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Sample records for a4 phosphate ca4p

  1. Water-Soluble Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Orally Delivered via Composite Nanoparticles With Improved Inhibition Effect Toward S180 Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yurun; Wu, Liping; Qiu, Liyan

    2017-10-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is a novel vascular disrupting agent for cancer therapy. However, frequent dosing and negative patient compliance have been encountered over CA4P by injection administration due to its quite short-term action and acute side effects. Therefore, it is significant to develop an oral formulation of CA4P. We established a novel method to prepare CA4P-loaded nanoparticles (CA4P-NPs) for oral administration by combining methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polylactide (PELA) and poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymers. Transport study in vitro was evaluated on Madin-Darby canine kidney cell models, and antitumor effect evaluation in vivo was performed on S180 subcutaneous xenotransplanted tumor models in mice. The highest entrapment efficiency of CA4P-NPs was achieved when the weight ratio of PELA to PLGA was optimized to 1:1. The apparent permeability coefficient of CA4P-NPs was found to be 2.08-fold higher than that of free CA4P in transport study. CA4P-NPs reached an absolute bioavailability of 77.6% with the tumor inhibition ratio of 41.2% that was significantly superior to free CA4P. These results suggest a promising application of this composite nanoparticle for the oral delivery of water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  3. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Abigail F.; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B.; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA4P-treated tumors either by interfering pharmacologically with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis or by genetically depleting TEMs in tumor-bearing mice markedly increased the efficacy of CA4P treatment. These data suggest that TEMs limit VDA-induced tumor injury and represent a potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of VDA-based therapies. PMID:21490397

  4. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2018-03-01

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m -2 . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m -2 additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m -2 , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m -2 seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m -2 , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  6. A single dose of intravenous combretastatin A4-phosphate is reasonably well tolerated and significantly reduces tumour vascularization in canine spontaneous cancers.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; De Spiegelaere, W; Vanderperren, K; Stock, E; Van Brantegem, L; Cornelis, I; Daminet, S; Ni, Y; Vynck, M; Verstraete, G; Smets, P; de Rooster, H

    2018-05-24

    Combretastatin A4-phosphate (CA4P) is an anti-tumour vascular targeting agent which selectively blocks tumour blood flow. Research on CA4P in rodent tumour models is extensive; however, knowledge of its effect on spontaneous cancer is scarce. This study was conducted in canine patients with spontaneous solid tumours. The goal was to assess the toxicity and efficacy of CA4P in various spontaneous tumour types. Eight dogs with spontaneous tumours were enrolled and treated with a single dose of 75 mg m -2 intravenous CA4P. The dogs were screened and monitored before and after injection. Pre- and post-treatment tumour blood flow was analysed in vivo by power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Vessel destruction and tumour necrosis were evaluated by histopathology. Clinically relevant toxicity was limited to one case of temporary tetraparesis; other adverse events were mild. Significant cardiovascular changes were mostly confined to changes in heart rate and cTnI levels. Macroscopic tumour size reduction was evident in 2 dogs. Based on PDUS and CEUS, CA4P induced a significant decrease in vascular index and tumour blood flow. Post-treatment, histopathology revealed a significant increase of necrotic tumoural tissue and a significant reduction in microvessel density in tumoural tissue. Anti-vascular and necrotizing effects of CA4P were documented in a variety of canine spontaneous cancers with only minimal side effects. This is the first study reporting the administration of CA4P to canine cancer patients with in vivo and ex vivo assessment, and a first step toward implementing CA4P in combination therapies in veterinary oncology patients. The use of CA4P in canine patients was approved and registered by the Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) (approval number 0002588, registration number 6518 ID 2F12). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The first study on therapeutic efficacies of a vascular disrupting agent CA4P among primary hepatocellular carcinomas with a full spectrum of differentiation and vascularity: Correlation of MRI-microangiography-histopathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yewei; De Keyzer, Frederik; Wang, Yixing; Wang, Fengna; Feng, Yuanbo; Chen, Feng; Yu, Jie; Liu, Jianjun; Song, Shaoli; Swinnen, Johan; Bormans, Guy; Oyen, Raymond; Huang, Gang; Ni, Yicheng

    2018-04-29

    To better inform the next clinical trials of vascular disrupting agent Combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P) in patients with hepatic malignancies, this preclinical study aimed at evaluating CA4P therapeutic efficacy in rats with primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) of a full spectrum of differentiation and vascularity by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microangiography and histopathology. Ninety-six HCCs were raised in 25 rats by diethylnitrosamine gavage. Tumor growth was monitored by T2-/T1-weighted-MRI (T2WI, T1WI) using a 3.0T scanner. Early vascular response and later intratumoral necrosis were detected by dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) before, 1h and 12h after CA4P iv-administration. In-vivo MRI-findings were validated by postmortem-techniques. Multi-parametric MRI revealed rapid CA4P-induced tumor vascular shutdown within 1h, followed by variable intratumoral necrosis at 12h. Tumor volumes decreased by 10% at 1h (P<0.05), but resumed at 12h. Correlations of semi-quantitative DCE parameter initial-area-under-the-gadolinium-curve (IAUGC30) with histopathology proved partial vascular closure and compensational reopening (P<0.05). The higher grades of vascularity prevented those residual tumor tissues from CA4P-caused ischemic necrosis. By histopathology using a 4-scale cellular-differentiation criteria and a 4-grade tumor-vascularity classification, percentage of CA4P-induced necrosis negatively correlated with HCC differentiation (r=-0.404, P<0.001) and tumor vascularity (r=-0.370, P<0.001). Ordinal-logistic-regression helped to predict early tumor responses to CA4P in terms of tumoral differentiation and vascularity. This study demonstrated that CA4P could induce vascular shutdown in primary HCCs within 1h, resulting in various degrees of tumor necrosis at 12h. MRI as a real-time imaging biomarker may help to define tumor vascularity and differentiation and further to predict CA4P therapeutic outcomes. This

  8. Trapping effect on a small molecular drug with vascular-disrupting agent CA4P in rodent H22 hepatic tumor model: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Yao, Nan; Huang, Dejian; Jiang, Cuihua; Feng, Yuanbo; Li, Yue; Lou, Bin; Peng, Fei; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to verify the trapping effect of combretastatin A-4-phosphate (CA4P) on small molecular drugs in rodent tumors. Mice with H22 hepatocarcinoma were randomized into groups A and B. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI was performed as baseline. Mice in group A were injected with Gd-DTPA and PBS. Mice in group B were injected with Gd-DTPA and CA4P. All mice undergo CE-T1WI at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Enhancing efficacy of the two groups on CE-T1WI was compared with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculated. Concentrations of gadolinium measured by ICP-AES in the tumor were compared between groups. On the early CE-T1WI, tumors were equally enhanced in both groups. On the delayed CE-T1WI, the enhancing effect of group A was weaker than that of group B. The SNR and the concentration of gadolinium within the tumor of group A were lower than that of group B at 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after administration. This study indicates that CA4P could improve the retention of Gd-DTPA in the tumor and MRI allowed dynamically monitoring trapping effects of CA4P on local retention of Gd-DTPA as a small molecular drug.

  9. Sequential Systemic Administrations of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate and Radioiodinated Hypericin Exert Synergistic Targeted Theranostic Effects with Prolonged Survival on SCID Mice Carrying Bifocal Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Guozhi; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Jie; Oyen, Raymond; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Based on the soil-to-seeds principle, we explored the small-molecular sequential dual-targeting theranostic strategy (SMSDTTS) for prolonged survival and imaging detectability in a xenograft tumor model. Materials and Methods: Thirty severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing bilateral radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) subcutaneously were divided into group A of SMSDTTS with sequential intravenous injections of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) and 131I-iodohypericin (131I-Hyp) at a 24 h interval; group B of single targeting control with CA4P and vehicle of 131I-Hyp; and group C of vehicle control (10 mice per group). Tumoricidal events were monitored by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planar gamma scintiscan, and validated by ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology. Besides, 9 mice received sequential intravenous injections of CA4P and 131I-Hyp were subjected to biodistribution analysis at 24, 72 and 120 h. Results: Gamma counting revealed fast clearance of 131I-Hyp from normal organs but intense accumulation in necrotic tumor over 120 h. After only one treatment, significantly prolonged survival (p<0.001) was found in group A compared to group B and C with median survival of 33, 22, and 21 days respectively. Tumor volume on day 15 was 2.0 ± 0.89, 5.66 ± 1.66, and 5.02 ± 1.0 cm3 with tumor doubling time 7.8 ± 2.8, 4.4 ± 0.67, and 4.5 ± 0.5 days respectively. SMSDTTS treated tumors were visualized as hot spots on gamma scintiscans, and necrosis over tumor ratio remained consistently high on MRI, autoradiography and histology. Conclusion: The synergistic antitumor effects, multifocal targetability, simultaneous theranostic property, and good tolerance of the SMSDTTS were evident in this experiment, which warrants further development for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:23423247

  10. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alex; MacDonald, Anita; Cleto, Esmeralda; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; Ramos, Paula Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César

    2017-01-01

    Pinto A, MacDonald A, Cleto E, Almeida MF, Ramos PC, Rocha JC. A case report of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An evidence based approach to nutritional management. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 189-192. The objective was to describe the nutritional management of a 4-year-old child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. A 4-year-old male child, African descent, born from non-consanguineous parents presented with a clinical history of frequent respiratory infections, usually treated with antibiotics. At 30 months of age, G6PD diagnosis was made after eating one portion (40 - 60 g) of fava beans, resulting in severe hemolytic anemia hospitalization for 5 days. Diagnosis was confirmed by G6PD activity measurement. Nutritional counseling was given to avoid dietary oxidative stressors particularly the exclusion of fava beans and accidental ingestion of other similar beans. Dietary intake of high vitamin C containing foods was discouraged and adequate hydration advised. Nutritional management is crucial in preventing acute stress events in patients with G6PD deficiency.

  11. Peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles decreases premature release of physically loaded combretastatin A4 in whole blood and increases its mean residence time and subsequent potency against primary murine breast tumors after IV administration.

    PubMed

    Wakaskar, Rajesh R; Bathena, Sai Praneeth R; Tallapaka, Shailendra B; Ambardekar, Vishakha V; Gautam, Nagsen; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Simet, Samantha M; Curran, Stephen M; Singh, Rakesh K; Dong, Yuxiang; Vetro, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    Determine the feasibility and potential benefit of peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles on the premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in whole blood and subsequent potency against solid tumors. Individual Pluronic F127 polymer micelles (F127 PM) peripherally cross-linked with ethylenediamine at 76% of total PEO blocks (X-F127 PM) were physically loaded with combretastatin A4 (CA4) by the solid dispersion method and compared to CA4 physically loaded in uncross-linked F127 PM, CA4 in DMSO in vitro, or water-soluble CA4 phosphate (CA4P) in vivo. X-F127 PM had similar CA4 loading and aqueous solubility as F127 PM up to 10 mg CA4 / mL at 22.9 wt% and did not aggregate in PBS or 90% (v/v) human serum at 37°C for at least 24 h. In contrast, X-F127 PM decreased the unbound fraction of CA4 in whole blood (fu) and increased the mean plasma residence time and subsequent potency of CA4 against the vascular function and growth of primary murine 4T1 breast tumors over CA4 in F127 PM and water-soluble CA4P after IV administration. Given that decreasing the fu is an indication of decreased drug release, peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles may be a simple approach to decrease premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in the blood and increase subsequent potency in solid tumors.

  12. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  13. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  14. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  18. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  19. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  20. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  1. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  3. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  10. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  11. Kidney and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The serum phosphorus level is maintained through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. The kidney plays a major role in regulation of phosphorus homeostasis by renal tubular reabsorption. Type IIa and type IIc Na+/Pi transporters are important renal Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters, which are expressed in the brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Both are regulated by dietary Pi intake, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone. The expression of type IIa Na+/Pi transporter result from hypophosphatemia quickly. However, type IIc appears to act more slowly. Physiological and pathophysiological alteration in renal Pi reabsorption are related to altered brush border membrane expression/content of the type II Na+/Pi cotransporter. Many studies of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders have led to the identification of novel genes. Two novel Pi regulating genes, PHEX and FGF23, play a role in the pathophysiology of genetic and acquired renal phosphate wasting disorders and studies are underway to define their mechanism on renal Pi regulation. In recent studies, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is reported as another new regulator for Pi reabsorption mechanism. PMID:24459526

  12. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  13. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  14. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  15. Phosphate base laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Izumitani, T.; Tsuru, M.

    1980-12-16

    A phosphate base laser glass comprising 55-70% P2O5, 1-15% Al2O3, 0-25% Li2O, 0-25% Na2O, 0-8% K2O, the total proportion of Li2O, Na2O, and K2O being 10-25%, 0-15% BaO, 0-15% ZnO, 0-15% CaO , 0-15%, sro, 0-15% MgO, the total proportion of BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and MgO being 5-15%, 0-5% Y2O3, 0-5% La2O3, 0-5% GeO2, 0-5% CeO2, 0-3% Nb2O5, 0-3% MnO2, 0-2% Ta2O5, 0-1% Sb2O3, and 0.01-5% Nd2O3, all % being mole %. The phosphate base laser glass of this invention has a high induced emission cross section, a low non-linear refractive index coefficient, and excellent acid resistance and divitrificationmore » resistance. By replacing partially or wholely one or more of LiO2, Na2O, K2O, BaO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, MgO or Al2O3 by LiF, NaF, KF , BaF2ZnF2, CaF2, SrF2, MgF2 or AlF3, respectively, the above properties of the laser glass are further improved.« less

  16. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  17. Phosphate toxicity and vascular mineralization.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification or mineralization is a major complication seen in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with markedly increased morbidity and mortality. Most of the CKD-related vascular mineralization is attributable to abnormal mineral ion metabolism. Elevated serum calcium and phosphate levels, along with increased calcium-phosphorus byproduct, and the use of active vitamin D metabolites are thought to be the predisposing factors for developing vascular mineralization in patients with CKD. Recent experimental studies have shown that vascular mineralization can be suppressed by reducing serum phosphate levels, even in the presence of extremely high serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, indicating that reducing 'phosphate toxicity' should be the important therapeutic priority in CKD patients for minimizing the risk of developing vascular mineralization and the disease progression. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE David E. Tevault JOINT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, INC. Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 August 2017 Approved for public release...21010-5424 Joint Research and Development, Inc.; 4694 Millennium Drive, Suite 105, Belcamp, MD 21017-1552 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  19. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  17. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  18. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  12. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. Intracellular Phosphate Dynamics in Muscle Measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Thomas; Kocevar, Gabriel; Belloi, Amélie; Normand, Gabrielle; Ibarrola, Danielle; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Of the 600–700 mg inorganic phosphate (Pi) removed during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, a maximum of 10% may be extracted from the extracellular space. The origin of the other 90% of removed phosphate is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that the main source of phosphate removed during hemodialysis is the intracellular compartment. Six binephrectomized pigs each underwent one 3-hour hemodialysis session, during which the extracorporeal circulation blood flow was maintained between 100 and 150 ml/min. To determine in vivo phosphate metabolism, we performed phosphorous (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a 1.5-Tesla system and a surface coil placed over the gluteal muscle region. 31P magnetic resonance spectra (repetition time =10 s; echo time =0.35 ms) were acquired every 160 seconds before, during, and after dialysis. During the dialysis sessions, plasma phosphate concentrations decreased rapidly (−30.4 %; P=0.003) and then, plateaued before increasing approximately 30 minutes before the end of the sessions; 16 mmol phosphate was removed in each session. When extracellular phosphate levels plateaued, intracellular Pi content increased significantly (11%; P<0.001). Moreover, βATP decreased significantly (P<0.001); however, calcium levels remained balanced. Results of this study show that intracellular Pi is the source of Pi removed during dialysis. The intracellular Pi increase may reflect cellular stress induced by hemodialysis and/or strong intracellular phosphate regulation. PMID:26561642

  20. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological and medical significance of calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V; Epple, Matthias

    2002-09-02

    The inorganic part of hard tissues (bones and teeth) of mammals consists of calcium phosphate, mainly of apatitic structure. Similarly, most undesired calcifications (i.e. those appearing as a result of various diseases) of mammals also contain calcium phosphate. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood-vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium phosphate. Dental caries result in a replacement of less soluble and hard apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Osteoporosis is a demineralization of bone. Therefore, from a chemical point of view, processes of normal (bone and teeth formation and growth) and pathological (atherosclerosis and dental calculus) calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium phosphate. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis can be considered to be in vivo dissolution of calcium phosphates. On the other hand, because of the chemical similarity with biological calcified tissues, all calcium phosphates are remarkably biocompatible. This property is widely used in medicine for biomaterials that are either entirely made of or coated with calcium phosphate. For example, self-setting bone cements made of calcium phosphates are helpful in bone repair and titanium substitutes covered with a surface layer of calcium phosphates are used for hip-joint endoprostheses and tooth substitutes, to facilitate the growth of bone and thereby raise the mechanical stability. Calcium phosphates have a great biological and medical significance and in this review we give an overview of the current knowledge in this subject.

  4. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  5. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  6. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  7. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  8. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  10. Clinical applicability of inorganic phosphate measurements.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    Many articles have warned of the dangers of too much and/or too little potassium, calcium or sodium in the blood, but phosphate has not received similar attention. Yet, because of its pivotal role in intermediary metabolism and its close solubility product relationship with ionized calcium, disordered phosphate homeostasis can have profound clinical effects.

  11. Calcium Phosphate Transfection of Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Victoria L.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells. PMID:24300106

  12. Calcium phosphate transfection of primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Bernard, Laura P; Dibona, Victoria L; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-11-12

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells.

