illustrating the strict correlation that existed between tumor formation and absence of ARH1 gene function. Our findings show that proper control of protein ADP-ribosylation levels affected by ARH1 is essential for cancer suppression.

  1. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hurst-Kennedy, Jennifer; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5) is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis. PMID:22811913

  2. Mapping human brain fatty acid amide hydrolase activity with PET

    PubMed Central

    Rusjan, Pablo M; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Boileau, Isabelle; Chavez, Sofia E; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Tong, Junchao

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoid tone has recently been implicated in a number of prevalent neuropsychiatric conditions. [11C]CURB is the first available positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme which metabolizes the prominent endocannabinoid anandamide. Here, we sought to determine the most suitable kinetic modeling approach for quantifying [11C]CURB that binds selectively to FAAH. Six healthy volunteers were scanned with arterial blood sampling for 90 minutes. Kinetic parameters were estimated regionally using a one-tissue compartment model (TCM), a 2-TCM with and without irreversible trapping, and an irreversible 3-TCM. The 2-TCM with irreversible trapping provided the best identifiability of PET outcome measures among the approaches studied (coefficient of variation (COV) of the net influx constant Ki and the composite parameter λk3 (λ=K1/k2) <5%, and COV(k3)<10%). Reducing scan time to 60 minutes did not compromise the identifiability of rate constants. Arterial spin labeling measures of regional cerebral blood flow were only slightly correlated with Ki, but not with k3 or λk3. Our data suggest that λk3 is sensitive to changes in FAAH activity, therefore, optimal for PET quantification of FAAH activities with [11C]CURB. Simulations showed that [11C]CURB binding in healthy subjects is far from a flow-limited uptake. PMID:23211960

  3. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool.

  4. Regulation of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase by Lysine Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Chen, Zan; Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Cole, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD+-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys401 and Lys408 but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys401 and Lys408 and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD+ binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns. PMID:25248746

  5. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Das, Anjali J; Barnes, Anthony P; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  6. Purification and characterization of paraoxon hydrolase from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, L; Gil, F; Hernandez, A F; Marina, A; Vazquez, J; Pla, A

    1997-01-01

    Paraoxonase (paraoxon hydrolase), an enzyme that hydrolyses paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), is located in mammals primarily in the serum and liver. Although considerable information is available regarding serum paraoxonase, little is known about the hepatic form of this enzyme. The present work represents the first study on the purification of rat liver paraoxonase. This enzyme has been purified 415-fold to apparent homogeneity with a final specific activity of 1370 units/mg using a protocol consisting of five steps: solubilization of the microsomal fraction, hydroxyapatite adsorption, chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, non-specific affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue 3GA and anion exchange on Mono Q HR 5/5. The presence of Ca2+ and Triton X-100 in the buffers throughout the purification procedure was essential for maintaining enzyme activity. SDS/PAGE of the final preparation indicated a single protein-staining band with an apparent Mr of 45 000. N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were determined and compared with those of paraoxonases from human and rabbit serum and mouse liver, showing a high similarity. The pH profile showed optimum activity at pH 8.5. The pH stability and heat inactivation of the enzyme were also studied. The Km for liver paraoxonase was 1.69 mM. PMID:9032442

  7. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors.

  8. Cyanuric acid hydrolase: evolutionary innovation by structural concatenation

    PubMed Central

    Peat, Thomas S; Balotra, Sahil; Wilding, Matthew; French, Nigel G; Briggs, Lyndall J; Panjikar, Santosh; Cowieson, Nathan; Newman, Janet; Scott, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The cyanuric acid hydrolase, AtzD, is the founding member of a newly identified family of ring-opening amidases. We report the first X-ray structure for this family, which is a novel fold (termed the ‘Toblerone’ fold) that likely evolved via the concatenation of monomers of the trimeric YjgF superfamily and the acquisition of a metal binding site. Structures of AtzD with bound substrate (cyanuric acid) and inhibitors (phosphate, barbituric acid and melamine), along with mutagenesis studies, allowed the identification of the active site. The AtzD monomer, active site and substrate all possess threefold rotational symmetry, to the extent that the active site possesses three potential Ser–Lys catalytic dyads. A single catalytic dyad (Ser85–Lys42) is hypothesized, based on biochemical evidence and crystallographic data. A plausible catalytic mechanism based on these observations is also presented. A comparison with a homology model of the related barbiturase, Bar, was used to infer the active-site residues responsible for substrate specificity, and the phylogeny of the 68 AtzD-like enzymes in the database were analysed in light of this structure–function relationship. PMID:23651355

  9. Investigation of the Bacillus cereus phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase catalytic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The enzyme phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) from Bacillus cereus catalyzes the conversion of phosphonoacetaldehyde and phosphate. We have demonstrated that phosphonatase is inactivated when incubated with either acetaldehyde or phosphonoacetaldehyde for short time periods at low temperature in the presence of NaBH{sup 4}. This result suggests that the Schiff base mechanism is operative since such treatment might be expected to inactivate the enzyme by reducing an iminium cation mechanistic intermediate. The inactivation process was shown to be highly specific for a single lysine residue. Incubation of phosphonatase with ({sup 3}H)-NaBH{sub 4} and phosphonacetaldehyde ({sup 14}C)-acetaldehyde and NaBH{sub 4} or (C{sub 2}-{sup 3}H)- phosphonoacetaldehyde and NaBH{sup 4} resulted in radiolabeled inactivated enzyme. Tryptic hydrolysis and reverse phase HPLC chromatography of the resulting digests demonstrated that the (C{sub 2} - {sup 3}H)- phosphonoacetaldehyde/NaBH{sub 4} methodology afforded the most specifically tritium labeled, inactivated phosphonatase. The radiolabeled, active site peptide was purified to homogeneity and its amino acid sequence was determined.

  10. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Donovan, David M; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. In contrast to endolysins, PGHs that mediate lysis of the host bacteria at the end of the lytic cycle to release of phage progeny, the action of VAPGHs generates a small hole through which the phage tail tube crosses the cell envelope to eject the phage genetic material at the beginning to the infection cycle. The antimicrobial activity of VAPGHs was first discovered through the observation of the phenomenon of 'lysis from without', in which the disruption of the bacterial cell wall occurs prior to phage production and is caused by a high number of phages adsorbed onto the cell surface. Based on a unique combination of properties of VAPGHs such as high specificity, remarkable thermostability, and a modular organization, these proteins are potential candidates as new antibacterial agents, e.g. against antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human therapy and veterinary as well as biopreservatives in food safety, and as biocontrol agents of harmful bacteria in agriculture. This review provides an overview of the different VAPGHs discovered to date and their potential as novel antimicrobials.

  11. Expression of organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungus Gliocladium virens.

    PubMed

    Dave, K I; Lauriano, C; Xu, B; Wild, J R; Kenerley, C M

    1994-05-01

    The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (OPH; EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by the organophosphate-degrading gene (opd) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 possesses capabilities of both P-O bond hydrolysis (e.g. paraoxon) and P-F bond hydrolysis [e.g. sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)]. In the present study a 9.4-kb plasmid, pCL1, was used to transform the saprophytic fungus Gliocladium virens. pCL1 was derived from pJS294 by placing the fungal promoter (prom1) from Cochliobolus heterostrophus upstream and the trpC terminator from Aspergillus nidulans down-stream of the opd gene. Southern analysis of restricted genomic DNA from various transformants indicated that integration occurred non-specifically at multiple sites. Western blot analysis of mycelial extracts from transformants confirmed the production of a processed form of the enzyme in the fungus. Maximal levels of OPH activity (rate of p-nitrophenol production from paraoxon) were observed after 168 h of culture and activity levels correlated with biomass production in mature vegetative growth.

  12. Molecular Basis of Arabinobio-hydrolase Activity in Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Carapito, Raphaël; Imberty, Anne; Jeltsch, Jean-Marc; Byrns, Simon C.; Tam, Pui-Hang; Lowary, Todd L.; Varrot, Annabelle; Phalip, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum secretes a very diverse pool of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) aimed at degrading plant cell walls. α-l-Arabinanases are essential GHs participating in the complete hydrolysis of hemicellulose, a natural resource for various industrial processes, such as bioethanol or pharmaceuticals production. Arb93A, the exo-1,5-α-l-arabinanase of F. graminearum encoded by the gene fg03054.1, belongs to the GH93 family, for which no structural data exists. The enzyme is highly active (1065 units/mg) and displays a strict substrate specificity for linear α-1,5-l-arabinan. Biochemical assays and NMR experiments demonstrated that the enzyme releases α-1,5-l-arabinobiose from the nonreducing end of the polysaccharide. We determined the crystal structure of the native enzyme and its complex with α-1,5-l-arabinobiose, a degradation product of α-Me-1,5-l-arabinotetraose, at 1.85 and 2.05Å resolution, respectively. Arb93A is a monomeric enzyme, which presents the six-bladed β-propeller fold characteristic of sialidases of clan GHE. The configuration of the bound arabinobiose is consistent with the retaining mechanism proposed for the GH93 family. Catalytic residues were proposed from the structural analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to validate their role. They are significantly different from those observed for GHE sialidases. PMID:19269961

  13. Ancient origin of glycosyl hydrolase family 9 cellulase genes.

    PubMed

    Davison, Angus; Blaxter, Mark

    2005-05-01

    While it is widely accepted that most animals (Metazoa) do not have endogenous cellulases, relying instead on intestinal symbionts for cellulose digestion, the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) cellulases found in the genomes of termites, abalone, and sea squirts could be an exception. Using information from expressed sequence tags, we show that GHF9 genes (subgroup E2) are widespread in Metazoa because at least 11 classes in five phyla have expressed GHF9 cellulases. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic GHF9 gene families are ancient, forming distinct monophyletic groups in plants and animals. As several intron positions are also conserved between four metazoan phyla then, contrary to the still widespread belief that cellulases were horizontally transferred to animals relatively recently, GHF9 genes must derive from an ancient ancestor. We also found that sequences isolated from the same animal phylum tend to group together, and in some deuterostomes, GHF9 genes are characterized by substitutions in catalytically important sites. Several paralogous subfamilies of GHF9 can be identified in plants, and genes from primitive species tend to arise basally to angiosperm representatives. In contrast, GHF9 subgroup E2 genes are relatively rare in bacteria.

  14. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; van der Vlist, Jeroen; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of α1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus family GH57-type GBE and report its biochemical properties and crystal structure at 1.35-Å resolution. The enzyme has a central (β/α)7-fold catalytic domain A with an inserted domain B between β2 and α5 and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain, which is shown to be essential for substrate binding and catalysis. A maltotriose was modeled in the active site of the enzyme which suggests that there is insufficient space for simultaneously binding of donor and acceptor substrates, and that the donor substrate must be cleaved before acceptor substrate can bind. The biochemical assessment showed that the GH57 GBE possesses about 4% hydrolytic activity with amylose and in vitro forms a glucan product with a novel fine structure, demonstrating that the GH57 GBE is clearly different from the GH13 GBEs characterized to date. PMID:21097495

  15. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  16. Recognition of Corn Defense Chitinases by Fungal Polyglycine Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Todd A; Bakota, Erica L; Price, Neil P J

    2017-04-06

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific peptide bond but select one of many Gly-Gly bonds within the polyglycine region. Some Gly-Gly bonds are cleaved frequently while others are never cleaved. Moreover, we have previously shown that PGHs from different fungal pathogens prefer to cleave different Gly-Gly peptide bonds. It is not understood how PGHs selectively cleave the ChitA linker, especially because its polyglycine structure lacks peptide sidechains. To gain insights into this process we synthesized several peptide analogs of ChitA to evaluate them as potential substrates and inhibitors of Es-cmp, a PGH from the plant pathogenic fungus Epicoccum sorghi. Our results showed that part of the PGH recognition site for substrate chitinases is adjacent to the polyglycine linker on the carboxy side. More specifically, four amino acid residues were implicated, each spaced four residues apart on an alpha helix. Moreover, analogous peptides with selective Gly->sarcosine (N-methylglycine) mutations or a specific Ser->Thr mutation retained inhibitor activity but were no longer cleaved by PGH. Additonally, our findings suggest that peptide analogs of ChitA that inhibit PGH activity could be used to strengthen plant defenses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial 2,4-dioxygenases: new members of the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes functionally related to serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Künne, S; Fetzner, S

    1999-09-01

    1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from Pseudomonas putida 33/1 and 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) from Arthrobacter ilicis Rü61a catalyze an N-heterocyclic-ring cleavage reaction, generating N-formylanthranilate and N-acetylanthranilate, respectively, and carbon monoxide. Amino acid sequence comparisons between Qdo, Hod, and a number of proteins belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes and analysis of the similarity between the predicted secondary structures of the 2,4-dioxygenases and the known secondary structure of haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 strongly suggested that Qdo and Hod are structurally related to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold enzymes. The residues S95 and H244 of Qdo were found to be arranged like the catalytic nucleophilic residue and the catalytic histidine, respectively, of the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold enzymes. Investigation of the potential functional significance of these and other residues of Qdo through site-directed mutagenesis supported the hypothesis that Qdo is structurally as well as functionally related to serine hydrolases, with S95 being a possible catalytic nucleophile and H244 being a possible catalytic base. A hypothetical reaction mechanism for Qdo-catalyzed 2,4-dioxygenolysis, involving formation of an ester bond between the catalytic serine residue and the carbonyl carbon of the substrate and subsequent dioxygenolysis of the covalently bound anionic intermediate, is discussed.

  18. Characterization of active-site residues in diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Gooley, P R; Swarbrick, J D; Guranowski, A; Gange, C; Blackburn, G M; Gayler, K R

    2001-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to characterize the functions of key amino acid residues in the catalytic site of the 'nudix' hydrolase, (asymmetrical) diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17) from Lupinus angustifolius, the three-dimensional solution structure of which has recently been solved. Residues within the nudix motif, Gly-(Xaa)5-Glu-(Xaa)7-Arg-Glu-Uaa-Xaa-(Glu)2-Xaa-Gly (where Xaa represents unspecified amino acids and Uaa represents the bulky aliphatic amino acids Ile, Leu or Val) conserved in 'nudix enzymes', and residues important for catalysis from elsewhere in the molecule, were mutated and the expressed proteins characterized. The results reveal a high degree of functional conservation between lupin asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase and the 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolase from Escherichia coli. Charged residues in positions equivalent to those that ligate an enzyme-bound metal ion in the E. coli 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolase [Harris, Wu, Massiah and Mildvan (2000) Biochemistry 39, 1655-1674] were shown to contribute to catalysis to similar extents in the lupin enzyme. Mutations E55Q, E59Q and E125Q all reduced kcat markedly, whereas mutations R54Q, E58Q and E122Q had smaller effects. None of the mutations produced a substantial change in the Km)for Ap4A, but several extensively modified the pH-dependence and fluoride-sensitivities of the hydrolase. It was concluded that the precisely positioned glutamate residues Glu-55, Glu-59 and Glu-125 are conserved as functionally significant components of the hydrolytic mechanism in both of these members of the nudix family of hydrolases. PMID:11439089

  19. Discovery of Triterpenoids as Reversible Inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase Domain Containing 12 (ABHD12)

    PubMed Central

    Parkkari, Teija; Haavikko, Raisa; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Rytilahti, Roosa; Vaara, Miia; Lehtonen, Marko; Alakurtti, Sami; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Nevalainen, Tapio; Savinainen, Juha R.; Laitinen, Jarmo T.

    2014-01-01

    Background α/β-hydrolase domain containing (ABHD)12 is a recently discovered serine hydrolase that acts in vivo as a lysophospholipase for lysophosphatidylserine. Dysfunctional ABHD12 has been linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorder called PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinosis pigmentosa, cataract). In vitro, ABHD12 has been implicated in the metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further studies on ABHD12 function are hampered as no selective inhibitor have been identified to date. In contrast to the situation with the other endocannabinoid hydrolases, ABHD12 has remained a challenging target for inhibitor development as no crystal structures are available to facilitate drug design. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the unexpected discovery that certain triterpene-based structures inhibit human ABHD12 hydrolase activity in a reversible manner, the best compounds showing submicromolar potency. Based on structure activity relationship (SAR) data collected for 68 natural and synthetic triterpenoid structures, a pharmacophore model has been constructed. A pentacyclic triterpene backbone with carboxyl group at position 17, small hydrophobic substituent at the position 4, hydrogen bond donor or acceptor at position 3 accompanied with four axial methyl substituents was found crucial for ABHD12 inhibitor activity. Although the triterpenoids typically may have multiple protein targets, we witnessed unprecedented selectivity for ABHD12 among the metabolic serine hydrolases, as activity-based protein profiling of mouse brain membrane proteome indicated that the representative ABHD12 inhibitors did not inhibit other serine hydrolases, nor did they target cannabinoid receptors. Conclusions/Significance We have identified reversibly-acting triterpene-based inhibitors that show remarkable selectivity for ABHD12 over other metabolic serine hydrolases. Based on SAR data, we have constructed the first pharmacophore

  20. Development of a differential medium for bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dashkevicz, M P; Feighner, S D

    1989-01-01

    An agar plate assay was developed to detect bile salt hydrolase activity in lactobacilli. On Lactobacillus-selective MRS or Rogosa SL medium supplemented with taurodeoxycholic, taurocholic, or taurochenodeoxycholic acids, bile salt hydrolysis was manifested at two intensities: (i) the formation of precipitate halos around colonies or (ii) the formation of opaque granular white colonies. Sixty-six lactobacilli were tested for bile salt hydrolase activity by both the plate assay and a sensitive radiochemical assay. No false-positive or false-negative results were detected by the plate assay. Based on results of experiments with Eubacterium lentum and Bacteroides species, the plate assay was dependent on two factors: (i) the presence of bile salt hydrolytic activity and (ii) the ability of the organism to sufficiently acidify the medium to protonate free bile acids. The availability of a differential medium for determination of bile salt hydrolase activity will provide a rapid method for determining shifts in a specific functional activity of intestinal Lactobacillus species and provide a rapid screening capability for identifying bile salt hydrolase-deficient mutants. The latter application should allow bile salt hydrolase activity to be used as a marker enzyme in genetic experiments. Images PMID:2705765

  1. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  2. Alterations of intestinal glycoprotein hydrolases in congenital diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The diabetic BioBreed (BB{sub d}) rat was used for the study of the molecular structure of intestinal brush border sucrase-{alpha}-dextrinase (SD) and aminooligopeptidase (AOP) in diabetes mellitus. The specific catalytic activity of S-D and AOP in the BB{sub d} rat is normal. However, solid-phase radioimmunoassay revealed loss of some antigenic determinants in the BB{sub d} rat. S-D and AOP migrated abnormally on 6% SDS-gel electrophoresis in the BB{sub d} rat. S was larger (+5 kDa), D was either smaller (-5 kDa) or unaltered, and AOP was smaller (-5 kDa) in the BB{sub d} than in the normal Wistar. The structural abnormalities were independent of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis and restored to normal by daily insulin treatment (NPH, 3-4 units/rat) for two to three weeks. Newly-synthesized brush border hydrolases were examined after 6 hours of intraperitoneal injection of ({sup 35}S) methionine (2 mCi) and found to be altered, suggesting that structural abnormality appeared acutely during intracellular synthesis rather than being due to slow extracellular modifications such as non-enzymatic glycosylation. Deglycosylation of brush border proteins by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in an apoprotein with normal electrophoretic migration in BB{sub d}, indicating that the alteration was due to the carbohydrates component of the glycoprotein. Pulse-chase studies with ({sup 35}S) methionine were consistent with normal protein an co-translational and initial N-linked carbohydrate assembly in association with the endoplasmic reticulum in BB{sub d}. However, the post-translational maturation of N-linked and addition of 0-linked carbohydrate chains in Golgi were prolonged, and produced a larger single-chain precursor of S-D in BB{sub d} than normal.

  3. Mechanistic studies of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Case, April; Stein, Ross L

    2006-02-21

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) cleave Ub-X bonds (Ub is ubiquitin and X an alcohol, an amine, or a protein) through a thioester intermediate that is produced by nucleophilic attack of the Cys residue of a Cys-SH/His-Im catalytic diad. We are studying the mechanism of UCH-L1, a UCH that is implicated in Parkinson's disease, and now wish to report our initial findings. (i) Pre-steady-state kinetic studies for UCH-L1-catalyzed hydrolysis of Ub-AMC (AMC, 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin) indicate that k(cat) is rate-limited by acyl-enzyme formation. Thus, K(m) = K(s), the dissociation constant for the Michaelis complex, and k(cat) = k(2), the rate constant for acyl-enzyme formation. (ii) For K(assoc) (=K(s)(-)(1)), DeltaC(p) = -0.8 kcal mol(-)(1) deg(-)(1) and is consistent with coupling between substrate association and a conformational change of the enzyme. For k(2), DeltaS(++) = 0 and suggests that in the E-S, substrate and active site residues are precisely aligned for reaction. (iii) Solvent isotope effects are (D)K(assoc) = 0.5 and (D)k(2) = 0.9, suggesting that the substrate binds to a form of free enzyme in which the active site Cys exists as the thiol. In the resultant Michaelis complex, the diad has tautomerized to ion pair Cys-S(-)/His-ImH(+). Subsequent attack of thiolate produces the acyl-enzyme species. In contrast, isotope effects for association of UCH-L1 with transition-state analogue ubiquitin aldehyde suggest that an alternative mechanistic pathway can sometimes be available to UCH-L1 involving general base-catalyzed attack of Cys-SH by His-Im.

  4. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Long-acting cocaine hydrolase for addiction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiabin; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Jin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is a world-wide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication. An ideal anticocaine medication would accelerate cocaine metabolism, producing biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine-specific exogenous enzyme. Our recent studies have led to the discovery of the desirable, highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) that can efficiently detoxify and inactivate cocaine without affecting normal functions of the CNS. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated that these CocHs are safe for use in humans and are effective for accelerating cocaine metabolism. However, the actual therapeutic use of a CocH in cocaine addiction treatment is limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). Here we demonstrate a novel CocH form, a catalytic antibody analog, which is a fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fused CocH dimer (CocH-Fc) constructed by using CocH to replace the Fab region of human IgG1. The CocH-Fc not only has a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine but also, like an antibody, has a considerably longer biological half-life (e.g., ∼107 h in rats). A single dose of CocH-Fc was able to accelerate cocaine metabolism in rats even after 20 d and thus block cocaine-induced hyperactivity and toxicity for a long period. Given the general observation that the biological half-life of a protein drug is significantly longer in humans than in rodents, the CocH-Fc reported in this study could allow dosing once every 2–4 wk, or longer, for treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. PMID:26712009

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: a novel therapeutic target in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenri; Koerner, Ines P; Noppens, Ruediger; Grafe, Marjorie; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Luria, Ayala; Hammock, Bruce D; Falck, John R; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2009-01-01

    The P450 eicosanoids epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are produced in brain and perform important biological functions, including protection from ischemic injury. The beneficial effect of EETs, however, is limited by their metabolism via soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic brain damage in vivo by a mechanism linked to enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF). We determined expression and distribution of sEH immunoreactivity (IR) in brain, and examined the effect of sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE) on CBF and infarct size after experimental stroke in mice. Mice were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of AUDA-BE (10 mg/kg) or vehicle at 30 mins before 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or at reperfusion, in the presence and absence of P450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH). Immunoreactivity for sEH was detected in vascular and non-vascular brain compartments, with predominant expression in neuronal cell bodies and processes. 12-(3-Adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester was detected in plasma and brain for up to 24 h after intraperitoneal injection, which was associated with inhibition of sEH activity in brain tissue. Finally, AUDA-BE significantly reduced infarct size at 24 h after MCAO, which was prevented by MS-PPOH. However, regional CBF rates measured by iodoantipyrine (IAP) autoradiography at end ischemia revealed no differences between AUDA-BE- and vehicle-treated mice. The findings suggest that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic injury by non-vascular mechanisms, and that sEH may serve as a therapeutic target in stroke. PMID:17440491

  7. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass. PMID:21816041

  8. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  9. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase increases coronary perfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun; Sun, Dong; Jiang, Houli; Kandhi, Sharath; Froogh, Ghezal; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D; Wolin, Michael S; Thompson, Carl I; Hintze, Thomas H; Huang, An

    2015-01-01

    Roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their diols (DHETs), in the coronary circulation and cardiac function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compromising EET hydrolysis/degradation, via sEH deficiency, lowers the coronary resistance to promote cardiac perfusion and function. Hearts were isolated from wild type (WT), sEH knockout (KO) mice and WT mice chronically treated with t-TUCB (sEH inhibitor), and perfused with constant flow at different pre-loads. Compared to WT controls, sEH-deficient hearts required significantly greater basal coronary flow to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg and exhibited a greater reduction in vascular resistance during tension-induced heart work, implying a better coronary perfusion during cardiac performance. Cardiac contractility, characterized by developed tension in response to changes in preload, was potentially increased in sEH-KO hearts, manifested by an enlarged magnitude at each step-wise increase in end-diastolic to peak-systolic tension. 14,15-EEZE (EET antagonist) prevented the adaptation of coronary circulation in sEH null hearts whereas responses in WT hearts were sensitive to the inhibition of NO. Cardiac expression of EET synthases (CYP2J2/2C29) was comparable in both genotypic mice whereas, levels of 14,15-, 11,12- and 8,9-EETs were significantly higher in sEH-KO hearts, accompanied with lower levels of DHETs. In conclusion, the elevation of cardiac EETs, as a function of sEH deficiency, plays key roles in the adaptation of coronary flow and cardiac function. PMID:26071213

  10. Naphthalene cytotoxicity in microsomal epoxide hydrolase deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Carratt, SA; Morin, D; Buckpitt, AR; Edwards, PC; Van Winkle, LS

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-dihydrodiol) is a major metabolite of NA generated by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). To investigate the role of the NA-dihydrodiol and subsequent metabolites (ie 1,2-naphthoquinone) in cytotoxicity, we exposed both male and female wild type (WT) and mEH null mice (KO) to NA by inhalation (5, 10, 20 ppm for 4 hours). NA-dihydrodiol was ablated in the KO mice. High-resolution histopathology was used to study site-specific cytotoxicity, and formation of naphthalene metabolites was measured by HPLC in microdissected airways. Swollen and vacuolated airway epithelial cells were observed in the intra- and extrapulmonary airways of all mice at and below the current OSHA standard (10 ppm). Female mice may be more susceptible to this acute cytotoxicity. In the extrapulmonary airways, WT mice were more susceptible to damage than KO mice, indicating that the metabolites associated with mEH-mediated metabolism could be partially responsible for cytotoxicity at this site. The level of cytotoxicity in the mEH KO mice at all airway levels suggests that non-mEH metabolites are contributing to NA cellular damage in the lung. Our results indicate that the apparent contribution of mEH-dependent metabolites to toxicity differs by location in the lung. These studies suggest that metabolites generated through the mEH pathway may be of minor importance in distal airway toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis from NA exposure. PMID:26840748

  11. Naphthalene cytotoxicity in microsomal epoxide hydrolase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carratt, S A; Morin, D; Buckpitt, A R; Edwards, P C; Van Winkle, L S

    2016-03-30

    Naphthalene (NA) is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are widely exposed. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-dihydrodiol) is a major metabolite of NA generated by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). To investigate the role of the NA-dihydrodiol and subsequent metabolites (i.e. 1,2-naphthoquinone) in cytotoxicity, we exposed both male and female wild type (WT) and mEH null mice (KO) to NA by inhalation (5, 10, 20 ppm for 4h). NA-dihydrodiol was ablated in the KO mice. High-resolution histopathology was used to study site-specific cytotoxicity, and formation of naphthalene metabolites was measured by HPLC in microdissected airways. Swollen and vacuolated airway epithelial cells were observed in the intra- and extrapulmonary airways of all mice at and below the current OSHA standard (10 ppm). Female mice may be more susceptible to this acute cytotoxicity. In the extrapulmonary airways, WT mice were more susceptible to damage than KO mice, indicating that the metabolites associated with mEH-mediated metabolism could be partially responsible for cytotoxicity at this site. The level of cytotoxicity in the mEH KO mice at all airway levels suggests that non-mEH metabolites are contributing to NA cellular damage in the lung. Our results indicate that the apparent contribution of mEH-dependent metabolites to toxicity differs by location in the lung. These studies suggest that metabolites generated through the mEH pathway may be of minor importance in distal airway toxicity and subsequent carcinogenesis from NA exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  13. Reaction Pathway for Cocaine Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of (+)-Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2017-01-01

    A recently designed and discovered cocaine hydrolase (CocH), engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), has been proven promising as a novel enzyme therapy for treatment of cocaine overdose and addiction because it is highly efficient in catalyzing hydrolysis of naturally occurring (−)-cocaine. It has been known that the CocH also has a high catalytic efficiency against (+)-cocaine, a synthetic enantiomer of cocaine. Reaction pathway and the corresponding free energy profile for the CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine have been determined, in the present study, by performing first-principles pseudobond quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)-free energy (FE) calculations. Acordingt to the QM/MM-FE results, the catalytic hydrolysis process is initiated by the nucleophilic attack on carbonyl carbon of (−)-cocaine benzoyl ester via hydroxyl oxygen of S198 side chain, and the second reaction step (i.e. dissociation of benzoyl ester) is rate-determining. This finding for CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine is remarkably different from that for the (+)-cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by bacterial cocaine esterase in which the first reaction step of the deacylation is associated with the highest free energy barrier (~17.9 kcal/mol). The overall free energy barrier (~16.0 kcal/mol) calculated for the acylation stage of CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine is in good agreement with the experimental free energy barrier of ~14.5 kcal/mol derivated from the experimental kinetic data. PMID:28250715

  14. Use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor as adjunctive analgesic in a laminitic horse

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Alonso G. P.; Morisseau, Christophe; Sole, Albert; Soares, Joao H. N.; Ulu, Arzu; Dong, Hua; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year old, 500 kg Thoroughbred female horse diagnosed with bilateral forelimb laminitis and cellulitis on the left forelimb became severely painful and refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy (flunixin meglumine on days 1, 2, 3 and 4; and phenylbutazone on days 5, 6 and 7) alone or in combination with gabapentin (days 6 and 7). Pain scores assessed independently by three individuals with a visual analog scale (VAS; 0= no pain and 10=worst possible pain) were 8.5 on day 6, and it increased to 9.5 on day 7. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring revealed severe hypertension. As euthanasia was being considered for humane reasons as well as technical and financial constraints, a decision was made to add an experimental new drug, trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), which is an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), to the treatment protocol. Dose and frequency of administration were selected to produce plasma concentrations within the range of 2.5 μM and 30 nM based on the drug potency against equine sEH. Pain scores decreased sharply and remarkably following t-TUCB administration and blood pressure progressively decreased to physiologic normal values. Plasma concentrations of t-TUCB, measured daily, were within the expected range, whereas phenylbutazone and gabapentin plasma levels were below the suggested efficacious concentrations. No adverse effects were detected on clinical and laboratory examinations during and after t-TUCB administration. The mare did not get any episode of laminitis in the three months following the treatment. PMID:23463912

  15. Rational design of a thermostable glycoside hydrolase from family 3 introduces β-glycosynthase activity.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, Tania; Romero-García, Javier; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The thermostable β-glucosidase from Thermotoga neapolitana, TnBgl3B, is a monomeric three-domain representative from glycoside hydrolase family 3. By using chemical reactivation with exogenous nucleophiles in previous studies with TnBg13B, the catalytic nucleophile (D242) and corresponding acid/base residue (E458) were determined. Identifying these residues led to the attempt of converting TnBgl3B into a β-glucosynthase, where three nucleophilic variants were created (TnBgl3B_D242G, TnBgl3B_D242A, TnBgl3B_D242S) and all of them failed to exhibit glucosynthase activity. A deeper analysis of the TnBgl3B active site led to the generation of three additional variants, each of which received a single-point mutation. Two of these variants were altered at the -1 subsite (Y210F, W243F) and the third received a substitution near the binding site's aglycone region (N248R). Kinetic evaluation of these three variants revealed that W243F substitution reduced hydrolytic turnover while maintaining KM This key W243F mutation was then introduced into the original nucleophile variants and the resulting double mutants were successfully converted into β-glucosynthases that were assayed using two separate biosynthetic methods. The first reaction used an α-glucosyl fluoride donor with a 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4NPGlc) acceptor, and the second used 4NPGlc as both the donor and acceptor in the presence of the exogenous nucleophile formate. The primary specificity observed was a β-1,3-linked disaccharide product, while a secondary β-1,4-linked disaccharide product was observed with increased incubation times. Additional analysis revealed that substituting quercetin-3-glycoside for the second reaction's acceptor molecule resulted in the successful production of quercetin-3,4'-diglycosides with yields up to 40%.