  13. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2010-10-12

    Autotrophic organisms obtain phosphorus from the environment by secreting alkaline phosphatases that act on esters, resulting in inorganic phosphate that is then taken up. New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  15. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  16. Levels of Phosphate Esters in Spirodela

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1968-01-01

    The duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza was grown in sterile nutrient solutions that contained 1 mm phosphate-32P at various specific activities. In solutions with activities higher than 2 μc per μmole per ml, plant growth was inhibited after a time, and the physical appearance of the plants was affected. The critical level of radiation, at which growth was first affected, corresponded to 5 kilorads. Plants were grown for 9 days (5 generations) in a culture solution containing phosphate at 0.5 μc per μmole per ml (radiation load approx 0.5 kilorads) so that all phosphorus-containing materials in the tissue became uniformly labeled. The various radioactive compounds were extracted, chromatographed, identified, and their radioactivity was measured. From this radioactivity plus the specific activity of the supplied phosphate, the amount of each compound was calculated. The data constitute a complete balance-sheet for phosphorus in a plant tissue. The identity of 98% of the phosphorus in the tissue was determined. Inorganic phosphate (32,700 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the predominant phosphorus-containing compound; RNA (5100 mμmoles P/g fr wt) was the main organic phosphate; phosphatidyl choline (1600 mμmoles/g fr wt) was the main phospholipid, and glucose-6-phosphate (500 mμmoles/g fr wt) the main acid-soluble phosphate ester. Amounts of other phosphorus compounds are given. Images PMID:16656910

  17. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  18. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Goldford, Joshua E.; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecksmore » are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a ‘‘metabolic fossil’’ of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Thus, our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.« less

  19. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  20. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  1. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  3. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  4. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  6. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  7. Phosphate Dependence of Monosaccharide Transport in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Cerbón, Jorge; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    1968-01-01

    Uptake of the monosaccharides d-glucose and d-mannose by Nocardia asteroides and N. brasiliensis is dependent on the presence of an adequate phosphate concentration in the environment. When phosphate is replaced by solutions of sodium chloride or potassium chloride of identical ionic strength, there is no sugar uptake. In the presence of iso-osmolar concentrations of sodium arsenate, there is, however, sugar uptake activation. When nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl d-glucose is used, most of the sugar taken up can be shown to be in the cell at a concentration never exceeding that of the external medium. Phosphate, or arsenate, seems to be essential for the actual migration of the sugar through the cell envelope. The transport of the nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl glucose also requires phosphate, and the transport seems to be of a type that does not require energy. PMID:5640377

  8. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  9. Serum phosphate predicts temporary hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Sam, Amir H; Dhillo, W S; Donaldson, M; Moolla, A; Meeran, K; Tolley, N S; Palazzo, F F

    2011-03-01

    Temporary hypocalcaemia occurs in up to 40% of patients following a total thyroidectomy. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements are currently used to predict post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. However, immediate access to PTH measurement is expensive and not widely available. Serum phosphate responds rapidly to changes in circulating PTH levels, and its measurement is readily available in all hospitals. We evaluated the use of serum phosphate to predict temporary hypocalcaemia post-thyroidectomy. We retrospectively assessed 111 consecutive patients who had total or completion thyroidectomy. Patients had serum calcium and phosphate measured preoperatively, on the evening of surgery (day 0), on the morning of day 1 and over the following week as clinically indicated. Serum PTH was measured on the morning of day 1. Vitamin D levels were measured preoperatively. Seventy-six patients did not develop treatment-demanding hypocalcaemia. In these patients, the mean serum phosphate concentration was lower on the morning of day 1 compared to that on the evening of surgery. Seventeen patients with a vitamin D>25 nmol/l developed hypocalcaemia requiring treatment from day 1 onwards. All had an overnight rise in serum phosphate to >1.44 mmol/l (100% sensitivity and specificity for predicting hypocalcaemia). Twelve patients who had a vitamin D<25 nmol/l also developed hypocalcaemia but had an attenuated rise in serum phosphate. Serum phosphate is a reliable biochemical predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia in patients without vitamin D deficiency. The use of serum phosphate may facilitate safe day 1 discharge of patients undergoing thyroidectomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days. The purpose of this project is to find a better material for adsorption of phosphate from water treatment facilities. The material is made into pellets which allow for adsorption and are easier to remove from the system when capacity is reached.

  11. Blood Organic Phosphate in Hyperthermic Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    fermenting uptake is then responsible for the previously yeast caused an increase in fezrmentation and a observed fall in plasma inorganic phosphate in...Young. The alcoholic 3. Radigan, L. R., and S. Robinson. Effects of ferment of yast- juice . Proc. Roy. Soc. London environmental heat stress and...4. Kenny, R. A. The effect of hot, humid environ- yeast - juice from hexose and phosphate. Proc. ments on the renal function of West Africans. Roy Soc

  12. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.

  14. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils con

  15. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Hudek, L.; Premachandra, D.; Webster, W. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB−) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes

  18. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  19. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-08

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching.

  20. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching. PMID:29292788

  1. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  2. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

    2009-06-01

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  3. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  4. Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jiangchuan; Ding, Xiaolei

    2017-04-28

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

  5. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  6. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O

    2017-09-01

    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  8. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  9. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  10. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-09

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Octacalcium phosphate: osteoconductivity and crystal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, O

    2010-09-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is structurally similar to hydroxyapatite (HA), is a possible precursor of bone apatite crystals. Although disagreement remains as to whether OCP comprises the initial mineral crystals in the early stage of bone mineralization, the results of recent biomaterial studies using synthetic OCP indicate the potential role of OCP as a bone substitute material, owing to its highly osteoconductive and biodegradable characteristics. OCP tends to convert to HA not only in an in vitro environment, but also as an implant in bone defects. Several lines of evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the conversion process could be involved in the stimulatory capacity of OCP for osteoblastic differentiation and osteoclast formation. However, the osteoconductivity of OCP cannot always be secured if an OCP with distinct crystal characteristics is used, because the stoichiometry and microstructure of OCP crystals greatly affect bone-regenerative properties. Osteoconductivity and stimulatory capabilities may be caused by the chemical characteristics of OCP, which allows the release or exchange of calcium and phosphate ions with the surrounding of this salt, and its tendency to grow towards specific crystal faces, which could be a variable of the synthesis condition. This paper reviews the effect of calcium phosphates on osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration, with a special emphasis on OCP, since OCP seems to be performing better than other calcium phosphates in vivo. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Etoposide phosphate: what, why, where, and how?

    PubMed

    Schacter, L

    1996-12-01

    The podophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide are active in the treatment of a variety of malignant conditions. Both represent chemical modifications of podophyllin, an extract of Podophyllum peltatum (May apple, mandrake, Indian apple, wild lemon, or duck's foot), a plant long used as a folk remedy and recognized in the 19th century to be effective in the treatment of cancer. While etoposide is active in the treatment of many cancers and is widely used, it has a number of limitations due to its lack of water solubility. Etoposide phosphate (Etopophos; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide that is rapidly and completely converted to the parent compound after intravenous dosing. The pharmacokinetic profile of etoposide after treatment with either etoposide or etoposide phosphate is identical. Toxicity and clinical activity also are the same. Because etoposide phosphate is water soluble and can be made up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL, however, it can be given as a 5-minute bolus, in high doses in small volumes, and as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, it is not formulated with polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 (Tween; ICI Americas, Wilmington, DE), and ethanol, and does not cause acidosis when given at high doses. The easier-to-use etoposide phosphate represents an improved formulation of etoposide.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient homozygous for the L487F mutation in the human GPI gene. Int J Hematol. 2012 Aug;96(2):263- ... PubMed Xu W, Beutler E. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic ...

  14. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizermore » caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  15. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium...

  17. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained frommore » the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.« less

  18. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  1. Phosphates in some Missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Foord, Eugene E.; Keller, David J.; Keller, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays.The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River. In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspore, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore (“burley”" clay).The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality.The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite. The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water, nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore

  2. Effects of phosphate binders in moderate CKD.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Wheeler, David C; Persky, Martha S; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M; Allison, Matthew A; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-08-01

    Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain.

  3. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  4. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  5. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  9. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Martin, Adrian P.; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5–40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate. PMID:26198420

  10. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  12. Liesegang banding and multiple precipitate formation in cobalt phosphate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Tony; El-Rassy, Houssam; Zaknoun, Farah; Moussa, Zeinab; Sultan, Rabih

    2012-02-01

    We study a cobalt phosphate Liesegang pattern from cobalt(II) and phosphate ions in a 1D tube. The system yields a complex, multi-component pattern. Characterization of the different precipitates by FTIR, SEM and XRD reveals that they are cobalt phosphate polymorphs with different degrees of hydration.

  13. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  3. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain potassium... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P...

  7. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels.

  8. Can features of phosphate toxicity appear in normophosphatemia?

    PubMed Central

    Osuka, Satoko; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is an indispensable nutrient for the formation of nucleic acids and the cell membrane. Adequate phosphate balance is a prerequisite for basic cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell signaling. More than 85% of body phosphate is present in the bones and teeth. The remaining phosphate is distributed in various soft tissues, including skeletal muscle. A tiny amount, around 1% of total body phosphate, is distributed both in the extracellular fluids and within the cells. Impaired phosphate balance can affect the functionality of almost all human systems, including muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the involved patients. Currently, measuring serum phosphate level is the gold standard to estimate the overall phosphate status of the body. Despite the biological and clinical significance of maintaining delicate phosphate balance, serum levels do not always reflect the amount of phosphate uptake and its distribution. This article briefly discusses the potential that some of the early consequences of phosphate toxicity might not be evident from serum phosphate levels. PMID:22219005

  9. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST, WITH THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID PLANT APPEARING IN SUCCESSION DOWN GOVERNMENT GULCH. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  17. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ∼13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs.

  2. Differentiating phosphate-dependent and phosphate-independent systemic phosphate-starvation response networks in Arabidopsis thaliana through the application of phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Ricarda; Pharmawati, Made; Lapis-Gaza, Hazel R.; Rossig, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Lambers, Hans; Finnegan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphite is a less oxidized form of phosphorus than phosphate. Phosphite is considered to be taken up by the plant through phosphate transporters. It can mimic phosphate to some extent, but it is not metabolized into organophosphates. Phosphite could therefore interfere with phosphorus signalling networks. Typical physiological and transcriptional responses to low phosphate availability were investigated and the short-term kinetics of their reversion by phosphite, compared with phosphate, were determined in both roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phosphite treatment resulted in a strong growth arrest. It mimicked phosphate in causing a reduction in leaf anthocyanins and in the expression of a subset of the phosphate-starvation-responsive genes. However, the kinetics of the response were slower than for phosphate, which may be due to discrimination against phosphite by phosphate transporters PHT1;8 and PHT1;9 causing delayed shoot accumulation of phosphite. Transcripts encoding PHT1;7, lipid-remodelling enzymes such as SQD2, and phosphocholine-producing NMT3 were highly responsive to phosphite, suggesting their regulation by a direct phosphate-sensing network. Genes encoding components associated with the ‘PHO regulon’ in plants, such as At4, IPS1, and PHO1;H1, generally responded more slowly to phosphite than to phosphate, except for SPX1 in roots and MIR399d in shoots. Two uncharacterized phosphate-responsive E3 ligase genes, PUB35 and C3HC4, were also highly phosphite responsive. These results show that phosphite is a valuable tool to identify network components directly responsive to phosphate. PMID:25697796

  3. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Intra-arterial Delivery of Doxorubicin-loaded Hollow Gold Nanospheres for Photothermal Ablation—Chemoembolization Therapy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Zhou, Min; Liu, Fengyong; Xiong, Chiyi; Wang, Wanqin; Cao, Qizhen; Wen, Xiaoxia; Robertson, J. David; Ji, Xin; Wang, Y. Andrew; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if combretastatin A-4 phosphate disodium (CA4P) can enhance the tumor uptake of doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded, polyethylene glycol (PEG)–coated hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) mixed with ethiodized oil for improved photothermal ablation (PTA)–chemoembolization therapy (CET) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Materials and Methods Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and performed from February 2014 to April 2015. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 45; age, 12 weeks) were inoculated with N1S1 HCC cells in the liver, and 8 days later, were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. Group 1 rats received intrahepatic arterial injection of PEG-HAuNS and ethiodized oil alone; group 2 received pretreatment with CA4P and injection of PEG-HAuNS and ethiodized oil 5 minutes later. The gold content of tumor and liver tissue at 1 hour or 24 hours after injection was quantified by using neutron activation analysis (n = 5 per time point). Five rats received pretreatment CA4P, PEG-copper 64-HAuNS, and ethiodized oil and underwent micro–positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In a separate study, three groups of six rats with HCC were injected with saline solution (control group); CA4P, Dox-loaded PEG-coated HAuNS (Dox@PEG-HAuNS), and ethiodized oil (CET group); or CA4P, Dox@PEG-HAuNS, ethiodized oil, and near-infrared irradiation (PTA-CET group). Temperature was recorded during laser irradiation. Findings were verified at postmortem histopathologic and/or autoradiographic examination. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. Results PEG-HAuNS uptake in CA4P-pretreated HCC tumors was significantly higher than that in non–CA4P-pretreated tumors at both 1 hour (P < .03) and 24 hours (P < .01). Mean ± standard deviation of tumor-to-liver PEG-HAuNS uptake ratios at 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively, were 5.63 ± 3.09 and 1.68 ± 0.77 in the CA4P

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Intra-arterial Delivery of Doxorubicin-loaded Hollow Gold Nanospheres for Photothermal Ablation-Chemoembolization Therapy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Zhou, Min; Liu, Fengyong; Xiong, Chiyi; Wang, Wanqin; Cao, Qizhen; Wen, Xiaoxia; Robertson, J David; Ji, Xin; Wang, Y Andrew; Gupta, Sanjay; Li, Chun

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To determine if combretastatin A-4 phosphate disodium (CA4P) can enhance the tumor uptake of doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) mixed with ethiodized oil for improved photothermal ablation (PTA)-chemoembolization therapy (CET) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Materials and Methods Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and performed from February 2014 to April 2015. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 45; age, 12 weeks) were inoculated with N1S1 HCC cells in the liver, and 8 days later, were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. Group 1 rats received intrahepatic arterial injection of PEG-HAuNS and ethiodized oil alone; group 2 received pretreatment with CA4P and injection of PEG-HAuNS and ethiodized oil 5 minutes later. The gold content of tumor and liver tissue at 1 hour or 24 hours after injection was quantified by using neutron activation analysis (n = 5 per time point). Five rats received pretreatment CA4P, PEG-copper 64-HAuNS, and ethiodized oil and underwent micro-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In a separate study, three groups of six rats with HCC were injected with saline solution (control group); CA4P, Dox-loaded PEG-coated HAuNS (Dox@PEG-HAuNS), and ethiodized oil (CET group); or CA4P, Dox@PEG-HAuNS, ethiodized oil, and near-infrared irradiation (PTA-CET group). Temperature was recorded during laser irradiation. Findings were verified at postmortem histopathologic and/or autoradiographic examination. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. Results PEG-HAuNS uptake in CA4P-pretreated HCC tumors was significantly higher than that in non-CA4P-pretreated tumors at both 1 hour (P < .03) and 24 hours (P < .01). Mean ± standard deviation of tumor-to-liver PEG-HAuNS uptake ratios at 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively, were 5.63 ± 3.09 and 1.68 ± 0.77 in the CA4P-treated group and 1

  6. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  7. Dual Mechanism of Ion Permeation through VDAC Revealed with Inorganic Phosphate Ions and Phosphate Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a “charged brush” which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms. PMID:25860993

  8. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  9. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ulrich H.; Saam, Henning G.; Schmidt, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of phosphate, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of phosphate on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  10. The pentose phosphate pathway and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Krushna C.; Hay, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival. PMID:25037503

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of phosphate solution extravasation.

    PubMed

    Verykiou, S; Aljefri, K; Gopee, H; Taheri, L; Charlton, F; Langtry, J A; Blasdale, C

    2018-01-01

    Extravasation injuries are common in patients receiving multiple intravenous infusions. Although such injuries are closely associated with the infusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy, they have also been been associated with extravasation of noncytotoxic drugs. Extravasation injuries can lead to skin ulceration and nerve and tendon damage, and therefore to permanent disability. We report three cases of phosphate solution extravasation leading to unusual cutaneous manifestations. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  13. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Janina; Jortzik, Esther; Becker, Katja

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is still one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. The high drug resistance rates of malarial parasites make its eradication difficult and furthermore necessitate the development of new antimalarial drugs. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria and therefore of special interest with regard to drug development. Plasmodium parasites are highly dependent on glucose and very sensitive to oxidative stress; two observations that drew interest to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) with its key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). A central position of the PPP for malaria parasites is supported by the fact that human G6PD deficiency protects to a certain degree from malaria infections. Plasmodium parasites and the human host possess a complete PPP, both of which seem to be important for the parasites. Interestingly, there are major differences between parasite and human G6PD, making the enzyme of Plasmodium a promising target for antimalarial drug design. This review gives an overview of the current state of research on glucose-6-phosphate metabolism in P. falciparum and its impact on malaria infections. Moreover, the unique characteristics of the enzyme G6PD in P. falciparum are discussed, upon which its current status as promising target for drug development is based. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Lombard, Kenneth H.; Hazen, Terry C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Borthen, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  16. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  18. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality. PMID:29089852

  19. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  1. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1(control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6- mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater (p 55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. The purpose of the current research was to examine the feasability of using phosphate based ammend

  2. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  3. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  4. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  5. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  6. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  7. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  8. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  9. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  10. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  11. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be...

  12. 12 CFR 261a.4 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 261a.4 Section 261a.4 Banks and Banking... TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 261a.4 Fees. (a) Copies of... Availability of Information, § 261.10 of this part. (b) No fee. Documents may be furnished without charge where...

  13. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  14. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  15. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  16. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to...

  17. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, {sup 238}U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 226}Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 232}Th in concentrations of 37, 24, and 19 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; and {sup 40}K in concentrations of 19, 3, and 16 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} for the analyzed materials, respectively. The data are discussed and compared with those given inmore » the literature for some other countries in light of permissible radiation dose rates. 11 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  19. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidationmore » of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.« less

  20. Methods for the determination of intracellular levels of ribose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2006-10-31

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway or stem from the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of ribonucleosides. The two major pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, can be readily interconverted by phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is also the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, which is used for both de novo and salvage synthesis of nucleotides. On the other hand, the phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the major source of deoxyribose phosphates. While the destiny of the nucleobase stemming from nucleoside phosphorolysis has been extensively investigated, the fate of the sugar moiety has been somehow neglected. However, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. Nevertheless, many aspects of pentose phosphate metabolism, and the possible involvement of these compounds in a number of cellular processes still remain obscure. The comprehension of the role played by pentose phosphates may be greatly facilitated by the knowledge of their steady-state intracellular levels and of their changes in response to variations of intra- and extracellular signals.

  1. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  2. 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Phosphate Compartmentation in Leaves of Reproductive Soybeans (Glycine max L.) as Affected by Phosphate Nutrition 1

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Michael J.; Blevins, Dale G.; Sierzputowska-Gracz, Hanna

    1989-01-01

    Most leaf phosphorus is remobilized to the seed during reproductive development in soybean. We determined, using 31P-NMR, the effect phosphorus remobilization has on vacuolar inorganic phosphate pool size in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves with respect to phosphorus nutrition and plant development. Phosphate compartmentation between cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools was observed and followed in intact tissue grown hydroponically, at the R2, R4, and R6 growth stages. As phosphorus in the nutrient solution decreased from 0.45 to 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak became less prominent relative to cytoplasmic phosphate and hexose monophosphate peaks. At a nutrient phosphate concentration of 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak was not detectable. At higher levels of nutrient phosphate, as plants progressed from the R2 to the R6 growth stage, the vacuolar phosphate peak was the first to disappear, suggesting that storage phosphate was remobilized to a greater extent than metabolic phosphate. Under suboptimal phosphate nutrition (≤ 0.20 millimolar), the hexose monophosphate and cytoplasmic phosphate peaks declined earlier in reproductive development than when phosphate was present in optimal amounts. Under low phosphate concentrations (0.05 millimolar) cytoplasmic phosphate was greatly reduced. Carbon metabolism was coincidently disrupted under low phosphate nutrition as shown by the appearance of large, prominent starch grains in the leaves. Cytoplasmic phosphate, and leaf carbon metabolism dependent on it, are buffered by vacuolar phosphate until late stages of reproductive growth. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666705

  3. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  4. THE CHEMISTRY OF TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1955-10-27

    The preparation, purification, and chemical properties of THP have been reviewed with emphasis on the hydrolytic reactions. TBP is chemically a very stable compound as evidenced by its thermal stability and resistance to oxidation. The most important reactions are hydrolytic which cleave the butyl or butoxy group and normally produce butyl alcohol together with dibutyl and monobutyl phosphate (DBP and MBP, respectively), and eventually H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Hydrolysis occurs in either the organic phase or the aqueous phase and is first order with respect to the ester. Although the rate in the aqueous phase is much faster than in themore » organic phase, the solubility is so low in aqueous solutions that the organic phase reactions become more important. Acid hydrolysis depends on both the nature of the acid and the concentration. The order with respect to acid concentration is close to one but often less than one. Hydrolysis is catalyzed by both acids and bases. In the latter case, the reaction occurs only in the aqueous phase and normally stops with the formation of dibutyl phosphate. The hydrolysis rate increases greatly as the temperature is raised and an activation energy of the order of 20 kcal is often found. The rates observed in the presence of 5 M acid at 60 and 70 deg C may be high enough to cause some concern in solvent extraction technology, since the product, dibutyl phosphate, has undesirable properties. Impurities produced during manufacture or by thermal degradation during purification such as the pyrophosphates, if present, would yield the same objectionable products as TBP hydrolysis, but at a faster rate. Included in the survey is a selected tabulation of physical properties of TBP. (auth)« less

  5. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40-66 percent PbO, 30-55 percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  6. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-1 - Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(4). 1.401(a)(4)-1 Section 1.401(a)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(a)(4)-1 Nondiscrimination requirements of section 401(a)(4). (a) In general. Section 401(a)(4...). (b) Requirements a plan must satisfy—(1) In general. In order to satisfy section 401(a)(4), a plan...

  8. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  9. Hydrogen bonding between phosphate and amino acid side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, P.; Rodriguez, M. L.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrogen bonds between polar groups of amino acid side chains (histidine, lysine, glutamic acid) and phosphate ions have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Proton transfer from amino acid groups to phosphate occur mainly in case that tribasic and dibasic phosphate ions take part in hydrogen bonds. Conformational changes and continuum are strongly related to the degree of proton transfer and hydration. It is pointed out that the aforementioned properties should be of great significance for nucleation and growth of prostatic and renal stones.

  10. Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott D; Mirzaei, Farzad; Sharifi, Ali; Bearne, Stephen L

    2006-12-08

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) catalyzes the formation of cytidine triphosphate from glutamine, uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine-5'-triphosphate. Inhibitors of CTPS are of interest because of their potential as therapeutic agents. One approach to potent enzyme inhibitors is to use analogues of high energy intermediates formed during the reaction. The CTPS reaction proceeds via the high energy intermediate UTP-4-phosphate (UTP-4-P). Four novel analogues of uridine-4-phosphate (U-4-P) and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate (3-deazaU-4-P) were synthesized in which the labile phosphate ester oxygen was replaced with a methylene and difluoromethylene group. The methylene analogue of U-4-P, compound 1, was prepared by a reaction of the sodium salt of tert-butyl diethylphosphonoacetate with protected, 4-O-activated uridine followed by acetate deprotection and decarboxylation. It was found that this compound undergoes relatively facile dephosphonylation presumably via a metaphosphate intermediate. The difluoromethylene derivative, compound 2, was prepared by electrophilic fluorination of protected 1. This compound was stable and did not undergo dephosphonylation. Synthesis of the methylene analogue of 3-deazaU-4-P, compound 3, was achieved by ribosylation of protected 4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine. Electrophilic fluorination was also employed in the preparation of protected 4-(phosphonodifluoromethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine which was used as the key building block in the synthesis of difluoro derivative 4. These compounds represent the first examples of a nucleoside in which the base has been chemically modified with a methylene or difluormethylenephosphonate group.

  11. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in pot...

  12. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- andmore » compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.« less

  13. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  14. Deposition of phosphate coatings on titanium within scaffold structure.

    PubMed

    Trybuś, Bartłomiej; Zieliński, Andrzej; Beutner, Rene; Seramak, Tomasz; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Existing knowledge about the appearance, thickness, and chemical composition of phosphate coatings on titanium inside porous structures is insufficient. Such knowledge is important for the design and fabrication of porous implants. Metallic scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel powder. Phosphate coatings were deposited on Ti sensors placed either outside the scaffolds or in the holes in the scaffolds. The electrochemically-assisted cathodic deposition of phosphate coatings was performed under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyte containing the calcium and phosphate ions. The phosphate deposits were microscopically investigated; this included the performance of mass weight measurements and chemical analyses of the content of Ca2+ and  24 PO ions after the dissolution of deposits. The thicknesses of the calcium phosphate coatings were about 140 and 200 nm for isolated titanium sensors and 170 and 300 nm for titanium sensors placed inside pores. Deposition of calcium phosphate occurred inside the pores up to 150 mm below the scaffold surface. The deposits were rich in Ca, with a Ca/P ratio ranging from 2 to 2.5. Calcium phosphate coatings can be successfully deposited on a Ti surface inside a model scaffold. An increase in cathodic current results in an increase in coating thickness. Any decrease in the cathodic current inside the porous structure is slight. The calcium phosphate inside the pores has a much higher Ca/P ratio than that of stoichiometric HAp, likely due to a gradual increase in Ca fraction with distance from the surface.

  15. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  16. Allosteric Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Xylulose 5-Phosphate/Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolase (Xfp)

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which catalyzes the conversion of xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P) or fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to acetyl phosphate, plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus neoformans Xfp2 exhibits both substrate cooperativity for all substrates (X5P, F6P, and Pi) and allosteric regulation in the forms of inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), oxaloacetic acid (OAA), and ATP and activation by AMP (K. Glenn, C. Ingram-Smith, and K. S. Smith. Eukaryot Cell 13:657–663, 2014). Allosteric regulation has not been reported previously for the characterized bacterial Xfps. Here, we report the discovery of substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation among bacterial Xfps, specifically the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp. L. plantarum Xfp is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by PEP, OAA, and glyoxylate but unaffected by the presence of ATP or AMP. Glyoxylate is an additional inhibitor to those previously reported for C. neoformans Xfp2. As with C. neoformans Xfp2, PEP and OAA share the same or possess overlapping sites on L. plantarum Xfp. Glyoxylate, which had the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the three inhibitors, binds at a separate site. This study demonstrates that substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation may be common properties among bacterial and eukaryotic Xfp enzymes, yet important differences exist between the enzymes in these two domains. IMPORTANCE Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Although we recently demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus Xfp is subject to substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation, neither phenomenon has been reported for a bacterial Xfp. Here, we report that the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp displays substrate cooperativity and is allosterically inhibited by

  17. Allosteric regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp).

    PubMed

    Glenn, Katie; Smith, Kerry S

    2015-04-01

    Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which catalyzes the conversion of xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P) or fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to acetyl phosphate, plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus neoformans Xfp2 exhibits both substrate cooperativity for all substrates (X5P, F6P, and Pi) and allosteric regulation in the forms of inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), oxaloacetic acid (OAA), and ATP and activation by AMP (K. Glenn, C. Ingram-Smith, and K. S. Smith. Eukaryot Cell 13: 657-663, 2014). Allosteric regulation has not been reported previously for the characterized bacterial Xfps. Here, we report the discovery of substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation among bacterial Xfps, specifically the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp. L. plantarum Xfp is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by PEP, OAA, and glyoxylate but unaffected by the presence of ATP or AMP. Glyoxylate is an additional inhibitor to those previously reported for C. neoformans Xfp2. As with C. neoformans Xfp2, PEP and OAA share the same or possess overlapping sites on L. plantarum Xfp. Glyoxylate, which had the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the three inhibitors, binds at a separate site. This study demonstrates that substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation may be common properties among bacterial and eukaryotic Xfp enzymes, yet important differences exist between the enzymes in these two domains. Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Although we recently demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus Xfp is subject to substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation, neither phenomenon has been reported for a bacterial Xfp. Here, we report that the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp displays substrate cooperativity and is allosterically inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and oxaloacetate

  18. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent - Method validation.

    PubMed

    Wijnker, J J; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, J L M; Veldhuizen, E J A

    2009-01-01

    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever via treated casings. The commercially available Quantichrom™ phosphate assay kit has been evaluated as to whether it can serve as a reliable and low-tech method for routine analysis of casings treated with phosphate. The outcome of this study indicates that this particular assay kit has sufficient sensitivity to qualitatively determine the presence of phosphate in treated casings without interference of naturally occurring phosphate in salt used for brines in which casings are preserved.

  19. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Netanya Y; Stanton, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase. Decreased G6PD activity and, as a result, decreased NADPH level have been associated with diabetic kidney disease, altered nitric oxide production, aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysfunction, and dialysis-associated anemia. Increased G6PD activity is associated with all cancers including kidney cancer. Inherited G6PD deficiency is the most common mutation in the world that is thought to be a relatively mild disorder primarily associated with anemia. Yet, intriguing studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in G6PD-deficient people. It is not known if G6PD-deficient people are at more risk for other diseases. Much more research needs to be done to determine the role of altered G6PD activity (inherited or acquired) in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

  20. Bacterial Phosphating of Mild (Unalloyed) Steel

    PubMed Central

    Volkland, Hans-Peter; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Beat; Repphun, Gernot; Wanner, Oskar; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached −510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at −510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion. PMID:11010888

  1. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  2. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  3. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  4. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  5. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 169a.4 Section 169a.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  6. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to...

  7. Continuous analysis of phosphate in a Greenland shallow ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Vallelonga, Paul; Kettner, Ernesto; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2010-05-01

    Phosphate is an important and sometimes limiting nutrient for primary production in the oceans. Because of deforestation and the use of phosphate as a fertilizer changes in the phosphate cycle have occurred over the last centuries. On longer time scales, sea level changes are thought to have also caused changes in the phosphate cycle. Analyzing phosphate concentrations in ice cores may help to gain important knowledge about those processes. In the present study, we attach a phosphate detection line to an existing continuous flow analysis (CFA) setup for ice core analysis at the University of Copenhagen. The CFA system is optimized for high-resolution measurements of insoluble dust particles, electrolytic melt water conductivity, and the concentrations of ammonium and sodium. For the phosphate analysis we apply a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method that has been successfully applied to determine phosphate concentrations of sea water (Zhang and Chi, 2002). A line of melt water from the CFA melt head (1.01 ml per minute) is combined with a molybdate blue reagent and an ascorbic acid buffer. An uncompleted reaction takes place in five meters of heated mixing coils before the absorption measurement at a wavelength of 710 nanometer takes place in a 2 m long liquid waveguide cell (LWCC) with an inner volume of 0.5 ml. The method has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and we are currently investigating a possible interference from molybdate reacting with silicates that are present in low amounts in the ice. Preliminary analysis of early Holocene samples from the NGRIP ice core show phosphate concentration values of a few ppb. In this study, we will attempt to determine past levels of phosphate in a shallow Northern Greenland firn core with an annual layer thickness of about 20 cm ice equivalent. With a melt speed of 2.5 cm ice per minute our method should allow the resolution of any seasonal variability in phosphate concentrations.

  8. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  9. Plasmodium glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: A potential malaria diagnostic target.

    PubMed

    Krause, Robert G E; Hurdayal, Ramona; Choveaux, David; Przyborski, Jude M; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Goldring, J P Dean

    2017-08-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P. falciparum and P. yoelii proteins were recombinantly expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherischia coli host cells and affinity purified. Two epitopes (CADGFLLIGEKKVSVFA and CAEKDPSQIPWGKCQV) specific to P. falciparum GAPDH and one common to all mammalian malaria species (CKDDTPIYVMGINH) were identified. Antibodies were raised in chickens against the two recombinant proteins and the three epitopes and affinity purified. The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite cytosolic localization for the native protein. The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA formats, consistent with published proteomic data. PfGAPDH shows interesting potential as a malaria diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Mimicking Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick R; Johnson, Sally; Brocklebank, Vicky; Salvatore, Jacobo; Christian, Martin; Kavanagh, David

    2018-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with nonimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Investigations for an underlying cause failed to identify a definitive cause and a putative diagnosis of complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) was made. The patient was started initially on plasma exchange and subsequently eculizumab therapy, after which his kidney function rapidly improved. While on eculizumab therapy, despite adequate complement blockade, he presented 2 more times with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, but without renal involvement. Genetic analysis did not uncover a mutation in any known aHUS gene (CFH, CFI, CFB, C3, CD46, THBD, INF2, and DGKE) and anti-factor H antibodies were undetectable. Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken to identify a cause for the eculizumab resistance. This revealed a pathogenic variant in G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), which was confirmed by functional analysis demonstrating decreased erythrocyte G6PD activity. Eculizumab therapy was withdrawn. Complement-mediated aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion and this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty that remains without an immediately available biomarker for confirmation. This case of G6PD deficiency presented with a phenotype clinically indistinguishable from complement-mediated aHUS. We recommend that G6PD deficiency be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with aHUS and suggest measuring erythrocyte G6PD concentrations in these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Low-phosphate-selected Auxenochlorella protothecoides redirects phosphate to essential pathways while producing more biomass

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Kyndt, John; Chougule, Kapeel; Park, Jeong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Despite the capacity to accumulate ~70% w/w of lipids, commercially produced unicellular green alga A. protothecoides may become compromised due to the high cost of phosphate fertilizers. To address this limitation A. protothecoides was selected for adaptation to conditions of 100× and 5× lower phosphate and peptone, respectively, compared to ‘wild-type media’. The A. protothecoides showed initial signs of adaptation by 45–50 days, and steady state growth at ~100 days. The low phosphate (P)-adapted strain produced up to ~30% greater biomass, while total lipids (~10% w/w) remained about the same, compared to the wild-type strain. Metabolomic analyses indicated that the low P-adapted produced 3.3-fold more saturated palmitic acid (16:0) and 2.2-fold less linolenic acid (18:3), compared to the wild-type strain, resulting in an ~11% increase in caloric value, from 19.5kJ/g for the wild-type strain to 21.6kJ/g for the low P-adapted strain, due to the amounts and composition of certain saturated fatty acids, compared to the wild type strain. Biochemical changes in A. protothecoides adapted to lower phosphate conditions were assessed by comparative RNA-Seq analysis, which yielded 27,279 transcripts. Among them, 2,667 and 15 genes were significantly down- and up-regulated, at >999-fold and >3-fold (adjusted p-value <0.1), respectively. The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cellular processes such as division, growth, and membrane biosynthesis, showed a trend toward down-regulation. At the genomic level, synonymous SNPs and Indels were observed primarily in coding regions, with the 40S ribosomal subunit gene harboring substantial SNPs. Overall, the adapted strain out-performed the wild-type strain by prioritizing the use of its limited phosphate supply for essential biological processes. The low P-adapted A. protothecoides is expected to be more economical to grow over the wild-type strain, based on overall greater productivity and caloric content

  12. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  13. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg -1 , max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg -1 ), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg -1 , min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg -1 ) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg -1 . The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg -1 , with the average of 254 Bq kg -1 , measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P 2 O 5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content. Copyright © 2016

  14. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrientmore » for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal

  15. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-04-04

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formationmore » of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount (< 1 wt.%) of Na{sub 2}S or K{sub 2}S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOX{trademark} residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient

  16. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs P-99...