  16. Evaluation of NHS Carbamates as a Potent and Selective Class of Endocannabinoid Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a principal metabolic enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective inhibitors of MAGL offer valuable probes to further understand the enzyme’s function in biological systems and may lead to drugs for treating a variety of diseases, including psychiatric disorders, neuroinflammation, and pain. N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates have recently been identified as a promising class of serine hydrolase inhibitors that shows minimal cross-reactivity with other proteins in the proteome. Here, we explore NHS carbamates more broadly and demonstrate their potential as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases and additional enzymes from the serine hydrolase class. We extensively characterize an NHS carbamate 1a (MJN110) as a potent, selective, and in-vivo-active MAGL inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that MJN110 alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy, marking NHS carbamates as a promising class of MAGL inhibitors. PMID:23731016

  17. Evaluation of NHS carbamates as a potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Niphakis, Micah J; Cognetta, Armand B; Chang, Jae Won; Buczynski, Matthew W; Parsons, Loren H; Byrne, Frederika; Burston, James J; Chapman, Victoria; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-09-18

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a principal metabolic enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective inhibitors of MAGL offer valuable probes to further understand the enzyme's function in biological systems and may lead to drugs for treating a variety of diseases, including psychiatric disorders, neuroinflammation, and pain. N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates have recently been identified as a promising class of serine hydrolase inhibitors that shows minimal cross-reactivity with other proteins in the proteome. Here, we explore NHS carbamates more broadly and demonstrate their potential as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases and additional enzymes from the serine hydrolase class. We extensively characterize an NHS carbamate 1a (MJN110) as a potent, selective, and in-vivo-active MAGL inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that MJN110 alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy, marking NHS carbamates as a promising class of MAGL inhibitors.

  18. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Xu, Qi; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Brady, John W.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the product inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.

  19. Phosphonoacetic acid utilization by fungal isolates: occurrence and properties of a phosphonoacetate hydrolase in some penicillia.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Jaworski, Jakub; Lejczak, Barbara; Picco, Anna M

    2006-12-01

    Among a collection of 18 fungal strains representing eight genera, only two strains (Penicillium oxalicum and P. minioluteum) were capable of growth on phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorous source. Enrichment liquid cultures in minimal medium with the compound as the only P-source selected four isolates, that were also identified as Penicillium spp. Phosphonoacetate metabolism did not lead to extracellular release of inorganic phosphate. In all cases phosphonoacetate hydrolase activity was detected in partially purified extracts, and a protein of the expected molecular mass reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the enzyme from P. oxalicum. There was no relation between phosphonoacetate hydrolase specific activity and growth rate or yield. Phosphonoacetic acid was the inducer of the hydrolase, independently of the concurrent availability of inorganic phosphate. Notwithstanding this, the utilization of the phosphonate was significantly inhibited in the presence of phosphate, suggesting an interference of the latter with phosphonoacetic acid uptake.

  20. Structure-guided engineering of molinate hydrolase for the degradation of thiocarbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Leite, José P; Duarte, Márcia; Paiva, Ana M; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M; Nunes, Olga C; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system.

  1. Structure-Guided Engineering of Molinate Hydrolase for the Degradation of Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Ana M.; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  2. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Xu, Qi; Lunin, Vladimir V; Brady, John W; Crowley, Michael F; Himmel, Michael E; Bomble, Yannick J

    2016-03-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the product inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. The theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.

  3. Murein hydrolase activity of surface layer proteins from Lactobacillus acidophilus against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the murein hydrolase activities of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) from two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus using zymography. The influence of these hydrolase activities on Escherichia coli ATCC 43893 was also evaluated by analysing their growth curve, cell morphology and physiological state. After the incubation of E. coli with SLPs, growth was inhibited, the number of viable cells was significantly reduced, examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell wall was damaged and flow cytometry results indicated that the majority of the cells were sublethally injured. All of these results suggested that the SLPs of both L. acidophilus strains possessed murein hydrolase activities that were sublethal to E. coli cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  5. Polyglycine hydrolases: fungal b-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochli...

  6. Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

    1998-01-01

    The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

  7. A Novel Lipid Droplet-Associated Serine Hydrolase Regulates Macrophage Cholesterol Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Hwa; Son, Se-Hee; Kreienberg, Paul B.; Paul, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lipid-laden macrophages or foam cells are characterized by massive cytosolic lipid droplet (LD) deposition containing mostly cholesterol ester (CE) derived from the lipoproteins cleared from the arterial wall. Cholesterol efflux from foam cells is considered to be atheroprotective. Since cholesterol is effluxed as free cholesterol (FC), CE accumulation in LDs may limit FC efflux. Our objective was to identify proteins that regulate cholesterol trafficking through LDs. Approach and results In a proteomic analysis of the LD fraction of RAW 264.7 macrophages we identified an evolutionarily conserved protein with a canonical GXSXG lipase catalytic motif and a predicted α/β-hydrolase fold, the RIKEN cDNA 1110057K04 gene, which we named lipid droplet-associated hydrolase (LDAH). LDAH association to LDs was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. LDAH was labeled with a probe specific for active serine hydrolases. LDAH showed relatively weak in vitro CE hydrolase activity. However, cholesterol measurements in intact cells supported a significant role of LDAH in CE homeostasis, since LDAH upregulation and downregulation decreased and increased, respectively, intracellular cholesterol and CE in HEK293 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Mutation of the putative nucleophilic serine impaired active hydrolase probe binding, in vitro CE hydrolase activity, and the cholesterol lowering effect in cells, while this mutant still localized to the LD. LDAH upregulation increased CE hydrolysis and cholesterol efflux from macrophages and, interestingly, LDAH is highly expressed in macrophage-rich areas within mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions The data identify a candidate target to promote reverse cholesterol transport from atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24357060

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism mutations affect common folding and trafficking in the α/β-hydrolase fold proteins.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Dubi, Noga; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-12-01

    The α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily of proteins is composed of structurally related members that, despite great diversity in their catalytic, recognition, adhesion and chaperone functions, share a common fold governed by homologous residues and conserved disulfide bridges. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms within the α/β-hydrolase fold domain in various family members have been found for congenital endocrine, metabolic and nervous system disorders. By examining the amino acid sequence from the various proteins, mutations were found to be prevalent in conserved residues within the α/β-hydrolase fold of the homologous proteins. This is the case for the thyroglobulin mutations linked to congenital hypothyroidism. To address whether correct folding of the common domain is required for protein export, we inserted the thyroglobulin mutations at homologous positions in two correlated but simpler α/β-hydrolase fold proteins known to be exported to the cell surface: neuroligin3 and acetylcholinesterase. Here we show that these mutations in the cholinesterase homologous region alter the folding properties of the α/β-hydrolase fold domain, which are reflected in defects in protein trafficking, folding and function, and ultimately result in retention of the partially processed proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Accordingly, mutations at conserved residues may be transferred amongst homologous proteins to produce common processing defects despite disparate functions, protein complexity and tissue-specific expression of the homologous proteins. More importantly, a similar assembly of the α/β-hydrolase fold domain tertiary structure among homologous members of the superfamily is required for correct trafficking of the proteins to their final destination.

  9. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay.

  10. Diversity of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes from metagenome and their application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sathya, T A; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-11-01

    Traditional use of enzymes for food processing and production of food ingredients resulted in fast-growing enzyme industries world over. The advances in technologies gave rise to exploring newer enzymes and/or modified enzymes for specific application. Search for novel enzymes that can augment catalytic efficiency and advances in molecular biology techniques including sequencing has targeted microbial diversity through metagenomic approaches for sourcing enzymes from difficult to culture organisms. Such mining studies have received more attention in characterizing hydrolases, their prevalence, broad substrate specificities, stability, and independence of cofactors. The focus on glycosyl hydrolases from metagenome for their application in food sector is reviewed.

  11. Arachidonoylserotonin and other novel inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Bisogno, T; Melck, D; De Petrocellis, L; Bobrov MYu; Gretskaya, N M; Bezuglov, V V; Sitachitta, N; Gerwick, W H; Di Marzo, V

    1998-07-30

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bioactive fatty acid amides and esters such as the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands, anandamide (N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the putative sleep inducing factor cis-9-octadecenoamide (oleamide). Most FAAH blockers developed to date also inhibit cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and/or bind to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor subtype. Here we report the finding of four novel FAAH inhibitors, two of which, malhamensilipin A and grenadadiene, were screened out of a series of thirty-two different algal natural products, and two others, arachidonoylethylene glycol (AEG) and arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) were selected out of five artificially functionalized polyunsaturated fatty acids. When using FAAH preparations from mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells and [14C]anandamide as a substrate, the IC50s for these compounds ranged from 12.0 to 26 microM, the most active compound being AA-5-HT. This substance was also active on FAAH from rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells (IC50 = 5.6 microM), and inhibited [14C]anandamide hydrolysis by both N18TG2 and RBL-2H3 intact cells without affecting [14C]anandamide uptake. While AEG behaved as a competitive inhibitor and was hydrolyzed to arachidonic acid (AA) by FAAH preparations, AA-5-HT was resistant to FAAH-catalyzed hydrolysis and behaved as a tight-binding, albeit non-covalent, mixed inhibitor. AA-5-HT did not interfere with cPLA2-mediated, ionomycin or antigen-induced release of [3H]AA from RBL-2H3 cells, nor with cPLA2 activity in cell-free experiments. Finally, AA-5-HT did not activate CB1 cannabinoid receptors since it acted as a very weak ligand in in vitro binding assays, and, at 10-15 mg/kg body weight, it was not active in the 'open field', 'hot plate' and rectal hypothermia tests carried out in mice. Conversely AEG behaved as a cannabimimetic substance in these tests as well as in the 'ring' immobility test where AA-5

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  13. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species.

  15. A novel meta-cleavage product hydrolase from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551

    SciTech Connect

    Khajamohiddin, Syed; Babu, Pakala Suresh; Chakka, Deviprasanna; Merrick, Mike; Bhaduri, Anirban; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Siddavattam, Dayananda . E-mail: sdsl@uohyd.ernet.in

    2006-12-22

    The organophosphate degrading (opd) gene cluster of plasmid pPDL2 of Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551 contains a novel open-reading frame, orf243. This was predicted to encode an {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase distantly related to the meta-fission product (MFP) hydrolases such as XylF, PhnD, and CumD. By homology modeling Orf243 has most of the structural features of MFP hydrolases including the characteristic active site catalytic triad. The purified protein (designated MfhA) is a homotetramer and shows similar affinity for 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate (HOHD), 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (HMSA), and 2-hydroxy-5-methylmuconic semialdehyde (HMMSA), the meta-fission products of 3-methyl catechol, catechol, and 4-methyl catechol. The unique catalytic properties of MfhA and the presence near its structural gene of cis-elements required for transposition suggest that mfhA has evolved towards encoding a common hydrolase that can act on meta-fission products containing either aldehyde or ketone groups.

  16. Purification and properties of D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydrolase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Saito, T; Fukui, T; Tanio, T; Tomita, K

    1981-08-01

    D(-)-3-Hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydrolase from Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M was purified 7000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 28 000 as determined by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and 30 000 as estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The isoelectric point was at pH 5.7. The pH optimum for the enzyme reaction was 8.0. The dimer hydrolase was stereospecific for D(-)-3-[D(-)-3-hydroxybutyryloxy]butyric acid (DD-dimer) but also hydrolyzed D(-)-3-[L(+)-3-hydroxybutyryloxy]butyric acid (DL-dimmer) and L(+)-3-[D(-)-3-hydroxybutyryloxy]butyric acid (LD-dimer) at reduced rates. However, the enzyme did not attack L(+)-3-[L(+)-3-hydroxybutyryloxy]butyric acid (LL-dimer) at all. In addition, the purified hydrolase hydrolyzed several oligomeric esters of D(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (DDD-dimer, DDDD-tetramer and DDDDD-pentamer) faster than DD-dimer. Time course experiments with these oligomers and analysis of hydrolytic products of DDD-tetramer methyl ester with the hydrolase indicated that the enzyme attached these substrates from the free hydroxyl terminus releasing monomer units one at a time.

  17. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED AMPEROMETRIC SENSOR: MODULATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SUBSTRATE SELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of organophosphate (OP) insecticides with nitrophenyl substituents is reported using an enzyme electrode composed of Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) and albumin co-immobilized to a nylon net and attached to a carbon paste electrode. The mechanism for this biosen...

  18. O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a highly potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Niphakis, Micah J; Johnson, Douglas S; Ballard, T Eric; Stiff, Cory; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-05-16

    The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125-12.5 mg kg(-1)) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways.

  19. O-Hydroxyacetamide Carbamates as a Highly Potent and Selective Class of Endocannabinoid Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125–12.5 mg kg–1) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways. PMID:22860211

  20. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism ß-xylosidases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a ß-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein...

  1. Lipid composition and acid hydrolase content of lamellar granules of fetal rat epidermis.

    PubMed

    Freinkel, R K; Traczyk, T N

    1985-10-01

    Lipids and acid hydrolases have been characterized in a subcellular fraction, enriched with lamellar granules (LG), derived from fetal rat epidermis. This fraction contains 23% glycosyl ceramides and ceramides, 15% free sterols, and 34% phospholipids. The lipid/protein ratio is 2.0. The sterols and sphingolipids were present in proportions similar to those previously reported in stratum corneum. These findings provide direct biochemical evidence for the widely accepted hypothesis that stratum corneum lipids are derived from exocytosis of lamellar granules into the intercellular space. The LG fraction was enriched in certain acid hydrolases including glucosidase, acid phosphatase, phospholipases A, and sphingomyelinase; other acid hydrolases, i.e., amino-glycosidases, glactosidase and aryl sulfatase (pH 5.5), and steroid sulfatase were not preferentially localized in this fraction. By modulation of phospholipids, glycolipids, and proteins in the membrane regions of stratum corneum, the acid hydrolases of LG may play a role relevant to the function and desquamation of stratum corneum.

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface of
    Escherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membrane
    fractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus
    ...

  3. Functional characterization and structural modeling of synthetic polyester-degrading hydrolases from Thermomonospora curvata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata is a thermophilic actinomycete phylogenetically related to Thermobifida fusca that produces extracellular hydrolases capable of degrading synthetic polyesters. Analysis of the genome of T. curvata DSM43183 revealed two genes coding for putative polyester hydrolases Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 sharing 61% sequence identity with the T. fusca enzymes. Mature proteins of Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10. Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 exhibited an optimal reaction temperature against p-nitrophenyl butyrate at 60°C and 55°C, respectively. The optimal pH for both enzymes was determined at pH 8.5. Tcur1278 retained more than 80% and Tcur0390 less than 10% of their initial activity following incubation for 60 min at 55°C. Tcur0390 showed a higher hydrolytic activity against poly(ε-caprolactone) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanoparticles compared to Tcur1278 at reaction temperatures up to 50°C. At 55°C and 60°C, hydrolytic activity against PET nanoparticles was only detected with Tcur1278. In silico modeling of the polyester hydrolases and docking with a model substrate composed of two repeating units of PET revealed the typical fold of α/β serine hydrolases with an exposed catalytic triad. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the superior thermal stability of Tcur1278 considered as the main reason for its higher hydrolytic activity on PET. PMID:25405080

  4. Ligand bound structures of a glycosyl hydrolase family 30 glucuronoxylan xylanohydrolase

    Treesearch

    Franz St. Johns; Jason C. Hurlbert; John D. Rice; James F. Preston; Edwin. Pozharski

    2011-01-01

    Xylanases of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) have been shown to cleave β-1,4 linkages of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MeGXn) as directed by the position along the xylan chain of an α-1,2-linked 4-O-methylglucuronate (MeGA) moiety. Complete hydrolysis of MeGXn by...

  5. Expression of recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase in the original producer of the enzyme, Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kosuke; Ohmori, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Natsumi; Seto, Yasuo; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The plasmid encoding His-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) cloned from Sphingobium fuliginis was modified to be transferred back to this bacterium. The replication function of S. amiense plasmid was inserted at downstream of OPH gene, and S. fuliginis was transformed with this plasmid. The transformant produced larger amount of active OPH with His-tag than E. coli.

  6. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED AMPEROMETRIC SENSOR: MODULATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SUBSTRATE SELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of organophosphate (OP) insecticides with nitrophenyl substituents is reported using an enzyme electrode composed of Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) and albumin co-immobilized to a nylon net and attached to a carbon paste electrode. The mechanism for this biosen...

  7. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface of
    Escherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membrane
    fractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus
    ...

  8. Oxidoreductive Cellulose Depolymerization by the Enzymes Cellobiose Dehydrogenase and Glycoside Hydrolase 61▿†

    PubMed Central

    Langston, James A.; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  9. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  10. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall.

  11. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  12. High-Throughput In Vitro Glycoside Hydrolase (HIGH) Screening for Enzyme Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Hess, Matthias; Dana, Craig M.; Baer, Zachary; Sczyrba, Alexander; Rubin, Edward M.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2011-09-16

    A high-throughput protein-expression and screening method (HIGH method, see picture) provides a rapid approach to the discovery of active glycoside hydrolases in environmental samples. Finally, HIGH screening combines cloning, protein expression, and enzyme hydrolysis in one pot; thus, the entire process from gene expression to activity detection requires only three hours.

  13. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L5 cDNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ubiquitin-proteasome cycle is a complex, non-lysosomal biochemical process for intracellular protein degradation. This process involves many enzymes. One of them is ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCT). In this report, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish UCT L5 cDNA....

  14. Different types of dienelactone hydrolase in 4-fluorobenzoate-utilizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schlömann, M; Schmidt, E; Knackmuss, H J

    1990-01-01

    Of various benzoate-utilizing bacteria tested, Alcaligenes eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, A. eutrophus JMP134, Alcaligenes strain A7, and Pseudomonas cepacia were able to grow with 4-fluorobenzoate as the sole source of carbon and energy. P. cepacia also utilizes 3-fluorobenzoate. Except for A. eutrophus JMP134, which is known to grow with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate and 3-chlorobenzoate (R. H. Don and J. M. Pemberton, J. Bacteriol. 145:681-686, 1981), the strains were unable to grow at the expense of these compounds or 4-chlorobenzoate. Assays of cell extracts revealed that all strains express dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase activities in addition to enzymes of the catechol branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway when growing with 4-fluorobenzoate. Induction of dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase apparently is not necessarily connected to synthesis of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase type II and chloromuconate cycloisomerase activities, which are indispensable for the degradation of chlorocatechols. Substrate specificities of the dienelactone hydrolases provisionally differentiate among three types of this activity. (i) Extracts of A. eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, and Alcaligenes strain A7 convert trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (trans-dienelactone) much faster than the cis-isomer (type I). (ii) The enzyme present in P. cepacia shows the opposite preference for the isomeric substrates (type II). (iii) Cell extracts of A. eutrophus JMP134, as well as purified dienelactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas strain B13 (E. Schmidt and H.-J. Knackmuss, Biochem. J. 192:339-347, 1980), hydrolyze both dienelactones at rates that are of the same order of magnitude (type III). This classification implies that A. eutrophus JMP134 possesses at least two different dienelactone hydrolases, one of type III encoded by the plasmid pJP4 and one of type I, which is also present in the cured strain JMP222. PMID

  15. Characteristics, protein engineering and applications of microbial thermostable pullulanases and pullulan hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Nisha, M; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-07-01

    Pullulan hydrolyzing enzymes are endoacting, classified based on the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products as pullulanases (type I and II) and pullulan hydrolases (type I, II and III). Pullulanases and pullulan hydrolase type I are produced by bacteria and archaea. Among bacteria, many mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria produce pullulanases and neopullulanases. While pullulan hydrolase type II and type III are produced by fungi and archaea, respectively. These are multi-domain proteins with three conserved catalytic acidic residues of the glycosyl hydrolases. The recent advances in molecular biology and protein engineering via mutagenesis and truncation led to improvement in thermostability, catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Pullulanases are debranching enzymes, which are widely employed in starch saccharification that minimizes the use of glucoamylase (approx. 50 %) and reduces the total reaction time of the industrial starch conversion process. The thermostable amylopullulanases are useful in one-step starch liquefaction and saccharification, which replaces amylolytic enzymes like α-amylase and glucoamylase, thus resulting in the reduction in the cost of sugar production. The enzymes also find application in making resistant starches and as an antistale in bread making. Panose and isopanose containing syrups are useful as prebiotics, while panose has also been reported to display anticarcinogenic activity. This review focuses on the distinguishing features of these enzymes based on the analysis of amino acid sequences and domain structure, besides highlighting recent advances in the molecular biology and protein engineering for enhancing their thermostability, catalytic activity and substrate specificity. This review also briefly summarizes the potential applications of pullulanases and pullulan hydrolases.

  16. Post-synthetic modification of plant cell walls by expression of microbial hydrolases in the apoplast.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Fursova, Oksana; Lin, Ming; Pyle, Eric; Jass, Johanna; Zabotina, Olga A

    2011-11-01

    The systematic creation of defined cell wall modifications in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by expression of microbial hydrolases with known specific activities is a promising approach to examine the impacts of cell wall composition and structure on both plant fitness and cell wall recalcitrance. Moreover, this approach allows the direct evaluation in living plants of hydrolase specificity, which can differ from in vitro specificity. To express genes encoding microbial hydrolases in A. thaliana, and target the hydrolases to the apoplast compartment, we constructed an expression cassette composed of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S RNA promoter, the A. thaliana β-expansin signal peptide, and the fluorescent marker protein YFP. Using this construct we successfully introduced into Colombia-0 plants three Aspergillus nidulans hydrolases, β-xylosidase/α-arabinosidase, feruloyl esterase, acetylxylan esterase, and a Xanthomonas oryzae putative a-L: -arabinofuranosidase. Fusion with YFP permitted quick and easy screening of transformants, detection of apoplastic localization, and protein size confirmation. Compared to wild-type Col-0, all transgenic lines showed a significant increase in the corresponding hydrolytic activity in the apoplast and changes in cell wall composition. Examination of hydrolytic activity in the transgenic plants also showed, for the first time, that the X. oryzae gene indeed encoded an enzyme with α-L: -arabinofuranosidase activity. None of the transgenic plants showed a visible phenotype; however, the induced compositional changes increased the degradability of biomass from plants expressing feruloyl esterase and β-xylosidase/α-arabinosidase. Our results demonstrate the viability of creating a set of transgenic A. thaliana plants with modified cell walls to use as a toolset for investigation of how cell wall composition contributes to recalcitrance and affects plant fitness.

  17. Characterization and purification of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeen, S.G.; Savage, D.C. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors have characterized and purified the bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100. Bile salt hydrolase from cells of the strain was purified with column and high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity was assayed in whole cells and cell-free extracts with either a radiochemical assay involving ({sup 14}C)taurocholic acid or a nonradioactive assay involving trinitrobenzene sulfonate. The activity was detectable only in stationary-phase cells. Within 20 min after conjugated bile acids were added to stationary-phase cultures of strain 100-100, the activity in whole cells increased to levels three- to fivefold higher than in cells from cultures grown in medium free of bile salts. In cell-free extracts, however, the activity was about equal whether or not the cells have been grown with bile salts present. When supernatant solutions from cultures grown in medium containing taurocholic acid were used to suspend cells grown in medium free of the bile salt, the bile salt hydrolase activity detected in whole cells increased two- to threefold. Two forms of the hydrolase were purified from the cells and designated hydrolases A and B. They eluted from anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in two sets of fractions, A at 0.15 M NaCl and B at 0.18 M NaCl. Their apparent molecular weights in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 115,000 and 105,000, respectively. However, discrepancies existed in the apparent molecular weights and number of peptides detected in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the two forms. Whether the enzyme exists in two forms in the cells remains to be determined.

  18. Supplementing with Non-Glycoside Hydrolase Proteins Enhances Enzymatic Deconstruction of Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jing; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2012-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolases (GH) of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii are thermophilic enzymes, and therefore they can hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides at high temperatures. Analyses of two C. bescii glycoside hydrolases, CbCelA-TM1 and CbXyn10A with cellulase and endoxylanase activity, respectively, demonstrated that each enzyme is highly thermostable under static incubation at 70°C. Both enzymes, however, rapidly lost their enzymatic activities when incubated at 70°C with end-over-end shaking. Since crowding conditions, even at low protein concentrations, seem to influence enzymatic properties, three non-glycoside hydrolase proteins were tested for their capacity to stabilize the thermophilic proteins at high temperatures. The three proteins investigated were a small heat shock protein CbHsp18 from C. bescii, a histone MkHistone1 from Methanopyrus kandleri, and bovine RNase A, from a commercial source. Fascinatingly, each of these proteins increased the thermostability of the glycoside hydrolases at 70°C during end-over-end shaking incubation, and this property translated into increases in hydrolysis of several substrates including the bioenergy feedstock Miscanthus. Furthermore, MkHistone1 and RNase A also altered the initial products released from the cello-oligosaccharide cellopentaose during hydrolysis with the cellodextrinase CbCdx1A, which further demonstrated the capacity of the three non-GH proteins to influence hydrolysis of substrates by the thermophilic glycoside hydrolases. The non-GH proteins used in the present report were small proteins derived from each of the three lineages of life, and therefore expand the space from which different polypeptides can be tested for their influence on plant cell wall hydrolysis, a critical step in the emerging biofuel industry. PMID:22952777

  19. Cell- and ligand-specific dephosphorylation of acid hydrolases: Evidence that the mannose 6-phosphatase is controlled by compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, R.; Gabel, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Mouse L cells that possess the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (Man 6-P)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II receptor change the extent to which they dephosphorylate endocytosed acid hydrolases in response to serum. To investigate the mechanism by which dephosphorylation competence is regulated, the dephosphorylation of individual acid hydrolases was studied in Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive and -deficient cell lines. 125I-labeled Man 6-P-containing acid hydrolases were proteolytically processed but remained phosphorylated when endocytosed by receptor-positive L cells maintained in the absence of serum; after the addition of serum, however, the cell-associated hydrolases were dephosphorylated. Individual hydrolases were dephosphorylated at distinct rates and to different extents. In contrast, the same hydrolases were dephosphorylated equally and completely after entry into Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The dephosphorylation competence of Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-deficient mouse J774 cells was more limited. beta-Glucuronidase produced by these cells underwent a limited dephosphorylation in transit to lysosomes such that diphosphorylated oligosaccharides were converted to monophosphorylated species. The overall quantity of phosphorylated oligosaccharides associated with the enzyme, however, did not decrease within the lysosomal compartment. Likewise, beta-glucuronidase was not dephosphorylated when introduced into J774 cells via Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. The CHO and J774 cell lysosomes, therefore, display opposite extremes with respect to their capacity to dephosphorylate acid hydrolases; within CHO cell lysosomes acid hydrolases are rapidly and efficiently dephosphorylated, but within J774 cell lysosomes the same acid hydrolases remain phosphorylated.

  20. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  1. The putative α/β-hydrolases of Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain as potential enzymes for biocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Procópio, Luciano; Macrae, Andrew; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    The draft genome of the soil actinomycete Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals a versatile group of α/β-hydrolase fold enzymes. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses were used to classify the α/β-hydrolases of strain P4 into six different groups: (i) lipases, (ii) esterases, (iii) epoxide hydrolases, (iv) haloacid dehalogenases, (v) C-C breaking enzymes and (vi) serine peptidases. The high number of lipases/esterases (41) and epoxide hydrolase enzymes (14) present in the relatively small (3.6 Mb) P4 genome is unusual; it is likely to be linked to the survival of strain P4 in its natural environment. Strain P4 is thus equipped with a large number of genes which would appear to confer survivability in harsh hot tropical soil. As such, this highly resilient soil bacterial strain provides an interesting genome for enzyme mining for applications in the field of biotransformations of polymeric compounds.

  2. Structure Determination and Characterization of the Vitamin B[superscript 6] Degradative Enzyme (E)-2-(Acetamidomethylene)succinate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-22

    The gene identification and kinetic characterization of (E)-2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate (E-2AMS) hydrolase has recently been described. This enzyme catalyzes the final reaction in the degradation of vitamin B{sub 6} and produces succinic semialdehyde, acetate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide from E-2AMS. The structure of E-2AMS hydrolase was determined to 2.3 {angstrom} using SAD phasing. E-2AMS hydrolase is a member of the {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase superfamily and utilizes a serine/histidine/aspartic acid catalytic triad. Mutation of either the nucleophilic serine or the aspartate resulted in inactive enzyme. Mutation of an additional serine residue in the active site causes the enzyme to be unstable and is likely structurally important. The structure also provides insight into the mechanism of hydrolysis of E-2AMS and identifies several potential catalytically important residues.

  3. A novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase for (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether to generate (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijin; Shen, Jiajia; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Chen, Jianmeng

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus sp. Z018, a novel strain producing epoxide hydrolase, was isolated from soil. The epoxide hydrolase catalyzed the stereospecific hydrolysis of (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether to generate (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol. Epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus sp. Z018 was inducible, and (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether was able to act as an inducer. The fermentation conditions for epoxide hydrolase were 35 degrees C, pH 7.5 with glucose and NH(4)Cl as the best carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the biotransformation yield of 45.8% and the enantiomeric excess of 96.3% were obtained for the product (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol.

  4. A Simple Assay Demonstrating the Effect of Rehydration on the Orsellinate Depside Hydrolase Activity of Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    González, A; Vicente, C; Estrella Legaz, M

    1984-09-01

    A new, simple assay of orsellinate depside hydrolase (EC. 3.1.1.40) by high performance liquid chromatography is described. Enzymatic hydrolysis of evernic acid produces equimolar amounts of both orsellinic and everninic acids. Evernia prunastri thallus has a pre-existent, partially inactive hydrolase, which is activated after rehydration of the thallus. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Insight into the Physiological Role of Bile Salt Hydrolase among Intestinal Bacteria from the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche. PMID:25470405

  6. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  7. Proteins with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold: Relationships between subfamilies in an ever-growing superfamily.

    PubMed

    Lenfant, Nicolas; Hotelier, Thierry; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale; Chatonnet, Arnaud

    2013-03-25

    Alpha/beta hydrolases function as hydrolases, lyases, transferases, hormone precursors or transporters, chaperones or routers of other proteins. The amount of structural and functional available data related to this protein superfamily expands exponentially, as does the number of proteins classified as alpha/beta hydrolases despite poor sequence similarity and lack of experimental data. However the superfamily can be rationally divided according to sequence or structural homologies, leading to subfamilies of proteins with potentially similar functions. Since the discovery of proteins homologous to cholinesterases but devoid of enzymatic activity (e.g., the neuroligins), divergent functions have been ascribed to members of other subfamilies (e.g., lipases, dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV, etc.). To study the potentially moonlighting properties of alpha/beta hydrolases, the ESTHER database (for ESTerase and alpha/beta Hydrolase Enzymes and Relatives; http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/esther), which collects, organizes and disseminates structural and functional information related to alpha/beta hydrolases, has been updated with new tools and the web server interface has been upgraded. A new Overall Table along with a new Tree based on HMM models has been included to tentatively group subfamilies. These tools provide starting points for phylogenetic studies aimed at pinpointing the origin of duplications leading to paralogous genes (e.g., acetylcholinesterase versus butyrylcholinesterase, or neuroligin versus carboxylesterase). Another of our goals is to implement new tools to distinguish catalytically active enzymes from non-catalytic proteins in poorly studied or annotated subfamilies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wenxin; Wang, Qihai; Bi, Ruchang

    2005-12-01

    The 31.3 kDa Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. Crystals of Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 K using PEG 550 MME as precipitant. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap{sub 4}A) hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.41) hydrolyzes Ap{sub 4}A symmetrically in prokaryotes. It plays a potential role in organisms by regulating the concentration of Ap{sub 4}A in vivo. To date, no three-dimensional structures of proteins with significant sequence homology to this protein have been determined. The 31.3 kDa Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. Crystals of Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 K using PEG 550 MME as precipitant. Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase crystals diffract X-rays to 3.26 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.9, b = 54.6, c = 128.5 Å, β = 95.7°.

  9. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  10. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-18

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and -beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGLβ perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function.

  11. Organophosphorus hydrolase: a multifaceted plant genetic marker which is selectable, scorable, and quantifiable in whole seed.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, T Scott; Wild, James R; Howard, John A

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1) provides a novel function as an alternative genetic marker system for use in many types of plant transformations. OPH is a high-capacity hydrolase with multiple organophosphorus substrates, many of which are neurotoxins and thus used extensively as pesticides. This spectrum of organophosphates includes compounds that are phytotoxic as well as those that are hydrolyzed to products that are easily detected visually without significant disruption of plant health. This dichotomy gives OPH the features of both a selectable marker as well as that of a scorable marker system, and these characteristics have been tested at several stages during the plant transformation and regeneration process. Finally, it is possible to quantify hydrolytic activity in the seed without interfering with its subsequent growth and regeneration.

  12. Production of monospecific antiserum to a cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from human liver.

    PubMed

    Qato, M K; Reinmund, S G; Guenthner, T M

    1990-01-15

    A method for the purification to apparent homogeneity of cytosolic trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase from human liver is presented. The method employed ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. From 50 g of human liver, 4.9 mg of homogenous enzyme protein was obtained. Although the enzyme had lost much of its catalytic activity during purification, it was nevertheless suitable for the preparation of antibodies to the enzyme. Only one immunogenic species was present in the antigen preparation, but some antibodies that were cross-reactive to sites on catalase were present in the antiserum. These catalase-specific antibodies were removed by immunoaffinity chromatography, and an IgG fraction that is monospecific to the cytosolic epoxide hydrolase was obtained. The usefulness of antibodies to this enzyme in immunoblotting experiments, following either sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or isoelectric focussing, as well as in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, is demonstrated.

  13. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  14. Physical comparison of parathion hydrolase plasmids from Pseudomonas diminuta and Flavobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, W W; Kearney, P C; Nelson, J O; Karns, J S

    1987-09-01

    Restriction maps of two plasmids encoding parathion hydrolase have been determined. pPDL2 is a 39-kb plasmid harbored by Flavobacterium sp. (ATCC 27551), while pCMS1 is a 70-kb plasmid found in Pseudomonas diminuta (strain MG). Both plasmids previously have been shown to share homologous parathion hydrolase genes (termed opd for organophosphate degradation) as judged by DNA-DNA hybridization and restriction mapping. In the present study, we conducted DNA hybridization experiments using each of nine PstI restriction fragments from pCMS1 as probes against Flavobacterium plasmid DNA. The opd genes of both plasmids are located within a highly conserved region of approximately 5.1 kb. This region of homology extends approximately 2.6 kb upstream and 1.7 kb downstream from the opd genes. No homology between the two plasmids is evident outside of this region.

  15. Synthesis of bicyclic N-arylmethyl-substituted iminoribitol derivatives as selective nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Berg, Maya; Bal, Gunther; Goeminne, Annelies; Van der Veken, Pieter; Versées, Wim; Steyaert, Jan; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

    2009-02-01

    The purine metabolism of Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. provides a good target in the search for new selective drugs. Bicyclic N-arylmethyl-substituted iminoribitols were developed as inhibitors of T. vivax nucleoside hydrolase, a key enzyme of the purine salvage pathway. The obtained results and structure-activity data confirmed our model for inhibitor binding with a hydrogen bond between a nitrogen atom of the nucleobase mimetic and the protonated Asp40 from the enzyme. This interaction depends on an optimal pK(a) value, which can be influenced by the electronic properties of the substituents. These compounds are potent, selective inhibitors of nucleoside hydrolase and are inactive toward human nucleoside phosphorylase.

  16. Effects of proteins and polynucleotides on the activity of various hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, M. J.; Koldovský, O.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of various macromolecules on the activity of several hydrolases was studied. Dilution of partially purified acid β-galactosidase from ileal mucosa of suckling rats resulted in a decrease of specific activity. The relationship between specific activity and dilution of the enzyme suggests a dissociation of the enzyme. This could be prevented by addition of several proteins tested. However, addition of DNA to the assay mixture for acid β-galactosidase caused an inhibition. This inhibition could be prevented by addition of proteins. Other polynucleotides and tRNA also exert an inhibitory effect that is prevented by albumin, but nucleotides have no effect. This inhibition occurs maximally at a low pH (3.0–4.0); no inhibition is observed at pH5.5. A similar pH-dependent inhibition by DNA was also found with various other acid hydrolases. PMID:5076227

  17. Heterologous Expression of Glycosyl Hydrolases in planta: A New Departure for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor II, L. E.; Dai, Z.; Decker, S. R.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is nearly two decades old, yet relatively little work in this field has been reported. However, resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling processes that convert biomass to sugars and fuels has turned attention toward this intuitive solution. There are several challenges facing researchers in this field, including the development of better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, the successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins and the development of cost-effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. The integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to the heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic conversion of biomass to ethanol and subsequently to fuels.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Glycosyl Hydrolases in planta: A New Departure for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Larry E.; Dai, Ziyu; Decker, Stephen R.; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-08-01

    The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is less than two decades old, and yet little work in this field has been reported. However, the resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling biomass to sugars/fuels processes have again pointed to this intuitive solution. Research challenges in this regard include developing better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, achieving successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins, and developing cost effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. Integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol/fuels process.

  19. Tolerance of β-diketone hydrolases as representatives of the crotonase superfamily towards organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Siirola, Elina; Grischek, Barbara; Clay, Dorina; Frank, Annika; Grogan, Gideon; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Crotonase superfamily enzymes catalyze a wide variety of reactions, including hydrolytic C-C bond cleavage in symmetrical β-diketones by 6-oxo camphor hydrolase (OCH) from Rhodococcus sp. The organic solvent tolerance and temperature stability of OCH and its structurally related ortholog Anabaena β-diketone hydrolase have been investigated. Both enzymes showed excellent tolerance toward organic solvents; for instance, even in the presence of 80% (v/v) THF or dioxane, OCH was still active. In most solvent mixtures, except methanol, the stereospecificity was conserved (>99% e.e. of product), hence neither the type of solvent nor its concentration appeared to have an effect on the stereoselectivity of the enzyme. Attempts to correlate the observed activities with log P, functional solvent group or denaturing capacity (DC) of the solvent were only successful in the case of DC for water miscible solvents. This study represents the first investigation of organic solvent stability for members of the crotonase superfamily.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of neoagarobiose hydrolase from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saeyoung; Lee, Jonas Yun; Ha, Sung Chul; Jung, Jina; Shin, Dong Hae; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2009-01-01

    Many agarolytic bacteria degrade agar polysaccharide into the disaccharide unit neoagarobiose [O-3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-d-galactose] using various β-agarases. Neoagarobiose hydrolase is an enzyme that acts on the α-­1,3 linkage in neoagarobiose to yield d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose. This activity is essential in both the metabolism of agar by agarolytic bacteria and the production of fermentable sugars from agar biomass for bioenergy production. Neoagarobiose hydrolase from the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 129.83, b = 76.81, c = 90.11 Å, β = 101.86°. The crystals diffracted to 1.98 Å resolution and possibly contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:20054134

  1. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    PubMed Central

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA_C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA_C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry 1nc5) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA_C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate specificity from that of YteR. PMID:26249707

  2. Trigger factor assisted folding of the recombinant epoxide hydrolases identified from C. pelagibacter and S. nassauensis.

    PubMed

    Saini, Priya; Wani, Shadil Ibrahim; Kumar, Ranjai; Chhabra, Ravneet; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh; Sareen, Dipti

    2014-12-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs), are enantioselective enzymes as they catalyze the kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides into the corresponding enantiopure vicinal diols, which are useful precursors in the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical compounds. Here, we have identified and cloned two putative epoxide hydrolase genes (cpeh and sneh) from marine bacteria, Candidatus pelagibacter ubique and terrestrial bacteria, Stackebrandtia nassauensis, respectively and overexpressed them in pET28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The CPEH protein (42kDa) was found to be overexpressed as inactive inclusion bodies while SNEH protein (40kDa) was found to form soluble aggregates. In this study, the recombinant CPEH was successfully transformed from insoluble aggregates to the soluble and functionally active form, using pCold TF vector, though with low EH activity. To prevent the soluble aggregate formation of SNEH, it was co-expressed with GroEL/ES chaperone and was also fused with trigger factor (TF) chaperone at its N-terminus. The TF chaperone-assisted correct folding of SNEH led to a purified active EH with a specific activity of 3.85μmol/min/mg. The pure enzyme was further used to biocatalyze the hydrolysis of 10mM benzyl glycidyl ether (BGE) and α-methyl styrene oxide (MSO) with an enantiomeric excess of the product (eep) of 86% and 73% in 30 and 15min, respectively. In conclusion, this is the first report about the heterologous expression of epoxide hydrolases using TF as a molecular chaperone in pCold TF expression vector, resulting in remarkable increase in the solubility and activity of the otherwise improperly folded recombinant epoxide hydrolases.

  3. Functional analysis of the Escherichia coli genome for members of the alpha/beta hydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Godzik, A; Skolnick, J; Fetrow, J S

    1998-01-01

    Database-searching methods based on sequence similarity have become the most commonly used tools for characterizing newly sequenced proteins. Due to the often underestimated functional diversity in protein families and superfamilies, however, it is difficult to make the characterization specific and accurate. In this work, we have extended a method for active-site identification from predicted protein structures. The structural conservation and variation of the active sites of the alpha/beta hydrolases with known structures were studied. The similarities were incorporated into a three-dimensional motif that specifies essential requirements for the enzymatic functions. A threading algorithm was used to align 651 Escherichia coli open reading frames (ORFs) to one of the members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. These ORFs were then screened according to our three-dimensional motif and with an extra requirement that demands conservation of the key active-site residues among the proteins that bear significant sequence similarity to the ORFs. 17 ORFs from E. coli were predicted to have hydrolase activity and their putative active-site residues were identified. Most were in agreement with the experiments and results of other database-searching methods. The study further suggests that YHET_ECOLI, a hypothetical protein classified as a member of the UPF0017 family (an uncharacterized protein family), bears all the hallmarks of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The novel feature of our method is that it uses three-dimensional structural information for function prediction. The results demonstrate the importance and necessity of such a method to fill the gap between sequence alignment and function prediction; furthermore, the method provides a way to verify the structure predictions, which enables an expansion of the applicable scope of the threading algorithms.

  4. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105.

    PubMed

    Germane, Katherine L; Servinsky, Matthew D; Gerlach, Elliot S; Sund, Christian J; Hurley, Margaret M

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA_C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA_C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry 1nc5) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA_C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate specificity from that of YteR.

  5. Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356▿

    PubMed Central

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verification of the enzymatic activity. PMID:18931300

  6. Measuring Enzyme Kinetics of Glycoside Hydrolases Using the 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid Assay.

    PubMed

    McKee, Lauren S

    2017-01-01

    Use of the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reagent allows the simple and rapid quantification of reducing sugars. The method can be used for analysis of biological samples or in the characterization of enzyme reactions. Presented here is an application of the method in measuring the kinetics of a glycoside hydrolase reaction, including the optimization of the DNSA reagent, and the production of a standard curve of absorbance and sugar concentration.

  7. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.; Ward, Anna M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Casida, John E.

    2008-04-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC{sub 50} 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification.

  8. Regulated proteolysis of a cross-link-specific peptidoglycan hydrolase contributes to bacterial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Parveen, Sadiya; SaiSree, L; Reddy, Manjula

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial growth and morphogenesis are intimately coupled to expansion of peptidoglycan (PG), an extensively cross-linked macromolecule that forms a protective mesh-like sacculus around the cytoplasmic membrane. Growth of the PG sacculus is a dynamic event requiring the concerted action of hydrolases that cleave the cross-links for insertion of new material and synthases that catalyze cross-link formation; however, the factors that regulate PG expansion during bacterial growth are poorly understood. Here, we show that the PG hydrolase MepS (formerly Spr), which is specific to cleavage of cross-links during PG expansion in Escherichia coli, is modulated by proteolysis. Using combined genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that MepS is rapidly degraded by a proteolytic system comprising an outer membrane lipoprotein of unknown function, NlpI, and a periplasmic protease, Prc (or Tsp). In summary, our results indicate that the NlpI-Prc system contributes to growth and enlargement of the PG sacculus by modulating the cellular levels of the cross-link-cleaving hydrolase MepS. Overall, this study signifies the importance of PG cross-link cleavage and its regulation in bacterial cell wall biogenesis.

  9. A new group of glycoside hydrolase family 13 α-amylases with an aberrant catalytic triad

    PubMed Central

    Sarian, Fean D.; Janeček, Štefan; Pijning, Tjaard; Ihsanawati; Nurachman, Zeily; Radjasa, Ocky K.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Natalia, Dessy; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.

    2017-01-01

    α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the α(1→4) glycosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and related α-glucans, and are ubiquitously present in Nature. Most α-amylases have been classified in glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a typical (β/α)8-barrel containing two aspartic acid and one glutamic acid residue that play an essential role in catalysis. An atypical α-amylase (BmaN1) with only two of the three invariant catalytic residues present was isolated from Bacillus megaterium strain NL3, a bacterial isolate from a sea anemone of Kakaban landlocked marine lake, Derawan Island, Indonesia. In BmaN1 the third residue, the aspartic acid that acts as the transition state stabilizer, was replaced by a histidine. Three-dimensional structure modeling of the BmaN1 amino acid sequence confirmed the aberrant catalytic triad. Glucose and maltose were found as products of the action of the novel α-amylase on soluble starch, demonstrating that it is active in spite of the peculiar catalytic triad. This novel BmaN1 α-amylase is part of a group of α-amylases that all have this atypical catalytic triad, consisting of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this group of α-amylases comprises a new subfamily of the glycoside hydrolase family 13. PMID:28287181

  10. Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jonathan Z.; Jin, Xin; Adibekian, Alexander; Li, Weiwei; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, suggesting that they represent a promising class of inhibitors for studying the endogenous functions of MAGL and FAAH. Herein, we disclose a full account of the syntheses, structure-activity relationships, and inhibitory activities of piperidine/piperazine carbamates against members of the serine hydrolase family. These scaffolds can be tuned for MAGL-selective or dual MAGL-FAAH inhibition by the attachment of an appropriately substituted bisarylcarbinol or aryloxybenzyl moiety, respectively, on the piperidine/piperazine ring. Modifications to the piperidine/piperazine ring ablated inhibitory activity, suggesting a strict requirement for a six-member ring to maintain potency. PMID:20099888

  11. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  12. Thermal unfolding of nucleoside hydrolases from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: role of disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Marina; De Leo, Ester; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Fuccio, Francesca; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna

    2012-03-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases are metalloproteins that hydrolyze the N-glycosidic bond of β-ribonucleosides, forming the free purine/pyrimidine base and ribose. We report the stability of the two hyperthermophilic enzymes Sulfolobus solfataricus pyrimidine-specific nucleoside hydrolase (SsCU-NH) and Sulfolobus solfataricus purine-specific inosineadenosine- guanosine nucleoside hydrolase (SsIAG-NH) against the denaturing action of temperature and guanidine hydrochloride by means of circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding is reversible for both enzymes as demonstrated by the analysis of the refolding process by activity assays and fluorescence measurements. The evidence that the denaturation of SsIAG-NH carried out in the presence of reducing agents proved to be reversible indicates that the presence of disulfide bonds interferes with the refolding process of this enzyme. Both enzymes are highly thermostable and no thermal unfolding transition can be obtained up to 108°C. SsIAG-NH is thermally denatured under reducing conditions (T(m)=93°C) demonstrating the contribution of disulfide bridges to enzyme thermostability.

  13. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; ...

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  14. A new group of glycoside hydrolase family 13 α-amylases with an aberrant catalytic triad.

    PubMed

    Sarian, Fean D; Janeček, Štefan; Pijning, Tjaard; Ihsanawati; Nurachman, Zeily; Radjasa, Ocky K; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Natalia, Dessy; van der Maarel, Marc J E C

    2017-03-13

    α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the α(1→4) glycosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and related α-glucans, and are ubiquitously present in Nature. Most α-amylases have been classified in glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a typical (β/α)8-barrel containing two aspartic acid and one glutamic acid residue that play an essential role in catalysis. An atypical α-amylase (BmaN1) with only two of the three invariant catalytic residues present was isolated from Bacillus megaterium strain NL3, a bacterial isolate from a sea anemone of Kakaban landlocked marine lake, Derawan Island, Indonesia. In BmaN1 the third residue, the aspartic acid that acts as the transition state stabilizer, was replaced by a histidine. Three-dimensional structure modeling of the BmaN1 amino acid sequence confirmed the aberrant catalytic triad. Glucose and maltose were found as products of the action of the novel α-amylase on soluble starch, demonstrating that it is active in spite of the peculiar catalytic triad. This novel BmaN1 α-amylase is part of a group of α-amylases that all have this atypical catalytic triad, consisting of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this group of α-amylases comprises a new subfamily of the glycoside hydrolase family 13.

  15. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  16. Ubiquitin dimers control the hydrolase activity of UCH-L3.

    PubMed

    Setsuie, Rieko; Sakurai, Mikako; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) carboxy terminal hydrolase (UCH)-L1 and UCH-L3 are two of the deubiquitinating enzymes expressed in the brain. Both gad mice, which lack UCH-L1 expression and Uchl3 knockout mice exhibit neurodegeneration, although at distinct areas. These phenotypes indicate the importance of UCH-L1 and UCH-L3 in the regulation of the central nervous system. However, molecular substrates and the molecular regulators of UCH-L1 and UCH-L3 remain poorly identified. Here we show that Ub dimers interact non-covalently with UCH-L3 in vitro and in cells. These interactions were not observed with UCH-L1 in cells. In vitro, K48-linked Ub dimers pronouncedly inhibited the hydrolase activity of UCH-L3, while mono-Ub, a previously identified interacting protein, inhibited the hydrolase activity of UCH-L1. These results indicate that mono-Ub and Ub dimers may regulate the enzymatic functions of UCH-L1 and UCH-L3, respectively, in vivo.

  17. Production of polyclonal anti-dUCH (Drosophila ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tram, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Thao, Dang Thi Phuong; Thuoc, Tran Linh

    2013-04-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), which is a member of the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCH) family, is highly expressed in neurons. In vitro, UCH- L1 exhibits both ubiquitin hydrolase and ligase activity. Many studies have suggested that UCH-L1 is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and some different human cancer diseases, but its role in a living system is still unclear. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a compatible model for studying human diseases. To investigate the role of UCH-L1 in a living system, the UCH-L1 homologous protein in Drosophila melanogaster (dUCH) is used for analyzing the role of the protein's function in transgenic Drosophila. Here, we used DNA molecular techniques to clone, express, and purify dUCH protein from Escherichia coli. The purified dUCH protein was injected into a rabbit to produce an anti-dUCH antibody, which was shown to have high specificity and sensitivity to the dUCH protein. The affinity of the antibody is 1:320,000 at 7.81 ng/μL antigen concentration. The 1:40,000 dilution-produced antibodies can detect antigen at a low concentration of 0.98 ng/μL. Success in producing this antibody provides good material for further experiments in the study of the role of UCH-L1 by a Drosophila model.

  18. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D.; Bailey, Richard G.; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A. S.; Hayhurst, Emma J.; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. PMID:26220963

  19. Synergistic action modes of arabinan degradation by exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Mi; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Oh, Gyo Won; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Song, Yeong-Bok; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Tae-Jip

    2015-02-01

    Two recombinant arabinosyl hydrolases, α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus sp. KCTC 3012 (GAFase) and endo-(1,5)-α-L-arabinanase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (BlABNase), were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and their synergistic modes of action against sugar beet (branched) arabinan were investigated. Whereas GAFase hydrolyzed 35.9% of L-arabinose residues from sugar beet (branched) arabinan, endo-action of BlABNase released only 0.5% of L-arabinose owing to its extremely low accessibility towards branched arabinan. Interestingly, the simultaneous treatment of GAFase and BlABNase could liberate approximately 91.2% of L-arabinose from arabinan, which was significantly higher than any single exo-enzyme treatment (35.9%) or even stepwise exo- after endo-enzyme treatment (75.5%). Based on their unique modes of action, both exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases can work in concert to catalyze the hydrolysis of arabinan to L-arabinose. At the early stage in arabinan degradation, exo-acting GAFase could remove the terminal arabinose branches to generate debranched arabinan, which could be successively hydrolyzed into arabinooligosaccharides via the endoaction of BlABNase. At the final stage, the simultaneous actions of exo- and endo-hydrolases could synergistically accelerate the L-arabinose production with high conversion yield.

  20. Identification of Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase, a Key Enzyme Removing Cholesterol from Macrophages*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Nishi, Makiko; Sekiya, Motohiro; Tajima, Makiko; Takase, Satoru; Takanashi, Mikio; Ohta, Keisuke; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Sachiko; Yahagi, Naoya; Ohashi, Ken; Amemiya-Kudo, Michiyo; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Ishibashi, Shun

    2008-01-01

    Unstable lipid-rich plaques in atherosclerosis are characterized by the accumulation of macrophage foam cells loaded with cholesterol ester (CE). Although hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) have been proposed to mediate the hydrolysis of CE in macrophages, circumstantial evidence suggests the presence of other enzymes with neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (nCEH) activity. Here we show that the murine orthologue of KIAA1363, designated as neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), is a microsomal nCEH with high expression in murine and human macrophages. The effect of various concentrations of NaCl on its nCEH activity resembles that on endogenous nCEH activity of macrophages. RNA silencing of NCEH decreases nCEH activity at least by 50%; conversely, its overexpression inhibits the CE formation in macrophages. Immunohistochemistry reveals that NCEH is expressed in macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. These data indicate that NCEH is responsible for a major part of nCEH activity in macrophages and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18782767

  1. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Natalie C; Snarr, Brendan D; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Little, Dustin J; Lee, Mark J; Zacharias, Caitlin A; Chabot, Josée C; Geller, Alexander M; Baptista, Stefanie D; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-11-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135.

  2. LytF, a Novel Competence-Regulated Murein Hydrolase in the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kari Helene; Ohnstad, Hilde Solheim

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and probably most other members of the genus Streptococcus are competent for natural genetic transformation. During the competent state, S. pneumoniae produces a murein hydrolase, CbpD, that kills and lyses noncompetent pneumococci and closely related species. Previous studies have shown that CbpD is essential for efficient transfer of genomic DNA from noncompetent to competent cells in vitro. Consequently, it has been proposed that CbpD together with the cognate immunity protein ComM constitutes a DNA acquisition mechanism that enables competent pneumococci to capture homologous DNA from closely related streptococci sharing the same habitat. Although genes encoding CbpD homologs or CbpD-related proteins are present in many different streptococcal species, the genomes of a number of streptococci do not encode CbpD-type proteins. In the present study we show that the genomes of nearly all species lacking CbpD encode an unrelated competence-regulated murein hydrolase termed LytF. Using Streptococcus gordonii as a model system, we obtained evidence indicating that LytF is a functional analogue of CbpD. In sum, our results show that a murein hydrolase gene is part of the competence regulon of most or all streptococcal species, demonstrating that these muralytic enzymes constitute an essential part of the streptococcal natural transformation system. PMID:22123253

  3. Exported Epoxide Hydrolases Modulate Erythrocyte Vasoactive Lipids during Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalmia, Varun K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocytes are reservoirs of important epoxide-containing lipid signaling molecules, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs function as vasodilators and anti-inflammatory modulators in the bloodstream. Bioactive EETs are hydrolyzed to less active diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids) by epoxide hydrolases (EHs). The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects host red blood cells (RBCs) and exports hundreds of proteins into the RBC compartment. In this study, we show that two parasite epoxide hydrolases, P. falciparum epoxide hydrolases 1 (PfEH1) and 2 (PfEH2), both with noncanonical serine nucleophiles, are exported to the periphery of infected RBCs. PfEH1 and PfEH2 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and they hydrolyzed physiologically relevant erythrocyte EETs. Mutations in active site residues of PfEH1 ablated the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze an epoxide substrate. Overexpression of PfEH1 or PfEH2 in parasite-infected RBCs resulted in a significant alteration in the epoxide fatty acids stored in RBC phospholipids. We hypothesize that the parasite disruption of epoxide-containing signaling lipids leads to perturbed vascular function, creating favorable conditions for binding and sequestration of infected RBCs to the microvascular endothelium. PMID:27795395

  4. Diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase is part of the transcriptional regulation network in immunologically activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Carmi-Levy, Irit; Yannay-Cohen, Nurit; Kay, Gillian; Razin, Ehud; Nechushtan, Hovav

    2008-09-01

    We previously discovered that microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) each forms a complex with its inhibitor histidine triad nucleotide-binding 1 (Hint-1) and with lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS). Moreover, we showed that the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A), previously shown to be synthesized by LysRS, binds to Hint-1, and as a result the transcription factors are released from their suppression. Thus, transcriptional activity is regulated by Ap(4)A, suggesting that Ap(4)A is a second messenger in this context. For Ap(4)A to be unambiguously established as a second messenger, several criteria have to be fulfilled, including the presence of a metabolizing enzyme. Since several enzymes are able to hydrolyze Ap(4)A, we provided here evidence that the "Nudix" type 2 gene product, Ap(4)A hydrolase, is responsible for Ap(4)A degradation following the immunological activation of mast cells. The knockdown of Ap(4)A hydrolase modulated Ap(4)A accumulation, resulting in changes in the expression of MITF and USF2 target genes. Moreover, our observations demonstrated that the involvement of Ap(4)A hydrolase in gene regulation is not a phenomenon exclusive to mast cells but can also be found in cardiac cells activated with the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Thus, we have provided concrete evidence establishing Ap(4)A as a second messenger in the regulation of gene expression.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  6. Hydrolase activity in the venom of the pupal endoparasitic wasp, Pimpla hypochondriaca.

    PubMed

    Dani, M P; Edwards, J P; Richards, E H

    2005-07-01

    Venom from the pupal endoparasitoid, Pimpla hypochondriaca has previously been shown to contain a mixture of biologically active molecules. Currently, P. hypochondriaca venom was examined for the presence of hydrolase activity. Six hydrolases were consistently detected using the API ZYM semiquantitative colourimetric kit. The main hydrolases detected were; acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, esterase, beta-galactosidase, esterase lipase, and lipase. The most rapid and intense colour reaction was detected for acid phosphatase. The pH optimum and the specific activity of venom acid phosphatase was determined using p-nitrophenol phosphate as a substrate and were 4.8 and 0.47 nmol p-nitrophenol/min/microg of venom protein, respectively. The acid phosphatase activity was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by sodium fluoride (IC(50) 4.2 x 10(-4) M), and by cocktail inhibitor 2 (CI 2). P. hypochondriaca venom has previously been shown to display potent cytotoxic activity towards Lacanobia oleracea haemocytes maintained in vitro. The contribution of acid phosphatase in venom to this cytotoxic activity was investigated by titrating venom against CI 2 prior to the addition of L. oleracea haemocytes. The results suggest that, despite the relatively high levels of acid phosphatase activity in venom, venom acid phosphatase plays no role in the antihaemocytic activity of P. hypochondriaca venom in vitro.

  7. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V.; Vorhaben, Torge; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George K.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2012-05-01

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme-nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme-nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  8. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel. PMID:28345631

  9. Defining sequence space and reaction products within the cyanuric acid hydrolase (AtzD)/barbiturase protein family.

    PubMed

    Seffernick, Jennifer L; Erickson, Jasmine S; Cameron, Stephan M; Cho, Seunghee; Dodge, Anthony G; Richman, Jack E; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2012-09-01

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases (AtzD) and barbiturases are homologous, found almost exclusively in bacteria, and comprise a rare protein family with no discernible linkage to other protein families or an X-ray structural class. There has been confusion in the literature and in genome projects regarding the reaction products, the assignment of individual sequences as either cyanuric acid hydrolases or barbiturases, and spurious connection of this family to another protein family. The present study has addressed those issues. First, the published enzyme reaction products of cyanuric acid hydrolase are incorrectly identified as biuret and carbon dioxide. The current study employed (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to show that cyanuric acid hydrolase releases carboxybiuret, which spontaneously decarboxylates to biuret. This is significant because it revealed that homologous cyanuric acid hydrolases and barbiturases catalyze completely analogous reactions. Second, enzymes that had been annotated incorrectly in genome projects have been reassigned here by bioinformatics, gene cloning, and protein characterization studies. Third, the AtzD/barbiturase family has previously been suggested to consist of members of the amidohydrolase superfamily, a large class of metallohydrolases. Bioinformatics and the lack of bound metals both argue against a connection to the amidohydrolase superfamily. Lastly, steady-state kinetic measurements and observations of protein stability suggested that the AtzD/barbiturase family might be an undistinguished protein family that has undergone some resurgence with the recent introduction of industrial s-triazine compounds such as atrazine and melamine into the environment.

  10. Enzymic hydrolysis of barley and other β-glucans by a β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A. E.; Stone, B. A.

    1966-01-01

    1. A barley glucan with 68% of β-(1→4)-linkages and 32% of β-(1→3)-linkages was exhaustively hydrolysed with an Aspergillus niger β-(1→4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4) (Clarke & Stone, 1965b). The hydrolysis products were separated and estimated. 2. The lower-molecular-weight products were identified as: glucose, 1·4%; cellobiose, 11·9%; 32-O-β-glucosylcellobiose, 45·0%; a tetrasaccharide(s), which was a substituted cellobiose, 16·4%. A series of unidentified higher-molecular-weight products (26·5%) were also found. 3. The identity of the products suggests that the A. niger β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase hydrolyses β-glucosidic linkages joining 4-O-substituted glucose residues. 4. When an enzyme fraction containing the β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase and an exo-β-(1→3)-glucan hydrolase was used, the same products were found, but the higher-molecular-weight products were observed to have only a transient existence in the hydrolysate and were virtually absent after prolonged incubation. It is suggested that these oligosaccharides are resistant to attack by β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase but are partially hydrolysed by the exo-β-(1→3)-glucan hydrolase and therefore possess one or more (1→3)-linked glucose residues at their non-reducing end. PMID:4290404

  11. Involvement of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Johnson, W W; Ueng, Y F; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the effect of variations in activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on cancer incidence. This interest has accelerated with the development of methods for analyzing genetic polymorphisms. However, progress in epidemiology has been slow and the contributions of polymorphisms to risks from individual chemicals and mixtures are often controversial. A series of studies is presented to show the complexities encountered with a single chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 is oxidized by human cytochrome P450 enzymes to several products. Only one of these, the 8,9-exo-epoxide, appears to be mutagenic and the others are detoxication products. P450 3A4, which can both activate and detoxicate AFB1, is found in the liver and the small intestine. In the small intestine, the first contact after oral exposure, epoxidation would not lead to liver cancer. The (nonenzymatic) half-life of the epoxide has been determined to be approximately 1 sec at 23 degrees C and neutral pH. Although the half-life is short, AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide does react with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. Levels of these conjugates have been measured and combined with the rate of hydrolysis in a kinetic model to predict constants for binding of the epoxide with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. A role for epoxide hydrolase in alteration of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis has been proposed, although experimental evidence is lacking. Some inhibition of microsome-generated genotoxicity was observed with rat epoxide hydrolase; further information on the extent of contribution of this enzyme to AFB1 metabolism is not yet available. PMID:8781383

  12. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J; Snarr, Brendan D; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J; Lee, Mark J; Jennings, Laura K; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A; Parsek, Matthew R; Sheppard, Donald C; Wozniak, Daniel J; Howell, P Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics.

  13. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  14. Gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of nephrotic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, E; Roccatello, D; Fadden, K; Piccoli, G; De Rosa, G; Sena, L M; Rifai, A

    1999-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway constitute a class of potent biological lipid mediators of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental glomerulonephritis. The key enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), catalyses oxygenation of arachidonic acid to generate the primary leukotriene LTA4. This LT, in turn, serves as a substrate for either LTA4 hydrolase, to form the potent chemoattractant LTB4, or LTC4 synthase, to produce the powerful vasoconstrictor LTC4. To investigate the potential role of LT in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, we examined the gene expression of 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of 21 adult patients with nephrotic syndrome and 11 controls. The patients consisted of 11 cases of membranous nephropathy (MN), seven focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two non-IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis and one minimal change disease. Total RNA purified from renal tissue was reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified with specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eight patients' renal tissue, four MN and four FSGS, co-expressed 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase. In situ hybridization analysis revealed 5-LO expression and distribution limited to the interstitial cells surrounding the peritubular capillaries. Comparative clinical and immunohistological data showed that these eight patients had impaired renal function and interstitial changes that significantly correlated with 5-LO expression. These findings suggest that leukotrienes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN and FSGS. These results are also relevant to elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms which underlie progression to renal failure in these diseases. PMID:10337029

  15. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by Pleosporineae fungi that target the linker region of plant class IV chitinases.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Todd A; Wicklow, Donald T; Price, Neil P J

    2014-06-01

    Cmps (chitinase-modifying proteins) are fungal proteases that truncate plant class IV chitinases by cleaving near their N-termini. We previously described Fv-cmp, a fungalysin protease that cleaves a conserved glycine-cysteine bond within the hevein domain. In the present paper we describe a new type of cmp, polyglycine hydrolases, as proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker of plant class IV chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were purified from Cochliobolus carbonum (syn. Bipolaris zeicola; Bz-cmp) and Epicoccum sorghi (syn. Phoma sorghina; Es-cmp) and were shown to cleave three different maize class IV chitinase substrates. The proteolytic cleavage sites were assessed by SDS/PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS and indicated the cleavage of multiple peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker regions. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce mutants of maize ChitB chitinase in which two serine residues in its linker were systematically modified to glycine. Serine to glycine changes in the ChitB linker resulted in higher susceptibility to truncation by Bz-cmp and altered substrate specificity for Bz-cmp and Es-cmp, such that different glycine-glycine peptide bonds were cleaved. Removal of the hevein domain led to loss of Es-cmp activity, indicating that interactions outside of the active site are important for recognition. Our findings demonstrate that plant class IV chitinases with polyglycine linkers are targeted for truncation by selective polyglycine hydrolases that are secreted by plant pathogenic fungi. This novel proteolysis of polyglycine motifs is previously unreported, but the specificity is similar to that of bacterial lysostaphin proteases, which cleave pentaglycine cross-links from peptidoglycan.