  2. SAR11 lipid renovation in response to phosphate starvation

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Paul; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Thrash, J. Cameron; White, Angelicque; Zhao, Yanlin; Campbell, Emily O.; Fredricks, Helen F.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton inhabiting oligotrophic ocean gyres actively reduce their phosphorus demand by replacing polar membrane phospholipids with those lacking phosphorus. Although the synthesis of nonphosphorus lipids is well documented in some heterotrophic bacterial lineages, phosphorus-free lipid synthesis in oligotrophic marine chemoheterotrophs has not been directly demonstrated, implying they are disadvantaged in phosphate-deplete ecosystems, relative to phytoplankton. Here, we show the SAR11 clade chemoheterotroph Pelagibacter sp. str. HTCC7211 renovates membrane lipids when phosphate starved by replacing a portion of its phospholipids with monoglucosyl- and glucuronosyl-diacylglycerols and by synthesizing new ornithine lipids. Lipid profiles of cells grown with excess phosphate consisted entirely of phospholipids. Conversely, up to 40% of the total lipids were converted to nonphosphorus lipids when cells were starved for phosphate, or when growing on methylphosphonate. Cells sequentially limited by phosphate and methylphosphonate transformed >75% of their lipids to phosphorus-free analogs. During phosphate starvation, a four-gene cluster was significantly up-regulated that likely encodes the enzymes responsible for lipid renovation. These genes were found in Pelagibacterales strains isolated from a phosphate-deficient ocean gyre, but not in other strains from coastal environments, suggesting alternate lipid synthesis is a specific adaptation to phosphate scarcity. Similar gene clusters are found in the genomes of other marine α-proteobacteria, implying lipid renovation is a common strategy used by heterotrophic cells to reduce their requirement for phosphorus in oligotrophic habitats. PMID:26056292

  3. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium...

  4. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  5. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  6. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 subject to the...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 2. PHOSPHATE UNLOADING BUILDING. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PHOSPHATE UNLOADING BUILDING. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH. THIS STRUCTURE WAS RELOCATED TO THE SOUTH OF ITS ORIGINAL SITE IN 1993 FOR USE AS A DECONTAMINATION FACILITY WITHIN THE BUNKER HILL SUPERFUND SITE. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  15. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  16. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  17. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  18. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a maximum...

  19. The sodium phosphate cotransporter family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase contribute to the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate concentration.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Atsumi; Tatsumi, Sawako; Takahama, Wako; Fujii, Osamu; Nagamoto, Kenta; Kinoshita, Emi; Nomura, Kengo; Ikuta, Kayo; Fujii, Toru; Hanazaki, Ai; Kaneko, Ichiro; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-01

    Circulating inorganic phosphate exhibits a remarkable daily oscillation based on food intake. In humans and rodents, the daily oscillation in response to food intake may be coordinated to control the intestinal absorption, renal excretion, cellular shifts, and extracellular concentration of inorganic phosphate. However, mechanisms regulating the resulting oscillation are unknown. Here we investigated the roles of the sodium phosphate cotransporter SLC34 (Npt2) family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) in the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels. First, it is roughly linked to urinary inorganic phosphate excretion. Second, expression of renal Npt2a and Npt2c, and intestinal Npt2b proteins also exhibit a dynamic daily oscillation. Analyses of Npt2a, Npt2b, and Npt2c knockout mice revealed the importance of renal inorganic phosphate reabsorption and cellular inorganic phosphate shifts in the daily oscillation. Third, experiments in which nicotinamide and a specific Nampt inhibitor (FK866) were administered in the active and rest phases revealed that the Nampt/NAD + system is involved in renal inorganic phosphate excretion. Additionally, for cellular shifts, liver-specific Nampt deletion disturbed the daily oscillation of plasma phosphate during the rest but not the active phase. In systemic Nampt +/- mice, NAD levels were significantly reduced in the liver, kidney, and intestine, and the daily oscillation (active and rest phases) of the plasma phosphate concentration was attenuated. Thus, the Nampt/NAD + system for Npt2 regulation and cellular shifts to tissues such as the liver play an important role in generating daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  1. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  2. Root Architecture Responses: In Search of Phosphate1

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Satomi; Nussaume, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Soil phosphate represents the only source of phosphorus for plants and, consequently, is its entry into the trophic chain. This major component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and energy currency of the cell (ATP) can limit plant growth because of its low mobility in soil. As a result, root responses to low phosphate favor the exploration of the shallower part of the soil, where phosphate tends to be more abundant, a strategy described as topsoil foraging. We will review the diverse developmental strategies that can be observed among plants by detailing the effect of phosphate deficiency on primary and lateral roots. We also discuss the formation of cluster roots: an advanced adaptive strategy to cope with low phosphate availability observed in a limited number of species. Finally, we will put this work into perspective for future research directions. PMID:25341534

  3. Dynamic interplay between uranyl phosphate precipitation, sorption, and phase evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Munasinghe, P. Sumudu; Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Brooks, Scott C.; ...

    2015-04-17

    We report that natural examples demonstrate uranyl-phosphate minerals can maintain extremely low levels of aqueous uranium in groundwaters due to their low solubility. Thus, greater understanding of the geochemical factors leading to uranyl phosphate precipitation may lead to successful application of phosphate-based remediation methods. However, the solubility of uranyl phosphate phases varies over >3 orders of magnitude, with the most soluble phases typically observed in lab experiments. To understand the role of common soil/sediment mineral surfaces in the nucleation and transformation of uranyl phosphate minerals under environmentally relevant conditions, we carried out batch experiments with goethite and mica at pHmore » 6 in mixed electrolyte solutions ranging from 1–800 μM U and 1–800 μM P. All experiments ended with uranium concentrations below the USEPA MCL for U, but with 2–3 orders of magnitude difference in uranium concentrations.« less

  4. Streptococcus mutans serotype c tagatose 6-phosphate pathway gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K; Hansen, J B; Crow, V L; Thomas, T D; Honeyman, A L; Curtiss, R

    1992-01-01

    DNA cloned into Escherichia coli K-12 from a serotype c strain of Streptococcus mutans encodes three enzyme activities for galactose utilization via the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway: galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. The genes coding for the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were located on a 3.28-kb HindIII DNA fragment. Analysis of the tagatose proteins expressed by recombinant plasmids in minicells was used to determine the sizes of the various gene products. Mutagenesis of these plasmids with transposon Tn5 was used to determine the order of the tagatose genes. Tagatose 6-phosphate isomerase appears to be composed of 14- and 19-kDa subunits. The sizes of the kinase and aldolase were found to be 34 and 36 kDa, respectively. These values correspond to those reported previously for the tagatose pathway enzymes in Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis. Images PMID:1328153

  5. A study of phosphate absorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Rees, Nicholas; O'Hare, Dermot

    2009-10-21

    A study of the mechanism of phosphate adsorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate, [Mg(2.25)Fe(0.75)(OH)(6)](CO(3))(0.37).0.65H(2)O over a range of pH has been carried out. The efficiency of the phosphate removal from aqueous solution has been investigated between pH 3-9 and the resulting solid phases have been studied by elemental analysis, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, HRTEM, EDX and solid-state MAS (31)P NMR. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggest that phosphate removal from solution occurs not by anion intercalation of the relevant phosphorous oxyanion (H(2)PO(4)(-) or HPO(4)(2-)) into the LDH but by the precipitation of either an insoluble iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate and/or a magnesium phosphate hydrate.

  6. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphate binder usage in kidney failure patients.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Anthony J

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorus binders are used in patients with kidney failure because of the incomplete removal of phosphorus with dialysis and the inability to exclude phosphorus from the diet. Aluminium was the initial phosphorus binder used, but was replaced by calcium-containing binders because of the development of aluminium toxicity. Calcium-based binders have been the mainstay of therapy for many years, but recent investigations have pointed to increased rates of vascular calcification in patients taking calcium-containing binders. For this reason, alternative agents have been developed. Sevelamer (Renagel), GelTex Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is a polymer which has been found to effectively bind phosphorus. It has resulted in a decreased rate of vascular calcification compared to calcium-containing binders. Other agents under development include lanthanum carbonate and iron-complex preparations. Further research will likely concentrate on identifying binders that bind phosphate more efficiently, have minimal gastrointestinal side effects and provide other benefits to dialysis patients.

  8. Autonomous microfluidic system for phosphate detection.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Christina M; Stitzel, Shannon E; Cleary, John; Slater, Conor; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-02-28

    Miniaturization of analytical devices through the advent of microfluidics and micro total analysis systems is an important step forward for applications such as medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. The development of field-deployable instruments requires that the entire system, including all necessary peripheral components, be miniaturized and packaged in a portable device. A sensor for long-term monitoring of phosphate levels has been developed that incorporates sampling, reagent and waste storage, detection, and wireless communication into a complete, miniaturized system. The device employs a low-power detection and communication system, so the entire instrument can operate autonomously for 7 days on a single rechargeable, 12V battery. In addition, integration of a wireless communication device allows the instrument to be controlled and results to be downloaded remotely. This autonomous system has a limit of detection of 0.3mg/L and a linear dynamic range between 0 and 20mg/L.

  9. The active centre of triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Pamela M.; Waley, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    The molecular weight and amino acid composition of triose phosphate isomerase have been determined. The molecular weight (43000) is lower and the molecular activity (500000) higher than those of most other glycolytic enzymes. Reaction with iodoacetate (studied with radioactive reagent) takes place in two phases: in the first phase, at pH6·3, cysteine and methionine groups react and enzymic activity is unimpaired; in the second phase, histidine reacts and enzymic activity is lost. Photo-oxidation leads to inactivation, with loss of cysteine, of histidine and of tryptophan, but little loss of tyrosine. The mechanism postulated for the action of the enzyme demands the intervention of a group functioning as a base, and the results obtained are consistent with histidine's being the basic group in the active centre. PMID:5969283

  10. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  11. Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedelnikova, M. B.; Komarova, E. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Tolkacheva, T. V.; Khlusov, I. A.; Sheikin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Biocomposites based on bioinert metals or alloys and bioactive calcium phosphate coatings are a promising tendency of the new-generation implants development. In recent years, the approach of regenerative medicine based on the use of biodegradable biomaterials has been priority direction. Such materials are capable of initiating the bone tissue regeneration and replaced by the newly formed bone. The microarc oxidation (MAO) method allows obtaining the bioactive coatings with a porous structure, special functional properties, and modified by the essential elements. During the last decade, the investigations in the field of the nanostructured biocomposites based on bioinert Ti, Zr, Nb and their alloys with a calcium phosphate coatings deposited by the MAO method have been studied in the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk. In this article the possibility to produce the bioactive coatings with high antibacterial and osseoconductive properties due to the introduction in the coatings of Zn, Cu, Ag, La, Si elements and wollastonite CaSiO3 was shown. The high hydrophilic and bioresorbed coatings stimulate the processes of osseointegration of the implant into the bone tissue. A promising direction in the field of the medical material science is a development of the metallic implants with good biomechanical compatibility to the bone, such as Ti-Nb alloys with a low elastic modulus that can be classified as biomaterials of the second generation. Zr and its alloys are promising materials for the dentistry and orthopedic surgery due to their high strength and corrosion resistance. Biodegradable Mg alloys are biomaterials of third generation. Such materials can dissolve with a certain speed in human body and excreted from the body thereby excluding the need for reoperation. This article presents the analysis of the study results of bioactive MAO coatings on Ti, Ti-Nb, Zr-Nb and Mg alloys and their promising medical application.

  12. Laser induced hierarchical calcium phosphate structures.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Anil; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2006-11-01

    The surface properties of biomedical implant materials control the dynamic interactions at tissue-implant interfaces. At such interfaces, if the nanoscale features influence protein interactions, those of the microscale and mesoscale aid cell orientation and provide tissue integration, respectively. It seems imperative that the synthetic materials expected to replace natural hard tissues are engineered to mimic the complexity of their hierarchical assembly. However, the current surface engineering approaches are single scaled. It is demonstrated that using laser surface engineering a controlled multiscale surface can be synthesized for bioactive functions. A systematic organization of bioactive calcium phosphate coating with multiphase composition on Ti-alloy substrate ranging from nano- to mesoscale has been achieved by effectively controlling the thermo physical interactions during laser processing. The morphology of the coating consisted of a periodic arrangement of Ti-rich and Ca-P-deficient star-like phases uniformly distributed inside a Ca-P-rich self-assembled cellular structure with the presence of CaO, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, CaTiO(3), TiO(2) and Ti phase in the coating matrix. The cellular structures ranged in diameter from 2.5 microm to 10 microm as an assembly of cuboid shaped particles of dimensions of approximately 200 nm x 1 microm. The multiscale texture also included nanoscale particles that are the precursors for many of these phases. The rapid cooling associated with the laser processing resulted in formation, organization and controlling dimensions of the Ca-P-rich glassy phase into a micron scale cellular morphology and submicron scale clusters of CaTiO(3) phase inside the cellular structures. The self-assembly of the coating into multiscale structure was influenced by chemical and physical interactions among the multiphases that evolved during laser processing.

  13. Phosphate microaggregates in Archean sediments. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S.; Fan, G. Y.; Arrhenius, G.

    1994-01-01

    Light microscopy conducted on samples of Archean sediments reveals phosphate microaggregates which are suggestive of a biotic origin (Arrhenius et al., 1993). These aggregates, typically 15 micrometers wide and 50 micrometers long, are thought to be the mineral remains of colonies of microorganisms that lived during the late Archean Eon (greater than or equal to 2.5 Ga). Confocal microscopy was used to study the structures of these microaggregates in three dimensions. Samples used in this study are from the lowermost section of drill core taken from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron-Formation (Hamersley Basin) in Western Australia. These sediments are well-preserved and escaped extensive metamorphism typically experienced by older rocks of this type. Two types of samples were prepared for study under the microscope: thin sections (30 micrometers) for transmitted light microscopy to study the general rock texture and to locate the grains of interest, and thick sections (3mm) for confocal microscopy to determine the 3-D structure of the aggregates in situ. The samples have been carefully polished so that they may be directly placed on the oil-immersion lens without the use of a cover slip. No chemical treatments of the surfaces have been performed. The aggregates often form clusters, although isolated aggregates have also been found. The clusters tend to distribute along microbands in the rocks. Electron microprobe analyses show that the phosphate grains and their inclusions, besides calcium and phosphorus, contain no major elements heavier than sodium. The proportions of calcium to phosphorus, the absence of stoichiometric amounts of other cations such as magnesium and iron, as well as optical properties suggest apatite as the mineral form.

  14. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Three Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Microhardness.

    PubMed

    Haghgou, En Hr; Haghgoo, Roza; Roholahi, Mohamad R; Ghorbani, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of casein phos-phopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and three calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and TCP) on increasing the microhardness of human enamel after induction of erosion. A total of 26 healthy human-impacted third molar teeth were chosen, and their hardness measured using a microhardness testing machine. The samples were immersed in Coca Cola (pH = 4.7) for 8 minutes. Then, micro-hardness was measured again, and these samples were randomly divided into four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). (1) Negative control group: Artificial saliva was used for 10 minutes, (2) positive control group: Fluoride gel was used for 10 minutes, (3) β-TCP group: TCP was used for 10 minutes, (4) CCP-ACP group: CCP-ACP was used for 10 minutes. The final microhardness of those samples was measured, and the changes in microhardness of teeth within group and between groups were analyzed using the paired and analysis of variance tests respectively. Results were considered statistically significant at a level of p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in microhard-ness between CPP-ACP group and TCP group (p = 0.368) during the time microhardness significantly dropped after soaking in soda. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP increased the microhardness of teeth. The increase in hardness in the TCP group was higher than in the CPP-ACP group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.36). Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP can affect the remineralization of erosive lesions.

  15. Phosphate recovery through struvite precipitation by CO2 removal: effect of magnesium, phosphate and ammonium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Korchef, Atef; Saidou, Hassidou; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2011-02-15

    In the present study, the precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) using the CO(2) degasification technique is investigated. The precipitation of struvite was done from supersaturated solutions in which precipitation was induced by the increase of the solution supersaturation concomitant with the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide. The effect of magnesium, phosphate and ammonium concentrations on the kinetics and the efficiency of struvite precipitation was measured monitoring the respective concentrations in solution. In all cases struvite precipitated exclusively and the solid was characterized by powder XRD and FTIR. The morphology of the precipitated crystals was examined by scanning electronic microscopy and it was found that it exhibited the typical prismatic pattern of the struvite crystals with sizes in the range between 100 and 300 μm. The increase of magnesium concentration in the supersaturated solutions, resulted for all phosphate concentration tested, in significantly higher phosphate removal efficiency. Moreover, it is interesting to note that in this case the adhesion of the suspended struvite crystals to the reactor walls was reduced suggesting changes in the particle characteristics. The increase of phosphate concentration in the supersaturated solutions, for the magnesium concentrations tested resulted to the reduction of struvite suppression which reached complete suppression of the precipitate formation. Excess of ammonium in solution was found favour struvite precipitation. Contrary to the results found with increasing the magnesium concentration in solution, higher ammonium concentrations resulted to higher adhesion of the precipitated crystallites to the reactor walls. The results of the present work showed that it is possible to recover phosphorus in the form of struvite from wastewater reducing water pollution and at the same time saving valuable resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  17. Intermediate-range order in simple metal-phosphate glasses: The effect of metal cations on the phosphate anion distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Ramey, J.O.