  16. Substrate ambiguity among the nudix hydrolases: biologically significant, evolutionary remnant, or both?

    PubMed

    McLennan, Alexander G

    2013-02-01

    Many members of the nudix hydrolase family exhibit considerable substrate multispecificity and ambiguity, which raises significant issues when assessing their functions in vivo and gives rise to errors in database annotation. Several display low antimutator activity when expressed in bacterial tester strains as well as some degree of activity in vitro towards mutagenic, oxidized nucleotides such as 8-oxo-dGTP. However, many of these show greater activity towards other nucleotides such as ADP-ribose or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A). The antimutator activities have tended to gain prominence in the literature, whereas they may in fact represent the residual activity of an ancestral antimutator enzyme that has become secondary to the more recently evolved major activity after gene duplication. Whether any meaningful antimutagenic function has also been retained in vivo requires very careful assessment. Then again, other examples of substrate ambiguity may indicate as yet unexplored regulatory systems. For example, bacterial Ap(4)A hydrolases also efficiently remove pyrophosphate from the 5' termini of mRNAs, suggesting a potential role for Ap(4)A in the control of bacterial mRNA turnover, while the ability of some eukaryotic mRNA decapping enzymes to degrade IDP and dIDP or diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (DIPs) may also be indicative of new regulatory networks in RNA metabolism. DIP phosphohydrolases also degrade diadenosine polyphosphates and inorganic polyphosphates, suggesting further avenues for investigation. This article uses these and other examples to highlight the need for a greater awareness of the possible significance of substrate ambiguity among the nudix hydrolases as well as the need to exert caution when interpreting incomplete analyses.

  17. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, Patricia; Boisvert, Susanne; Compton, Jaimee; Millard, Charles

    2014-07-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine O?. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. pNBE was tested as a surrogate scaffold for mammalian esterases. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1. We discuss the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases.

  18. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions.

  19. Carboxyl ester hydrolases production and growth of a halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Rosa María; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Diaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-Reynoso, Orfil; Córdova, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    The capability of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to synthesize carboxyl ester hydrolases was investigated, and the effect of physicochemical conditions on the growth rate and production of esterases was evaluated. The haloarchaeon synthesized a carboxyl ester hydrolase, confirming the genomic prediction. This enzymatic activity was intracellularly produced as a growth-associated metabolite. Esterase activity was assayed using different p-nitrophenyl-esters and triacyl-glycerides, which showed a preference for hydrolyzing tributyrin. The archaeal growth rate and esterase production were significantly influenced by the pH and the NaCl concentration. An interaction effect between temperature and NaCl was also seen. The maximal growth rate and esterase production found for Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were 0.136 h(-1) (at 4.2 M NaCl, pH 6 and 44 degrees C) and 1.64 U/l (at 4.6 M NaCl, pH 6 and 30 degrees C), respectively. Furthermore, the effects of NaCl concentration, pH and temperature on enzyme activity were studied. Two maximal esterase activities were elucidated from the intracellular crude extract when it was incubated at different NaCl concentrations (1 M and 5 M) and at different pHs (6 and 7.5). This is the first report that shows experimentally the synthesis of carboxyl ester hydrolases by Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. This enzyme was found to be extremely halophilic (5 M NaCl) and thermophilic (80 degrees C), making it very interesting for future investigations in non-aqueous biocatalysis.

  20. A novel and enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT 1435: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Lilian L; Costa, Bruna Z; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Santos, Clelton A; Crucello, Aline; Fávaro, Marianna T P; Santiago, André S; Mendes, Juliano S; Marsaioli, Anita J; Souza, Anete P

    2013-10-01

    A novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT1435 (AbEH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells with a 6xHis-tag and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Gel filtration analysis and circular dichroism measurements indicated that this novel AbEH is a homodimer in aqueous solution and contains the typical secondary structure of an α/β hydrolase fold. The activity of AbEH was initially assessed using the fluorogenic probe O-(3,4-epoxybutyl) umbelliferone and was active in a broad range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-45°C); showing optimum performance at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The Michaelis constant (KM) and maximum rate (Vmax) values were 495μM and 0.24μM/s, respectively. Racemic styrene oxide (SO) was used as a substrate to assess the AbEH activity and enantioselectivity, and 66% of the SO was hydrolyzed after only 5min of reaction, with the remaining (S)-SO ee exceeding 99% in a typical kinetic resolution behavior. The AbEH-catalyzed hydrolysis of SO was also evaluated in a biphasic system of water:isooctane; (R)-diol in 84% ee and unreacted (S)-SO in 36% ee were produced, with 43% conversion in 24h, indicating a discrete enantioconvergent behavior for AbEH. This novel epoxide hydrolase has biotechnological potential for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides or vicinal diols.

  1. 4,3-α-Glucanotransferase, a novel reaction specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 70 and clan GH-H

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Joana; van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Duboux, Stéphane; Vafiadi, Christina; Pijning, Tjaard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria possess a diversity of glucansucrase (GS) enzymes that belong to glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) and convert sucrose into α-glucan polysaccharides with (α1 → 2)-, (α1 → 3)-, (α1 → 4)- and/or (α1 → 6)-glycosidic bonds. In recent years 3 novel subfamilies of GH70 enzymes, inactive on sucrose but using maltodextrins/starch as substrates, have been established (e.g. GtfB of Lactobacillus reuteri 121). Compared to the broad linkage specificity found in GSs, all GH70 starch-acting enzymes characterized so far possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferase activity, cleaving (α1 → 4)-linkages and synthesizing new (α1 → 6)-linkages. In this work a gene encoding a putative GH70 family enzyme was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum NCC 2970, displaying high sequence identity with L. reuteri 121 GtfB 4,6-α-glucanotransferase, but also with unique variations in some substrate-binding residues of GSs. Characterization of this L. fermentum GtfB and its products revealed that it acts as a 4,3-α-glucanotransferase, converting amylose into a new type of α-glucan with alternating (α1 → 3)/(α 1 → 4)-linkages and with (α1 → 3,4) branching points. The discovery of this novel reaction specificity in GH70 family and clan GH-H expands the range of α-glucans that can be synthesized and allows the identification of key positions governing the linkage specificity within the active site of the GtfB-like GH70 subfamily of enzymes. PMID:28059108

  2. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of N-adamantyl substituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Lango, Jozsef; Hwang, Sung Hee; Watanabe, Takaho; Kim, In-Hae; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-15

    N,N'-disubstituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for hypertension, inflammation, and pain in multiple animal models. The drug absorption and pharmacological efficacy of these inhibitors have been reported extensively. However, the drug metabolism of these inhibitors is not well described. Here we reported the metabolic profile and associated biochemical studies of an N-adamantyl urea-based sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)pentyl)urea (AEPU) in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of AEPU were identified by interpretation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or NMR. In vitro, AEPU had three major positions for phase I metabolism including oxidations on the adamantyl moiety, urea nitrogen atoms, and cleavage of the polyethylene glycol chain. In a rodent model, the metabolites from the hydroxylation on the adamantyl group and nitrogen atom were existed in blood while the metabolites from cleavage of polyethylene glycol chain were not found in urine. The major metabolite found in rodent urine was 3-(3-adamantyl-ureido)-propanoic acid, a presumably from cleavage and oxidation of the polyethylene glycol moiety. All the metabolites found were active but less potent than AEPU at inhibiting human sEH. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 was found to be a major enzyme mediating AEPU metabolism. In conclusion, the metabolism of AEPU resulted from oxidation by CYP could be shared with other N-adamantyl-urea-based compounds. These findings suggest possible therapeutic roles for AEPU and new strategies for drug design in this series of possible drugs.

  3. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J; McAtee, C Patrick; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-07-02

    Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials.

  4. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A.; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J.; McAtee, C. Patrick; Engler, David A.; Matsunami, Risë K.; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Hotez, Peter J.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:26839079

  5. Fatty acid amide hydrolase: an emerging therapeutic target in the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2003-08-01

    The medicinal properties of exogenous cannabinoids have been recognized for centuries and can largely be attributed to the activation in the nervous system of a single G-protein-coupled receptor, CB1. However, the beneficial properties of cannabinoids, which include relief of pain and spasticity, are counterbalanced by adverse effects such as cognitive and motor dysfunction. The recent discoveries of anandamide, a natural lipid ligand for CB1, and an enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), that terminates anandamide signaling have inspired pharmacological strategies to augment endogenous cannabinoid ('endocannabinoid') activity with FAAH inhibitors, which might exhibit superior selectivity in their elicited behavioral effects compared with direct CB1 agonists.

  6. Remodeling Natural Products: Chemistry and Serine Hydrolase Activity of a Rocaglate-Derived β-Lactone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavaglines are a class of natural products with potent insecticidal and anticancer activities. β-Lactones are a privileged structural motif found in both therapeutic agents and chemical probes. Herein, we report the synthesis, unexpected light-driven di-epimerization, and activity-based protein profiling of a novel rocaglate-derived β-lactone. In addition to in vitro inhibition of the serine hydrolases ABHD10 and ACOT1/2, the most potent β-lactone enantiomer was also found to inhibit these enzymes, as well as the serine peptidases CTSA and SCPEP1, in PC3 cells. PMID:24447064

  7. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [11C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain. PMID:24900701

  8. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; ...

    2015-12-18

    In this study, non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall.

  9. Enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin using an epoxide hydrolase from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Young-Ok; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2010-09-01

    Previously we reported that an epoxide hydrolase (EHase) from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans could preferentially hydrolyze (R)-styrene oxide. In this study, we demonstrate that the purified NEH could be also effective in chiral resolution of racemic epichlorohydrin (ECH). Particularly, the purified NEH showed excellent hydrolyzing activity toward ECH to complete the reaction at a short period of incubation time. Enantiopure (S)-ECH could be obtained with a high enantiopurity of more than 99.99% enantiomeric excess (ee) and yield of 20.7% (theoretical, 50%). The chiral resolution of the purified NEH toward ECH was not susceptible to substrate inhibition by 500 mM racemic ECH.

  10. Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodida).

    PubMed

    Giménez-Pardo, C; Martínez-Grueiro, M M

    2008-12-01

    In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance.

  11. Acyl hydrolases from trans-AT polyketide synthases target acetyl units on acyl carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Matthew; Afonso, Jose P; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Karbaum, Petra; Frank, Sarah; Piel, Jörn; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-04-18

    Acyl hydrolase (AH) domains are a common feature of trans-AT PKSs. They have been hypothesised to perform a proofreading function by removing acyl chains from stalled sites. This study determines the substrate tolerance of the AH PedC for a range of acyl-ACPs. Clear preference towards short, linear acyl-ACPs is shown, with acetyl-ACP the best substrate. These results imply a more targeted housekeeping role for PedC: namely the removal of unwanted acetyl groups from ACP domains caused by erroneous transfer of acetyl-CoA, or possibly by decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP.

  12. [Research advances on ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase in oncogenesis and progression].

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan; Chen, Wei-lin

    2015-03-01

    By regulating the ubiquitination and deubiquitination of key proteins, ubiquitin-proteasome system mediates a variety of cellular activities. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) is a deubiquitinating enzyme which can remove ubiquitin chains at the end of ubiquited proteins. The abnormal expression of UCH has been found in a variety of tumor tissues, indicating that it participates in the process of tumor development. Here we review the characteristics of UCH members and current understanding about the role of UCH in tumor development, and the potential target for cancer treatment.

  13. N-aryl 2-aryloxyacetamides as a new class of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sunduru, Naresh; Svensson, Mona; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Marwaha, Sania; Andersson, C David; Svensson, Richard; Fowler, Christopher J; Elofsson, Mikael

    2017-12-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a promising target for the development of drugs to treat neurological diseases. In search of new FAAH inhibitors, we identified 2-(4-cyclohexylphenoxy)-N-(3-(oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)acetamide, 4g, with an IC50 of 2.6 µM as a chemical starting point for the development of potent FAAH inhibitors. Preliminary hit-to-lead optimisation resulted in 2-(4-phenylphenoxy)-N-(3-(oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)acetamide, 4i, with an IC50 of 0.35 µM.

  14. Aryl Piperazinyl Ureas as Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) in Rat, Dog, and Primate.

    PubMed

    Keith, John M; Apodaca, Rich; Tichenor, Mark; Xiao, Wei; Jones, William; Pierce, Joan; Seierstad, Mark; Palmer, James; Webb, Michael; Karbarz, Mark; Scott, Brian; Wilson, Sandy; Luo, Lin; Wennerholm, Michelle; Chang, Leon; Brown, Sean; Rizzolio, Michele; Rynberg, Raymond; Chaplan, Sandra; Breitenbucher, J Guy

    2012-10-11

    A series of aryl piperazinyl ureas that act as covalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is described. A potent and selective (does not inhibit FAAH-2) member of this class, JNJ-40355003, was found to elevate the plasma levels of three fatty acid amides: anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, and palmitoyl ethanolamide, in the rat, dog, and cynomolgous monkey. The elevation of the levels of these lipids in the plasma of monkeys suggests that FAAH-2 may not play a significant role in regulating plasma levels of fatty acid ethanolamides in primates.

  15. Characterization of organophosphorus hydrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from pseudomonas diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, K.I.; Miller, C.E.; Wild, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    There are a variety of enzymes which are specifically capable of hydrolyzing organophosphorus esters with different phosphoryl bonds from the typical phosphotriester bonds of common insecticidal neurotoxins (e.g. paraoxon or coumaphos) to the phosphonate-fluoride bonds of chemical warfare agents (e.g. soman or sarin). These enzymes comprise a diverse set of enzymes whose basic architecture and substrate specificities vary dramatically, yet they appear to be ubiquitous throughout nature. The most thoroughly studied of these enzymes is the organophosphate hydrolase (opd gene product) of Pseudomonas diminuta and Ftavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551, and the heterologous expression, post-translational modification, and genetic engineering studies undertaken with this enzyme are described.

  16. Characterization of organophosphorus hydrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta.

    PubMed

    Dave, K I; Miller, C E; Wild, J R

    1993-06-01

    There are a variety of enzymes which are specifically capable of hydrolyzing organophosphorus esters with different phosphoryl bonds from the typical phosphotriester bonds of common insecticidal neurotoxins (e.g. paraoxon or coumaphos) to the phosphonate-fluoride bonds of chemical warfare agents (e.g. soman or sarin). These enzymes comprise a diverse set of enzymes whose basic architecture and substrate specificities vary dramatically, yet they appear to be ubiquitous throughout nature. The most thoroughly studied of these enzymes is the organophosphate hydrolase (opd gene product) of Pseudomonas diminuta and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551, and the heterologous expression, post-translational modification, and genetic engineering studies undertaken with this enzyme are described.

  17. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of guanidino-alkyl-ribitol derivatives as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, A; McNaughton, M; Bal, G; Surpateanu, G; Van Der Veken, P; De Prol, S; Versées, W; Steyaert, J; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2008-02-01

    Nucleoside hydrolase (NH) is a key enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. The purine specificity of the IAG-NH from Trypanosoma vivax is at least in part due to cation-pi-stacking interactions. Guanidinium ions can be involved in cation-pi-stacking interactions, therefore a series of guanidino-alkyl-ribitol derivatives were synthesized in order to examine the binding affinity of these compounds towards the target enzyme. The compounds show moderate to good inhibiting activity towards the IAG-NH from T. vivax.

  18. Biosensing Paraoxon in Simulated Environmental Samples by Immobilized Organophosphorus Hydrolase in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Saripalli, Prasad; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a critical need for highly sensitive, cost-effective sensors to conduct ecological analyses for environmental and homeland security related applications. We report here on a method which significantly overcomes this difficulty, and demonstrate its application in a biosensor for aquatic environmental applications. A fast-responding and stable biosensor was developed via immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with pore sizes in tens of nanometers. The sensor was tested for detection of paraoxon in simulated environmental samples, under wide ranging physico-chemical conditions.

  19. Neutron diffraction analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 1.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Hana; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Weiss, Kevin L; Coates, Leighton; McFeeters, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Perdeuterated peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was crystallized for structural analysis using neutron diffraction. Crystals of perdeuterated protein were grown to 0.15 mm(3) in size using batch crystallization in 22.5% polyethylene glycol 4000, 100 mM Tris pH 7.5, 10%(v/v) isopropyl alcohol with a 20-molar excess of trilysine as an additive. Neutron diffraction data were collected from a crystal at room temperature using the MaNDi single-crystal diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Assay of phospholipases C and D in presence of other lipid hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, K.Y.; Gardner, M.F.; Aldern, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The activity of a phospholipase C or phospholipase D may be assessed by measuring the radioactivity or phosphate released into the aqueous phase of a lipid extract. However, in crude enzyme fractions, this type of analysis may not be possible due to formation of water-soluble metabolites by other enzymatic reactions, as demonstrated here with a crude lysosomal enzyme fraction. In such instances, analysis of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble metabolites, at various times of incubation, may still provide clear identification of phospholipases C or D, even when a variety of lipases and other hydrolases are present.

  1. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hamill, Terence G; Chioda, Marc; Chobanian, Harry; Fung, Selena; Guo, Yan; Chang, Linda; Bakshi, Raman; Hong, Qingmei; Dellureficio, James; Lin, Linus S; Abbadie, Catherine; Alexander, Jessica; Jin, Hong; Mandala, Suzanne; Shiao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wenping; Sanabria, Sandra; Williams, David; Zeng, Zhizhen; Hajdu, Richard; Jochnowitz, Nina; Rosenbach, Mark; Karanam, Bindhu; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Powell, Joyce; Xu, Ling; Terebetski, Jenna L; Leone, Joseph F; Miller, Patricia; Cook, Jacquelynn; Holahan, Marie; Joshi, Aniket; O'Malley, Stacey; Purcell, Mona; Posavec, Diane; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Riffel, Kerry; Williams, Mangay; Hargreaves, Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen A; Nargund, Ravi P; DeVita, Robert J

    2013-06-13

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain.

  2. Pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamates as inhibitors of human fatty acid amide hydrolases (FAAH).

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Saponaro, Giulia; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Martinelli, Adriano; Tuccinardi, Tiziano

    2015-06-05

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets in the management of neuropathic pain. Here, we report a series of pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamate derivatives standing on the known carbamoyl FAAH inhibitor URB597. Structural modifications led to the recognition of compound 22 that inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM). The most active compounds of this series showed significant selectivity toward monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme. In addition, molecular modeling and reversibility behavior of the new class of FAAH inhibitors are presented in this article.

  3. Ethanol Promotes Chemically Induced Oral Cancer in Mice through Activation of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yizhu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xinyan; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for oral cancer in humans. However, previous animal studies on the promoting effect of ethanol on oral carcinogenesis were inconclusive. It is necessary to develop an animal model with which the molecular mechanism of ethanol-related oral carcinogenesis may be elucidated in order to develop effective prevention strategies. In this study, mice were first treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 100μg/ml in drinking water) for 8 weeks, and then given water or ethanol (8%) as the sole drink for another 16 weeks. During the experiment, 8% ethanol was well tolerated by mice. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increased from 20% (8/41) to 43% (17/40; p<0.05). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) was increased in dysplasia and SCC of 4NQO-treated tongues, and further enhanced by ethanol. Using this mouse model, we further demonstrated that fewer cancers were induced in Alox5−/− mice, as were cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the tongue, as compared with Alox5+/+ mice. Interestingly, Cox-2 expression was induced by ethanol in knockout mice, while 5-Lox and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) expression and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis were dramatically reduced. Moreover, ethanol enhanced expression and nuclear localization of 5-Lox and stimulated LTB4 biosynthesis in human tongue SCC cells (SCC-15 and SCC-4) in vitro. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated that ethanol promoted 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis, at least in part, through further activation of the 5-Lox pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:21881027

  4. Effect of aloe vera leaf gel extract on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in rats with streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sriram, N; Arulselvan, P; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to promote deterioration of membrane function and impair intra cellular metabolism in the organism. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats treated with STZ showed significant alterations in the activities of membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days significantly restored the alterations in enzymes activity to near normalcy. These results were compared with glibenclamide, a reference drug. Thus, the present study confirms that Aloe vera gel extract possesses a significant beneficial effect on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases.

  5. Distinct rat hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide and certain xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides.

    PubMed

    Levin, W; Michaud, D P; Thomas, P E; Jerina, D M

    1983-02-01

    Metabolism of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide to the 5,6-glycol is catalyzed by a rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is distinct from the microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes a wide range of xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides. The two enzymes are antigenically distinct, and the purified microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes xenobiotic oxides does not catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide. In vivo treatment of rats with inducers of microsomal epoxide hydrolase does not enhance the activity of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide hydrolase and, in some cases, actually depresses enzyme activity in the resultant microsomal preparations. Octene 1,2-oxide and benz[a]anthracene 5,6-oxide, both good substrates for xenobiotic epoxide hydrolase, are not competitive inhibitors of cholesterol oxide hydration by rat liver microsomes. The above results establish the existence of a liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is under different regulatory control and that appears to have a different substrate specificity than the well-characterized microsomal epoxide hydrolase involved in the metabolism of a widely diverse group of alkene and arene oxides.

  6. Qualitative analysis of the fluorophosphonate-based chemical probes using the serine hydrolases from mouse liver and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase (PhaZ) from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Long; Chung, Tsai-Wen; Chang, Chia-Mao; Chen, Chih-Hau; Liao, Chen-Chung; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan; Liaw, Shwu-Huey; Sun, Chung-Ming; Lin, Chao-Hsiung

    2012-11-01

    The serine hydrolase family consists of more than 200 members and is one of the largest enzyme families in the human genome. Although up to 50 % of this family remains unannotated, there are increasing evidences that activities of certain serine hydrolases are associated with diseases like cancer neoplasia, invasiveness, etc. By now, several activity-based chemical probes have been developed and are applied to profile the global activity of serine hydrolases in diverse proteomes. In this study, two fluorophosphonate (FP)-based chemical probes were synthesized. Further examination of their abilities to label and pull down serine hydrolases was conducted. In addition, the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase (PhaZ) from Bacillus thuringiensis was demonstrated as an appropriate standard serine hydrolase, which can be applied to measure the labeling ability and pull-down efficiency of FP-based probes. Furthermore, mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify the serine residue that covalently bonded to the active probes. Finally, these FP-based probes were shown capable of establishing the serine hydrolase profiles in diverse mouse tissues; the serine hydrolases pulled down from mouse liver organ were further identified by MS. In summary, our study provides an adequate method to evaluate the reactivity of FP-based probes targeting serine hydrolases.

  7. Co-purification of microsomal epoxide hydrolase with the warfarin-sensitive vitamin K1 oxide reductase of the vitamin K cycle.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Cai, D; Wallin, R

    1998-01-15

    Vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity has been partially purified from rat liver microsomes. A three-step procedure produced a preparation in which warfarin-sensitive vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity was 118-fold enriched over the activity in intact rat liver microsomes. A major component of the multi-protein mixture was identified as a 50 kDa protein that strongly cross-reacts with antiserum prepared against homogeneous rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The reductase preparation also had a high level or epoxide hydrolase activity against two xenobiotic epoxide substrates. The K(m) values for hydrolysis by the reductase preparation were similar to those for homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase itself, and the specific hydrolase activities of the reductase preparation were 25-35% of the specific activities measured for the homogeneous hydrolase preparation. Antibodies prepared against homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibited up to 80% of reductase activity of the reductase preparation. Homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase had no vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity. This evidence suggests that microsomal epoxide hydrolase, or a protein that is very similar to it, is a major functional component of a multi-protein complex that is responsible for vitamin K1 oxide reduction in rat liver microsomes.

  8. Structural genomics analysis of uncharacterized protein families overrepresented in human gut bacteria identifies a novel glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteroides spp. form a significant part of our gut microbiome and are well known for optimized metabolism of diverse polysaccharides. Initial analysis of the archetypal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome identified 172 glycosyl hydrolases and a large number of uncharacterized proteins associated with polysaccharide metabolism. Results BT_1012 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 is a protein of unknown function and a member of a large protein family consisting entirely of uncharacterized proteins. Initial sequence analysis predicted that this protein has two domains, one on the N- and one on the C-terminal. A PSI-BLAST search found over 150 full length and over 90 half size homologs consisting only of the N-terminal domain. The experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the BT_1012 protein confirms its two-domain architecture and structural analysis of both domains suggests their specific functions. The N-terminal domain is a putative catalytic domain with significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, the C-terminal domain has a beta-sandwich fold typically found in C-terminal domains of other glycosyl hydrolases, however these domains are typically involved in substrate binding. We describe the structure of the BT_1012 protein and discuss its sequence-structure relationship and their possible functional implications. Conclusions Structural and sequence analyses of the BT_1012 protein identifies it as a glycosyl hydrolase, expanding an already impressive catalog of enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism in Bacteroides spp. Based on this we have renamed the Pfam families representing the two domains found in the BT_1012 protein, PF13204 and PF12904, as putative glycoside hydrolase and glycoside hydrolase-associated C-terminal domain respectively. PMID:24742328

  9. Genetic surface-display of methyl parathion hydrolase on Yarrowia lipolytica for removal of methyl parathion in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Xing; Chi, Zhe; Ru, Shao-Guo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the mph gene encoding methyl parathion hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. WBC-3 was expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica and the expressed methyl parathion hydrolase was displayed on cell surface of Y. lipolytica. The activity of methyl parathion hydrolase displayed on the yeast cells of the transformant Z51 was 59.5 U mg⁻¹ of cell dry cells (450.6 U per mL of the culture) in the presence of 5.0 mM of Co²⁺. The displayed methyl parathion hydrolase had the optimal pH of 9.5 and the optimal temperature of 40 °C, respectively and was stable in the pH range of 4.5-11 and up to 40 °C. The displayed methyl parathion hydrolase was also stimulated by Co²⁺, Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Mn²⁺, and was not affected by Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺ and Zn²⁺, but was inhibited by other cations tested. Under the optimal conditions (OD(600 nm) = 2.6, the substrate concentration = 100 mg L⁻¹ and 40 °C), 90.8 % of methyl parathion was hydrolyzed within 30 min. Under the similar conditions, 98.7, 97.0, 96.5 and 94.4 % of methyl parathion in tap water (pH 9.5), tap water (pH 6.8), seawater (pH 9.5) and natural seawater (pH 8.2) were hydrolyzed, respectively, suggesting that the methyl parathion hydrolase displayed on the yeast cells can effectively remove methyl parathion in water.

  10. Cloning and expression of a phloretin hydrolase gene from Eubacterium ramulus and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Schoefer, Lilian; Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Phloretin hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolytic C-C cleavage of phloretin to phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid during flavonoid degradation in Eubacterium ramulus. The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned by screening a gene library for hydrolase activity. The insert of a clone conferring phloretin hydrolase activity was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 822 bp (phy), a putative promoter region, and a terminating stem-loop structure. The deduced amino acid sequence of phy showed similarities to a putative protein of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic operon from Pseudomonas fluorescens. The phloretin hydrolase was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was approximately 55 kDa as determined by gel filtration. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the deduced amino acid sequence of phy indicated molecular masses of 30 and 30.8 kDa, respectively, suggesting that the enzyme is a homodimer. The recombinant phloretin hydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of phloretin to equimolar amounts of phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid. The optimal temperature and pH of the catalyzed reaction mixture were 37 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. The K(m) for phloretin was 13 +/- 3 microM and the k(cat) was 10 +/- 2 s(-1). The enzyme did not transform phloretin-2'-glucoside (phloridzin), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propandione, or trans-1,3-diphenyl-2,3-epoxy-propan-1-one. The catalytic activity of the phloretin hydrolase was reduced by N-bromosuccinimide, o-phenanthroline, N-ethylmaleimide, and CuCl(2) to 3, 20, 35, and 85%, respectively. Phloroglucinol and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid reduced the activity to 54 and 70%, respectively.

  11. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching |; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusively high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  13. Domain characterization of a 4-alpha-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Jon M; Petty, Ryan V; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2008-07-25

    Maltose metabolism during the conversion of transitory (leaf) starch to sucrose requires a 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) in the cytosol of leaf cells. This enzyme is called DPE2 because of its similarity to the disproportionating enzyme in plastids (DPE1). DPE1 does not use maltose; it primarily transfers a maltosyl unit from one maltotriose to a second maltotriose to make glucose and maltopentaose. DPE2 is a modular protein consisting of a family 77 glycosyl hydrolase domain, similar to DPE1, but unlike DPE1 the domain is interrupted by an insertion of approximately 150 amino acids as well as an N-terminal extension that consists of two carbohydrate binding modules. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the DPE2-type enzyme is present in a limited but highly diverse group of organisms. Here we show that DPE2 transfers the non-reducing glucosyl unit from maltose to glycogen by a ping-pong mechanism. The forward reaction (consumption of maltose) is specific for the beta-anomer of maltose, while the reverse reaction (production of maltose) is not stereospecific for the acceptor glucose. Additionally, through deletion mutants we show that the glycosyl hydrolase domain alone provides disproportionating activity with a much higher affinity for short maltodextrins than the complete wild-type enzyme, while absence of the carbohydrate binding modules completely abolishes activity with large complex carbohydrates, reflecting the presumed function of DPE2 in vivo.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the amidase domain of allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Balotra, Sahil; Newman, Janet; French, Nigel G.; Briggs, Lyndall J.; Peat, Thomas S.; Scott, Colin

    2014-02-19

    The amidase domain of the allophanate hydrolase AtzF from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction data have been collected. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was expressed and purified, and a tryptic digest fragment was subsequently identified, expressed and purified. This 50 kDa construct retained amidase activity and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and adopted space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.4, b = 179.2, c = 112.6 Å, β = 106.6°.

  15. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  16. Hydrolysis of the 2',3'-allylic epoxides of allylbenzene, estragole, eugenol, and safrole by both microsomal and cytosolic epoxide hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Qato, M K; Guenthner, T M

    1992-01-01

    2',3'-Allylic epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene and its analogs estragole, eugenol, and safrole were synthesized, and their enzymatic conversion to dihydrodiols by cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases was examined. All four epoxides were good substrates for both epoxide hydrolases, with Michaelis constants in the low micromolar range. Two putatively selective inhibitors of cytosolic and microsomal epoxide hydrolases, trichloropropylene oxide and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, were used to inhibit the hydrolysis of these allylic epoxides. Minimal selectivity toward either hydrolase was seen with either inhibitor, suggesting that the "selectivity" of these inhibitors is highly substrate-dependent. The susceptibilities of these epoxides to rapid hydrolysis by both epoxide hydrolases may explain their low genotoxic potencies in vivo.

  17. Substrate recognition and catalysis by LytB, a pneumococcal peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Lastres, Palma; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Bustamante, Noemí; Aldridge, Christine; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of life-threatening diseases worldwide. Here we provide an in-depth functional characterization of LytB, the peptidoglycan hydrolase responsible for physical separation of daughter cells. Identified herein as an N-acetylglucosaminidase, LytB is involved also in colonization and invasion of the nasopharynx, biofilm formation and evasion of host immunity as previously demonstrated. We have shown that LytB cleaves the GlcNAc-β-(1,4)-MurNAc glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan building units. The hydrolysis occurs at sites with fully acetylated GlcNAc moieties, with preference for uncross-linked muropeptides. The necessity of GlcN acetylation and the presence of a single acidic moiety (Glu585) essential for catalysis strongly suggest a substrate-assisted mechanism with anchimeric assistance of the acetamido group of GlcNAc moieties. Additionally, modelling of the catalytic region bound to a hexasaccharide tripentapeptide provided insights into substrate-binding subsites and peptidoglycan recognition. Besides, cell-wall digestion products and solubilisation rates might indicate a tight control of LytB activity to prevent unrestrained breakdown of the cell wall. Choline-independent localization at the poles of the cell, mediated by the choline-binding domain, peptidoglycan modification, and choline-mediated (lipo)teichoic-acid attachment contribute to the high selectivity of LytB. Moreover, so far unknown chitin hydrolase and glycosyltransferase activities were detected using GlcNAc oligomers as substrate. PMID:26537571

  18. Ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3 promotes oncogenic transformation by stabilizing Cdc25A.

    PubMed

    Pereg, Yaron; Liu, Bob Y; O'Rourke, Karen M; Sagolla, Meredith; Dey, Anwesha; Komuves, Laszlo; French, Dorothy M; Dixit, Vishva M

    2010-04-01

    The dual specificity (Tyr/Thr) phosphatase Cdc25A activates cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) to promote cell-cycle progression and has significant oncogenic potential. Cdc25A protein levels are regulated tightly in normal tissues, but many human cancers overexpress Cdc25A. The underlying mechanism for overexpression has been enigmatic. Here we show that Cdc25A is stabilized by the ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3. Upon binding Cdc25A, Dub3 removes the polyubiquitin modifications that mark Cdc25A for proteasomal degradation. Dub3 knockdown in cells increased Cdc25A ubiquitylation and degradation, resulting in reduced Cdk/Cyclin activity and arrest at G1/S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, acute Dub3 overexpression produced a signature response to oncogene induction: cells accumulated in S and G2 because of replication stress, and activated a DNA damage response. Dub3 also transformed NIH-3T3 cells and cooperated with activated H-Ras to promote growth in soft agar. Importantly, we show that Dub3 overexpression is responsible for an abnormally high level of Cdc25A in a subset of human breast cancers. Moreover, Dub3 knockdown significantly retarded the growth of breast tumour xenografts in nude mice. As a major regulator of Cdc25A, Dub3 is an example of a transforming ubiquitin hydrolase that subverts a key component of the cell cycle machinery.

  19. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  20. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  1. Hepatic Retinyl Ester Hydrolases and the Mobilization of Retinyl Ester Stores.

    PubMed

    Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Lass, Achim

    2016-12-27

    For mammals, vitamin A (retinol and metabolites) is an essential micronutrient that is required for the maintenance of life. Mammals cannot synthesize vitamin A but have to obtain it from their diet. Resorbed dietary vitamin A is stored in large quantities in the form of retinyl esters (REs) in cytosolic lipid droplets of cells to ensure a constant supply of the body. The largest quantities of REs are stored in the liver, comprising around 80% of the body's total vitamin A content. These hepatic vitamin A stores are known to be mobilized under times of insufficient dietary vitamin A intake but also under pathological conditions such as chronic alcohol consumption and different forms of liver diseases. The mobilization of REs requires the activity of RE hydrolases. It is astounding that despite their physiological significance little is known about their identities as well as about factors or stimuli which lead to their activation and consequently to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores. In this review, we focus on the recent advances for the understanding of hepatic RE hydrolases and discuss pathological conditions which lead to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores.

  2. Substrate recognition and catalysis by LytB, a pneumococcal peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in virulence.

    PubMed

    Rico-Lastres, Palma; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Bustamante, Noemí; Aldridge, Christine; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2015-11-05

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of life-threatening diseases worldwide. Here we provide an in-depth functional characterization of LytB, the peptidoglycan hydrolase responsible for physical separation of daughter cells. Identified herein as an N-acetylglucosaminidase, LytB is involved also in colonization and invasion of the nasopharynx, biofilm formation and evasion of host immunity as previously demonstrated. We have shown that LytB cleaves the GlcNAc-β-(1,4)-MurNAc glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan building units. The hydrolysis occurs at sites with fully acetylated GlcNAc moieties, with preference for uncross-linked muropeptides. The necessity of GlcN acetylation and the presence of a single acidic moiety (Glu585) essential for catalysis strongly suggest a substrate-assisted mechanism with anchimeric assistance of the acetamido group of GlcNAc moieties. Additionally, modelling of the catalytic region bound to a hexasaccharide tripentapeptide provided insights into substrate-binding subsites and peptidoglycan recognition. Besides, cell-wall digestion products and solubilisation rates might indicate a tight control of LytB activity to prevent unrestrained breakdown of the cell wall. Choline-independent localization at the poles of the cell, mediated by the choline-binding domain, peptidoglycan modification, and choline-mediated (lipo)teichoic-acid attachment contribute to the high selectivity of LytB. Moreover, so far unknown chitin hydrolase and glycosyltransferase activities were detected using GlcNAc oligomers as substrate.

  3. Crystal structure of the glycosidase family 73 peptidoglycan hydrolase FlgJ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Ochiai, Akihito; Momma, Keiko; Itoh, Takafumi; Mikami, Bunzo; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku

    2009-03-27

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) categorized into family 73 plays an important role in degrading bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The flagellar protein FlgJ contains N- and C-terminal domains responsible for flagellar rod assembly and peptidoglycan hydrolysis, respectively. A member of family GH-73, the C-terminal domain (SPH1045-C) of FlgJ from Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. SPH1045-C exhibited bacterial cell lytic activity most efficiently at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C. The X-ray crystallographic structure of SPH1045-C was determined at 1.74 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The enzyme consists of two lobes, {alpha} and {beta}. A deep cleft located between the two lobes can accommodate polymer molecules, suggesting that the active site is located in the cleft. Although SPH1045-C shows a structural homology with family GH-22 and GH-23 lysozymes, the arrangement of the nucleophile/base residue in the active site is specific to each peptidoglycan hydrolase.

  4. Beta-glucuronidase of family-2 glycosyl hydrolase: a missing member in plants.

    PubMed

    Arul, Loganathan; Benita, George; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Thayumanavan, Balsamy; Balasubramanian, Ponnusamy

    2008-01-01

    Glycosyl hydrolases hydrolyze the glycosidic bond in carbohydrates or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. beta-glucuronidase (GUS) is classified under two glycosyl hydrolase families (2 and 79) and the family-2 beta-glucuronidase is reported in a wide range of organisms, but not in plants. The family-79 endo-beta-glucuronidase (heparanase) is reported in microorganisms, vertebrates and plants. The E. coli family-2 beta-glucuronidase (uidA) had been successfully devised as a reporter gene in plant transformation on the basis that plants do not have homologous GUS activity. On the contrary, histochemical staining with X-Gluc was reported in wild type (non-transgenic) plants. Data shows that, family-2 beta-glucuronidase homologous sequence is not found in plants. Further, beta-glucuronidases of family-2 and 79 lack appreciable sequence similarity. However, the catalytic site residues, glutamic acid and tyrosine of the family-2 beta-glucuronidase are found to be conserved in family-79 beta-glucuronidase of plants. This led to propose that the GUS staining reported in wild type plants is largely because of the broad substrate specificity of family-79 beta-glucuronidase on X-Gluc and not due to the family-2 beta-glucuronidase, as the latter has been found to be missing in plants.

  5. Alteration of the mutagenicity 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine by modifiers of rat hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iba, M.M.

    1986-03-05

    The involvement of arene oxides in the activation of benzidines was assessed by examining the effect of (I) the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trichloropropylene oxide (TCPO), (II) purified rat liver microsomal (P) epoxide hydrolase (EH), and (III) pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) on hepatic Sg- or P-catalyzed mutagenicity of benzidine (BZ) and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB) to Salmonella TA 98. When catalyzed by Sg from untreated rats, the mutagenicity of DCB and BZ was 601 +/- 101 and 79 +/- 25 (His/sup +/ revertants/plate) respectively, but was 345 +/- 55 and 226 +/- 30 respectively, when catalyzed by microsomes (P) from untreated rats. PB-pretreatment enhanced the Sg-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB and BZ (2.3-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively) and the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB (1.7-fold), but totally inhibited the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of BZ. In TCPO-supplemented activating systems from PB-pretreated rats, the mutagenicity of DCB was enhanced in both Sg and P (1.9-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively), whereas that of BZ was unchanged. Added EH enhanced the P-catalyzed mutagenicity of DCB (1.4-fold) but had no effect on that of BZ, suggesting that the activity of the enzyme on DCB metabolites may not be entirely detoxifying. The data suggest that epoxidation may contribute to the activation of DCB but not BZ.

  6. Improving the thermostability of a methyl parathion hydrolase by adding the ionic bond on protein surface.

    PubMed

    Su, Yidan; Tian, Jian; Wang, Ping; Chu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guoan; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2011-10-01

    The thermostability of the methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH_OCH) from Ochrobactrum sp. M231 was improved using site-directed mutagenesis. Two prolines (Pro76 and Pro78) located on the protein surface were selected for mutations after inspection of the sequence alignment of MPH_OCH and OPHC2, a thermostable organophosphorus hydrolase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes C2-1. The temperature of the double-point mutant (P76D/P78K) at which the mutant lost 50% of its activity (T50) was approximately 68 °C, which is higher than that of WT enzyme (64 °C), P76D (67 °C), and P78K (59 °C). Structural analysis of P76D/P78K indicated that the substituted residues (Asp76 and Lys78) could generate an ionic bond and increase the structural electrostatic energy, which could then increase the stability of the protein. These results also suggest that the thermal stability of proteins could be improved by adding the ionic bond on protein surface.

  7. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  8. Computational insights into function and inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Cavalli, Andrea; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-02-16

    The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme is a membrane-bound serine hydrolase responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of a family of naturally occurring fatty acid amides. FAAH is a critical enzyme of the endocannabinoid system, being mainly responsible for regulating the level of its main cannabinoid substrate anandamide. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH, which increases the level of endogenous anandamide, is a promising strategy to cure a variety of diseases including pain, inflammation, and cancer. Much structural, mutagenesis, and kinetic data on FAAH has been generated over the last couple of decades. This has prompted several informative computational investigations to elucidate, at the atomic-level, mechanistic details on catalysis and inhibition of this pharmaceutically relevant enzyme. Here, we review how these computational studies - based on classical molecular dynamics, full quantum mechanics, and hybrid QM/MM methods - have clarified the binding and reactivity of some relevant substrates and inhibitors of FAAH. We also discuss the experimental implications of these computational insights, which have provided a thoughtful elucidation of the complex physical and chemical steps of the enzymatic mechanism of FAAH. Finally, we discuss how computations have been helpful for building structure-activity relationships of potent FAAH inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanded insecticide catabolic activity gained by a single nucleotide substitution in a bacterial carbamate hydrolase gene.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Başak; Ghequire, Maarten; Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René; Wattiez, Ruddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Carbofuran-mineralizing strain Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 produces the CfdJ enzyme that converts the N-methylcarbamate insecticide to carbofuran phenol. Purified CfdJ shows a remarkably low KM towards carbofuran. Together with the carbaryl hydrolase CehA of Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, CfdJ represents a new protein family with several uncharacterized bacterial members outside the proteobacteria. Although both enzymes differ by only four amino acids, CehA does not recognize carbofuran as a substrate whereas CfdJ also hydrolyzes carbaryl. None of the CfdJ amino acids that differ from CehA were shown to be silent regarding carbofuran hydrolytic activity but one particular amino acid substitution, i.e., L152 to F152, proved crucial. CfdJ is more efficient in degrading methylcarbamate pesticides with an aromatic side chain whereas CehA is more efficient in degrading the oxime carbamate nematicide oxamyl. The presence of common flanking sequences suggest that the cfdJ gene is located on a remnant of the mobile genetic element Tnceh carrying cehA. Our results suggest that these enzymes can be acquired through horizontal gene transfer and can evolve to degrade new carbamate substrates by limited amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that a carbaryl hydrolase can gain the additional capacity to degrade carbofuran by a single nucleotide transversion. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Catalytic Mechanism of a Novel Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 "Elongating" β-Transglycosylase.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Yang, Shaoqing; Zhao, Liming; You, Xin; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2017-02-03

    Carbohydrates are complex macromolecules in biological metabolism. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates is recognized as a powerful tool to overcome the problems associated with large scale synthesis of carbohydrates. Novel enzymes with significant transglycosylation ability are still in great demand in glycobiology studies. Here we report a novel glycoside hydrolase family 16 "elongating" β-transglycosylase from Paecilomyces thermophila (PtBgt16A), which efficiently catalyzes the synthesis of higher polymeric oligosaccharides using β-1,3/1,4-oligosaccharides as donor/acceptor substrates. Further structural information reveals that PtBgt16A has a binding pocket around the -1 subsite. The catalytic mechanism of PtBgt16A is partly similar to an exo-glycoside hydrolase, which cleaves the substrate from the non-reducing end one by one. However, PtBgt16A releases the reducing end product and uses the remainder glucosyl as a transglycosylation donor. This catalytic mechanism has similarity with the catalytic mode of amylosucrase, which catalyzes the transglycosylation products gradually extend by one glucose unit. PtBgt16A thus has the potential to be a tool enzyme for the enzymatic synthesis of new β-oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsen, E.M. )

    1990-01-09

    The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase are present in the microvilla membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this enzyme could be cross-linked, formation of tightly associated dimers only takes place after transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Dimerization of the two brush border enzymes therefore seems to occur in different organelles of the enterocyte.

  12. Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies to Detect Native Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yongliang; Li, Dongyang; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wan, Debin; Rossotti, Martín A.; Gee, Shirley J.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain, cancer and other diseases. However, there is not a simple, inexpensive and reliable method to estimate levels of active sEH in tissues. Toward developing such an assay, a polyclonal-variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) sandwich immunoassay was developed. Ten VHHs, which are highly selective for native human sEH, were isolated from a phage displayed library. The ten VHHs have no significant cross-reactivity with human microsomal epoxide hydrolase, rat and mouse sEH, and denatured human sEH. There is a high correlation between protein levels of the sEH determined by the ELISA and the catalytic activity of the enzyme in S9 fractions of human tissues (liver, kidney and lung). The VHH based ELISA appears to be a new reliable method for monitoring the sEH, and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for diseases influenced by sEH. This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. PMID:26229025

  13. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  14. Cold-active hydrolases producing bacteria from two different sub-glacial Himalayan lakes.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Harmesh; Babu, Bandamaravuri Kishore; Singh, Surendra; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2013-08-01

    Microorganisms, native to the cold environments have successfully acclimatized their physiological, metabolic, and biological features, exhibiting uniqueness in their enzymes, proteins, and membrane structures. These cold-active enzymes have immense biotechnological potential. The diversity of culturable bacteria in two different water lakes (the sub-glacial freshwater and the brackish) of Himalayas was analyzed using SYBR green staining and cultural methods. A total of 140 bacteria were isolated and were grouped as psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, and psychrotolerant organisms, based on their optimal temperature for growth. The amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes facilitated the grouping of these isolates into 96 genotypes at ≥85% polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the bacterial strains from both lakes belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (α, β, and γ) or Actinobacteria. Screening of the germplasm for the activity of different cold-active hydrolases such as protease, amylase, xylanase, and cellulase, revealed that about 16 isolates were positive, and exhibiting a wide range of stability at various temperature and pH. Our results suggest that the distinctly different ecosystems of sub-glacial freshwater and brackish water lakes have diverse groups of bacteria, which can be an excellent source of extracellular hydrolases with a wide range of thermal stability. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Engineering of an epoxide hydrolase for efficient bioresolution of bulky pharmaco substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Shuguang; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Jiahai

    2014-01-01

    Optically pure epoxides are essential chiral precursors for the production of (S)-propranolol, (S)-alprenolol, and other β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Although the enzymatic production of these bulky epoxides has proven difficult, here we report a method to effectively improve the activity of BmEH, an epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus megaterium ECU1001 toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether, the precursor of (S)-propranolol, by eliminating the steric hindrance near the potential product-release site. Using X-ray crystallography, mass spectrum, and molecular dynamics calculations, we have identified an active tunnel for substrate access and product release of this enzyme. The crystal structures revealed that there is an independent product-release site in BmEH that was not included in other reported epoxide hydrolase structures. By alanine scanning, two mutants, F128A and M145A, targeted to expand the potential product-release site displayed 42 and 25 times higher activities toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. These results show great promise for structure-based rational design in improving the catalytic efficiency of industrial enzymes for bulky substrates. PMID:25331869

  16. Screening Brazilian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José C

    2012-03-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipases. Hydrolase detection and growth rate determination were done on citric pectin, gelatin, casein, soluble starch, and olive oil as substrates. Ten isolates were found to be active on all substrates tested. The most commonly detected enzymes were pectinases, amylases, and lipases. The growth rate on pectin was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while the growth rates on the different media identified CMM 2105, CMM 1091, and PEL as the fastest-growing isolates. The lipase activity of four isolates grown on olive oil was followed for 4 days by measuring the activity in the cultivation broth. The specific lipolytic activity of isolate PEL was significantly higher at 96 h (130 mU mg protein(-1)). The broth was active at 37 °C, pH 8, indicating the potential utility of the lipases of this isolate in mild alkaline detergents. There was a strong and positive correlation (0.86) between radial growth rate and specific lipolytic activity.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of cyanuric acid hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seunghee; Shi, Ke; Wackett, Lawrence P; Aihara, Hideki

    2013-08-01

    Cyanuric acid is synthesized industrially and forms during the microbial metabolism of s-triazine herbicides. Cyanuric acid is metabolized by some microorganisms via cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH), which opens the s-triazine ring as a prelude to further metabolism. CAH is a member of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase family. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CAH from Azorhizobium caulinodans are reported. CAH was cocrystallized with barbituric acid, a close analog of cyanuric acid that is a tight-binding competitive inhibitor. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were grown in conditions containing PEG 8K or magnesium sulfate as precipitants. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected from CAH-barbituric acid crystals to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystals were found to belong to space group I4₁22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 237.9, c = 105.3 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the structure-bound sedimentability of some rat liver lysosome hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Baccino, F. M.; Rita, G. A.; Zuretti, Maria Franca

    1971-01-01

    1. Lysosome-rich fractions from rat liver were subjected to several disruptive procedures: osmotic lysis or freezing and thawing in different media, shearing forces in a high-speed blender, treatment with Triton X-100. 2. The soluble and particulate phases were then separated by high-speed centrifugation and assayed for their content of acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, acid proteinase, acid ribonuclease, acid deoxyribonuclease and protein. 3. The degree of elution of these hydrolases appeared to depend on both the enzyme species and the treatment. The resulting patterns of solubilization were rather complex, so that a clear-cut discrimination between soluble and structure-bound enzymes could not always be traced. 4. Although only β-galactosidase was readily solubilizable after all treatments, acid proteinase could also be extensively eluted from the sedimentable material in the presence of EDTA and acid phosphatase was fully extracted by Triton X-100. On the other hand, considerable proportions of the other activities could not be solubilized by any of the procedures used. 5. In other experiments, the adsorbability of hydrolases on subcellular structures was investigated by measuring the partition between sedimentable particles and soluble fraction of solubilized enzymes added to `intact' liver homogenates. 6. Large proportions of acid proteinase, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease, and almost all of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, were found to be adsorbed on the particulate material. PMID:5118107

  20. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from K. pneumoniae and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the native enzyme as well as several mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the possible roles of the active-site residues. The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  1. Mutational and nucleotide sequence analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Sganga, M W; Aksamit, R R; Cantoni, G L; Bauer, C E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic locus ahcY, encoding the enzyme S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (EC 3.3.1.1) from the bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, has been mapped by mutational analysis to within a cluster of genes involved in regulating the induction and maintenance of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus. Sequence analysis demonstrates that ahcY encodes a 51-kDa polypeptide that displays 64% sequence identity to its human homolog. Insertion mutants in ahcY lack detectable S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase activity and, as a consequence, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine accumulates in the cells, resulting in a 16-fold decrease in the intracellular ratio of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine as compared to wild-type cells. The ahcY disrupted strain fails to grow in minimal medium; however, growth is restored in minimal medium supplemented with methionine or homocysteine or in a complex medium, thereby indicating that the hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine plays a key role in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. The ahcY mutant, when grown in supplemented medium, synthesizes significantly reduced levels of bacteriochlorophyll, indicating that modulation of the intracellular ratio of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine may be an important factor in regulating bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:1631127

  2. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-d-xylopyranose-(1→6)-d-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. PMID:26755723

  3. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-03-04

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 6)-D-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Bacillus licheniformis trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase structures suggest keys to substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min Guan; Chi, Meng Chun; Naveen, Vankadari; Li, Yi Ching; Lin, Long Liu; Hsiao, Chwan Deng

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase (TreA) belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) and catalyzes the hydrolysis of trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) to yield glucose and glucose 6-phosphate. The products of this reaction can be further metabolized by the energy-generating glycolytic pathway. Here, crystal structures of Bacillus licheniformis TreA (BlTreA) and its R201Q mutant complexed with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (R201Q-pPNG) are presented at 2.0 and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively. The overall structure of BlTreA is similar to those of other GH13 family enzymes. However, detailed structural comparisons revealed that the catalytic site of BlTreA contains a long loop that adopts a different conformation from those of other GH13 family members. Unlike the homologous regions of Bacillus cereus oligo-1,6-glucosidase (BcOgl) and Erwinia rhapontici isomaltulose synthase (NX-5), the surface potential of the BlTreA active site exhibits a largely positive charge contributed by the four basic residues His281, His282, Lys284 and Lys292. Mutation of these residues resulted in significant decreases in the enzymatic activity of BlTreA. Strikingly, the (281)HHLK(284) motif and Lys292 play critical roles in substrate discrimination by BlTreA.

  5. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  6. Systematic Survey of Serine Hydrolase Activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Defines Changes Associated with Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Corrie; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Frando, Andrew; Sadler, Natalie C.; Brown, Robert W.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The transition between replication and non-replication underlies much of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenicity, as non- or slowly replicating Mtb are responsible for persistence and poor treatment outcomes. Therapeutic targeting of non-replicating, persistent populations is a priority for tuberculosis treatment, but only few drug targets in non-replicating Mtb are currently known. Here, we directly measure the activity of the highly diverse and druggable serine hydrolases (SHs) during active replication and non-replication by activity-based proteomics. We predict serine hydrolase activity for 78 proteins, including 27 proteins with previously unknown function, and identify 37 SHs that remain active even in the absence of replication, providing a set of candidate persistence targets. Non-replication was associated with large shifts in the activity of the majority of SHs. These activity changes were largely independent of SH abundance, indicating extensive post-translational regulation. By probing a large cross-section of druggable Mtb enzyme space during replication and non-replication, we identify new SHs and suggest new persistence targets.

  7. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and –beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGLβ perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12345.001 PMID:26779719

  8. N-Arylmethyl substituted iminoribitol derivatives as inhibitors of a purine specific nucleoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, Annelies; Berg, Maya; McNaughton, Michael; Bal, Gunther; Surpateanu, Georgiana; Van der Veken, Pieter; De Prol, Stijn; Versées, Wim; Steyaert, Jan; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

    2008-07-15

    A key enzyme within the purine salvage pathway of parasites, nucleoside hydrolase, is proposed as a good target for new antiparasitic drugs. We have developed N-arylmethyl-iminoribitol derivatives as a novel class of inhibitors against a purine specific nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax. Several of our inhibitors exhibited low nanomolar activity, with 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-N-(8-quinolinyl)methyl-d-ribitol (UAMC-00115, K(i) 10.8nM), N-(9-deaza-adenin-9-yl)methyl-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol (K(i) 4.1nM), and N-(9-deazahypoxanthin-9-yl)methyl-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol (K(i) 4.4nM) being the three most active compounds. Docking studies of the most active inhibitors revealed several important interactions with the enzyme. Among these interactions are aromatic stacking of the nucleobase mimic with two Trp-residues, and hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the inhibitors and amino acid residues in the active site. During the course of these docking studies we also identified a strong interaction between the Asp40 residue from the enzyme and the inhibitor. This is an interaction which has not previously been considered as being important.

  9. Signature motifs identify an Acinetobacter Cif virulence factor with epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bridges, Andrew A; Ballok, Alicia E; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Cady, Kyle C; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2014-03-14

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii ("aCif"). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog ("aCifR") and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections.

  10. Signature Motifs Identify an Acinetobacter Cif Virulence Factor with Epoxide Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Ballok, Alicia E.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Cady, Kyle C.; O'Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii (“aCif”). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog (“aCifR”) and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections. PMID:24474692

  11. Lethal Effect of a Heterologous Murein Hydrolase on Penicillin-Treated Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Diane; Tomasz, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    Nine strains of Streptococcus sanguis exhibited tolerance to benzylpenicillin: the growth of each strain was susceptible to penicillin with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 μg/ml or lower, but the bacteriolytic and bactericidal effects were limited in each case. The tolerance of these bacteria was also reflected in the large discrepancies between the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations for benzylpenicillin. The hypothesis that a natural deficiency of endogenous murein hydrolase (autolysin) in this species accounts for the penicillin tolerance was tested by using a heterologous murein hydrolase, the C-phage-associated lysin. In seven of the strains, addition of the lysin to the culture together with penicillin or other cell wall inhibitors resulted in lysis and rapid loss of viability. The enzyme alone did not appreciably affect normally growing cultures. The irreversible effects of penicillin plus lysin were drastically reduced in the presence of the bacteriostatic agents chloramphenicol and cerulenin. Speculations based on experiments are presented for the mechanisms by which penicillin treatment sensitizes these bacteria to an exogenous lytic enzyme. Similar phenomena requiring cooperation of host factors and penicillin may occur during infection, since somewhat similar although less pronounced results were obtained by addition of human lysozyme to penicillin-treated S. sanguis. PMID:6104471

  12. BpiB05, a novel metagenome-derived hydrolase acting on N-acylhomoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Bijtenhoorn, P; Schipper, C; Hornung, C; Quitschau, M; Grond, S; Weiland, N; Streit, W R

    2011-08-20

    The N-acyl-homoserine lactones (N-AHLs) play an important role in bacterial cell-cell signaling. Up to date, however, only a few different experimentally proven classes of N-AHL ring-cleaving enzymes are known. Here we report on the isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel hydrolase derived from the soil metagenome and acting on N-AHLs. The identified protein designated BpiB05 is weakly similar to hypothetical proteins from Bacteroides fragilis, the draft genomes of two Burkholderia species as well as a marine metagenomic ORF but is otherwise not similar to any known protein. BpiB05 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a 10× His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant protein revealed a molecular weight of about 70kDa and was tested for its quorum quenching (QQ) activities using a lacZ-bioassay. Additional HPLC-MS analyses confirmed the lactonolytic activity of the purified protein in the presence of Ca²⁺. Further tests suggested that BpiB05 strongly reduces motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pyocyanin synthesis and biofilm formation in this microbe. Because BpiB05 is not distantly related to any of the currently known hydrolases it forms probably a novel group within the growing number of proteins acting on N-AHLs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of a purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase in spore germination of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; He, Xihong; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2008-05-01

    A homologous gene (iunH) of a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH), which had been identified from the exosporia of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Disruption of iunH did not affect the vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, but promoted both inosine- and adenosine-induced spore germination. The inosine- or adenosine-induced germination rate decreased when the wild-type iunH gene was overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. The iunH gene product was characterized as a purine-specific NH. The kinetic parameters of IunH with inosine as substrate were K(m)=399+/-115 microM, k(cat)=48.9+/-8.5 s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)=1.23 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for IunH were found to be pH 6 and 80 degrees C. Meanwhile, the specific activity of inosine hydrolase in intact spores of the wild-type strain with inosine as substrate was 2.89+/-0.23x10(-2) micromol min(-1) (mg dry wt)(-1). These results indicate that IunH is important in moderating inosine- or adenosine-induced germination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsX extracellular domain activates the peptidoglycan hydrolase, RipC

    PubMed Central

    Mavrici, Daniela; Marakalala, Mohlopheni J.; Holton, James M.; Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Gee, Christine L.; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Rubin, Eric J.; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial growth and cell division are coordinated with hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan (PG) layer of the cell wall, but the mechanisms of regulation of extracellular PG hydrolases are not well understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural, and genetic analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog of the transmembrane PG-hydrolase regulator, FtsX. The purified FtsX extracellular domain binds the PG peptidase Rv2190c/RipC N-terminal segment, causing a conformational change that activates the enzyme. Deletion of ftsEX and ripC caused similar phenotypes in Mycobacterium smegmatis, as expected for genes in a single pathway. The crystal structure of the FtsX extracellular domain reveals an unprecedented fold containing two lobes connected by a flexible hinge. Mutations in the hydrophobic cleft between the lobes reduce RipC binding in vitro and inhibit FtsX function in M. smegmatis. These studies suggest how FtsX recognizes RipC and support a model in which a conformational change in FtsX links the cell division apparatus with PG hydrolysis. PMID:24843173

  15. Identification of a novel peptidoglycan hydrolase CwlM in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingyi Lynn; Humphries, Donald E; Arbeit, Robert D; Carlton, Laura E; Smole, Sandra C; Carroll, J David

    2005-02-14

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major global pathogen whose threat has increased with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. The cell wall of M. tuberculosis is thick, rigid, and hydrophobic, which serves to protect the organism from the environment and makes it highly impermeable to conventional antimicrobial agents. There is little known about cell wall autolysins (also referred to as peptidoglycan hydrolases) of mycobacteria. We identified an open reading frame (Rv3915) in the M. tuberculosis genome designated cwlM that appeared consistent with a peptidoglycan hydrolase. The 1218-bp gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli strain HMS174(DE-3), and its gene product, a 47-kDa recombinant protein, was purified and partially characterized. Purified CwlM was able to lyse whole mycobacteria, release peptidoglycan from the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus and Mycobacterium smegmatis, and cleave N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, releasing free N-acetylmuramic acid. These results indicate that CwlM is a novel autolysin and identify cwlM as the first, to our knowledge, autolysin gene identified and cloned from M. tuberculosis. CwlM offers a new target for a unique class of drugs that could alter the permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall and enhance the effectiveness of treatments for tuberculosis.

  16. Nostoc commune UTEX 584 gene expressing indole phosphate hydrolase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, W Q; Whitton, B A; Simon, J W; Jäger, K; Reed, D; Potts, M

    1989-01-01

    A gene encoding an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing indole phosphate was isolated from a recombinant gene library of Nostoc commune UTEX 584 DNA in lambda gt10. The gene (designated iph) is located on a 2.9-kilobase EcoRI restriction fragment and is present in a single copy in the genome of N. commune UTEX 584. The iph gene was expressed when the purified 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment, free of any vector sequences, was added to a cell-free coupled transcription-translation system. A polypeptide with an Mr of 74,000 was synthesized when the iph gene or different iph-vector DNA templates were expressed in vitro. When carried by different multicopy plasmids and phagemids (pMP005, pBH6, pB8) the cyanobacterial iph gene conferred an Iph+ phenotype upon various strains of Escherichia coli, including a phoA mutant. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate was detected in recombinant E. coli strains grown in phosphate-rich medium, and the activity persisted in assay buffers that contained phosphate. In contrast, indole phosphate hydrolase activity only developed in cells of N. commune UTEX 584, when they were partially depleted of phosphorus, and the activity associated with these cells was suppressed partially by the addition of phosphate to assay buffers. Indole phosphate hydrolase activity was detected in periplasmic extracts from E. coli (Iph+) transformants. Images PMID:2536677

  17. Determinants of murein hydrolase targeting to cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-03-23

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells.

  18. Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells. PMID:22303016

  19. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D; Noble, Martin E M; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 A resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors' knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  20. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Martin; Reddy, Amitha; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanova, Natalia; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ∼10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50°C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme. PMID:20098679

  1. Behavioral effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on morphine withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Siamak; Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-08-10

    Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03 mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200.