    1997-06-01

    The technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to probe the phosphate anion distribution in a variety of metal phosphate glasses including glasses made with trivalent metal cations (Al, In, Ga, La). The composition of each glass was chosen so that the average phosphate chain length was between 2 and 4 PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The widths of the resulting phosphate anion distributions were determined directly from an analysis of the HPLC chromatograms. Literature values for the free energy of formation of the crystalline metal-orthophosphate compounds with respect to P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and the metal oxide, were compared tomore » the chromatogram widths. It was found that the smaller the energy of formation, the wider the distribution of phosphate chains, and the greater the ease of glass formation.« less

  18. NuA4 Lysine Acetyltransferase Complex Contributes to Phospholipid Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dacquay, Louis; Flint, Annika; Butcher, James; Salem, Danny; Kennedy, Michael; Kaern, Mads; Stintzi, Alain; Baetz, Kristin

    2017-06-07

    Actively proliferating cells constantly monitor and readjust their metabolic pathways to ensure the replenishment of phospholipids necessary for membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , multiple studies have suggested that the lysine acetyltransferase complex NuA4 plays a role in phospholipid homeostasis. For one, NuA4 mutants induce the expression of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase gene, INO1 , which leads to excessive accumulation of inositol, a key metabolite used for phospholipid biosynthesis. Additionally, NuA4 mutants also display negative genetic interactions with sec14-1 ts , a mutant of a lipid-binding gene responsible for phospholipid remodeling of the Golgi. Here, using a combination of genetics and transcriptional profiling, we explore the connections between NuA4, inositol, and Sec14 Surprisingly, we found that NuA4 mutants did not suppress but rather exacerbated the growth defects of sec14-1 ts under inositol-depleted conditions. Transcriptome studies reveal that while loss of the NuA4 subunit EAF1 in sec14-1 ts does derepress INO1 expression, it does not derepress all inositol/choline-responsive phospholipid genes, suggesting that the impact of Eaf1 on phospholipid homeostasis extends beyond inositol biosynthesis. In fact, we find that NuA4 mutants have impaired lipid droplet levels and through genetic and chemical approaches, we determine that the genetic interaction between sec14-1 ts and NuA4 mutants potentially reflects a role for NuA4 in fatty acid biosynthesis. Altogether, our work identifies a new role for NuA4 in phospholipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Dacquay et al.

  19. 40 CFR 418.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate...-process phosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate and ammonium phosphate, except that...

  20. 40 CFR 418.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate...-process phosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate and ammonium phosphate, except that...

  1. Suitability of oral administration of monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, and magnesium phosphate for the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Imke; Grünberg, Walter

    2018-05-01

    Hypophosphatemia is commonly associated with disease and decreased productivity in dairy cows particularly in early lactation. Oral supplementation with phosphate salts is recognized as suitable for the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia. Little information is available about the differences in efficacy between salts used for oral phosphorus supplementation. Comparison of efficacy of oral administration of NaH 2 PO 4 , Na 2 HPO 4 , and MgHPO 4 in treating hypophosphatemia in cattle. 12 healthy dairy cows in the fourth week of lactation in their second to fifth lactation. Randomized clinical study. Phosphorus deficient, hypophosphatemic cows underwent a sham treatment and were afterwards assigned to 1 of 3 treatments-NaH 2 PO 4 , Na 2 HPO 4 , or MgHPO 4 (each provided the equivalent of 60 g of phosphorus). Blood samples were obtained immediately before and repeatedly after treatment. Treatment with NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 resulted in rapid and sustained increases of plasma phosphate concentrations ([Pi]). Significant effects were apparent within 1 hour (NaH 2 PO 4 : P = .0044; Na 2 HPO 4 : P = .0077). Peak increments of plasma [Pi] of 5.33 mg/dL [5.26-5.36] and 4.30 mg/dL [3.59-4.68] (median and interquartile range) were reached after 7 and 6 hours in animals treated with NaPH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 , respectively, whereas treatment with MgHPO 4 led to peak increments 14 hours after treatment (3.19 mg/dL [2.11-4.04]). NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are suitable to rapidly correct hypophosphatemia in cattle. Because of the protracted and weaker effect, MgHPO 4 cannot be recommended for this purpose. Despite important differences in solubility of NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 only small plasma [Pi] differences were observed after treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Genetic Evidence for the Physiological Significance of the d-Tagatose 6-Phosphate Pathway of Lactose and d-Galactose Degradation in Staphylococcus aureus1

    PubMed Central

    Bissett, Donald L.; Anderson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated which were unable to utilize d-galactose or lactose, but which were able to utilize all other carbohydrates tested. Growth of the mutants on a peptone-containing medium was inhibited by d-galactose. Of those mutants selected for further study, one (tagI2) was missing d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, one (tagK3) was missing d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and one (tagA4) was missing d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase. Each of these mutants accumulated the substrate of the missing enzyme intracellularly. Spontaneous revertants of each of the mutants simultaneously regained their ability to utilize d-galactose and lactose, lost their sensitivity to d-galactose, regained the missing enzymatic activities, and no longer accumulated intermediates of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. These data support our previous contention that the physiologically significant route for the metabolism of d-galactose and the d-galactosyl moiety of lactose in S. aureus is the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. Furthermore, a mutant constitutive for all three enzymes of this pathway was isolated, indicating that the products of the tagI, tagK, and tagA genes are under common genetic control. This conclusion was supported by the demonstration that d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase are coordinately induced in the parental strain. PMID:4277494

  3. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda

    2010-03-26

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMSmore » was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L).« less

  4. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  5. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  6. Radiological assessment of Abu-Tartur phosphate, Western Desert Egypt.

    PubMed

    Uosif, M A M; El-Taher, A

    2008-01-01

    The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in sedimentary phosphate rock samples (Abu-Tartur phosphate, Western Desert Egypt) by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3"x 3"). Phosphate and environmental samples were collected from Abu-Tartur phosphate mine and the surrounding region. The results are discussed and compared with the levels in phosphate rocks from different countries. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th series and (40)K are between (14.9 +/- 0.8 and 302.4 +/- 15.2), (2.6 +/- 1.0 and 154.9 +/- 7.8) and (10.0 +/- 0.5 and 368.4 +/- 18.4) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The Abu-Tartur phosphate deposit was found to have lower activity than many others exploited phosphate sedimentary deposits, with its average total annual dose being only 114.6 microSv y(-1). This value is about 11.46% of the 1.0 mSv y(-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60, 1990) as the maximum annual dose to members of the public.

  7. Phosphate limitation induces sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Vagner Alexandre; Ferreira da Cruz, Angela; Nunis da Silva, Antonio; Corrêa, Luiz Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The cell cycle is controlled by numerous mechanisms that ensure correct cell division. If growth is not possible, cells may eventually promote autophagy, differentiation, or apoptosis. Microorganisms interrupt their growth and differentiate under general nutrient limitation. We analyzed the effects of phosphate limitation on growth and sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii using kinetic data, phase-contrast, and laser confocal microscopy. Under phosphate limitation, zoospores germinated and subsequently formed 2-4 spores, regardless of the nutritional content of the medium. The removal of phosphate at any time during growth induced sporulation of vegetative cells. If phosphate was later added to the same cultures, growth was restored if the cells were not yet committed to sporulation. The cycles of addition and withdrawal of phosphate from growth medium resulted in cycles of germination-growth, germination-sporulation, or germination-growth-sporulation. These results show that phosphate limitation is sufficient to interrupt cell growth and to induce complete sporulation in B. emersonii. We concluded that the determination of growth or sporulation in this microorganism is linked to phosphate availability when other nutrients are not limiting. This result provides a new tool for the dissection of nutrient-energy and signal pathways in cell growth and differentiation.

  8. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors.

    PubMed

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce

    2018-02-10

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  9. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Christopher S.; Coldrick, Zachary; Donoghue, Jack Marsden

    2018-01-01

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N-allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP. PMID:29439386

  10. Effect of Tenapanor on Serum Phosphate in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David P.; Leonsson-Zachrisson, Maria; Åstrand, Magnus; Johansson, Susanne; Knutsson, Mikael; Langkilde, Anna Maria; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients with CKD stage 5D and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend lowering serum phosphate concentrations toward normal. Tenapanor is a minimally absorbed small molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 that functions in the gut to reduce sodium and phosphate absorption. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of tenapanor on serum phosphate concentration in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis. After a 1- to 3-week washout of phosphate binders, we randomly assigned 162 eligible patients (serum phosphate =6.0 to <10.0 mg/dl and a 1.5-mg/dl increase from before washout) to one of six tenapanor regimens (3 or 30 mg once daily or 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was change in serum phosphate concentration from baseline (randomization) to end of treatment. In total, 115 patients (71%) completed the study. Mean serum phosphate concentrations at baseline (after washout) were 7.32–7.92 mg/dl for tenapanor groups and 7.87 mg/dl for the placebo group. Tenapanor provided dose-dependent reductions in serum phosphate level from baseline (least squares mean change: tenapanor =0.47–1.98 mg/dl; placebo =0.54 mg/dl; P=0.01). Diarrhea was the most common adverse event (tenapanor =18%–68%; placebo =12%) and frequent at the highest tenapanor doses. In conclusion, tenapanor treatment resulted in statistically significant, dose-dependent reductions in serum phosphate concentrations in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis. Additional studies are required to clarify the optimal dosing of tenapanor in patients with CKD-related hyperphosphatemia. PMID:28159782

  11. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  12. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from semiconductor wastewater.

    PubMed

    Warmadewanthi, B; Liu, J C

    2009-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) are widely used in semiconductor industry for etching and rinsing purposes. Consequently, significant amount of wastewater containing phosphate and fluoride is generated. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from the semiconductor wastewater, containing 936 mg/L of fluoride, 118 mg/L of phosphate, 640 mg/L of sulfate, and 26.7 mg/L of ammonia, was studied. Chemical precipitation and flotation reactions were utilized in the two-stage treatment processes. The first-stage reaction involved the addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) to induce selective precipitation of magnesium phosphate. The optimal condition was pH 10 and molar ratio, [Mg(2 + )]/[(PO(4) (3-))], of 3:1, and 66.2% of phosphate was removed and recovered as bobierrite (Mg(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O). No reaction was found between MgCl(2) and fluoride. Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) was used in the second-stage reaction to induce precipitation of calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate. The optimum molar ratio, [Ca(2 + )]/[F(-)], was 0.7 at pH 10, and residual fluoride concentration of 10.7 mg/L and phosphate concentration of lower than 0.5 mg/L was obtained. Thermodynamic equilibrium was modeled with PHREEQC and compared with experimental results. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was an effective collector for subsequent solid-liquid removal via dispersed air flotation (DiAF). The study demonstrated that phosphate can be selectively recovered from the wastewater. Potential benefits include recovery of phosphate for reuse, lower required dosage of calcium for fluoride removal, and less amount of CaF(2) sludge.

  13. Properties of Powder Composite Polyhydroxybutyrate-Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvecky, L.; Stulajterova, R.; Giretova, M.; Faberova, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prepared powder polyhydroxybutyrate - chitosan - calcium phosphate composite system with 10 wt % of biopolymer component can be utilized as biocement which is characterized by the prolonged setting time and achieves wash out resistance after 5 minutes of setting. The origin powder tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite agglomerates were coated with the thin layer of biopolymer which decelerates both the transformation rate of calcium phosphates and hardening process of composites. The porosity of hardened composite was around 62% and the compressive strength (8 MPa) was close to trabecular bone. No cytotoxicity of composite resulted from live/dead staining of osteoblasts cultured on substrates.

  14. Effect of Phosphate on the Oxidation of Hydroxysulfate Green Rust

    SciTech Connect

    Benali, Omar; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Genin, Jean-Marie R.

    During Hydroxysulfate green rust GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2}) oxidation, lepidocrocite and goethite were formed. The oxidation of GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the presence of phosphate ions, also involved the formation of poorly crystallized lepidocrocite but not that of goethite. The dissolution of lepidocrocite is inhibited by adsorption of phosphate ions as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of the poorly crystallized protective layer against corrosion is effectively due to the phosphate ions which adsorb on the surface of lepidocrocite, and prevents it to turn into a well crystallized oxide.

  15. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    PubMed

    De Rose, Aldo Franco; Mantica, Guglielmo; Tosi, Mattia; Bovio, Giulio; Terrone, Carlo

    2016-10-05

    Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  16. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall be... on the life of the veteran shall remain at a constant level until the principal amount of the...

  17. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  18. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  19. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  20. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  1. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.4 Religious activities. No funds provided directly from SAMHSA or the relevant State or local government to organizations participating in applicable programs may be expended...

  2. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  3. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  4. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of Health...

  5. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Young, M.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    A seasonal analysis assesing variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system, California. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen in DIP (exchange of oxygen between phosphate and environmental water) at surface water temperatures occurs only as a result of enzyme-mediated, biological reactions. Accordingly, if phospate demand is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopic composition of DIP (?? 18Op) will reflect the isotopic composition of the source of phosphate to the system. Such is the case for the North San Francisco Bay, an anthropogenically impacted estuary with high surface water phosphate concentrations. Variability in the ?? 18Op in the bay is primarily controlled by mixing of water masses with different ??18Op signatures. The ??18Op values range from 11.4??? at the Sacramento River to 20.1??? at the Golden Gate. Deviations from the two-component mixing model for the North Bay reflect additional, local sources of phosphate to the estuary that vary seasonally. Most notably, deviations from the mixing model occur at the confluence of a major river into the bay during periods of high river discharge and near wastewater treatment outlets. These data suggest that ??18Op can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine systems. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Guesto-Barnak, Donna

    1992-01-01

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  7. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  8. Renal osteodystrophy, phosphate homeostasis, and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Keith A; Saab, Georges; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard

    2007-01-01

    New advances in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) change the perspective from which many of its features and treatment are viewed. Calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D have been shown to be important determinants of survival associated with kidney diseases. Now ROD dependent and independent of these factors is linked to survival more than just skeletal frailty. This review focuses on recent discoveries that renal injury impairs skeletal anabolism decreasing the osteoblast compartment of the skeleton and consequent bone formation. This discovery and the discovery that PTH regulates the hematopoietic stem cell niche alters our view of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) from that of a disease to that of a necessary adaptation to renal injury that goes awry. Furthermore, ROD is shown to be an underappreciated factor in the level of the serum phosphorus in CKD. The discovery and the elucidation of the mechanism of hyperphosphatemia as a cardiovascular risk in CKD change the view of ROD. It is now recognized as more than a skeletal disorder, it is an important component of the mortality of CKD that can be treated.

  9. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Joseph S.; Sapak, David L.; Ward, Julia M.

    1990-01-01

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis): the amounts of Li.sub.2 O and Na.sub.2 O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK and .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 can be replaced by other lasing species.

  10. Antiferroelectric films of deuterated betaine phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thin films of partially deuterated betaine phosphate have been grown by the evaporation on Al2O3(110) and NdGaO3(001) substrates with a preliminarily deposited structure of interdigitated electrodes. The grown films have a polycrystalline block structure with characteristic dimensions of blocks of the order of 0.1-1.5 mm. The degree of deuteration of the films D varies in the range of 20-50%. It has been found that, at the antiferroelectric phase transition temperature T c afe = 100-114 K, the fabricated structures exhibit an anomaly of the electrical capacitance C, which is not accompanied by a change in the dielectric loss tangent tanδ. The strong-signal dielectric response is characterized by the appearance of a ferroelectric nonlinearity at temperatures T > T c afe , which is transformed into an antiferroelectric nonlinearity at T < T c afe . With a further decrease in the temperature, double dielectric hysteresis loops appear in the antiferroelectric phase. The dielectric properties of the films have been described within the framework of the Landau-type thermodynamic model taking into account the biquadratic coupling ξ P 2η2 between the polar order parameter P and the nonpolar order parameter η with a positive coefficient ξ. The E-T phase diagram has been constructed.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  12. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, Dileep

    1997-07-01

    We have investigated mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) using four surrogate waste streams that represent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ash, soil, and two secondary waste streams resulting from the destruction of DOE`s high-organic wastes by the DETOX{sup SM} Wet Oxidation Process. Hg content in the waste streams was 0.1 to 0.5 wt.% (added as soluble salts). Sulfidation of Hg and its concurrent stabilization in the CBPC matrix yielded highly nonleachable waste forms. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure showed that leaching levels were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s regulatory limits. The American Nuclear Society`s ANSmore » 16.1 immersion test also gave very high leaching indices, indicating excellent retention of the contaminants. In particular, leaching levels of Hg in the ash waste form were below the measurement detection limit in neutral and alkaline water, negligibly low but measureable in the first 72 h of leaching in acid water, and below the detection limit after that. These studies indicate that the waste forms are stable in a wide range of chemical environments during storage. 9 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  13. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  14. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].

    PubMed

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  15. Computer modeling of lithium phosphate and thiophosphate electrolyte materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, N. A. W.; Lepley, N. D.; Du, Yaojun A.

    In this work, several lithium phosphate and thiophosphate materials are modeled to determine their optimized lattice structures, their total energies, and their electronic structures. Included in this study are materials characterized by isolated phosphate and thiophosphate groups - Li 3PS 4 and Li 3PO 4 and materials characterized by phosphate and thiophosphate dimers - Li 4P 2S 6 and Li 4P 2O 6 and Li 4P 2S 7 and Li 4P 2O 7. In addition, the superionic conducting material Li 7P 3S 11 is also modeled as are recently discovered crystalline argyrodite materials Li 7PS 6 and Li 6PS 5Cl. A comparison of Li ion vacancy migration in Li 4P 2S 7 and Li 4P 2O 7 shows the migration energy barriers in the thiophosphate to be smaller (less than one-half) than in the phosphate.

  16. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  17. Structural Isosteres of Phosphate Groups in the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuezhou; Borrel, Alexandre; Ghemtio, Leo; Regad, Leslie; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Xhaard, Henri

    2017-03-27

    We developed a computational workflow to mine the Protein Data Bank for isosteric replacements that exist in different binding site environments but have not necessarily been identified and exploited in compound design. Taking phosphate groups as examples, the workflow was used to construct 157 data sets, each composed of a reference protein complexed with AMP, ADP, ATP, or pyrophosphate as well other ligands. Phosphate binding sites appear to have a high hydration content and large size, resulting in U-shaped bioactive conformations recurrently found across unrelated protein families. A total of 16 413 replacements were extracted, filtered for a significant structural overlap on phosphate groups, and sorted according to their SMILES codes. In addition to the classical isosteres of phosphate, such as carboxylate, sulfone, or sulfonamide, unexpected replacements that do not conserve charge or polarity, such as aryl, aliphatic, or positively charged groups, were found.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency An estimated 400 million ...