    PubMed

    Kotik, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-02-01

    Purification of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been achieved using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography, in conjunction with two additional chromatographic steps employing hydroxylapatite, and Mimetic Green. The enzyme was purified 186-fold with a yield of 15%. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 77 kDa under native conditions and 40 kDa under denaturing conditions, implying a dimeric structure of the native enzyme. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be 4.0 by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity with highest specificities towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, para-nitrostyrene oxide, benzyl glycidyl ether, and styrene oxide. Enantiomeric ratios of 30 to more than 100 were determined for the hydrolysis reactions of 4 epoxidic substrates using the purified enzyme at a reaction temperature of 10 degrees C. Product inhibition studies suggest that the enzyme is able to differentiate to a high degree between the (R)-diol and (S)-diol product of the hydrolysis reaction with tert-butyl glycidyl ether as the substrate. The highest activity of the enzyme was at 42 degrees C and a pH of 6.8. Six peptide sequences, which were obtained by cleavage of the purified enzyme with trypsin and mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic peptides, show high similarity with corresponding sequences originated from the epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger LCP 521.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of a unique sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Suk; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Heu, Sunggi; Jung, Jin

    2004-01-01

    A novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, a causative agent of bacterial pustule disease on soybeans, was studied at the functional and molecular levels. SUH was shown to act rather specifically on sucrose (K(m) = 2.5 mM) but not on sucrose-6-phosphate. Protein analysis of purified SUH revealed that, in this monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular mass of 70,223 +/- 12 Da, amino acid sequences determined for several segments have corresponding nucleotide sequences in XAC3490, a protein-coding gene found in the genome of X. axonopodis pv. citri. Based on this information, the SUH gene, consisting of an open reading frame of 1,935 bp, was cloned by screening a genomic library of X. axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra. Database searches and sequence comparison revealed that SUH has significant homology to some family 13 enzymes, with all of the crucial invariant residues involved in the catalytic mechanism conserved, but it shows no similarity to known invertases belonging to family 32. suh expression in X. axonopodis pv. glycines requires sucrose induction, and insertional mutagenesis resulted in an absence of sucrose-inducible sucrose hydrolase activity in crude protein extracts and a sucrose-negative phenotype. Recombinant SUH, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified, was shown to have the same enzymatic characteristics in terms of kinetic parameters.

  4. Hepatic Retinyl Ester Hydrolases and the Mobilization of Retinyl Ester Stores

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Lass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    For mammals, vitamin A (retinol and metabolites) is an essential micronutrient that is required for the maintenance of life. Mammals cannot synthesize vitamin A but have to obtain it from their diet. Resorbed dietary vitamin A is stored in large quantities in the form of retinyl esters (REs) in cytosolic lipid droplets of cells to ensure a constant supply of the body. The largest quantities of REs are stored in the liver, comprising around 80% of the body’s total vitamin A content. These hepatic vitamin A stores are known to be mobilized under times of insufficient dietary vitamin A intake but also under pathological conditions such as chronic alcohol consumption and different forms of liver diseases. The mobilization of REs requires the activity of RE hydrolases. It is astounding that despite their physiological significance little is known about their identities as well as about factors or stimuli which lead to their activation and consequently to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores. In this review, we focus on the recent advances for the understanding of hepatic RE hydrolases and discuss pathological conditions which lead to the mobilization of hepatic RE stores. PMID:28035980

  5. Structural insights into the reaction mechanism of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Kusakabe, Yoshio; Ishihara, Masaaki; Umeda, Tomonobu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Kitade, Yukio; Gouda, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kazuo T.; Tanaka, Nobutada

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAH hydrolase or SAHH) is a highly conserved enzyme that catalyses the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to L-homocysteine (HCY) and adenosine (ADO). High-resolution crystal structures have been reported for bacterial and plant SAHHs, but not mammalian SAHHs. Here, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of mammalian SAHH (mouse SAHH) in complex with a reaction product (ADO) and with two reaction intermediate analogues—3’-keto-aristeromycin (3KA) and noraristeromycin (NRN)—at resolutions of 1.55, 1.55, and 1.65 Å. Each of the three structures constitutes a structural snapshot of one of the last three steps of the five-step process of SAH hydrolysis by SAHH. In the NRN complex, a water molecule, which is an essential substrate for ADO formation, is structurally identified for the first time as the candidate donor in a Michael addition by SAHH to the 3’-keto-4’,5’-didehydroadenosine reaction intermediate. The presence of the water molecule is consistent with the reaction mechanism proposed by Palmer & Abeles in 1979. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanism of the SAHH enzyme. PMID:26573329

  6. The serine hydrolase ABHD6 Is a critical regulator of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwynneth; Betters, Jenna L; Lord, Caleb C; Brown, Amanda L; Marshall, Stephanie; Ferguson, Daniel; Sawyer, Janet; Davis, Matthew A; Melchior, John T; Blume, Lawrence C; Howlett, Allyn C; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Milne, Stephen B; Myers, David S; Mrak, Irina; Leber, Vera; Heier, Christoph; Taschler, Ulrike; Blankman, Jacqueline L; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lee, Richard G; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Zimmermann, Robert; Brown, H Alex; Brown, J Mark

    2013-10-31

    The serine hydrolase α/β hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) has recently been implicated as a key lipase for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain. However, the biochemical and physiological function for ABHD6 outside of the central nervous system has not been established. To address this, we utilized targeted antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to selectively knock down ABHD6 in peripheral tissues in order to identify in vivo substrates and understand ABHD6's role in energy metabolism. Here, we show that selective knockdown of ABHD6 in metabolic tissues protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and systemic insulin resistance. Using combined in vivo lipidomic identification and in vitro enzymology approaches, we show that ABHD6 can hydrolyze several lipid substrates, positioning ABHD6 at the interface of glycerophospholipid metabolism and lipid signal transduction. Collectively, these data suggest that ABHD6 inhibitors may serve as therapeutics for obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type II diabetes.

  7. Mfge8 regulates enterocyte lipid storage by promoting enterocyte triglyceride hydrolase activity

    PubMed Central

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; Gupta, Deepti; Ha, Arnold; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, Mahmood; Podolsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The small intestine has an underappreciated role as a lipid storage organ. Under conditions of high dietary fat intake, enterocytes can minimize the extent of postprandial lipemia by storing newly absorbed dietary fat in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipid droplets can be subsequently mobilized for the production of chylomicrons. The mechanisms that regulate this process are poorly understood. We report here that the milk protein Mfge8 regulates hydrolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in enterocytes after interacting with the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Mice deficient in Mfge8 or the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins accumulate excess cytoplasmic lipid droplets after a fat challenge. Mechanistically, interruption of the Mfge8-integrin axis leads to impaired enterocyte intracellular triglyceride hydrolase activity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Mfge8 increases triglyceride hydrolase activity through a PI3 kinase/mTORC2–dependent signaling pathway. These data identify a key role for Mfge8 and the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in regulating enterocyte lipid processing. PMID:27812539

  8. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism β-xylosidases.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Vermillion, Karl E; Grigorescu, Arabela A; Braker, Jay D

    2013-09-15

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a β-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein sequencing indicates Cx1 is similar to but not identical to β-xylosidases of GH52, including Q09LZ0, that have retaining mechanisms. Q09LZ0 β-xylosidase had been characterized biochemically in kinetic reactions that contained Tris. We overproduced Q09LZ0 and demonstrated that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of the β-xylosidase. Also, the previous work used grossly incorrect extinction coefficients for product 4-nitrophenol. We redetermined kinetic parameters using reactions that omitted Tris and using correct extinction coefficients for 4-nitrophenol. Cx1 and Q09LZ0 β-xylosidases were thus shown to possess similar kinetic properties when acting on 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside and xylobiose. kcat pH profiles of Cx1 and Q09LZ0 acting on 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside and xylobiose have patterns containing two rate increases with increasing acidity, not reported before for glycoside hydrolases. The dexylosylation step of 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside hydrolysis mediated by Q09LZ0 is not rate determining for kcat(4NPX). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Probing the mechanisms for the selectivity and promiscuity of methyl parathion hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Purg, Miha; Pabis, Anna; Baier, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Jackson, Colin; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-11-13

    Diverse organophosphate hydrolases have convergently evolved the ability to hydrolyse man-made organophosphates. Thus, these enzymes are attractive model systems for studying the factors shaping enzyme functional evolution. Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) is an enzyme from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, which hydrolyses a wide range of organophosphate, aryl ester and lactone substrates. In addition, MPH demonstrates metal-ion-dependent selectivity patterns. The origins of this remain unclear, but are linked to open questions about the more general role of metal ions in functional evolution and divergence within enzyme superfamilies. Here, we present detailed mechanistic studies of the paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of MPH complexed with five different transition metal ions, and demonstrate that the hydrolysis reactions proceed via similar pathways and transition states. However, while it is possible to discern a clear structural origin for the selectivity between different substrates, the selectivity between different metal ions appears to lie instead in the distinct electrostatic properties of the metal ions themselves, which causes subtle changes in transition state geometries and metal-metal distances at the transition state rather than significant structural changes in the active site. While subtle, these differences can be significant for shaping the metal-ion-dependent activity patterns observed for this enzyme.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  10. Probing the mechanisms for the selectivity and promiscuity of methyl parathion hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Purg, Miha; Pabis, Anna; Baier, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Jackson, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Diverse organophosphate hydrolases have convergently evolved the ability to hydrolyse man-made organophosphates. Thus, these enzymes are attractive model systems for studying the factors shaping enzyme functional evolution. Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) is an enzyme from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, which hydrolyses a wide range of organophosphate, aryl ester and lactone substrates. In addition, MPH demonstrates metal-ion-dependent selectivity patterns. The origins of this remain unclear, but are linked to open questions about the more general role of metal ions in functional evolution and divergence within enzyme superfamilies. Here, we present detailed mechanistic studies of the paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of MPH complexed with five different transition metal ions, and demonstrate that the hydrolysis reactions proceed via similar pathways and transition states. However, while it is possible to discern a clear structural origin for the selectivity between different substrates, the selectivity between different metal ions appears to lie instead in the distinct electrostatic properties of the metal ions themselves, which causes subtle changes in transition state geometries and metal–metal distances at the transition state rather than significant structural changes in the active site. While subtle, these differences can be significant for shaping the metal-ion-dependent activity patterns observed for this enzyme. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698033

  11. Cotranslocation of Methyl Parathion Hydrolase to the Periplasm and of Organophosphorus Hydrolase to the Cell Surface of Escherichia coli by the Tat Pathway and Ice Nucleation Protein Display System ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Freudl, Roland; Qiao, Chuanling; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    A genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain coexpressing organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) was constructed for the first time by cotransforming two compatible plasmids. Since these two enzymes have different substrate specificities, the coexpression strain showed a broader substrate range than strains expressing either one of the hydrolases. To reduce the mass transport limitation of organophosphates (OPs) across the cell membrane, MPH and OPH were simultaneously translocated to the periplasm and cell surface of E. coli, respectively, by employing the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway and ice nucleation protein (INP) display system. The resulting recombinant strain showed sixfold-higher whole-cell activity than the control strain expressing cytosolic OP hydrolases. The correct localization of MPH and OPH was demonstrated by cell fractionation, immunoblotting, and enzyme activity assays. No growth inhibition was observed for the recombinant E. coli strain, and suspended cultures retained almost 100% of the activity over a period of 2 weeks. Owing to its high level of activity and superior stability, the recombinant E. coli strain could be employed as a whole-cell biocatalyst for detoxification of OPs. This strategy of utilizing dual translocation pathways should open up new avenues for cotranslocating multiple functional moieties to different extracytosolic compartments of a bacterial cell. PMID:19933341

  12. High-Resolution X-Ray Structures of Two Functionally Distinct Members of the Cyclic Amide Hydrolase Family of Toblerone Fold Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Peat, Thomas S; Balotra, Sahil; Wilding, Matthew; Hartley, Carol J; Newman, Janet; Scott, Colin

    2017-05-01

    The Toblerone fold was discovered recently when the first structure of the cyclic amide hydrolase, AtzD (a cyanuric acid hydrolase), was elucidated. We surveyed the cyclic amide hydrolase family, finding a strong correlation between phylogenetic distribution and specificity for either cyanuric acid or barbituric acid. One of six classes (IV) could not be tested due to a lack of expression of the proteins from it, and another class (V) had neither cyanuric acid nor barbituric acid hydrolase activity. High-resolution X-ray structures were obtained for a class VI barbituric acid hydrolase (1.7 Å) from a Rhodococcus species and a class V cyclic amide hydrolase (2.4 Å) from a Frankia species for which we were unable to identify a substrate. Both structures were homologous with the tetrameric Toblerone fold enzyme AtzD, demonstrating a high degree of structural conservation within the cyclic amide hydrolase family. The barbituric acid hydrolase structure did not contain zinc, in contrast with early reports of zinc-dependent activity for this enzyme. Instead, each barbituric acid hydrolase monomer contained either Na(+) or Mg(2+), analogous to the structural metal found in cyanuric acid hydrolase. The Frankia cyclic amide hydrolase contained no metal but instead formed unusual, reversible, intermolecular vicinal disulfide bonds that contributed to the thermal stability of the protein. The active sites were largely conserved between the three enzymes, differing at six positions, which likely determine substrate specificity.IMPORTANCE The Toblerone fold enzymes catalyze an unusual ring-opening hydrolysis with cyclic amide substrates. A survey of these enzymes shows that there is a good correlation between physiological function and phylogenetic distribution within this family of enzymes and provide insights into the evolutionary relationships between the cyanuric acid and barbituric acid hydrolases. This family of enzymes is structurally and mechanistically distinct from

  13. Purification and characterization of pranlukast hydrolase from rat liver microsomes: the hydrolase is identical to carboxylesterase pI 6.2.

    PubMed

    Luan, L; Sugiyama, T; Takai, S; Usami, Y; Adachi, T; Katagiri, Y; Hirano, K

    1997-01-01

    Two carboxylesterases with pI 6.0 and 6.2 derived from rat liver microsomes were purified. The two isozymes were remarkably different in substrate specificity, but they had equal enzymatic activity for alpha-naphthyl acetate and were inhibited equally by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). Carboxylesterases pI 6.0 and 6.2 are identical to the enzymes referred to as hydrolase A and B, respectively, from the results of amino acid sequence analyses. Pranlukast was effectively hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase pI 6.2 but not by the pI 6.0 enzyme, and the difference in the pranlukast metabolism between the human and the rat could be explained by the substrate specificity of carboxylesterase. Furthermore, prodrugs of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were found to be converted to the active drugs after hydrolysis by the carboxylesterases pI 6.0 and 6.2. Carboxylesterases generally catalyze the hydrolysis of ester-type drugs preferentially rather than amide-type drugs.

  14. A modified expression of the major hydrolase activator in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) changes enzymatic catalysis of biopolymer degradation.

    PubMed

    Pucher, Marion E; Steiger, Matthias G; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

    2011-06-10

    Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is a saprophytic fungus that produces hydrolases, which are applied in different types of industries and used for the production of biofuel. A recombinant Hypocrea strain, which constantly expresses the main transcription activator of hydrolases (Xylanase regulator 1), was found to grow faster on xylan and its monomeric backbone molecule d-xylose. This strain also showed improved ability of clearing xylan medium on plates. Furthermore, this strain has a changed transcription profile concerning genes encoding for hydrolases and enzymes associated with degradation of (hemi)celluloses. We demonstrated that enzymes of this strain from a xylan cultivation favoured break down of hemicelluloses to the monomer d-xylose compared to the parental strain, while the enzymes of the latter one formed more xylobiose. Applying supernatants from cultivation on carboxymethylcellulose in enzymatic conversion of hemicelluloses, the enzymes of the recombinant strain were clearly producing more of both, d-xylose and xylobiose, compared to the parental strain. Altogether, these results point to a changed hydrolase expression profile, an enhanced capability to form the xylan-monomer d-xylose and the assumption that there is a disordered induction pattern if the Xylanase regulator 1 is de-regulated in Hypocrea.

  15. Purification and characterization of a chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger catalysing the hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Asther, Michèle; Estrada Alvarado, Maria Isabel; Haon, Mireille; Navarro, David; Asther, Marcel; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Record, Eric

    2005-01-12

    Among 15 Aspergillus strains, Aspergillus niger BRFM 131 was selected for its high chlorogenic acid hydrolase activity. The enzyme was purified and characterized with respect to its physico-chemical and kinetic properties. Four chromatographic steps were necessary to purify the protein to homogeneity with a recovery of 2%. Km of the chlorogenic acid hydrolase was estimated to be 10 microM against chlorogenic acid as substrate. Under native conditions, the protein presented a molecular mass of 170 kDa, and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested the presence of two identical 80 kDa subunits. Isoelectric point was 6.0; pH optimum for activity was determined to be 6.0 and temperature optima to be 55 degrees C. The N-terminal sequence did not present any homology with other cinnamoyl ester hydrolases previously described suggesting the purification of a new protein. The chlorogenic acid hydrolase was used successfully for the production of caffeic acid, which possesses strong antioxidant properties, from natural substrates specially rich in chlorogenic acid like apple marc and coffee pulp.

  16. Genetic basis for the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to peptidoglycan hydrolase by comparative transcriptome and whole genome sequence analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Lysostaphin is a glycyl-glycine bacteriocin peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans for degrading the peptidoglycan moieties in Staphylococcus aureus cell walls which result in cell lysis. There are known mechanisms of resistance to lysostaphin, e.g. serine in place...

  17. Cloning, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ying-Der; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2006-10-01

    A CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen X. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. CN-hydrolase superfamily proteins are involved in a wide variety of non-peptide carbon–nitrogen hydrolysis reactions, producing some important natural products such as auxin, biotin, precursors of antibiotics etc. These reactions all involve attack on a cyano or carbonyl carbon by a conserved novel catalytic triad Glu-Lys-Cys through a thiol acylenzyme intermediate. However, classification into the CN-hydrolase superfamily based on sequence similarity alone is not straightforward and further structural data are necessary to improve this categorization. Here, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc), are reported. The SeMet-substituted XC1258 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.73 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.8, b = 154.63, c = 51.3 Å, respectively.

  18. In vivo inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase by carbapenem antibiotics causes the decrease of plasma concentration of valproic acid in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Eiko; Nakai, Daisuke; Ikenaga, Hidenori; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Goda, Ryoya; Kobayashi, Nobuhiro; Kuga, Hiroshi; Izumi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    1. Our previous in vitro studies suggest that inhibition of the acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) activity as valproic acid glucuronide (VPA-G) hydrolase by carbapenems in human liver cytosol is a key process for clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) of valproic acid (VPA) with carbapenems. Here, we investigated whether in vivo DDI of VPA with meropenem (MEPM) was caused via inhibition of APEH in dogs. 2. More rapid decrease of plasma VPA levels and increased urinary excretion of VPA-G were observed after co-administration with MEPM compared with those after without co-administration, whereas the plasma level and bile excretion of VPA-G showed no change. 3. Dog VPA-G hydrolase activity, inhibited by carbapenems, was mainly located in cytosol from both the liver and kidney. APEH-immunodepleted cytosols lacked VPA-G hydrolase activity. Hepatic and renal APEH activity was negligible even at 24 h after dosing of MEPM to a dog. 4. In conclusion, DDI of VPA with carbapenems in dogs is caused by long-lasting inhibition of APEH-mediated VPA-G hydrolysis by carbapenems, which could explain the delayed recovery of plasma VPA levels to the therapeutic window even after discontinuation of carbapenems in humans.

  19. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [(a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-ph...

  20. Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Chilaka, Amanda C; Church, George M

    2009-12-01

    Summary Microbial cellulose degradation is a central part of the global carbon cycle and has great potential for the development of inexpensive, carbon-neutral biofuels from non-food crops. Clostridium phytofermentans has a repertoire of 108 putative glycoside hydrolases to break down cellulose and hemicellulose into sugars, which this organism then ferments primarily to ethanol. An understanding of cellulose degradation at the molecular level requires learning the different roles of these hydrolases. In this study, we show that interspecific conjugation with Escherichia coli can be used to transfer a plasmid into C. phytofermentans that has a resistance marker, an origin of replication that can be selectively lost, and a designed group II intron for efficient, targeted chromosomal insertions without selection. We applied these methods to disrupt the cphy3367 gene, which encodes the sole family 9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) in the C. phytofermentans genome. The GH9-deficient strain grew normally on some carbon sources such as glucose, but had lost the ability to degrade cellulose. Although C. phytofermentans upregulates the expression of numerous enzymes to break down cellulose, this process thus relies upon a single, key hydrolase, Cphy3367.

  1. Hydrolysis of filter-paper cellulose to glucose by two recombinant endogenous glycosyl hydrolases of Coptotermes formosanus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genes encoding for glycosyl hydrolases in multiple families were recovered from an EST library of Coptotermes formosanus, a wood-eating insect. Functional analyses of these genes not only shed light on the mechanisms the insect employs to successfully use cellulosic materials as energy sources, whic...

  2. Isolation of Methyl Parathion-Degrading Strain M6 and Cloning of the Methyl Parathion Hydrolase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhongli, Cui; Shunpeng, Li; Guoping, Fu

    2001-01-01

    A degradative bacterium, M6, was isolated and presumptively identified as Plesiomonas sp. strain M6 was able to hydrolyze methyl parathion to p-nitrophenol. A novel organophosphate hydrolase gene designated mpd was selected from its genomic library prepared by shotgun cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the mpd gene was determined. The gene could be effectively expressed in Esherichia coli. PMID:11571204

  3. 3-D QSAR ANALYSIS OF INHIBITION OF MURINE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (MSEH) BY BENZOYLUREAS, ARYLUREAS, AND THEIR ANALOGUES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and seventy-one compounds including benzoylureas, arylureas and related compounds were assayed using recombinant murine soluble epoxide hydrolase (MsEH) produced from a baculovirus expression system. Among all the insect growth regulators assayed, 18 benzoylphenylu...

  4. Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367

    PubMed Central

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Chilaka, Amanda C; Church, George M

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cellulose degradation is a central part of the global carbon cycle and has great potential for the development of inexpensive, carbon-neutral biofuels from non-food crops. Clostridium phytofermentans has a repertoire of 108 putative glycoside hydrolases to break down cellulose and hemicellulose into sugars, which this organism then ferments primarily to ethanol. An understanding of cellulose degradation at the molecular level requires learning the different roles of these hydrolases. In this study, we show that interspecific conjugation with Escherichia coli can be used to transfer a plasmid into C. phytofermentans that has a resistance marker, an origin of replication that can be selectively lost, and a designed group II intron for efficient, targeted chromosomal insertions without selection. We applied these methods to disrupt the cphy3367 gene, which encodes the sole family 9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) in the C. phytofermentans genome. The GH9-deficient strain grew normally on some carbon sources such as glucose, but had lost the ability to degrade cellulose. Although C. phytofermentans upregulates the expression of numerous enzymes to break down cellulose, this process thus relies upon a single, key hydrolase, Cphy3367. PMID:19775243

  5. Structural analysis of a glycosides hydrolase family 42 cold-adapted ß-galactosidase from Rahnella sp. R3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ß-galactosidase isolated from a psychrotrophic bacterium, Rahnella sp. R3 (R-ß-Gal), exhibits high activity at low temperature. R-ß-Gal is a member of the glycoside hydrolases family 42 (GH42), and forms a 225 kDa trimeric structure in solution. The X-ray crystal structure of R-ß-Gal was determi...

  6. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase
    (OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-cost
    detection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  7. 3-D QSAR ANALYSIS OF INHIBITION OF MURINE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (MSEH) BY BENZOYLUREAS, ARYLUREAS, AND THEIR ANALOGUES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and seventy-one compounds including benzoylureas, arylureas and related compounds were assayed using recombinant murine soluble epoxide hydrolase (MsEH) produced from a baculovirus expression system. Among all the insect growth regulators assayed, 18 benzoylphenylu...

  8. A dual enzyme system composed of a polyester hydrolase and a carboxylesterase enhances the biocatalytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Honak, Annett; Oeser, Thorsten; Wei, Ren; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus R; Then, Johannes; Schmidt, Juliane; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and the metagenome-derived LC-cutinase are bacterial polyester hydrolases capable of efficiently degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Since the enzymatic PET hydrolysis is inhibited by the degradation intermediate mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET), a dual enzyme system consisting of a polyester hydrolase and the immobilized carboxylesterase TfCa from Thermobifida fusca KW3 was employed for the hydrolysis of PET films at 60°C. HPLC analysis of the reaction products obtained after 24 h of hydrolysis showed an increased amount of soluble products with a lower proportion of MHET in the presence of the immobilized TfCa. The results indicated a continuous hydrolysis of the inhibitory MHET by the immobilized TfCa and demonstrated its advantage as a second biocatalyst in combination with a polyester hydrolase for an efficient degradation oft PET films. The dual enzyme system with LC-cutinase produced a 2.4-fold higher amount of degradation products compared to TfCut2 after a reaction time of 24 h confirming the superior activity of his polyester hydrolase against PET films.

  9. Epoxide hydrolase: a mRNA induced by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush).

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kenji; Yamamato, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2003-09-01

    An expression profile of genes induced by non-pathogenic Alternaria alternata on rough lemon leaves was obtained by sequencing 500 subtractive PCR clones generated from mRNA of leaves inoculated with the fungus after subtraction with that of non-inoculated leaves. About 6% of the cDNA sequences had homology to known putative defense-related genes including epoxide hydrolase. A full-length cDNA (951 bp) from rough lemon that encoded epoxy hydrolase was isolated by random amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs), based on sequence information from subtractive PCR, and designated as RlemEH. The product of this gene expressed with an in vitro translation system with Escherichia coli also had activity of a soluble type of epoxide hydrolase. The transcript of rough lemon RlemEH was not detected in flowers, fruits, stems or leaves, but was induced after inoculation of leaves with conidia of Alternaria alternata, wounding, or treatment with C6 volatiles, including trans-2-hexenol and cis-3-hexenol, and methyl jasmonate. The response of the epoxide hydrolase gene correlated well with the activation of defense mechanisms induced in plant-fungus interactions.

  10. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  11. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  12. Oxidoreductases provide a more generic response to metallic stressors (Cu and Cd) than hydrolases in soil fungi: new ecotoxicological insights.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Demont-Caulet, Nathalie; Cheviron, Nathalie; Laval, Karine; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Mougin, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of metals on the secretion of enzymes from 12 fungal strains maintained in liquid cultures. Hydrolases (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase) and ligninolytic oxidoreductases (laccase, Mn, and lignin peroxidases) activities, as well as biomass production, were measured in culture fluids from fungi exposed to Cu or Cd. Our results showed that all fungi secreted most of the selected hydrolases and that about 50% of them produced a partial oxidative system in the absence of metals. Then, exposure of fungi to metals led to the decrease in biomass production. At the enzymatic level, Cu and Cd modified the secretion profiles of soil fungi. The response of hydrolases to metals was contrasted and complex and depended on metal, enzyme, and fungal strain considered. By contrast, the metals always stimulated the activity of ligninolytic oxidoreductases in fungal strains. In some of them, oxidoreductases were specifically produced following metal exposure. Fungal oxidoreductases provide a more generic response than hydrolases, constituting thus a physiological basis for their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in soils.

  13. Purification and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 Beta-xylosidase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 43 enzyme termed deAX was isolated and subcloned from a culture seeded with a compost starter mixed bacterium population, expressed with a C-terminal His6-tag, and purified to apparent homogeneity. deAX was monomeric in solution, and had a broad pH maxi...

  14. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase
    (OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-cost
    detection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  15. Three-dimensional Structure of Nylon Hydrolase and Mechanism of Nylon-6 Hydrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Negoro, Seiji; Shibata, Naoki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Yasuhira, Kengo; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Haruka; Lee, Young-Ho; Oshima, Shohei; Santa, Ryuji; Oshima, Shohei; Mochiji, Kozo; Goto, Yuji; Ikegami, Takahisa; Nagai, Keisuke; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    We performed x-ray crystallographic analyses of the 6-aminohexanoate oligomer hydrolase (NylC) from Agromyces sp. at 2.0 Å-resolution. This enzyme is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily that is responsible for the degradation of the nylon-6 industry byproduct. We observed four identical heterodimers (27 kDa + 9 kDa), which resulted from the autoprocessing of the precursor protein (36 kDa) and which constitute the doughnut-shaped quaternary structure. The catalytic residue of NylC was identified as the N-terminal Thr-267 of the 9-kDa subunit. Furthermore, each heterodimer is folded into a single domain, generating a stacked αββα core structure. Amino acid mutations at subunit interfaces of the tetramer were observed to drastically alter the thermostability of the protein. In particular, four mutations (D122G/H130Y/D36A/E263Q) of wild-type NylC from Arthrobacter sp. (plasmid pOAD2-encoding enzyme), with a heat denaturation temperature of Tm = 52 °C, enhanced the protein thermostability by 36 °C (Tm = 88 °C), whereas a single mutation (G111S or L137A) decreased the stability by ∼10 °C. We examined the enzymatic hydrolysis of nylon-6 by the thermostable NylC mutant. Argon cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses of the reaction products revealed that the major peak of nylon-6 (m/z 10,000–25,000) shifted to a smaller range, producing a new peak corresponding to m/z 1500–3000 after the enzyme treatment at 60 °C. In addition, smaller fragments in the soluble fraction were successively hydrolyzed to dimers and monomers. Based on these data, we propose that NylC should be designated as nylon hydrolase (or nylonase). Three potential uses of NylC for industrial and environmental applications are also discussed. PMID:22187439

  16. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Patricia M.; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Compton, Jaimee R.; Millard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine Oγ. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1). We discuss the use of pNBE as a surrogate scaffold for the mammalian esterases, and the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases. PMID:25077141

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Chlorpyrifos Hydrolase from Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Luo, Jianjun; Li, Yanan

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is of great environmental concern due to its widespread use in the past several decades and its potential toxic effects on human health. Thus, the degradation study of chlorpyrifos has become increasing important in recent years. A fungus capable of using chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon source was isolated from organophosphate-contaminated soil and characterized as Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711). A novel chlorpyrifos hydrolase from cell extract was purified 35.6-fold to apparent homogeneity with 38.5% overall recovery by ammoniumsulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. It is a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 38.3 kDa. The pI value was estimated to be 5.2. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 6.5 and 40°C, respectively. No cofactors were required for the chlorpyrifos-hydrolysis activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Fe3+, DTT, β-mercaptoethanol and SDS, whereas slight inhibitory effects (5–10% inhibition) were observed in the presence of Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and EDTA. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed various organophosphorus insecticides with P-O and P-S bond. Chlorpyrifos was the preferred substrate. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for chlorpyrifos were 6.7974 μM and 2.6473 μmol·min−1, respectively. Both NH2-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified an amino acid sequence MEPDGELSALTQGANS, which shared no similarity with any reported organophosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes. These results suggested that the purified enzyme was a novel hydrolase and might conceivably be developed to fulfill the practical requirements to enable its use in situ for detoxification of chlorpyrifos. Finally, this is the first described chlorpyrifos hydrolase from fungus. PMID:22693630

  18. Inhibition of soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolase by zinc and other metals.

    PubMed

    Draper, A J; Hammock, B D

    1999-11-01

    Inhibition of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by metals may represent an important mechanism in regulating enzyme activity. Fourteen cations were evaluated for inhibition of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) (mouse, rat, and human liver), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) (mouse, rat, and human liver), and recombinant potato sEH. Of the metals tested, Hg2+ and Zn2+ were the strongest inhibitors of mEH, while Cd2+ and Cu2+ were also strong inhibitors of sEH (I50 for all approximately 20 microM). Nickel (divalent) and Pb2+ were moderate inhibitors, but Al2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ were weak inhibitors of both mEH and sEH (less than 50% inhibition by 1 mM metal). Six anions (acetate, bromide, chloride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) were tested and found to have no effect on the inhibition of sEH or mEH by cations. The kinetics and type of inhibition for zinc inhibition of sEH and mEH were examined for mouse, rat, human, and potato. Zinc inhibits mEH in a competitive manner. Inhibition of human and potato sEH was noncompetitive, but interestingly, zinc inhibition of mouse sEH was very strong and uncompetitive. Inhibition by zinc could be reversed by adding EDTA to the incubation buffer. Additionally, mouse liver microsomes and cytosol were incubated with these chelators. Following incubation at 4 degrees C, samples were dialyzed to remove chelator. Both mEH and sEH activity recovered was greater in samples treated with chelator than in control incubations. Similar treatment with the protease inhibitor Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) did not affect enzyme activity recovered. During systemic inflammation, hepatic metallothionien is induced, and liver metal concentrations increase while serum metal concentrations are decreased. The inhibition of microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase by metals may represent a mechanism of down-regulation of enzyme activity during inflammation.

  19. Comparative purification and characterization of two distinct extracellular monocrotophos hydrolases secreted by Penicillium aculeatum and Fusarium pallidoroseum isolated from agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachna; Garg, Veena; Dangwal, Koushalya; Lily, Madhuri Kaushish

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at a comparative characterization of two distinct extracellular monocrotophos hydrolases, from Penicillium aculeatum ITCC 7980.10 (M3) and Fusarium pallidoroseum ITCC 7785.10 (M4), isolated from agricultural fields. The MCP hydrolases were purified by Sephadex G-100 column and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B ion-exchange column followed by SDS-PAGE analysis, which showed the presence of two hydrolases, of 33 and 67 kDa respectively. Both enzymes were most active at alkaline pH and were stable over a wide range of temperatures (60-70 °C). Between the strains, the MCP hydrolases from M3 were 2-fold more active than that from M4. Enzyme kinetic studies showed lowest Km (33.52 mM) and highest Vmax (5.18 U/mg protein) for OPH67 of M3 in comparison to the Km and Vmax of the other hydrolases purified from M3 and M4, suggesting that M3 OPH67 was the most efficient MCP hydrolase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification of two distinct extracellular thermostable MCP hydrolases from fungal strains Penicillium aculeatum ITCC 7980.10 and Fusarium pallidoroseum ITCC 7785.10. Owing to its potential MCP hydrolyzing activity, M3 OPH67 can perhaps used directly or in the encapsulated form for remediation of MCP contaminated sites.

  20. Human adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is not regulated by obesity and exhibits low in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Mairal, A; Langin, D; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2006-07-01

    The recent identification of murine adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, now known as patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 [PNPLA2]), gene product of Pnpla2, has questioned the unique role of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, now known as LIPE), gene product of Lipe, in fat cell lipolysis. Here, we investigated human ATGL and HSL adipose tissue gene expression and in vitro lipase activity. Levels of mRNA in adipose tissue from healthy obese and non-obese subjects were measured and lipase activity and adipocyte lipolytic capacity determined. HSL and ATGL cDNAs were transfected into Cos-7 cells and the relative tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activities were measured. Obesity was associated with a decreased subcutaneous and increased omental adipose tissue level of HSL mRNA. Subcutaneous HSL mRNA content was normalised upon weight reduction. In contrast, ATGL mRNA levels were unaffected by obesity and weight reduction. A high adipose tissue lipase activity was associated with increased maximal lipolysis and increased HSL, but not with ATGL mRNA levels. The in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity of HSL was markedly higher than that of ATGL and contrary to HSL, ATGL was devoid of diglyceride hydrolase activity. The use of a selective HSL-inhibitor resulted in complete inhibition of HSL-mediated tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activity. The pH profile of human white adipose tissue triolein hydrolase activity was identical to that of HSL but differed from the ATGL profile. HSL, but not ATGL gene expression shows a regulation according to obesity status and is associated with increased adipose tissue lipase activity. Moreover, HSL has a higher capacity than ATGL to hydrolyse triglycerides in vitro.

  1. Three Neocallimastix patriciarum esterases associated with the degradation of complex polysaccharides are members of a new family of hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, B P; Cybinski, D H; Layton, I; McSweeney, C S; Xue, G P; Swadling, Y J; Lowry, J B

    1997-08-01

    Acetylesterase and cinnamoyl ester hydrolase activities were demonstrated in culture supernatant of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum. A cDNA expression library from N. patriciarum was screened for esterases using beta-naphthyl acetate and a model cinnamoyl ester compound. cDNA clones representing four different esterase genes (bnaA-D) were isolated. None of the enzymes had cinnamoyl ester hydrolase activity, but two of the enzymes (BnaA and BnaC) had acetylxylan esterase activity, bnaA, bnaB and bnaC encode proteins with several distinct domains. Carboxy-terminal repeats in BnaA and BnaC are homologous to protein-docking domains in other enzymes from Neocallimastix species and another anaerobic fungus, a Piromyces sp. The catalytic domains of BnaB and BnaC are members of a recently described family of Ser/His active site hydrolases [Upton, C. & Buckley, J.T. (1995). Trends Biochem Sci 20, 178-179]. BnaB exhibits 40% amino acid identity to a domain of unknown function in the CelE cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum and BnaC exhibits 52% amino acid identity to a domain of unknown function in the XynB xylanase from Ruminococcus flavefaciens. BnaA, whilst exhibiting less than 10% overall amino acid identity to BnaB or BnaC, or to any other known protein, appears to be a member of the same family of hydrolases, having the three universally conserved amino acid sequence motifs. Several other previously described esterases are also shown to be members of this family, including a rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase from Aspergillus aculeatus. However, none of the other previously described enzymes with acetylxylan esterase activity are members of this family of hydrolases.

  2. Isolation and characterization of an extracellular glycosylated protein complex from Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum with pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonate hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rijssel, M; Gerwig, G J; Hansen, T A

    1993-01-01

    An extracellular protein complex was isolated from the supernatant of a pectin-limited continuous culture of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum Haren. The complex possessed both pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) and exo-poly-alpha-galacturonate hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.82) activity and produced digalacturonate from the nonreducing end of the pectin chain. The protein consisted of 230- and 25-kDa subunits. The large subunit contained 10% (wt/wt) sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose). Under physiological conditions both activities acted in a coordinated manner: the ratio between methanol and digalacturonate released during degradation was constant and equal to the degree of esterification of the pectin used. Prolonged incubation of the enzyme with pectin led to a nondialyzable fraction that was enriched in neutral sugars, such as arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose; the high rhamnose/galacturonic acid ratio was indicative of hairy region-like structures. The smallest substrate utilized by the hydrolase was a tetragalacturonate. Vmax with oligogalacturonates increased with increasing chain length. The Km and Vmax for the polygalacturonate hydrolase with citrus pectate as a substrate were 0.8 g liter-1 and 180 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax for the esterase with citrus pectin as a substrate were 1.2 g liter-1 and 440 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. The temperature optima for the hydrolase and esterase were 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Both enzyme activities were stable for more than 1 h at 70 degrees C. The exo-polygalacturonate hydrolase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes was partially purified while the methylesterase was also copurified. Images PMID:8481009

  3. Efficient Calculation of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Profiles Using a Hybrid Differential Relaxation Algorithm: Application to Mycobacterial Zinc Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Juan Manuel; Martin, Mariano; Ramirez, Claudia Lilián; Dumas, Victoria Gisel; Marti, Marcelo Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the free energy profile for an enzyme reaction mechanism is of primordial relevance, paving the way for our understanding of the enzyme's catalytic power at the molecular level. Although hybrid, mostly DFT-based, QM/MM methods have been extensively applied to this type of studies, achieving accurate and statistically converged results at a moderate computational cost is still an open challenge. Recently, we have shown that accurate results can be achieved in less computational time, combining Jarzynski's relationship with a hybrid differential relaxation algorithm (HyDRA), which allows partial relaxation of the solvent during the nonequilibrium steering of the reaction. In this work, we have applied this strategy to study two mycobacterial zinc hydrolases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections are still a worldwide problem and thus characterization and validation of new drug targets is an intense field of research. Among possible drug targets, recently two essential zinc hydrolases, MshB (Rv1170) and MA-amidase (Rv3717), have been proposed and structurally characterized. Although possible mechanisms have been proposed by analogy to the widely studied human Zn hydrolases, several key issues, particularly those related to Zn coordination sphere and its role in catalysis, remained unanswered. Our results show that mycobacterial Zn hydrolases share a basic two-step mechanism. First, the attacking water becomes deprotonated by the conserved base and establishes the new C-O bond leading to a tetrahedral intermediate. The intermediate requires moderate reorganization to allow for proton transfer to the amide N and C-N bond breaking to occur in the second step. Zn ion plays a key role in stabilizing the tetrahedral intermediate and balancing the negative charge of the substrate during hydroxide ion attack. Finally, comparative analysis of other Zn hydrolases points to a convergent mechanistic evolution. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of corn stover bioconversion efficiency by using plant glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Han, Yejun; Chen, Hongzhang

    2011-04-01

    Plant cell wall is the most abundant substrate for bioethanol production, and plants also represent a key resource for glycoside hydrolase (GH). To exploit efficient way for bioethanol production with lower cellulase loading, the potential of plant GH for lignocellulose bioconversion was evaluated. The GH activity for cell wall proteins (CWPs) was detected from fresh corn stover (FCS), and the synergism of which with Trichoderma reesei cellulase was also observed. The properties for the GH of FCS make it a promising enzyme additive for lignocellulose biodegradation. To make use of the plant GH, novel technology for hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation was developed with corn stover as substrate. Taking steam-exploded corn stover as substrate for hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation, compared with T. reesei cellulase loaded alone, the final glucose and ethanol accumulation increased by 60% and 63% respectively with GH of FCS as an addition.

  5. Determination of Organophosphate Pesticides at a Carbon Nanotube/Organophosphorus Hydrolase Electrochemical Biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, R P.; Wang, Joseph; Block, I; Mulchandani, Ashok; Joshi, K; Trojanowicz, M; Scholz, F; Chen, Wilfred; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-02-08

    An amperometric biosensor for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on a carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified transducer and an organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) biocatalyst is described. A bilayer approach with the OPH layer atop of the CNT film was used for preparing the CNT/OPH biosensor. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of the enzymatically-generated p-nitrophenol product, including higher sensitivity and stability. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the surface modification and operating conditions. Under the optimal conditions the biosensor was used to measure as low as 0.15 {micro}M paraoxon and 0.8 {micro}M methyl parathion with sensitivities of 25 and 6 nA/{micro}M, respectively.

  6. Localization of Acid hydrolases in protoplasts: examination of the proposed lysosomal function of the mature vacuole.

    PubMed

    Butcher, H C; Wagner, G J; Siegelman, H W

    1977-06-01

    The development of techniques to isolate and purify relatively large quantities of intact vacuoles from mature tissues permits direct biochemical analysis of this ubiquitous mature plant cell organelle. Vacuoles and a fraction enriched in soluble cytoplasmic constituents were quantitatively prepared from Hippeastrum flower petal protoplasts. Vacuolar lysate and soluble cytoplasmic fractions were examined for acid hydrolase activities commonly associated with animal lysosomes, and pH optima were determined. Esterase, protease, carboxypeptidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-glycosidase and beta-glycosidase, not found in the vacuole lysate fraction, were components of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Acid phosphatase, RNase and DNase were present in both fractions. Vacuolar enzyme activities were also examined as a function of flower development from bud through senescent stages. The data obtained are not consistent with the concept that the mature plant cell vacuole functions as a generalized lysosome.

  7. Cellular viability effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on cerebellar neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA) participates in the control of cell death inducing the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ANA degrading enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), would induce cellular death. Experiments were performed in cerebellar granule neurons cultured with the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) as well as endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and cellular viability was determined by MTT test. Neurons cultured with URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) displayed a decrease in cellular viability. In addition, if cultured with OEA (25 nM) or PEA (100 nM), cellular death was found. These results further suggest that URB597, OEA or PEA promote cellular death. PMID:21854612

  8. Improving the acidic stability of a methyl parathion hydrolase by changing basic residues to acidic residues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Ping; Tian, Jian; Jiang, Huachen; Wu, Ningfeng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu

    2012-06-01

    The acidic stability of a methyl parathion hydrolase (Ochr-MPH) was improved by selectively changing basic amino acids to acidic ones. Mutation sites were selected based on the position-specific amino acid replacement probabilities (more than or equal to 0.2) and the entropy of each site (more than or equal to 0.8). Three mutants (K208E, K277D, and K208E/K277D) were more stable than the wild-type (WT). Their half-lives at pH 5.0 were 64, 68, 65 min, respectively, whereas that of WT was 39 min. The acidic stability of proteins may therefore be improved by changing selected basic amino acid residues to acidic ones.

  9. A colorimetric assay for determination of methyl parathion using recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dau Hung; Cheunrungsikul, Kritsananporn; Wichitwechkarn, Jesdawan; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2011-05-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric dipstick assay for the detection of the organophosphorous insecticide methyl parathion (MPT) residue in vegetables was developed. The assay was based on the hydrolysis of MPT by a recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase (recMPH), the encoding gene of which was isolated from Burkholderia cepacia, a soil bacterium indigenous to Thailand. This reaction generates protons leading to a change in pH that correlates with the amount of MPH present. Hence, the pH indicator bromothymol blue was used to monitor the MPH hydrolysis as the associated color changes can be observed by the naked eye. The recMPH was immobilized on a PVDF membrane to establish a dipstick assay format. The assays could detect MPT residues in spiked vegetable samples at the concentration of 1 mg/L without using analytical instrumentation. The test is reusable and stable for up to 3 months in the absence of any preservatives.

  10. Design and synthesis of dual modulators of soluble epoxide hydrolase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    la Buscató, Estel; Blöcher, René; Lamers, Christina; Klingler, Franca-Maria; Hahn, Steffen; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2012-12-13

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex condition which often requires the use of multiple medications as a treatment. The resulting problems of polypharmacy are increase in side effects, drug-drug interactions, and its high economic cost. Development of multitarget compounds is a promising strategy to avoid the complications arising from administration of multiple drugs. Modulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are established agents in the treatment of dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and insulin resistance. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are under evaluation for their use in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, a series of dual sEH/PPAR modulators containing a pyrrole acidic headgroup and a urea pharmacophore were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vitro using recombinant enzyme and cell-based assays. Compounds with different activity profiles were obtained which could be used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Structural Snapshots for Mechanism‐Based Inactivation of a Glycoside Hydrolase by Cyclopropyl Carbasugars

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Christopher; Pengelly, Robert J.; Shamsi Kazem Abadi, Saeideh; Chakladar, Saswati; Draper, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) have attracted considerable attention as targets for therapeutic agents, and thus mechanism‐based inhibitors are of great interest. We report the first structural analysis of a carbocyclic mechanism‐based GH inactivator, the results of which show that the two Michaelis complexes are in 2H3 conformations. We also report the synthesis and reactivity of a fluorinated analogue and the structure of its covalently linked intermediate (flattened 2H3 half‐chair). We conclude that these inactivator reactions mainly involve motion of the pseudo‐anomeric carbon atom, knowledge that should stimulate the design of new transition‐state analogues for use as chemical biology tools. PMID:27783466

  12. A Systems Pharmacology Perspective on the Clinical Development of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors for Pain

    PubMed Central

    Benson, N; Metelkin, E; Demin, O; Li, G L; Nichols, D; van der Graaf, P H

    2014-01-01

    The level of the endocannabinoid anandamide is controlled by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In 2011, PF-04457845, an irreversible inhibitor of FAAH, was progressed to phase II clinical trials for osteoarthritic pain. This article discusses a prospective, integrated systems pharmacology model evaluation of FAAH as a target for pain in humans, using physiologically based pharmacokinetic and systems biology approaches. The model integrated physiological compartments; endocannabinoid production, degradation, and disposition data; PF-04457845 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and cannabinoid receptor CB1-binding kinetics. The modeling identified clear gaps in our understanding and highlighted key risks going forward, in particular relating to whether methods are in place to demonstrate target engagement and pharmacological effect. The value of this modeling exercise will be discussed in detail and in the context of the clinical phase II data, together with recommendations to enable optimal future evaluation of FAAH inhibitors. PMID:24429592

  13. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 Å resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases, but with notable differences such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional co-crystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently-bound transition state mimic, provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily. PMID:22035792

  14. Production of tartaric acid using immobilized recominant cis-epoxysuccinate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Su, Munan; Li, Yanliang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the expression and immobilization of recombinant cis-epoxysuccinate hydrolase (ESH), and its application in the biological production of L-(+)-tartaric acid. E. coli BL21 (DE3)/pET11a-ESH (His) was engineered to express recombinant ESH. The enzyme had an activity of 262 U mg(-1). The recombinant ESH was immobilized on agarose Ni-IDA matrix with metal ion affinity interaction to improve its thermostability and pH stability. The immobilization efficiency and activity yield were 94 and 95%, respectively. The specific catalytic efficiency of immobilized ESH was 104 mg U(-1) h(-1) during the continuous enzymatic production process. ESH with a histidine tag was immobilized and used for the continuous production of L-(+)-tartaric acid.

  15. Recombinant S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase from Thermotoga maritima: cloning, overexpression, characterization, and thermal purification studies.

    PubMed

    Lozada-Ramírez, J D; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; García-Carmona, F

    2013-06-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) encoded by sahase gene is a determinant when catalyzing the reversible conversion of adenosine and homocysteine to S-adenosylhomocysteine in most living organisms. The sahase gene was isolated from the genome of the highly thermostable anaerobic bacteria Thermotoga maritima, and then it was cloned, characterized, overexpressed using Escherichia coli, and partially purified by thermal precipitation. The thermal purification of the recombinant SAHase resulted in changes in the circular dichroism spectra. As a result of this analysis, it was possible to determine the structural changes in the composition of the α-helix and β-sheet content of the recombinant enzyme after purification. Moreover, a predicted secondary structure and 3D structural model was rendered by comparative molecular modeling to further understand the molecular function of this protein including its attractive biotechnological use.

  16. An efficient thermostable organophosphate hydrolase and its application in pesticide decontamination.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Immacolata; Coppolecchia, Rossella; Merone, Luigia; Porzio, Elena; Carusone, Teresa Maria; Mandrich, Luigi; Worek, Franz; Manco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In vitro evolution of enzymes represents a powerful device to evolve new or to improve weak enzymatic functions. In the present work a semi-rational engineering approach has been used to design an efficient and thermostable organophosphate hydrolase, starting from a lactonase scaffold (SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus). In particular, by in vitro evolution of the SsoPox ancillary promiscuous activity, the triple mutant C258L/I261F/W263A has been obtained which, retaining its inherent stability, showed an enhancement of its hydrolytic activity on paraoxon up to 300-fold, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiency up to 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and structural determinants of this enhanced activity were thoroughly investigated and, in order to evaluate its potential biotechnological applications, the mutant was tested in formulations of different solvents (methanol or ethanol) or detergents (SDS or a commercial soap) for the cleaning of pesticide-contaminated surfaces.

  17. Development of a versatile organophosphorous-hydrolase-based assay for organophosphate pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Wang, Yi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mulchandani, P.; Chen, Wilfred

    1999-02-01

    We report a rapid and versatile organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphate pesticides. This assay is based on a substrate-dependant change in pH near the active site of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) which is covalently immobilized to the enzyme. This method employs FITC-labeled enzyme adsorbed to polymethylmethacrylate beads. Analytes were measured using a microbead fluorescence analyzer. The dynamic concentration range for the assay extends from 25 (mu) M to 400 (mu) M for paraoxon with a detection limit of 8 (mu) M. This assay compared favorably to an HPLC method for monitoring the concentration of coumaphos in bioremediation filtrate samples.

  18. Colorimetric assays for quantitative analysis and screening of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Cedrone, F; Bhatnagar, T; Baratti, Jacques C

    2005-12-01

    Focusing on directed evolution to tailor enzymes as usable biocatalysts for fine chemistry, we have studied in detail several colorimetric assays for quantitative analysis of epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity. In particular, two assays have been optimized to characterize variants issued from the directed evolution of the EH from Aspergillus niger. Assays described in this paper are sufficiently reliable for quantitative screening of EH activity in microtiter plates and are low cost alternatives to GC or MS analysis. Moreover, they are usable for various epoxides and not restricted to a type of substrate, such as those amenable to assay by UV absorbancy. They can be used to assay EH activity on any epoxide and to directly assay enantioselectivity when both (R) and (S) substrates are available. The advantages and drawbacks of these two methods to assay EH activity of a large number of natural samples are summarized.

  19. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 deficiency decreases bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sehwan; Kwon, Young-Bae; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Kwon, Jungkee

    2008-06-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 is a component of the ubiquitin proteasome system, which evidences unique biological activities. In this study, we report the pattern of UCH-L1 expression, and show that it regulates bone mineralization in osteogenesis. UCH-L1 was expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and hematopoietic precursor cells of bone marrow in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femora. To further assess the involvement of UCH-L1 in the regulation of bone mineralization, we evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD) rate of gad mice, using the Latheta computed tomography system. Male gad mice evidenced a significantly decreased BMD rate in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femora. These findings of decreased BMD rate in the bones of gad mice may suggest that UCH-L1 function regulates bone mineralization during osteogenesis.

  20. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2011-12-22

    Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases but with notable differences, such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional cocrystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently bound transition state mimic provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

  1. Detoxication strategy of epoxide hydrolase-the basis for a novel threshold for definable genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Oesch, Franz; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Arand, Michael

    2004-01-01

    From our recent work on the three-dimensional structure of epoxide hydrolases we theoretically deduced the likelihood of a two-step catalytic mechanism that we and others have subsequently experimentally confirmed. Analysis of the rate of the two steps by us and by others show that the first step-responsible for removal of the reactive epoxide from the system-works extraordinarily fast (typically three orders of magnitude faster than the second step), sucking up the epoxide like a sponge. Regeneration of the free enzyme (the second step of the catalytic mechanism) is slow. This becomes a toxicological problem only at doses of the epoxide that titrate the enzyme out. Our genotoxicity work shows that indeed this generates a practical threshold below which no genotoxicity is observed. This shows that-contrary to old dogma-practical thresholds exist for definable genotoxic carcinogens.

  2. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  3. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Selaginellin Derivatives from Selaginella tamariscina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Cho, Chong Woon; Tai, Bui Huu; Yang, Seo Young; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-02

    Selaginellin derivatives 1-3 isolated from Selaginella tamariscina were evaluated for their inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to demonstrate their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. All selaginellin derivatives (1-3) inhibited sEH enzymatic activity and PHOME hydrolysis, in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.1, 8.2 ± 2.2, and 4.2 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. We further determined that the derivatives function as non-competitive inhibitors. Moreover, the predicted that binding sites and interaction between 1-3 and sEH were solved by docking simulations. According to quantitative analysis, 1-3 were confirmed to have high content in the roots of S. tamariscina; among them, selaginellin 3 exhibited the highest content of 189.3 ± 0.0 μg/g.

  4. Mutagenesis of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance hydrolysis of the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Gopal, S; Rastogi, V; Ashman, W; Mulbry, W

    2000-12-20

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) is capable of hydrolyzing a wide variety of organophosphorus pesticides and chemical warfare agents. However, the hydrolytic activity of OPH against the warfare agent VX is less than 0.1% relative to its activity against parathion and paraoxon. Based on the crystal structure of OPH and the similarities it shares with acetylcholinesterase, eight OPH mutants were constructed with the goal of increasing OPH activity toward VX. The activities of crude extracts from these mutants were measured using VX, demeton-S methyl, diisopropylfluoro-phosphate, ethyl parathion, paraoxon, and EPN as substrates. One mutant (L136Y) displayed a 33% increase in the relative VX hydrolysis rate compared to wild type enzyme. The other seven mutations resulted in 55-76% decreases in the relative rates of VX hydrolysis. There was no apparent relationship between the hydrolysis rates of VX and the rates of the other organophosphorus compounds tested.

  5. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis.

  6. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-07-19

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  7. Excess α-synuclein worsens disease in mice lacking ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Shimshek, Derya R; Schweizer, Tatjana; Schmid, Peter; van der Putten, P Herman

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in α-synuclein (αSN) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Physical and functional interactions between these two proteins have been described. Whether they act additively in vivo to influence disease has remained controversial. αSN is a presynaptic protein and the major constituent of Lewy inclusions, histopathological hallmarks of PD. UCH-L1 regulates ubiquitin stability in the nervous system and its loss results in neurodegeneration in peripheral and central neurons. Here, we used genetics to show that UCH-L1-deficiency together with excess αSN worsen disease. Double mutant mice show earlier-onset motor deficits, a shorter lifespan and forebrain astrogliosis but the additive disease-worsening effects of UCH-L1-deficiency and excess αSN are not accompanied by microgliosis, ubiquitin pathology or changes in pathological αSN protein levels and species.

  8. Membrane lipids are key modulators of the endocannabinoid-hydrolase FAAH.

    PubMed

    Dainese, Enrico; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Sabatucci, Annalaura; Oddi, Sergio; Angelucci, Clotilde Beatrice; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Giorgino, Toni; Stanley, Nathaniel; Del Carlo, Michele; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Lipid composition is expected to play an important role in modulating membrane enzyme activity, in particular if the substrates are themselves lipid molecules. A paradigmatic case is FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), an enzyme critical in terminating endocannabinoid signalling and an important therapeutic target. In the present study, using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that membrane lipids modulate the structure, subcellular localization and activity of FAAH. We report that the FAAH dimer is stabilized by the lipid bilayer and shows a higher membrane-binding affinity and enzymatic activity within membranes containing both cholesterol and the natural FAAH substrate AEA (anandamide). Additionally, co-localization of cholesterol, AEA and FAAH in mouse neuroblastoma cells suggests a mechanism through which cholesterol increases the substrate accessibility of FAAH.

  9. Structure of Acidothermus cellulolyticus family 74 glycoside hydrolase at 1.82 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Alahuhta, Markus; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    Here, a 1.82 Å resolution X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 74 (GH74) enzyme from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is reported. The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.150 and an R free of 0.196. Structural analysis shows that five related structures have been reported with a secondary-structure similarity of between 75 and 89%. The five similar structures were all either Clostridium thermocellum or Geotrichum sp. M128 GH74 xyloglucanases. Structural analysis indicates that the A. cellulolyticus GH74 enzyme is an endoxyloglucanase, as it lacks a characteristic loop that blocks one end of the active site in exoxyloglucanases. Superimposition with the C. thermocellum GH74 shows that Asp451 and Asp38 are the catalytic residues. PMID:24316824

  10. A formin-nucleated actin aster concentrates cell wall hydrolases for cell fusion in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe O.; Groux, Raphael; Laroche, Thierry; Seitz, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is essential for fertilization. For fusion of walled cells, the cell wall must be degraded at a precise location but maintained in surrounding regions to protect against lysis. In fission yeast cells, the formin Fus1, which nucleates linear actin filaments, is essential for this process. In this paper, we show that this formin organizes a specific actin structure—the actin fusion focus. Structured illumination microscopy and live-cell imaging of Fus1, actin, and type V myosins revealed an aster of actin filaments whose barbed ends are focalized near the plasma membrane. Focalization requires Fus1 and type V myosins and happens asynchronously always in the M cell first. Type V myosins are essential for fusion and concentrate cell wall hydrolases, but not cell wall synthases, at the fusion focus. Thus, the fusion focus focalizes cell wall dissolution within a broader cell wall synthesis zone to shift from cell growth to cell fusion. PMID:25825517

  11. Catalytic scope of the thiamine-dependent multifunctional enzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Loschonsky, Sabrina; Waltzer, Simon; Fraas, Sonja; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kroneck, Peter M H; Müller, Michael

    2014-02-10

    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA). Recombinant CDH showed the same C-C bond-cleavage and C-C bond-formation activities as the native enzyme. Furthermore, we have shown that CDH catalyzes the asymmetric cross-benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes and (decarboxylated) pyruvate (up to quantitative conversion, 92-99 % ee). CDH accepts also hydroxybenzaldehydes and nitrobenzaldehydes; these previously have not (or only in rare cases) been known as substrates of other ThDP-dependent enzymes. On a semipreparative scale, sterically demanding 4-(tert-butyl)benzaldehyde and 2-naphthaldehyde were transformed into the corresponding 2-hydroxy ketone products in high yields. Additionally, certain benzaldehydes with electron withdrawing substituents were identified as potential inhibitors of the ligase activity of CDH.

  12. Inhibiting an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protects CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R

    2015-08-17

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, the mechanism of action of Cif has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. It was demonstrated that the hydrolase activity of Cif is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system was also uncovered. These results provide a basis for targeting the distinctive virulence chemistry of Cif and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking.

  13. Secretory expression of organophosphorus hydrolase OPHC2 in Yarrowia lipolytica Polg.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Yu, Xiaolan; Wang, Fei; Zhai, Chao; Shen, Wei; Yu, Xianhong; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ma, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase OPHC2 was successfully produced by Yarrowia lipolytica and purified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analyses showed a major polypeptide band of 36 kDa. The purified enzyme was optimally active at 65°C and pH 8.5 and also displayed good thermal and pH stability using methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl-O-4-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) as a substrate. Moreover, as Y. lipolytica is a non-pathogenic, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) yeast, the cell culture supernatant can be used directly on vegetables and fruits that are contaminated by organophosphorus pesticides.

  14. Extensive hydrolysis of phosphonates as unexpected behaviour of the known His6-organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lyagin, Ilya V; Andrianova, Mariia S; Efremenko, Elena N

    2016-07-01

    The catalytic activity of hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) in hydrolytic reactions of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and its monoesters and diesters being decomposition products of R-VX was demonstrated for the first time. The catalytic constants of enzyme in such reactions were determined. The mechanism of C-P bond cleavage in the MPA by His6-OPH was proposed. Such reaction was estimated to be carried out with the soluble and nanocapsulated forms of His6-OPH. His6-OPH was demonstrated to be capable of degrading the key organophosphorus components of reaction masses (RMs) that are produced by the chemical detoxification of R-VX and RMs are multi-substrate mixtures for this enzyme. The kinetic model describing the behaviour of His6-OPH in RMs was proposed and was shown to adequately fit experimental points during degradation of the real samples of RMs.

  15. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  16. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  17. Sequence determination and analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, K; Janowski, R; Podkowiński, J; Jaskólski, M

    2001-01-01

    The coding sequences of two S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) were identified in yellow lupine by screenig of a cDNA library. One of them, corresponding to the complete protein, was sequenced and compared with 52 other SAHase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins identified three groups of the enzymes. Group A comprises only bacterial sequences. Group B is subdivided into two subgroups, one of which (B1) is formed by animal sequences. Subgroup B2 consist of two distinct clusters, B2a and B2b. Cluster B2b comprises all known plant sequences, including the yellow lupine enzyme, which are distinguished by a 50-residue insert. Group C is heterogeneous and contains SAHases from Archaea as well as a new class of animal enzymes, distinctly different from those in group B1.

  18. The CHAP domain: a large family of amidases including GSP amidase and peptidoglycan hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alex; Rawlings, Neil D

    2003-05-01

    Cleavage of peptidoglycan plays an important role in bacterial cell division, cell growth and cell lysis. Here, we reveal that several known peptidoglycan amidases fall into a family, which includes many proteins of previously unknown function. The family includes two different peptidoglycan cleavage activities: L-muramoyl-L-alanine amidase and D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity. The family includes the amidase portion of the bifunctional glutathionylspermidine synthase/amidase enzyme from bacteria and pathogenic trypanosomes. The glutathionylspermidine synthase is thought to be a key component of the alternative pathway in trypanosomes for protection from oxygen-radical damage and has been proposed as a potential drug target. The CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases) domain is often found in association with other domains that cleave peptidoglycan. The large number of multifunctional hydrolases suggests that they might act in a cooperative manner to cleave specialized substrates.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Carbaryl Hydrolase from Blastobacter sp. Strain M501

    PubMed Central

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Nagata, Tadahiro

    1993-01-01

    A bacterium capable of hydrolyzing carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate) was isolated from a soil enrichment. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as a Blastobacter sp. and designated strain M501. A carbaryl hydrolase present in this strain was purified to homogeneity by protamine sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and hydrophobic, anion-exchange, gel filtration, and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 166,000 Da and was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 84,000 Da. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme activity were 9.0 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme was not stable at temperatures above 40°C. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed seven N-methylcarbamate insecticides and also exhibited activity against 1-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate. Images PMID:16348989

  20. The importance of nucleoside hydrolase enzyme (NH) in studies to treatment of Leishmania: A review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Villar, José D; Sales, Edijane M

    2017-02-01

    Leishmania is a genus of trypanosomes, which are responsible for leishmaniasis disease, a major trypanosome infection in humans. In recent years, published studies have shown that the search for new drugs for Leishmania treatments has intensified. Through technique modeling it has been possible to develop new compounds, which act as nucleoside hydrolase (NH) inhibitors. The effect of these enzymes is the hydrolysis of certain RNA nucleotides, which include uridine and inosine, necessary for the protozoa to transform certain nucleosides obtained from infected individuals into nucleobases for the preparation of their DNA. The obtention of NH inhibitors is very important to eliminate leishmaniasis disease in infected individuals. The aim of this study is to discuss the research and development of new agents for the treatment of Leishmania, and to stimulate the formulation of new NH inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Kinetic Characterization of Glycoside Hydrolases Using High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC).

    PubMed

    McGregor, Nicholas; Arnal, Gregory; Brumer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    High-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) is a powerful analytical technique enabling the high-resolution separation and sensitive quantification of oligosaccharides. Here, we describe a general method for the determination of glycoside hydrolase kinetics that harnesses the intrinsic power of HPAEC-PAD to simultaneously monitor the release of multiple products under conditions of low substrate conversion. Thus, the ability to track product release under initial-rate conditions with substrate concentrations as low as 5 μM enables the determination of Michaelis-Menten kinetics for glycosidase activities, including hydrolysis and transglycosylation. This technique may also be readily extended to other carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), including polysaccharide lyases, and glycosyl transferases.