  19. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  20. Measuring phosphate with an inexpensive, easy to build photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Weijs, Steven; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a course for first year students to get hands-on experience with measuring in the environment, a photometric system for measuring phosphate concentration was developed. The system makes use of a single LED as a light source, a Si photodiode-based light to frequency conversion IC and an Arduino electronic card as acquisition system. The instrument is designed as an easy to assemble system and assembling and alignment is part of the exercise. The phosphate measurement is based on the formation of phosphor-molybdate complex which is eventually reduced to a blue component. The absorbance at 710 nm of a phosphate-containing fluid with added indicator is then measured and calibrated with a known solution. The initial test has demonstrated the ability of the instrument to detect phosphates in tap water. Other components as nitrates or chlorophyll could be easily measured with the instrument using LED emitting at the respective wavelengths.

  1. The international phosphate resource data base; development and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, Nancy J.

    1983-01-01

    The IPRDB (International Phosphate Resource Data Base) was developed to provide a single computerized source of geologic information about phosphate deposits worldwide. It is expected that this data base will encourage more thorough scientific analyses of phosphate deposits and assessments of undiscovered phosphate resources, and that methods of data collection and storage will be streamlined. Because the database was intended to serve as a repository for diverse and detailed data, a large amount of the early research effort was devoted to the design and development of the system. To date (1982), the file remains incomplete. All development work and file maintenance work on IPRDB was suspended as of October 1, 1982; this paper is intended to document the steps taken up to that date. The computer programs listed in the appendices were written specifically for the IPRDB phosbib file and are of limited future use.

  2. An infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of natural zinc phosphates.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L

    2004-06-01

    Zinc phosphates are important in the study of the phosphatisation of metals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterise the zinc phosphate minerals. The minerals may be characterised by the patterns of the hydroxyl stretching vibrations in both the Raman and infrared spectra. Spencerite is characterised by a sharp Raman band at 3516 cm(-1) and tarbuttite by a single band at 3446 cm(-1). The patterns of the Raman spectra of the hydroxyl stretching region of hopeite and parahopeite are different in line with their differing crystal structures. The Raman spectrum of the PO4 stretching region shows better band separated peaks than the infrared spectra which consist of a complex set of overlapping bands. The position of the PO4 symmetric stretching mode can be used to identify the zinc phosphate mineral. It is apparent that Raman spectroscopy lends itself to the fundamental study of the evolution of zinc phosphate films.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... J, Müller A, Heep A, Bartmann P, Franz AR. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy. Arch Dis ... Windfuhr M, Wagner N, Strehl H, Bagci S, Franz AR, Mills PB, Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, ...

  4. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  5. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry.

    PubMed

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary and genetic evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating mammalian aging

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Razzaque, M. Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    Identifying factors that accelerate the aging process can provide important therapeutic targets for slowing down this process. Misregulation of phosphate homeostasis has been noted in various skeletal, cardiac, and renal diseases, but the exact role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging is not clearly defined. Phosphate is widely distributed in the body and is involved in cell signaling, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, and the maintenance of acid-base balance by urinary buffering. In this study, we used an in vivo genetic approach to determine the role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging. Klotho-knockout mice (klotho−/−) have a short life span and show numerous physical, biochemical, and morphological features consistent with premature aging, including kyphosis, uncoordinated movement, hypogonadism, infertility, severe skeletal muscle wasting, emphysema, and osteopenia, as well as generalized atrophy of the skin, intestine, thymus, and spleen. Molecular and biochemical analyses suggest that increased renal activity of sodium-phosphate cotransporters (NaPi2a) leads to severe hyperphosphatemia in klotho−/− mice. Genetically reducing serum phosphate levels in klotho−/− mice by generating a NaPi2a and klotho double-knockout (NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/−) strain resulted in amelioration of premature aging-like features. The NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/− double-knockout mice regained reproductive ability, recovered their body weight, reduced their organ atrophy, and suppressed ectopic calcifications, with the resulting effect being prolonged survival. More important, when hyperphosphatemia was induced in NaPi2a−/−/klotho−/− mice by feeding with a high-phosphate diet, premature aging-like features reappeared, clearly suggesting that phosphate toxicity is the main cause of premature aging in klotho−/− mice. The results of our dietary and genetic manipulation studies provide in vivo evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating the

  7. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D; Catalano, Jeffrey G; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  8. Dental Composites with Calcium / Strontium Phosphates and Polylysine.

    PubMed

    Panpisut, Piyaphong; Liaqat, Saad; Zacharaki, Eleni; Xia, Wendy; Petridis, Haralampos; Young, Anne Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2.5 wt%) and/or reactive phosphate fillers (15 wt% TSrP and 10 wt% MCPM). The commercial composite, Z250, was used as a control. Monomer conversion and calculated polymerization shrinkage were assessed using FTIR. Subsequent mass or volume changes in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF) were quantified using gravimetric studies. These were used, along with Raman and SEM, to assess apatite precipitation on the composite surface. PLS release was determined using UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, biaxial flexural strengths after 24 hours of SBF immersion were obtained. Monomer conversion of the composites decreased upon the addition of phosphate fillers (from 76 to 64%) but was always higher than that of Z250 (54%). Phosphate addition increased water sorption induced expansion from 2 to 4% helping to balance the calculated polymerization shrinkage of ~ 3.4%. Phosphate addition promoted apatite precipitation from SBF. Polylysine increased the apatite layer thickness from ~ 10 to 20 μm after 4 weeks. The novel composites showed a burst release of PLS (3.7%) followed by diffusion-controlled release irrespective of phosphate addition. PLS and phosphates decreased strength from 154 MPa on average by 17% and 18%, respectively. All formulations, however, had greater strength than the ISO 4049 requirement of > 80 MPa. The addition of MCPM with TSrP promoted hygroscopic expansion, and apatite formation. These properties are expected to help compensate polymerization shrinkage and help

  9. Serum phosphate and cognitive function in older men.

    PubMed

    Slinin, Yelena; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Murray, Anne M; Schousboe, John; Langsetmo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    Determine whether serum phosphate is associated with concurrent cognitive impairment and subsequent cognitive decline in older men independent of demographic covariates and atherosclerotic risk factors. In a prospective study of 5529 men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we measured baseline serum phosphate, baseline cognitive function, and change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up exams an average of 4.6 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination and Trails B. There was no association between serum phosphate and odds of cognitive impairment as assessed by baseline 3MS score or risk of cognitive decline as assessed by longitudinal change in 3MS score. Higher baseline serum phosphate was associated with higher odds of poor executive function as assessed by Trails B with fully adjusted odds ratios 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.52), 1.31 (0.97-1.77), and 1.45 (1.08-1.94) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.007). However, higher phosphate level was not associated with risk of decline in executive function as assessed by longitudinal change in Trails B score with fully adjusted odds ratios 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.28), 0.96 (0.70-1.32), and 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.22). Higher serum phosphate in older men was associated with a higher likelihood of poor executive function, but not with impaired global cognitive function or decline in executive or global cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred onlymore » at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.« less

  11. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred onlymore » at high initial U(VI) (>25μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.« less

  12. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  13. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory at...

  14. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  15. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  16. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  17. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the processing of phosphate bearing rock, ore or...

  18. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  19. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the processing of phosphate bearing rock, ore or...

  20. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  1. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  2. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  3. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content. [43 FR 9809, Mar. 10, 1978] ...

  4. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  5. Phosphate homeostasis in Bartter syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Viganò, Cristina; Provero, Maria Cristina; Barretta, Francesco; Albisetti, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Silvana; Scicchitano, Barbara; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2014-11-01

    Bartter patients may be hypercalciuric. Additional abnormalities in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones have occasionally been reported. The metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones was investigated in 15 patients with Bartter syndrome and 15 healthy subjects. Compared to the controls, Bartter patients had significantly reduced plasma phosphate {mean [interquartile range]:1.29 [1.16-1.46] vs. 1.61 [1.54-1.67] mmol/L} and maximal tubular phosphate reabsorption (1.16 [1.00-1.35] vs. 1.41 [1.37-1.47] mmol/L) and significantly increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (6.1 [4.5-7.7] vs. 2.8 [2.2-4.4] pmol/L). However, patients and controls did not differ in blood calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. In patients, an inverse correlation (P < 0.05) was noted between total plasma calcium or glomerular filtration rate and PTH concentration. A positive correlation was also noted between PTH and osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.005), as well as between chloriduria or natriuria and phosphaturia (P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between calciuria and PTH concentration or between urinary or circulating phosphate and PTH. The results of this study demonstrate a tendency towards renal phosphate wasting and elevated circulating PTH levels in Bartter patients.

  6. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-07

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil.

  7. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-02-24

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.

  9. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  10. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  11. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  12. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  13. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  14. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  15. Optimal use of phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sonikian, Makrouhi; Papachristou, Evangelos; Goumenos, Dimitrios S

    2013-12-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the major factors associated with the development of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since phosphate is retained in such patients, pharmacological treatment and other measures are necessary to control hyperphosphatemia. Several phosphate binders (calcium salts, magnesium salts, non-calcium-based binders and aluminium) are available for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Nevertheless, none of the above mentioned agents has shown an overall superiority over others, while potency and side effects are quite variable among them creating difficulties in choosing the optimal drug for each patient. The authors discuss the disturbed phosphate metabolism, the available phosphate binders, as well as the general therapeutic principles of treating hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients. The literature used for this review had been retrieved from PubMed and covers a large number of original and retrospective studies as well as prospective cohort studies, meta-analyses and international clinical guidelines. Lowering serum phosphate levels in CKD patients may potentially have a positive impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Factors that should be taken into consideration when selecting a specific drug include CKD stage, cardiovascular disease, severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism, concomitant medications, life expectancy and patient compliance. Therefore, when selecting a specific phosphate binder, individualisation is mandatory.

  16. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous “jaw”. From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait. PMID:26906263

  17. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li‐ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single‐phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed‐phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure–composition–performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next‐generation of energy storage devices. PMID:28546907

  18. A novel biphasic calcium phosphate derived from fish otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montañez-Supelano, N. D.; Sandoval-Amador, A.; Estupiñan-Durán, H. A.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    Calcium phosphates are bioceramics that have been widely used as bone substitutes because they encourage the formation of bone on their surface and can improve the healing of the bone. Hydroxyapatite HA (calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.67) and tricalcium phosphate TCP (calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.50) are the most common calcium phosphates. Natural materials have begun to be tested to make HA or TCP such as shells of cardiidae (family of mollusks) and eggshells. The calcium phosphate obtained has a high ability to precipitate apatite. In this work, the mixed phase ceramic of beta-Tri-calcium phosphate / hydroxyapatite (β-TCP/HA) was synthesized by aqueous precipitation from fish otoliths, which are monomineralic species composed of aragonite. Otoliths of the specie Plagioscion squamosissimus, commonly called the river croaker, were used. Techniques such as DRX, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS were used to characterize the raw material and the obtained material. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of two crystalline phases of calcium phosphates with 86.2% crystallinity. SEM micrographs showed agglomeration of particles with porous structure and submicron particle sizes.

  19. Effect of phosphate supplementation on oxygen delivery at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S. C.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Sharma, V. M.; Divekar, H. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Panwar, M. R.; Swamy, Y. V.

    1987-09-01

    In the present communication, effect of low doses of phosphate supplementation on short-term high altitude adaptation has been examined. Studies were carried out in 36 healthy, male, sea-level residents divided in a double blind fashion into drug and placebo treated groups. 3.2 mmol of phosphate were given orally to each subject of the drug treated group once a day for 4 days on arrival at an altitude of 3,500 m. Sequential studies were done in the subjects in both groups on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day of their altitude stay. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts increased to the similar extent in both groups. Blood pH, pO2 and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) did not differ between the two groups. On 3rd day of the altitude stay, inorganic phosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) levels in the drug treated group increased significantly as compared to the placebo group. No significant difference in inorganic phosphate and 2,3 DPG was observed later on in the two groups. Psychological and clinical tests also indicated that the drug treated subjects felt better as compared to the placebo treated subjects. The present study suggests that low doses of phosphate increases circulating 2,3-DPG concentration which in turn brings about beneficial effect towards short term high altitude adaptation.

  20. Osteoblast adhesion on novel machinable calcium phosphate/lanthanum phosphate composites for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Celaletdin; Liu, Huinan; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaPO(4), LP) was combined with either hydroxyapatite (HA) or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to form novel composites for orthopedic applications. In this study, these composites were prepared by wet chemistry synthesis and subsequent powder mixing. These HA/LP and TCP/LP composites were characterized in terms of phase stability and microstructure evolution during sintering using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their machinability was evaluated using a direct drilling test. For HA/LP composites, LP reacted with HA during sintering and formed a new phase, Ca(8)La(2)(PO(4))(6)O(2), as a reaction by-product. However, TCP/LP composites showed phase stability and the formation of a weak interface between TCP and LP machinability when sintered at 1100 degrees C, which is crucial for achieving desirable properties. Thus, these novel TCP/LP composites fulfilled the requirements for machinability, a key consideration for manufacturing orthopedic implants. Moreover, the biocompatibility of these novel LP composites was studied, for the first time, in this paper. In vitro cell culture tests demonstrated that the LP and its composites supported osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion similar to natural bioceramics (such as HA and TCP). In conclusion, these novel LP composites should be further studied and developed for more effectively treating bone related diseases or injuries. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Implication of Ceramide, Ceramide 1-Phosphate and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Patricia; Granado, Maria H.; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M.; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In the last two decades there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the role of sphingolipids in controlling signal transduction processes, particularly in the mechanisms leading to regulation of cell growth and death. Ceramide is a well-characterized sphingolipid metabolite and second messenger that can be produced by cancer cells in response to a variety of stimuli, including therapeutic drugs, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although this is a promising aspect when thinking of treating cancer, it should be borne in mind that ceramide production may not always be a growth inhibitory or pro-apoptotic signal. In fact, ceramide can be readily converted to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by the concerted actions of ceramidases and sphingosine kinases, or to ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) by the action of ceramide kinase. In general, S1P and C1P have opposing effects to ceramide, acting as pro-survival or mitogenic signals in most cell types. This review will address our current understanding of the many roles of ceramide, S1P and C1P in the regulation of cell growth and survival with special emphasis to the emerging role of these molecules and their metabolizing enzymes in controlling tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:21566746

  2. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr-O-P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  3. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger Phosphate Solubilization by Fluoride Released from Rock Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Bonduki, Victor Hugo Araújo; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous release of various chemical elements with inhibitory potential for phosphate solubilization from rock phosphate (RP) was studied in this work. Al, B, Ba, Ca, F, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Si, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr were released concomitantly with P during the solubilization of Araxá RP (Brazil), but only F showed inhibitory effects on the process at the concentrations detected in the growth medium. Besides P solubilization, fluoride decreased fungal growth, citric acid production, and medium acidification by Aspergillus niger. At the maximum concentration found during Araxá RP solubilization (22.9 mg F− per liter), fluoride decreased P solubilization by 55%. These findings show that fluoride negatively affects RP solubilization by A. niger through its inhibitory action on the fungal metabolism. Given that fluoride is a common component of RPs, the data presented here suggest that most of the microbial RP solubilization systems studied so far were probably operated under suboptimal conditions. PMID:23770895

  4. Cerium phosphate nanotubes: synthesis, characterization and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ling; Yang, Lige; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Chenxin

    2009-01-01

    Cerium phosphate (CeP) nanotubes have been synthesized and confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 1D nanomaterial has a monoclinic crystal structure with a mean width of 15-20 nm and a length up to several micrometers. The nanotubes have been employed as electrode substrates for immobilization and direct electrochemistry of heme proteins/enzymes with myoglobin (Mb) as a model. The electrochemical characteristics of the Mb-CeP/GC electrode were studied by voltammetry. After being immobilized on the nanotubes, Mb can keep its natural structure and undergo effective direct electron transfer reaction with a pair of well-defined redox peaks at -(367 ± 3) mV (pH 7.5). The apparent electron transfer rate constant is (9.1 ± 1.4) s-1. The electrode displays good features in the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, and thus can be used as a biosensor for detecting the substrate with a low detection limit (0.5 ± 0.05 µM), a wide linear range (0.01-2 mM), high sensitivity (14.4 ± 1.2 µA mM-1), as well as good stability and reproducibility. CeP nanotubes can become a simple and effective biosensing platform for the integration of heme proteins/enzymes and electrodes, which can provide analytical access to a large group of enzymes for a wide range of bioelectrochemical applications.

  5. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Payne, Stephen A.; Hayden, Joseph S.; Campbell, John H.; Aston, Mary Kay; Elder, Melanie L.

    1996-01-01

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  6. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  7. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, J.S.; Sapak, D.L.; Ward, J.M.

    1990-05-29

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis Mole %): P[sub 2]O[sub 5], 45-70; Li[sub 2]O, 15-35; Na[sub 2]O, 0-10; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 10-15; Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0.01-6; La[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-6; SiO[sub 2], 0-8; B[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-8; MgO, 0-18; CaO, 0-15; SrO, 0-9; BaO, 0-9; ZnO, 0-15; the amounts of Li[sub 2]O and Na[sub 2]O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK and [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3] can be replaced by other lasing species. 3 figs.

  8. Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydro-sphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest a crucial role for Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the development of the nervous system. Dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (dhS1P), a reduced form of S1P, is an active ligand at S1P receptors, but the pharmacology and physiology of dhS1P has not...

  9. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg. PMID:24379908

  10. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    PubMed

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Network-level fossil of a phosphate-free biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldford, J.; Hartman, H.; Smith, T. F.; Segre, D.

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of a metabolism capable of sustaining cellular life on early Earth is a major unresolved enigma. Such a transition from prebiotic chemistry to an organized biochemical network seemingly required the concurrent availability of multiple molecular components. One of these components, phosphate, carries several essential functions in present-day metabolism, most notably energy transduction through ATP. However, the ubiquity of phosphate in living systems today stands in sharp contrast with its poor geochemical availability, prompting previous efforts to search for plausible prebiotic sources. The alternative, intriguing possibility is that primitive life did not require phosphate. Here we explore this possibility by determining the feasibility and functional potential of a phosphate-independent metabolism amongst the set of all known biochemical reactions in the biosphere. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism that can be generated from simple sets of compounds thought to be available on early Earth. This network can support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. The enzymes contained in this network display a striking enrichment for dependence on iron-sulfur and transition metal coenzymes, a fundamental cornerstone of early biochemistry. We furthermore show that phosphate-independent precursors of present-day cofactors could have helped overcome thermodynamic energy barriers, enabling the production of a rich set of biomolecules, including 15 out of the 20 amino acids, vitamins, pentoses and nucleobases. Altogether, our results suggest that present-day biochemical networks may contain vestiges of a very ancient past, and that a complex thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.