  2. Chitosanases from Family 46 of Glycoside Hydrolases: From Proteins to Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Viens, Pascal; Lacombe-Harvey, Marie-Ève; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Chitosanases, enzymes that catalyze the endo-hydrolysis of glycolytic links in chitosan, are the subject of numerous studies as biotechnological tools to generate low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) or chitosan oligosaccharides (CHOS) from native, high molecular weight chitosan. Glycoside hydrolases belonging to family GH46 are among the best-studied chitosanases, with four crystallography-derived structures available and more than forty enzymes studied at the biochemical level. They were also subjected to numerous site-directed mutagenesis studies, unraveling the molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis. This review is focused on the taxonomic distribution of GH46 proteins, their multi-modular character, the structure-function relationships and their biological functions in the host organisms. PMID:26516868

  3. α-Ketoheterocycle-Based Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A summary of the initial discovery and characterization of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and the subsequent advancement of an important class of competitive, reversible, potent, and selective inhibitors is presented. Initially explored using substrate-inspired inhibitors bearing electrophilic carbonyls, the examination of α-ketoheterocyle-based inhibitors of FAAH with the benefit of a unique activity-based protein-profiling (ABPP)-based proteome-wide selectivity assay, a powerful in vivo biomarker-based in vivo screen, and subsequent retrospective X-ray cocrystal structures with the enzyme, is summarized. These efforts defined the impact of the central activating heterocycle and its key substituents, provided key simplifications in the C2 acyl side chain and clear interpretations for the unique role and subsequent optimization of the central activating heterocycle, and established the basis for the recent further conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain, providing potent, long-acting, orally active FAAH inhibitors. PMID:22639704

  4. Chitosanases from Family 46 of Glycoside Hydrolases: From Proteins to Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Viens, Pascal; Lacombe-Harvey, Marie-Ève; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-10-28

    Chitosanases, enzymes that catalyze the endo-hydrolysis of glycolytic links in chitosan, are the subject of numerous studies as biotechnological tools to generate low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) or chitosan oligosaccharides (CHOS) from native, high molecular weight chitosan. Glycoside hydrolases belonging to family GH46 are among the best-studied chitosanases, with four crystallography-derived structures available and more than forty enzymes studied at the biochemical level. They were also subjected to numerous site-directed mutagenesis studies, unraveling the molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis. This review is focused on the taxonomic distribution of GH46 proteins, their multi-modular character, the structure-function relationships and their biological functions in the host organisms.

  5. Gene duplication event in family 12 glycosyl hydrolase from Phytophthora spp.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Stefano; Ospina-Giraldo, M D; Deahl, K L; Baker, C J; Jones, Richard W

    2006-10-01

    A total of 18 paralogs of xyloglucan-specific endoglucanases (EGLs) from the glycosyl hydrolase family 12 were identified and characterized in Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum. These genes encode predicted extracellular enzymes, with sizes ranging from 189 to 435 amino acid residues, that would be capable of hydrolyzing the xyloglucan component of the host cell wall. In two cases, four and six functional copies of these genes were found in tight succession within a region of 5 and 18 kb, respectively. The overall gene copy number and relative organization appeared well conserved between P. sojae and P. ramorum, with apparent synteny in this region of their respective genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Phytophthora endoglucanases of family 12 and other known members of EGL 12, revealed a close relatedness with a fairly conserved gene sub-family containing, among others, sequences from the fungi Emericella desertorum and Aspergillus aculeatus. This is the first report of family 12 EGLs present in plant pathogenic eukaryotes.

  6. Potential anti-obesity effects of a long-acting cocaine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xirong; Deng, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-11-25

    A long-acting cocaine hydrolase, known as CocH3-Fc(M3), engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was tested, in this study, for its potential anti-obesity effects. Mice on a high-fat diet gained significantly less body weight when treated weekly with 1 mg/kg CocH3-Fc(M3) compared to control mice, though their food intake was similar. There is no correlation between the average body weight and the average food intake, which is consistent with the previously reported observation in BChE knockout mice. In addition, molecular modeling was carried out to understand how ghrelin binds with CocH3, showing that ghrelin binds with CocH3 in a similar mode as ghrelin binding with wild-type human BChE. The similar binding structures explains why CocH3 and BChE have similar catalytic activity against ghrelin.

  7. Acetylleucine chloromethyl ketone, an inhibitor of acylpeptide hydrolase, induces apoptosis of U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kambayashi, D; Toda, J; Sano, T; Toyoshima, S; Hojo, H

    1999-09-16

    Acetylleucine chloromethyl ketone (ALCK), an inhibitor of acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH), inhibited the growth of human monoblastic U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Morphology of the ALCK-exposed cells showed typical apoptosis, judging from the nuclear condensation and segmentation. Chromosomal DNA of U937 cells treated with ALCK showed an internucleosomal ladder-like pattern on electrophoresis, being characteristic of apoptosis. Of the other leucine chloromethyl ketone analogues, butyloylleucine chloromethyl ketone (BLCK) induced a weak ladder-like formation but caploylleucine chloromethyl ketone (CLCK)barely did. On the other hand, intracellular ACPH activity of U937 cells was strongly inhibited by culturing with ALCK, moderately with BLCK, and not with CLCK. These findings indicate that the inhibition of ACPH activity leads to apoptosis and suggest that ACPH may play a vital role in eukaryotic cells. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Coordination of oxidized protein hydrolase and the proteasome in the clearance of cytotoxic denatured proteins.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kei; Kiuchi, Yukari; Ando, Ken; Hayakawa, Makio; Kikugawa, Kiyomi

    2004-11-05

    Intracellular accumulation of denatured proteins impairs cellular function. The proteasome is recognized as an enzyme responsible for the effective clearance of those cytotoxic denatured proteins. As another enzyme that participates in the destruction of damaged proteins, we have identified oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH) and found that OPH confers cellular resistance to various kinds of oxidative stress. In this study, we demonstrate the roles of the proteasome and OPH in the clearance of denatured proteins. The inhibition of proteasome activity results in the elevation of protein carbonyls in cells under oxidative stress. On the other hand, cells overexpressing OPH retain higher resistance to oxidative stress, even though the proteasome activity is inhibited. Furthermore, upon inhibition of the proteasome activity, OPH is recruited to a novel organelle termed the aggresome where misfolded or denatured proteins are processed. Thus, OPH and the proteasome coordinately contribute to the clearance of cytotoxic denatured proteins.

  9. Cell wall hydrolases and antibiotics: exploiting synergy to create efficacious new antimicrobial treatments.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Michael; Schuch, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Cell wall hydrolases (CWH) are enzymes that build, remodel and degrade peptidoglycan within bacterial cell walls and serve essential roles in cell-wall metabolism, bacteriophage adsorption and bacteriolysis, environmental niche expansion, as well as eukaryotic innate immune defense against bacterial infection. Some CWHs, when tested as recombinant purified proteins, have been shown to have bactericidal activities both as single agents and in combinations with other antimicrobials, displaying synergies in vitro and potent activities in animal models of infection greater than the single agents alone. We summarize in vitro, in vivo, and mechanistic studies that illustrate ACWH synergy with antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, and other ACWHs, underscoring the overall synergistic potential of the ACWH class. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-α-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  11. Effect of Bleomycin Hydrolase Gene Polymorphism on Late Pulmonary Complications of Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miltényi, Zsófia; Póliska, Szilárd; Bálint, Bálint László; Illés, Árpád

    2016-01-01

    Background Bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH), an enzyme that inactivates bleomycin, may be a potential candidate that could influence pulmonary function in ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastin, dacarbasine)–treated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Patients and Methods We hypothesized that the BLMH gene SNP A1450G (rs1050565) influences BLMH activity and late pulmonary toxicity. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire, lung scintigraphy and spirometry were used to determine lung function. TaqMan genotyping assay was used to determine genotype distribution of 131 previously treated HL patients. Results Significantly more favorable results were seen in the wild-type A/A genotype group than those in the group containing the mutated allele: A/G+G/G in retrospective pulmonary tests of ABVD treated patients. Conclusion Besides limitations of the current study, bleomycin pharmacokinetics should be further evaluated in patients with BLMH variations, hence identify those cases even in the frontline setting, where bleomycin should be omitted and replaced with targeted therapy. PMID:27327270

  12. A glycoside hydrolase family 31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity from Flavobacterium johnsoniae.

    PubMed

    Gozu, Yoshifumi; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Hosoyama, Yuhei; Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 31 enzymes exhibit various substrate specificities, although the majority of members are α-glucosidases. Here, we constructed a heterologous expression system of a GH31 enzyme, Fjoh_4430, from Flavobacterium johnsoniae NBRC 14942, using Escherichia coli, and characterized its enzymatic properties. The enzyme hydrolyzed dextran and pullulan to produce isomaltooligosaccharides and isopanose, respectively. When isomaltose was used as a substrate, the enzyme catalyzed disproportionation to form isomaltooligosaccharides. The enzyme also acted, albeit inefficiently, on p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl α-isomaltoside was the main product of the reaction. In contrast, Fjoh_4430 did not act on trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, maltose, maltotriose, or soluble starch. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Our results indicate that Fjoh_4430 is a novel GH31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity.

  13. Aminoalcohol-Induced Activation of Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) towards Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Yunze; Song, Haitao; Lu, Liangqiu; Liu, Deli; Yuan, Yongze

    2017-01-01

    Aminoalcohols have been addressed as activating buffers for alkaline phosphatase. However, there is no record on the buffer activation regarding organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH). Here we reported the activating effects of aminoalcohols on OPH-catalyzed hydrolysis of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), an analog molecule of G-type warfare agents. The kinetic parametors kcat, Vmax and kcat/Km in the OPH reaction were remarkably increased in the buffers (pH 8.0, 25°C) containing aminoalcohols with C2 between nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) in their structures, including triethanolamine (TEA), diethanolamine, monoethanolamine, 1-amino-2-propanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, and triisopropanolamine. In contrast, much lower or no rate-enhancing effects were observed in the adding of amines, alcohols, amine/alcohol mixtures, or 3-amino-1-propanol (C3 between N and O). The 300 mM TEA further increased DFP-degrading activities of OPH mutants F132Y and L140Y, the previously reported OPH mutants with desirable activities towards DFP. However, the treatment of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) markedly abolished the TEA-induced activation of OPH. The product fluoride effectively inhibited OPH-catalyzed hydrolysis of DFP by a linear mixed inhibition (inhibition constant Ki ~ 3.21 mM), which was partially released by TEA adding at initial or later reaction stage. The obtained results indicate the activation of OPH by aminoalcohol buffers could be attributed to the reduction of fluoride inhibition, which would be beneficial to the hydrolase-based detoxification of organophosphofluoridate. PMID:28085964

  14. Novel β-1,4-Mannanase Belonging to a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family in Aspergillus nidulans*

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Motoyuki; Kaneko, Yuhei; Ishihara, Saaya; Mochizuki, Mai; Sakai, Kiyota; Yamada, Miyuki; Murata, Shunsuke; Itoh, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Sugimura, Yu; Hirano, Tatsuya; Takaya, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi produce β-mannan-degrading β-1,4-mannanases that belong to the glycoside hydrolase 5 (GH5) and GH26 families. Here we identified a novel β-1,4-mannanase (Man134A) that belongs to a new glycoside hydrolase (GH) family (GH134) in Aspergillus nidulans. Blast analysis of the amino acid sequence using the NCBI protein database revealed that this enzyme had no similarity to any sequences and no putative conserved domains. Protein homologs of the enzyme were distributed to limited fungal and bacterial species. Man134A released mannobiose (M2), mannotriose (M3), and mannotetraose (M4) but not mannopentaose (M5) or higher manno-oligosaccharides when galactose-free β-mannan was the substrate from the initial stage of the reaction, suggesting that Man134A preferentially reacts with β-mannan via a unique catalytic mode. Man134A had high catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward mannohexaose (M6) compared with the endo-β-1,4-mannanase Man5C and notably converted M6 to M2, M3, and M4, with M3 being the predominant reaction product. The action of Man5C toward β-mannans was synergistic. The growth phenotype of a Man134A disruptant was poor when β-mannans were the sole carbon source, indicating that Man134A is involved in β-mannan degradation in vivo. These findings indicate a hitherto undiscovered mechanism of β-mannan degradation that is enhanced by the novel β-1,4-mannanase, Man134A, when combined with other mannanolytic enzymes including various endo-β-1,4-mannanases. PMID:26385921

  15. Gene Overexpression and Biochemical Characterization of the Biotechnologically Relevant Chlorogenic Acid Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger▿

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Isabelle; Asther, Michèle; Bourne, Yves; Navarro, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Herweijer, Marga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The full-length gene that encodes the chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger CIRM BRFM 131 was cloned by PCR based on the genome of the strain A. niger CBS 513.88. The complete gene consists of 1,715 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 512 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55,264 Da and an acidic pI of 4.6. The gene was successfully cloned and overexpressed in A. niger to yield 1.25 g liter−1, i.e., 330-fold higher than the production of wild-type strain A. niger CIRM BRFM131. The histidine-tagged recombinant ChlE protein was purified to homogeneity via a single chromatography step, and its main biochemical properties were characterized. The molecular size of the protein checked by mass spectroscopy was 74,553 Da, suggesting the presence of glycosylation. ChlE is assembled in a tetrameric form with several acidic isoforms with pIs of around 4.55 and 5.2. Other characteristics, such as optimal pH and temperature, were found to be similar to those determined for the previously characterized chlorogenic acid hydrolase of A. niger CIRM BRFM 131. However, there was a significant temperature stability difference in favor of the recombinant protein. ChlE exhibits a catalytic efficiency of 12.5 × 106 M−1 s−1 toward chlorogenic acid (CGA), and its ability to release caffeic acid from CGA present in agricultural by-products such as apple marc and coffee pulp was clearly demonstrated, confirming the high potential of this enzyme. PMID:17630312

  16. Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling

    DOE PAGES

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Bergeman, Lai F.; ...

    2017-02-02

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions. Single, purified enzymes from the GH5_4, GH10, and GH11 families of glycoside hydrolases hydrolyzed hemicelluloses as evidenced by the loss ofmore » specific epitopes from the glycome profiles in enzyme-treated plant biomass. The glycome profiling data were further substantiated by oxime-NIMS, which identified hexose products from hydrolysis of cellulose, and pentose-only and mixed hexose-pentose products from the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The GH10 enzyme proved to be reactive with the broadest diversity of xylose-backbone polysaccharide epitopes, but was incapable of reacting with glucose-backbone polysaccharides. In contrast, the GH5 and GH11 enzymes studied here showed the ability to react with both glucose- and xylose-backbone polysaccharides. The identification of enzyme specificity for a wide diversity of polysaccharide structures provided by glycome profiling, and the correlated identification of soluble oligosaccharide hydrolysis products provided by oxime-NIMS, offers a unique combination to understand the hydrolytic capabilities and constraints of individual enzymes as they interact with plant biomass.« less

  17. Pharmacokinetics of OpdA, an organophosphorus hydrolase, in the African Green Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J; Scott, Colin; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith; Ollis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a broad class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. Current pharmacotherapy for acute OP poisoning includes the use of atropine, an oxime, and benzodiazepines. However, even with such therapy, the mortality from these agents are as high as 40%. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is an attractive new potential therapy for acute OP poisoning. A number of bacterial OP hydrolases have been isolated. A promising OP hydrolase is an enzyme isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, named OpdA. OpdA has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of parathion and dichlorvos poisoning. However, pharmacokinetic data have not been obtained. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetics of OpdA in an African Green Monkey model. At a dose of 1.2 mg/kg the half-life of OpdA was approximately 40 minutes, with a mean residence time of 57 minutes. As expected, the half-life did not change with the dose of OpdA given: at doses of 0.15 and 0.45 mg/kg, the half-life of OpdA was 43.1 and 38.9 minutes, respectively. In animals subjected to 5 daily doses of OpdA, the residual activity that was measured 24 hours after each OpdA dose increased 5-fold for the 0.45 mg/kg dose and 11-fold for the 1.2 mg/kg dose. OpdA exhibits pharmacokinetics favorable for the further development as a therapy for acute OP poisoning, particularly for hydrophilic OP pesticides. Future work to increase the half-life of OpdA may be beneficial. PMID:20599794

  18. Long-term consequences of perinatal fatty acid amino hydrolase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Morgan, Daniel; Jew, Chris P; Haskins, Chris; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Leishman, Emma; Spencer, Corinne M; Czyzyk, Traci; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeFatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors show promise as a treatment for anxiety, depression and pain. Here we investigated whether perinatal exposure to URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, alters brain development and affects behaviour in adult mice. Experimental ApproachMouse dams were treated daily from gestational day 10.5 to 16.5 with 1, 3 or 10 mg kg−1 URB597. MS was used to measure a panel of endocannabinoids and related lipid compounds and brain development was assessed at embryonic day 16.5. Separate cohorts of mouse dams were treated with 10 mg kg−1 URB597, from gestational day 10.5 to postnatal day 7, and the adult offspring were assessed with a battery of behavioural tests. Key ResultsPerinatal URB597 exposure elevated anandamide and related N-acyl amides. URB597 did not induce signs of toxicity or affect dam weight gain, neurogenesis or axonal development at embryonic day 16.5. It did lead to subtle behavioural deficits in adult offspring, manifested by reduced cocaine-conditioned preference, increased depressive behaviours and impaired working memory. Anxiety levels, motor function and sensory-motor gating were not significantly altered. Conclusions and ImplicationsTaken together, the present results highlight how exposure to elevated levels of anandamide and related N-acyl amides during brain development can lead to subtle alterations in behaviour in adulthood. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24730060

  19. Human Intestinal Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Catalyzes Prasugrel as a Bioactivation Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Miho; Ogura, Yuji; Hagihara, Katsunobu; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridine antiplatelet prodrug that undergoes rapid hydrolysis in vivo to a thiolactone metabolite by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCE2) during gastrointestinal absorption. The thiolactone metabolite is further converted to a pharmacologically active metabolite by cytochrome P450 isoforms. The aim of the current study was to elucidate hydrolases other than hCE2 involved in the bioactivation step of prasugrel in human intestine. Using size-exclusion column chromatography of a human small intestinal S9 fraction, another peak besides the hCE2 peak was observed to have prasugrel hydrolyzing activity, and this protein was found to have a molecular weight of about 20 kDa. This prasugrel hydrolyzing protein was successfully purified from a monkey small intestinal cytosolic fraction by successive four-step column chromatography and identified as Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Second, we evaluated the enzymatic kinetic parameters for prasugrel hydrolysis using recombinant human RKIP and hCE2 and estimated the contributions of these two hydrolyzing enzymes to the prasugrel hydrolysis reaction in human intestine, which were approximately 40% for hRKIP and 60% for hCE2. Moreover, prasugrel hydrolysis was inhibited by anti-hRKIP antibody and carboxylesterase-specific chemical inhibitor (bis p-nitrophenyl phosphate) by 30% and 60%, respectively. In conclusion, another protein capable of hydrolyzing prasugrel to its thiolactone metabolite was identified as RKIP, and this protein may play a significant role with hCE2 in prasugrel bioactivation in human intestine. RKIP is known to have diverse functions in many intracellular signaling cascades, but this is the first report describing RKIP as a hydrolase involved in drug metabolism.

  20. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E Ann

    2014-04-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) represents the best known amylolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch and related α-glucans. In general, the α-amylase is an enzyme with a broad substrate preference and product specificity. In the sequence-based classification system of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α-amylase family, forms clan GH-H together with families GH70 and GH77 that, however, contain no α-amylase. Within the family GH13, the α-amylase specificity is currently present in several subfamilies, such as GH13_1, 5, 6, 7, 15, 24, 27, 28, 36, 37, and, possibly in a few more that are not yet defined. The α-amylases classified in family GH13 employ a reaction mechanism giving retention of configuration, share 4-7 conserved sequence regions (CSRs) and catalytic machinery, and adopt the (β/α)8-barrel catalytic domain. Although the family GH57 α-amylases also employ the retaining reaction mechanism, they possess their own five CSRs and catalytic machinery, and adopt a (β/α)7-barrel fold. These family GH57 attributes are likely to be characteristic of α-amylases from the family GH119, too. With regard to family GH126, confirmation of the unambiguous presence of the α-amylase specificity may need more biochemical investigation because of an obvious, but unexpected, homology with inverting β-glucan-active hydrolases.

  1. The potential role of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolases in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Fu, Da; Shen, Xi-Zhong

    2010-08-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), capable of removing ubiquitin (Ub) from protein substrates, are involved in numerous biological processes. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) subfamily of DUBs consists of four members: UCH-L1, UCH-L3, UCH37 and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1). UCH-L1 possesses deubiquitinating activity and dimerization-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity, and functions as a mono-ubiquitin stabilizer; UCH-L3 does both deubiquitinating and deneddylating activity, except dimerization or ligase activity, and unlike UCH-L1, can interact with Lys48-linked Ub dimers to protect it from degradation and in the meanwhile to inhibit its hydrolase activity; UCH37 is responsible for the deubiquitinating activity in the 19S proteasome regulatory complex, and as indicated by the recent study, UCH37 is also associated with the human Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (hINO80) in the nucleus and can be activated via transient association of 19S regulatory particle- or proteasome-bound hRpn13 with hINO80; BAP1, binding to the wild-type BRCA1 RING finger domain, is regarded as a tumor suppressor, but for such suppressing activity, as demonstrated otherwise, both deubiquitinating activity and nucleus localization are required. There is growing evidence that UCH enzymes and human malignancies are closely correlated. Previous studies have shown that UCH enzymes play a crucial role in some signalings and cell-cycle regulation. In this review, we provided an insight into the relation between UCH enzymes and oncogenesis.

  2. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin B.; Thompson, David A.; Howard, Laura L.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Weiss, Robert H.

    2002-02-01

    Atherosclerosis, in its myriad incarnations the foremost killer disease in the industrialized world, is characterized by aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells in part as a result of the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the blood vessel wall. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are synthesized from arachidonic acid in a reaction catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 system and are vasoactive substances. Metabolism of these compounds by epoxide hydrolases results in the formation of compounds that affect the vasculature in a pleiotropic manner. As an outgrowth of our observations that urea inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats as well as the findings of other investigators that these compounds possess antiinflammatory actions, we have examined the effect of sEH inhibitors on VSM cell proliferation. We now show that the sEH inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl urea (CDU) inhibits human VSM cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and is associated with a decrease in the level of cyclin D1. In addition, cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid mimics the growth-suppressive activity of CDU; there is no evidence of cellular toxicity or apoptosis in CDU-treated cells when incubated with 20 μM CDU for up to 48 h. These results, in light of the antiinflammatory and antihypertensive properties of these compounds that have been demonstrated already, suggest that the urea class of sEH inhibitors may be useful for therapy for diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis characterized by exuberant VSM cell proliferation and vascular inflammation.

  3. The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B From And Its Complex With Urea-Based Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, B.K.; Morisseau, C.; Garen, G.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.; Niu, C.; Hammock, B.D.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes at least six epoxide hydrolases (EHs A to F). EHs convert epoxides to trans-dihydrodiols and have roles in drug metabolism as well as in the processing of signaling molecules. Herein, we report the crystal structures of unbound Mtb EHB and Mtb EHB bound to a potent, low-nanomolar (IC(50) approximately 19 nM) urea-based inhibitor at 2.1 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homodimer; each monomer adopts the classical alpha/beta hydrolase fold that composes the catalytic domain; there is a cap domain that regulates access to the active site. The catalytic triad, comprising Asp104, His333 and Asp302, protrudes from the catalytic domain into the substrate binding cavity between the two domains. The urea portion of the inhibitor is bound in the catalytic cavity, mimicking, in part, the substrate binding; the two urea nitrogen atoms donate hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic carboxylate of Asp104, and the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety receives hydrogen bonds from the phenolic oxygen atoms of Tyr164 and Tyr272. The phenolic oxygen groups of these two residues provide electrophilic assistance during the epoxide hydrolytic cleavage. Upon inhibitor binding, the binding-site residues undergo subtle structural rearrangement. In particular, the side chain of Ile137 exhibits a rotation of around 120 degrees about its C(alpha)-C(beta) bond in order to accommodate the inhibitor. These findings have not only shed light on the enzyme mechanism but also have opened a path for the development of potent inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles against all Mtb EHs of the alpha/beta type.

  4. Molecular Dynamics of Organophosphorous Hydrolases Bound to the Nerve Agent Soman

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Thereza A.; Osman, Mohamed A.; Straatsma, TP

    2007-07-01

    The organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) from Pseudomonas diminuta is capable of degrading extremely toxic organophosphorous compounds with a high catalytic turnover and broad substrate specificity. The potential use of this enzyme for the detection and detoxification of warfare nerve agents has spurred efforts to engineer mutants of enhanced catalytic activity and modified stereospecificity towards the most toxic forms of organophosphate nerve agents. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type OPH and the complexes between the wild-type and the triple-mutant H254G/H257W/L303R forms and the substrate SpSc-soman have been carried out to enhance our molecular level understanding of its reaction mechanism. Comparison of the three simulations indicate that substrate binding induces conformational changes of the loops near the active site, suggesting an induced-fit mechanism. Likewise, the coordination of the zinc cations in the active site of the enzyme differs between the free enzyme and the complexes. In the absence of the substrate, the more exposed b-zinc is hexa-coordinated and the less exposed a-zinc is penta-coordinated. In the presence of the substrate, the b- zinc atom can be both penta- or hexa-coordinated while the a-zinc atom is tetra-coordinated. In addition, binding energies were calculated from electrostatic properties obtained by solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation combined with a surface area-dependent apolar contribution. The calculations indicate that the binding of SpSc-soman to OPH is driven by nonpolar interactions while electrostatic interactions determine binding specificity. These results provide a qualitative, molecular-level explanation for 2 the three-fold increase in catalytic efficiency of the triple-mutant towards SpSc-soman. Keywords: organophosphorous hydrolase, phosphotriesterase, nerve agents, soman, molecular dynamics, Poisson-Boltzmann equation, continuum electrostatics, metalloprotein.

  5. Structural Relationships in the Lysozyme Superfamily: Significant Evidence for Glycoside Hydrolase Signature Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wohlkönig, Alexandre; Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2010-01-01

    Background Chitin is a polysaccharide that forms the hard, outer shell of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi and some algae. Peptidoglycan is a polymer of sugars and amino acids constituting the cell walls of most bacteria. Enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these cell membrane polymers generally play important roles for protecting plants and animals against infection with insects and pathogens. A particular group of such glycoside hydrolase enzymes share some common features in their three-dimensional structure and in their molecular mechanism, forming the lysozyme superfamily. Results Besides having a similar fold, all known catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolase proteins of lysozyme superfamily (families and subfamilies GH19, GH22, GH23, GH24 and GH46) share in common two structural elements: the central helix of the all-α domain, which invariably contains the catalytic glutamate residue acting as general-acid catalyst, and a β-hairpin pointed towards the substrate binding cleft. The invariant β-hairpin structure is interestingly found to display the highest amino acid conservation in aligned sequences of a given family, thereby allowing to define signature motifs for each GH family. Most of such signature motifs are found to have promising performances for searching sequence databases. Our structural analysis further indicates that the GH motifs participate in enzymatic catalysis essentially by containing the catalytic water positioning residue of inverting mechanism. Conclusions The seven families and subfamilies of the lysozyme superfamily all have in common a β-hairpin structure which displays a family-specific sequence motif. These GH β-hairpin motifs contain potentially important residues for the catalytic activity, thereby suggesting the participation of the GH motif to catalysis and also revealing a common catalytic scheme utilized by enzymes of the lysozyme superfamily. PMID:21085702

  6. Deletion of the murein hydrolase CbpD reduces transformation efficiency in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Biørnstad, Truls Johan; Ohnstad, Hilde Solheim; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2012-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that Streptococcus thermophilus is competent for natural genetic transformation. This property is widespread among streptococci and may include all members of the genus. Upon entering the competent state, streptococci start transcribing a number of competence-specific genes whose products are required for binding, uptake and processing of transforming DNA. In addition to the core competence genes, competent streptococci express a number of accessory genes that are dispensable for transformation in the laboratory, but presumably play an important role under natural conditions. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of these accessory genes encodes a competence-specific murein hydrolase termed CbpD. Experimental evidence indicates that pneumococcal CbpD is part of a predatory mechanism that lyses noncompetent sister cells or members of closely related species in order to release homologous DNA that can be taken up by the competent attacker cells. Competent S. thermophilus LMG18311 cells produce a CbpD-like protein, Stu0039, which might have the same or a similar function. In the present study we have characterized this protein and shown that it is a murein hydrolase with a novel type of cell surface-binding domain. Furthermore, we show that Stu0039 is rapidly inactivated by H(2)O(2) produced during aerobic growth of S. thermophilus. We propose that this inactivation mechanism has evolved for self-protection purposes to prevent extensive autolysis in a competent population. Interestingly, in contrast to pneumococcal CbpD, which does not affect the transformation properties of the producer strain, deletion of Stu0039 reduces the transformability of S. thermophilus.

  7. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M; Wiest, Michelle M; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH(2)-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism.

  8. Dysregulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Lipidomic Profiles in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Pei-an Betty; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; German, J. Bruce; Van Zeeland, Ashley; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Berrettini, Wade; Halmi, Katherine Ann; Schork, Nicholas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kaye, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. AN tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because Epoxide Hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN, and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared to controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304

  9. Combined cocaine hydrolase gene transfer and anti-cocaine vaccine synergistically block cocaine-induced locomotion.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M; Shen, Xiaoyun; Kinsey, Berma; Parks, Robin J; Gao, Yang; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Mice and rats were tested for reduced sensitivity to cocaine-induced hyper-locomotion after pretreatment with anti-cocaine antibody or cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In Balb/c mice, direct i.p. injection of CocH protein (1 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but it suppressed responses to i.p. cocaine up to 80 mg/kg. When CocH was injected i.p. along with a murine cocaine antiserum that also did not affect spontaneous locomotion, there was no response to any cocaine dose. This suppression of locomotor activity required active enzyme, as it was lost after pretreatment with iso-OMPA, a selective BChE inhibitor. Comparable results were obtained in rats that developed high levels of CocH by gene transfer with helper-dependent adenoviral vector, and/or high levels of anti-cocaine antibody by vaccination with norcocaine hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). After these treatments, rats were subjected to a locomotor sensitization paradigm involving a "training phase" with an initial i.p. saline injection on day 1 followed by 8 days of repeated cocaine injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A 15-day rest period then ensued, followed by a final "challenge" cocaine injection. As in mice, the individual treatment interventions reduced cocaine-stimulated hyperactivity to a modest extent, while combined treatment produced a greater reduction during all phases of testing compared to control rats (with only saline pretreatment). Overall, the present results strongly support the view that anti-cocaine vaccine and cocaine hydrolase vector treatments together provide enhanced protection against the stimulatory actions of cocaine in rodents. A similar combination therapy in human cocaine users might provide a robust therapy to help maintain abstinence.

  10. Exploring glycoside hydrolases and accessory proteins from wood decay fungi to enhance sugarcane bagasse saccharification.

    PubMed

    Valadares, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Gonçalves, Dayelle S P O; Segato, Fernando; Romanel, Elisson; Milagres, Adriane M F; Squina, Fabio M; Ferraz, André

    2016-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and accessory proteins are key components for efficient and cost-effective enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in modern, biochemically based biorefineries. Currently, commercialized GHs and accessory proteins are produced by ascomycetes. However, the role of wood decay basidiomycetes proteins in biomass saccharification has not been extensively pursued. Wood decay fungi degrade polysaccharides in highly lignified tissues in natural environments, and are a promising enzyme source for improving enzymatic cocktails that are designed for in vitro lignocellulose conversion. GHs and accessory proteins were produced by representative brown- and white-rot fungi, Laetiporus sulphureus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. Concentrated protein extracts were then used to amend commercial enzymatic cocktails for saccharification of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The main enzymatic activities found in the wood decay fungal protein extracts were attributed to endoglucanases, xylanases and β-glucosidases. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) activities in the L. sulphureus and P. ostreatus extracts were low and nonexistent, respectively. The initial glucan conversion rates were boosted when the wood decay fungal proteins were used to replace half of the enzymes from the commercial cocktails. L. sulphureus proteins increased the glucan conversion levels, with values above those observed for the full load of commercial enzymes. Wood decay fungal proteins also enhanced the xylan conversion efficiency due to their high xylanase activities. Proteomic studies revealed 104 and 45 different proteins in the P. ostreatus and L. sulphureus extracts, respectively. The enhancement of the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated substrates by the modified enzymatic cocktails was attributed to the following protein families: GH5- and GH45-endoglucanases, GH3-β-glucosidases, and GH10-xylanases. The extracellular proteins produced by wood decay fungi provide

  11. Long-term consequences of perinatal fatty acid amino hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Morgan, Daniel; Jew, Chris P; Haskins, Chris; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Leishman, Emma; Spencer, Corinne M; Czyzyk, Traci; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2014-03-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors show promise as a treatment for anxiety, depression and pain. Here we investigated whether perinatal exposure to URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, alters brain development and affects behaviour in adult mice. Mouse dams were treated daily from gestational day 10.5 to 16.5 with 1, 3 or 10 mg kg−1 URB597. MS was used to measure a panel of endocannabinoids and related lipid compounds and brain development w