  12. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  13. Iron phosphate glasses: Bulk properties and atomic scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Asuvathraman, R.; Dube, Charu L.; Gandy, Amy S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Jolley, Kenny; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Bulk properties such as glass transition temperature, density and thermal expansion of iron phosphate glass compositions, with replacement of Cs by Ba, are investigated as a surrogate for the transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba, relevant to the immobilisation of Cs in glass. These studies are required to establish the appropriate incorporation rate of 137Cs in iron phosphate glass. Density and glass transition temperature increases with the addition of BaO indicating the shrinkage and reticulation of the iron phosphate glass network. The average thermal expansion coefficient reduces from 19.8 × 10-6 K-1 to 13.4 × 10-6 K-1, when 25 wt. % of Cs2O was replaced by 25 wt. % of BaO in caesium loaded iron phosphate glass. In addition to the above bulk properties, the role of Ba as a network modifier in the structure of iron phosphate glass is examined using various spectroscopic techniques. The FeII content and average coordination number of iron in the glass network was estimated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The FeII content in the un-doped iron phosphate glass and barium doped iron phosphate glasses was 20, 21 and 22 ± 1% respectively and the average Fe coordination varied from 5.3 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.2 with increasing Ba content. The atomic scale structure was further probed by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average coordination number provided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure was in good agreement with that given by the Mössbauer data.

  14. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystalmore » structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was

  16. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphate binding protein as the biorecognition element in a biosensor for phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salins, Lyndon L E.; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This work explores the potential use of a member of the periplasmic family of binding proteins, the phosphate binding protein (PBP), as the biorecognition element in a sensing scheme for the detection of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The selectivity of this protein originates from its natural role which, in Escherichia coli, is to serve as the initial receptor for the highly specific translocation of Pi to the cytoplasm. The single polypeptide chain of PBP is folded into two similar domains connected by three short peptide linkages that serve as a hinge. The Pi binding site is located deep within the cleft between the two domains. In the presence of the ligand, the two globular domains engulf the former in a hinge-like manner. The resultant conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensor development. A mutant of PBP (MPBP), where an alanine was replaced by a cysteine residue, was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mutant was expressed, from plasmid pSD501, in the periplasmic space of E. coli and purified in a single chromatographic step on a perfusion anion-exchange column. Site-specific labeling was achieved by attaching the fluorophore, N-[2-(1-maleimidyl)ethyl]-7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxamide (MDCC), to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the cysteine moiety. Steady-state fluorescence studies of the MPBP-MDCC conjugate showed a change in the intensity of the signal upon addition of Pi. Calibration curves for Pi were constructed by relating the intensity of the fluorescence signal with the amount of analyte present in the sample. The sensing system was first developed and optimized on a spectrofluorometer using ml volumes of sample. It was then adapted to be used on a microtiter plate arrangement with microliter sample volumes. The system's versatility was finally proven by developing a fiber optic fluorescence-based sensor for monitoring Pi. In all three cases the detection limits for the

  18. Phosphate inhibits in vitro Fe3+ loading into transferrin by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex: a potential non-transferrin bound iron species.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Robert J; Seare, Matthew C; Andros, N David; Kenealey, Zachary; Orozco, Catalina Matias; Webb, Michael; Watt, Richard K

    2012-05-01

    In chronic kidney diseases, NTBI can occur even when total iron levels in serum are low and transferrin is not saturated. We postulated that elevated serum phosphate concentrations, present in CKD patients, might disrupt Fe(3+) loading into apo-transferrin by forming Fe(III)-phosphate species. We report that phosphate competes with apo-transferrin for Fe(3+) by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex. Once formed, the Fe(III)-phosphate complex is not a substrate for donating Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin. Phosphate (1-10mM) does not chelate Fe(III) from diferric transferrin under the conditions examined. Complexed forms of Fe(3+), such as iron nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(3+)-NTA), and Fe(III)-citrate are not susceptible to this phosphate complexation reaction and efficiently deliver Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin in the presence of phosphate. This reaction suggests that citrate might play an important role in protecting against Fe(III), phosphate interactions in vivo. In contrast to the reactions of Fe(3+) and phosphate, the addition of Fe(2+) to a solution of apo-transferrin and phosphate lead to rapid oxidation and deposition of Fe(3+) into apo-transferrin. These in vitro data suggest that, in principle, elevated phosphate concentrations can influence the ability of apo-transferrin to bind iron, depending on the oxidation state of the iron. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Y.T.; Guesto-Barnak, D.

    1992-12-22

    Disclosed is a low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20-300 C] <80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, low emission cross section, [sigma]<2.5[times]10[sup [minus]20] cm[sup 2], and a high fluorescence lifetime, [tau]>325 [mu]secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): (Mole %) P[sub 2]O[sub 5], (52-72); Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<20); B[sub 2]O[sub 3], (>0-25); ZnO, (0-31); Li[sub 2]O, (0-5); K[sub 2]O, (0-5); Na[sub 2]O, (0-5); Cs[sub 2]O, (0-5); Rb[sub 2]O, (0-5); MgO, (>0-<30); CaO, (0-20); BaO, (0-20); SrO, (0-<20); Sb[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<1); As[sub 2]O[sub 3], (0-<1); Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], (0-<1); Ln[sub 2]O[sub 3], (up to 6.5); PbO, (0-<5); and SiO[sub 2], (0-3); wherein Ln[sub 2]O[sub 3] is the sum of lanthanide oxides; [Sigma]R[sub 2]O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO is <24 unless [Sigma]R[sub 2]O is 0, then the sum of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B[sub 2]O[sub 3] is 0.48-4.20. 7 figs.

  20. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Zha, Manrong; Huang, Jing; Li, Li; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in potato roots. A total of 359 differentially expressed genes were identified, among which the Solanum tuberosum transcription factor gene MYB44 (StMYB44) was found to be down-regulated by Pi starvation. StMYB44 was ubiquitously expressed in potato tissues and organs, and StMYB44 protein was exclusively localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of StMYB44 in potato resulted in lower accumulation of Pi in shoots. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that the abundance of S. tuberosum PHOSPHATE1 (StPHO1), a Pi transport-related gene, was reduced in StMYB44 overexpression lines. In contrast, knock-out of StMYB44 by a CRISPR/Cas9 system failed to increase transcription of StPHO1. Moreover, StMYB44 was found to interact in the nucleus with AtWRKY6, a known Arabidopsis transcription factor directly regulating PHO1 expression, and StWRKY6, indicating that StMYB44 could be a member of the regulatory complex controlling transcription of StPHO1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that StMYB44 negatively regulates Pi transport in potato by suppressing StPHO1 expression. PMID:28338870

  1. Rice OsMYB5P improves plant phosphate acquisition by regulation of phosphate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hong, So Yeon; Bae, Ki Deuk; Chung, Young Soo; Kwon, Yong Sham; Kim, Du Hyun; Jung, Ki Hong

    2018-01-01

    Myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors play central roles in plant developmental processes and in responses to nutrient deficiency. In this study, OsMYB5P, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, was isolated and identified from rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Dongjin’) under inorganic phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. OsMYB5P protein is localized to the nucleus and functions as a transcription activator in plant development. Overexpression of OsMYB5P in rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0) increases tolerance to phosphate starvation, whereas OsMYB5P knock-out through RNA interference increases sensitivity to Pi depletion in rice. Furthermore, shoots and roots of transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYB5P were longer than those of wild plants under both normal and Pi-deficient conditions. These results indicate that OsMYB5P is associated with the regulation of shoot development and root- system architecture. Overexpression of OsMYB5P led to increased Pi accumulation in shoots and roots. Interestingly, OsMYB5P directly bound to MBS (MYB binding site) motifs on the OsPT5 promoter and induced transcription of OsPT5 in rice. In addition, overexpression of OsMYB5P in Arabidopsis triggered increased expression of AtPht1;3, an Arabidopsis Pi transporter, in shoots and roots under normal and Pi-deficient conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of OsMYB5P increases tolerance to Pi deficiency in plants by modulating Pi transporters at the transcriptional level in monocots and dicots. PMID:29566032

  2. Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Van Noorden, C J

    1984-01-01

    Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has found many applications in biomedical research. However, up to several years ago, the methods used often appeared to be unreliable because many artefacts occurred during processing and staining of tissue sections or cells. The development of histochemical methods preventing loss or redistribution of the enzyme by using either polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer or a semipermeable membrane interposed between tissue section and incubation medium, has lead to progress in the topochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Optimization of incubation conditions has further increased the precision of histochemical methods. Precise cytochemical methods have been developed either by the use of a polyacrylamide carrier in which individual cells have been incorporated before staining or by including polyvinyl alcohol in the incubation medium. In the present text, these methods for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for light microscopical and electron microscopical purposes are extensively discussed along with immunocytochemical techniques. Moreover, the validity of the staining methods is considered both for the localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in cells and tissues and for cytophotometric analysis. Finally, many applications of the methods are reviewed in the fields of functional heterogeneity of tissues, early diagnosis of carcinoma, effects of xenobiotics on cellular metabolism, diagnosis of inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, analysis of steroid-production in reproductive organs, and quality control of oocytes of mammals. It is concluded that the use of histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is of highly significant value in the study of diseased tissues. In many cases, the first pathological change is an increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

  3. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  4. Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health.

    PubMed

    Penido, Maria Goretti M G; Alon, Uri S

    2012-11-01

    Phosphate is one of the most abundant minerals in the body, and its serum levels are regulated by a complex set of processes occurring in the intestine, skeleton, and kidneys. The currently known main regulators of phosphate homeostasis include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, and a number of peptides collectively known as the "phosphatonins" of which fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been best defined. Maintenance of extracellular and intracellular phosphate levels within a narrow range is important for many biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, regulation of protein synthesis, skeletal development, and bone integrity. The presence of adequate amounts of phosphate is critical for the process of apoptosis of mature chondrocytes in the growth plate. Without the presence of this mineral in high enough quantities, chondrocytes will not go into apoptosis, and the normal physiological chain of events that includes invasion of blood vessels and the generation of new bone will be blocked, resulting in rickets and delayed growth. In the rest of the skeleton, hypophosphatemia will result in osteomalacia due to an insufficient formation of hydroxyapatite. This review will address phosphate metabolism and its role in bone health.

  5. Biomimetic fabrication of antibacterial calcium phosphates mediated by polydopamine.

    PubMed

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Bonvicini, Francesca; Boanini, Elisa; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Bigi, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    In this work we developed new antibacterial composite materials using polydopamine (PDA) to trigger the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto calcium phosphates, namely octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP). Functionalization of OCP and αTCP with a self-polymerized polydopamine layer was obtained by soaking the calcium phosphates in dopamine solution. The PDA surface of functionalized calcium phosphates (OCPd and αTCPd) promoted the deposition of AgNPs by reducing silver ions when soaked in a silver nitrate solution. The amount of deposited AgNPs can be modulated by varying the concentration of silver nitrate solution and the type of substrate. The results of in vitro tests carried out with osteoblast-like MG63 cells indicate that the combination of AgNPs with OCP provides more biocompatible materials than those obtained using αTCP as substrate. In particular, the study of osteoblast activity and differentiation was focused on the samples OCPdAg5 (silver content=8.2wt%) and αTCPdAg5 (silver content=4.7wt%), which did not show any cytotoxicity, and compared with those obtained on pure OCP and αTCP. The results demonstrate that the AgNPs loaded materials support osteoblast viability and differentiation, whereas they significantly inhibit the growth of relevant antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Homogeneous Iron Phosphate Nanoparticles by Combustion of Sprays

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Thomas; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost synthesis of iron phosphate nanostructured particles is attractive for large scale fortification of basic foods (rice, bread, etc.) as well as for Li-battery materials. This is achieved here by flame-assisted and flame spray pyrolysis (FASP and FSP) of inexpensive precursors (iron nitrate, phosphate), solvents (ethanol), and support gases (acetylene and methane). The iron phosphate powders produced here were mostly amorphous and exhibited excellent solubility in dilute acid, an indicator of relative iron bioavailability. The amorphous and crystalline fractions of such powders were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their cumulative size distribution by X-ray disk centrifuge. Fine and coarse size fractions were obtained also by sedimentation and characterized by microscopy and XRD. The coarse size fraction contained maghemite Fe2O3 while the fine was amorphous iron phosphate. Furthermore, the effect of increased production rate (up to 11 g/h) on product morphology and solubility was explored. Using increased methane flow rates through the ignition/pilot flame of the FSP-burner and inexpensive powder precursors resulted in also homogeneous iron phosphate nanoparticles essentially converting the FSP to a FASP process. The powders produced by FSP at increased methane flow had excellent solubility in dilute acid as well. Such use of methane or even natural gas might be economically attractive for large scale flame-synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:23407874

  7. Phosphate toxicity: new insights into an old problem

    PubMed Central

    RAZZAQUE, M. Shawkat

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for critical biological reactions that maintain the normal homoeostatic control of the cell. This element is an important component of different cellular structures, including nucleic acids and cell membranes. Adequate phosphorus balance is vital for maintaining basic cellular functions, ranging from energy metabolism to cell signalling. In addition, many intracellular pathways utilize phosphate ions for important cellular reactions; therefore, homoeostatic control of phosphate is one of the most delicate biological regulations. Impaired phosphorus balance can affect the functionality of almost every human system, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, ultimately leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Human and experimental studies have found that delicate balance among circulating factors, like vitamin D, PTH (parathyroid hormone) and FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), are essential for regulation of physiological phosphate balance. Dysregulation of these factors, either alone or in combination, can induce phosphorus imbalance. Recent studies have shown that suppression of the FGF23–klotho system can lead to hyperphosphataemia with extensive tissue damage caused by phosphate toxicity. The cause and consequences of phosphate toxicity will be briefly summarized in the present review. PMID:20958267

  8. Phosphate toxicity: new insights into an old problem.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, M Shawkat

    2011-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for critical biological reactions that maintain the normal homoeostatic control of the cell. This element is an important component of different cellular structures, including nucleic acids and cell membranes. Adequate phosphorus balance is vital for maintaining basic cellular functions, ranging from energy metabolism to cell signalling. In addition, many intracellular pathways utilize phosphate ions for important cellular reactions; therefore, homoeostatic control of phosphate is one of the most delicate biological regulations. Impaired phosphorus balance can affect the functionality of almost every human system, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, ultimately leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Human and experimental studies have found that delicate balance among circulating factors, like vitamin D, PTH (parathyroid hormone) and FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), are essential for regulation of physiological phosphate balance. Dysregulation of these factors, either alone or in combination, can induce phosphorus imbalance. Recent studies have shown that suppression of the FGF23-klotho system can lead to hyperphosphataemia with extensive tissue damage caused by phosphate toxicity. The cause and consequences of phosphate toxicity will be briefly summarized in the present review.

  9. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension

    PubMed Central

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique A. V.; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of “ready to use” injectable biomaterial. But, during storage, the particles settle down. The engineering sciences have long been interested in models describing the settling (or sedimentation) of particles in viscous fluids. Our work is dedicated to the comprehension of the effect of the formulation on the stability of calcium phosphate suspension before and after steam sterilization. The rheological characterization revealed the macromolecular behavior of the suspending medium. The investigations of settling kinetics showed the influence of the BCP particle size and the HPMC concentration on the settling velocity and sediment compactness before and after sterilization. To decrease the sedimentation process, the granule size has to be smaller and the polymer concentration has to increase. A much lower sedimentation velocity, as compared to Stokes law, is observed and interpreted in terms of interactions between the polymer network in solution and the particles. This experimentation highlights the granules spacer property of hydrophilic macromolecules that is a key issue for interconnection control, one of the better ways to improve osteoconduction and bioactivity. PMID:20229185

  10. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique A V; Weiss, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomaterial. But, during storage, the particles settle down. The engineering sciences have long been interested in models describing the settling (or sedimentation) of particles in viscous fluids. Our work is dedicated to the comprehension of the effect of the formulation on the stability of calcium phosphate suspension before and after steam sterilization. The rheological characterization revealed the macromolecular behavior of the suspending medium. The investigations of settling kinetics showed the influence of the BCP particle size and the HPMC concentration on the settling velocity and sediment compactness before and after sterilization. To decrease the sedimentation process, the granule size has to be smaller and the polymer concentration has to increase. A much lower sedimentation velocity, as compared to Stokes law, is observed and interpreted in terms of interactions between the polymer network in solution and the particles. This experimentation highlights the granules spacer property of hydrophilic macromolecules that is a key issue for interconnection control, one of the better ways to improve osteoconduction and bioactivity.

  11. Fabrication and cytocompatibility of spherical magnesium ammonium phosphate granules.

    PubMed

    Christel, Theresa; Geffers, Martha; Klammert, Uwe; Nies, Berthold; Höß, Andreas; Groll, Jürgen; Kübler, Alexander C; Gbureck, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Magnesium phosphate compounds, as for example struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O), have comparable characteristics to calcium phosphate bone substitutes, but degrade faster under physiological conditions. In the present work, we used a struvite forming calcium doped magnesium phosphate cement with the formulation Ca0.75Mg2.25(PO4)2 and an ammonium phosphate containing aqueous solution to produce round-shaped granules. For the fabrication of spherical granules, the cement paste was dispersed in a lipophilic liquid and stabilized by surfactants. The granules were characterized with respect to morphology, size distribution, phase composition, compressive strength, biocompatibility and solubility. In general, it was seen that small granules can hardly be produced by means of emulsification, when the raw material is a hydraulic paste, because long setting times promote coalescence of initially small unhardened cement droplets. Here, this problem was solved by using an aqueous solution containing both the secondary (NH4)2HPO4 and primary ammonium phosphates NH4H2PO4 to accelerate the setting reaction. This resulted in granules with 97 wt.% having a size in the range between 200 and 1,000 μm. The novel solution composition doubled the compressive strength of the cement to 37 ± 5 MPa without affecting either the conversion to struvite or the cytocompatibility using human fetal osteoblasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Roach, Peter J.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.

    2010-11-22

    Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by themore » binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.« less

  13. Fiber-enriched double-setting calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luís Alberto; Carrodéguas, Raúl Garcia; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Fonseca de Arruda, Antônio Celso

    2003-05-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements are useful in orthopedics and traumatology, their main advantages being their biocompatibility and bioactivity, which render bone tissue osteoconductive, providing in situ hardening and easy handling. However, their low mechanical strength, which, in the best of cases, is equal to the trabecular bone, and their very low toughness are disadvantages. Calcium phosphate cement compositions with mechanical properties more closely resembling those of human bone would broaden the range of applications, which is currently limited to sites subjected to low loads. This study investigated the influence of added polypropylene, nylon, and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of double setting alpha-tricalcium phosphate-based cement, using calcium phosphate cement added to an in situ polymerizable acrylamide-based system recently developed by the authors. Although the addition of fibers was found to reduce the compression strength of the double-setting calcium phosphate cement because of increased porosity, it strongly increased the cement's toughness (J(IC)) and tensile strength. The composites developed in this work, therefore, have a potential application in shapes subjected to flexure. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phosphoinositide and Inositol Phosphate Analysis in Lymphocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Karsten; Huang, Yina Hsing; Lin, Hongying; Sandberg, Mark; Mayr, Georg W.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocyte antigen receptor engagement profoundly changes the cellular content of phosphoinositide lipids and soluble inositol phosphates. Among these, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) play key signaling roles by acting as pleckstrin homology (PH) domain ligands that recruit signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. Moreover, PIP2 acts as a precursor for the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol and soluble inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), essential mediators of PKC, Ras/Erk, and Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes. IP3 phosphorylation by IP3 3-kinases generates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4), an essential soluble regulator of PH domain binding to PIP3 in developing T cells. Besides PIP2, PIP3, IP3, and IP4, lymphocytes produce multiple other phosphoinositides and soluble inositol phosphates that could have important physiological functions. To aid their analysis, detailed protocols that allow one to simultaneously measure the levels of multiple different phosphoinositide or inositol phosphate isomers in lymphocytes are provided here. They are based on thin layer, conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation methods followed by radiolabeling or non-radioactive metal-dye detection. Finally, less broadly applicable nonchromatographic methods for detection of specific phosphoinositide or inositol phosphate isomers are discussed. Support protocols describe how to obtain pure unstimulated CD4+CD8+ thymocyte populations for analyses of inositol phosphate turnover during positive and negative selection, key steps in T cell development. PMID:19918943

  15. SGPL1 (sphingosine phosphate lyase 1) modulates neuronal autophagy via phosphatidylethanolamine production.

    PubMed

    Mitroi, Daniel N; Karunakaran, Indulekha; Gräler, Markus; Saba, Julie D; Ehninger, Dan; Ledesma, María Dolores; van Echten-Deckert, Gerhild

    2017-05-04

    Macroautophagy/autophagy defects have been identified as critical factors underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The roles of the bioactive signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its catabolic enzyme SGPL1/SPL (sphingosine phosphate lyase 1) in autophagy are increasingly recognized. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a previously unidentified route through which SGPL1 modulates autophagy in neurons. SGPL1 cleaves S1P into ethanolamine phosphate, which is directed toward the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) that anchors LC3-I to phagophore membranes in the form of LC3-II. In the brains of SGPL1 fl/fl/Nes mice with developmental neural specific SGPL1 ablation, we observed significantly reduced PE levels. Accordingly, alterations in basal and stimulated autophagy involving decreased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased BECN1/Beclin-1 and SQSTM1/p62 levels were apparent. Alterations were also noticed in downstream events of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway such as increased levels of lysosomal markers and aggregate-prone proteins such as APP (amyloid β [A4] precursor protein) and SNCA/α-synuclein. In vivo profound deficits in cognitive skills were observed. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SGPL1 in cultured neurons promoted these alterations, whereas addition of PE was sufficient to restore LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and control levels of SQSTM1, APP and SNCA. Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy showed accumulation of unclosed phagophore-like structures, reduction of autolysosomes and altered distribution of LC3 in SGPL1 fl/fl/Nes brains. Experiments using EGFP-mRFP-LC3 provided further support for blockage of the autophagic flux at initiation stages upon SGPL1 deficiency due to PE paucity. These results emphasize a formerly overlooked direct role of SGPL1 in neuronal autophagy and assume significance in the context that autophagy modulators hold an enormous therapeutic potential in the

  16. An Inducible Cytochrome P450 3A4-Dependent Vitamin D Catabolic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhican; Lin, Yvonne S.; Zheng, Xi Emily; Senn, Tauri; Hashizume, Takanori; Scian, Michele; Dickmann, Leslie J.; Nelson, Sidney D.; Baillie, Thomas A.; Hebert, Mary F.; Blough, David; Davis, Connie L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is critical for the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In some individuals, mineral homeostasis can be disrupted by long-term therapy with certain antiepileptic drugs and the antimicrobial agent rifampin, resulting in drug-induced osteomalacia, which is attributed to vitamin D deficiency. We now report a novel CYP3A4-dependent pathway, the 4-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), the induction of which may contribute to drug-induced vitamin D deficiency. The metabolism of 25OHD3 was fully characterized in vitro. CYP3A4 was the predominant source of 25OHD3 hydroxylation by human liver microsomes, with the formation of 4β,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [4β,25(OH)2D3] dominating (Vmax/Km = 0.85 ml · min−1 · nmol enzyme−1). 4β,25(OH)2D3 was found in human plasma at concentrations comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and its formation rate in a panel of human liver microsomes was strongly correlated with CYP3A4 content and midazolam hydroxylation activity. Formation of 4β,25(OH)2D3 in primary human hepatocytes was induced by rifampin and inhibited by CYP3A4-specific inhibitors. Short-term treatment of healthy volunteers (n = 6) with rifampin selectively induced CYP3A4-dependent 4β,25(OH)2D3, but not CYP24A1-dependent 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 formation, and altered systemic mineral homeostasis. Our results suggest that CYP3A4-dependent 25OHD3 metabolism may play an important role in the regulation of vitamin D3 in vivo and in the etiology of drug-induced osteomalacia. PMID:22205755

  17. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  18. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  19. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  20. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  1. Eutrophication decrease: Phosphate adsorption processes in presence of nitrates.

    PubMed

    Boeykens, Susana P; Piol, M Natalia; Samudio Legal, Lisa; Saralegui, Andrea B; Vázquez, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Eutrophication causes aquatic environment degradation as well as serious problems for different purposes of water uses. Phosphorus and nitrogen, mainly as phosphate and nitrate respectively, are considered responsible for eutrophication degradation. The focus of this work was the study of adsorption processes for decreasing phosphate and nitrate concentrations in bi-component aqueous systems. Dolomite and hydroxyapatite were selected as low-cost adsorbents. Obtained results showed that both adsorbents have high capacity for phosphate adsorption which the presence of nitrate does not modify. Hydroxyapatite proved to be the most efficient adsorbent, however, it showed a low percentage of desorption and few possibilities of reuse. Dolomite, on the other hand, allows a desorption of the adsorbed material that favours its reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic enhancing amorphization during synthesis of calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    He, Kun; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Xu, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has great application potential in biomaterials field due to its non-cytotoxicity, high bioactivity, good cytocompatibility, and so on. The results of this research demonstrated that ultrasonic obviously enhanced amorphization during synthesis of calcium phosphate. The ACP phase was relatively ideal when the solvent of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was ethanol and the solvent of (NH4)2HPO4 was a mixture of water and ethanol, under ultrasonic. In-situ crystallization of ACP could be observed by HRTEM. The mechanism on the effects of ultrasonic on amorphization of the synthesized calcium phosphate was discussed. It was suggested that ultrasonic synthesis might be a facile method to prepare pure and safe ACP related biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypophosphatemic rickets: Revealing Novel Control Points for Phosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    White, Kenneth E.; Hum, Julia M.; Econs, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and somewhat surprising advances have recently been made towards understanding the molecular mechanisms causing heritable disorders of hypophosphatemia. The results of clinical, genetic, and translational studies have interwoven novel concepts underlying the endocrine control of phosphate metabolism, with far-reaching implications for treatment of both rare, Mendelian diseases as well as common disorders of blood phosphate excess such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). In particular, diseases caused by changes in the expression and proteolytic control of the phosphaturic hormone Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) have come to the forefront in terms of directing new models explaining mineral metabolism. These hypophosphatemic disorders, as well as others resulting from independent defects in phosphate transport or metabolism, will be reviewed herein, and implications for emerging therapeutic strategies based upon these new findings will be discussed. PMID:24980542

  4. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  5. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  6. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-07

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, R; Seshadri, S K; Kwon, T Y; Kim, K H

    2008-04-01

    Use of titanium as biomaterial is possible because of its very favorable biocompatibility with living tissue. Titanium implants having calcium phosphate coatings on their surface show good fixation to the bone. This review covers briefly the requirements of typical biomaterials and narrowly focuses on the works on titanium. Calcium phosphate ceramics for use in implants are introduced and various methods of producing calcium phosphate coating on titanium substrates are elaborated. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of coating from the view point of process simplicity, cost-effectiveness, stability of the coatings, coating integration with the bone, cell behavior, and so forth are highlighted. Taking into account all these factors, the efficient method(s) of producing these coatings are indicated finally.

  8. Preparation, mechanical property and cytocompatibility of freeze-cast porous calcium phosphate ceramics reinforced by phosphate-based glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqiu; He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, phosphate-based glass (PG) was used as a sintering aid for freeze-cast porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, which was sintered under a lower temperature (1000°C). The phase composition, pore structure, compressive strength, and cytocompatibility of calcium phosphate composite ceramics (PG-BCP) were evaluated. The results indicated that PG additive reacted with calcium phosphate during the sintering process, forming β-Ca2P2O7; the ions of sodium and magnesium from PG partially substituted the calcium sites of β-calcium phosphate in BCP. The PG-BCP showed good cytocompatibility. The pore width of the porous PG-BCP ceramics was around 50μm, regardless of the amount of PG sintering aid. As the content of PG increased from 0wt.% to 15wt.%, the compressive strength of PG-BCP increased from 0.02 MP to 0.28MPa. When the PG additive was 17.5wt.%, the compressive strength of PG-BCP dramatically increased to 5.66MPa. Addition of 15wt.% PG was the critical point for the properties of PG-BCP. PG is considered as an effective sintering aid for freeze-cast porous bioceramics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphate Solubilization Potential and Phosphatase Activity Of Rhizospheric Trichoderma Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Kapri; Lakshmi, Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma sp., a well known biological control agent against several phytopathogens, was tested for its phosphate (P) solubilizing potential. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from the forest tree rhizospheres of pinus, deodar, bamboo, guava and oak on Trichoderma selective medium. The isolates were tested for their in-vitro P-solubilizing potential using National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP) broth containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, and compared with a standard culture of T. harzianum. All the cultures were found to solubilize TCP but with varying potential. The isolate DRT-1 showed maximum amount of soluble phosphate (404.07 εg.ml-1), followed by the standard culture of T. harzianum (386.42 εg.ml-1) after 96 h of incubation at 30±10C. Extra-cellular acid and alkaline phosphatases of the fungus were induced only in the presence of insoluble phosphorus source (TCP). High extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded for the isolate DRT-1 (14.50 U.ml-1) followed by the standard culture (13.41 U.ml-1) at 72h. The cultures showed much lesser acid phosphatase activities. Under glasshouse conditions, Trichoderma sp. inoculation increased chickpea (Cicer arietinum) growth parameters including shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot as well as roots, in P-deficient soil containing only bound phosphate (TCP). Shoot weight was increased by 23% and 33% by inoculation with the isolate DRT-1 in the soil amended with 100 and 200 mg TCP kg-1 soil, respectively, after 60 d of sowing. The study explores high P-solubilizing potential of Trichoderma sp., which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates present in the soil, thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. PMID:24031556

  10. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing <1 total daily dose/week and 'being totally adherent' as missing <1 total daily dose/week, every week. Mean age of patients was 67 years and 64 % of the sample was male. Over the 2 months, 78 % of the prescribed doses were taken. Every week, about half of patients were adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  11. Interaction between Nitrogen and Phosphate Stress Responses in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    DOE PAGES

    Hagberg, Kelly L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Mulder, Monika; ...

    2016-11-30

    Bacteria have developed various stress response pathways to improve their assimilation and allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphate. While both the nitrogen stress response (NSR) and phosphate stress response (PSR) have been studied individually, there are few experiments reported that characterize effects of multiple stresses on one or more pathways in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a facultatively symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, regulate the NSR activity, but analysis of global transcription changes in a PII deficient mutant suggest that the S. meliloti PII proteins may also regulate the PSR. PII double deletion mutants grow verymore » slowly and pseudoreversion of the slow growth phenotype is common. In order to understand this phenomenon better, transposon mutants were isolated that had a faster growing phenotype. One mutation was in phoB, the response regulator for a two component regulatory system that is important in the PSR. phoB::Tn5 mutants had different phenotypes in the wild type compared to a PII deficient background. This led to the hypothesis that phosphate stress affects the NSR and conversely, that nitrogen stress affects the PSR. These results show that phosphate availability affects glutamine synthetase activity and expression, which are often used as indicators of NSR activity, but that nitrogen availability did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity and expression, which are indicators of PSR activity. Finally, we conclude that the NSR is co-regulated by nitrogen and phosphate, whereas the PSR does not appear to be co-regulated by nitrogen in addition to its known phosphate regulation.« less

  12. Interaction between Nitrogen and Phosphate Stress Responses in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Hagberg, Kelly L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Mulder, Monika

    Bacteria have developed various stress response pathways to improve their assimilation and allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphate. While both the nitrogen stress response (NSR) and phosphate stress response (PSR) have been studied individually, there are few experiments reported that characterize effects of multiple stresses on one or more pathways in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a facultatively symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, regulate the NSR activity, but analysis of global transcription changes in a PII deficient mutant suggest that the S. meliloti PII proteins may also regulate the PSR. PII double deletion mutants grow verymore » slowly and pseudoreversion of the slow growth phenotype is common. In order to understand this phenomenon better, transposon mutants were isolated that had a faster growing phenotype. One mutation was in phoB, the response regulator for a two component regulatory system that is important in the PSR. phoB::Tn5 mutants had different phenotypes in the wild type compared to a PII deficient background. This led to the hypothesis that phosphate stress affects the NSR and conversely, that nitrogen stress affects the PSR. These results show that phosphate availability affects glutamine synthetase activity and expression, which are often used as indicators of NSR activity, but that nitrogen availability did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity and expression, which are indicators of PSR activity. Finally, we conclude that the NSR is co-regulated by nitrogen and phosphate, whereas the PSR does not appear to be co-regulated by nitrogen in addition to its known phosphate regulation.« less

  13. The geology of the Florida land-pebble phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.; Blade, L.V.; Davidson, D.F.; Ketner, K.B.

    1952-01-01

    The land-pebble phosphate district is on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida. The phosphate deposits are in the Bone Valley formation, dated Pliocene by most writers. These strata overlie the Miocene Hawthorn formation and are overlain by consolidated sands 3 to 20 feet thick. The minable phosphate deposits, called “matrix” in the district, range from a featheredge to about 50 feet in thickness and consist of phosphatic pellets and nodules, quartz sand, and montmorillonitic clay in about equal proportions. Locally the matrix displays cross-bedding and horizontal laminations, but elsewhere it is structureless. The phosphorite particles, composed largely of carbonate-fluorapatite, range in diameter from less than 0.1 mm to about 60 cm and in P2O5 content from 30 to 36 percent. Coarse-pebble deposits, containing 30 to 34 percent P2O5 are found mainly on basement highs; and fine-pebble deposits, containing 32 to 36 percent P2O5 are, are found in basement lows. Deposits in the northern part of the field contain more phosphate particles and their P2O5 content is higher than those in the southern part. The upper part of the phosphatic strata is leached to an advanced degree and consists of quartz sand and clay-sized particules of pseudowavellite and wavellite. The leached zone ranges in thickness from a featheredge to 60 feet. The origin of the land-pebble deposits is incompletely known. Possible modes of origin are a residuum of Miocene age, or a reworked residuum of Pliocene or Quaternary age.

  14. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  15. Ultraviolet optical absorptions of semiconducting copper phosphate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a quantitative investigation of the change in UV optical absorption in semiconducting copper phosphate glasses with batch compositions of 40, 50, and 55 percent CuO, as a function of the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glasses for each glass composition. It was found that optical energy gap, E(opt), of copper phosphate glass is a function of both glass composition and Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glass. E(opt) increases as the CuO content for fixed Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio and the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio for fixed glass composition are reduced.

  16. Thermolabile triose phosphate isomerase in a psychrophilic Clostridium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. W.; Akagi, J. M.; Himes, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    It was found that a psychrophilic Clostridium contains a triose phosphate isomerase which is very labile at moderate temperatures. An investigation showed that the optimal growth temperature of the psychrophile was between 15 and 20 deg C. No growth occurred at 25 deg C. The thermostability of the glycolytic enzymes in the cell-free extracts of Clostridium sp. strain 69 was studied. The data obtained show that the triose phosphate isomerase is quite labile at moderate temperatures. The instability of the enzyme is sufficient to explain the low maximum growth temperature of the psychrophile.

  17. Chemically durable phosphate glasses and a method for their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Day, D.E.; Wilder, J.A. Jr.

    The chemical durability of alkali phosphate glasses is improved by incorporation of up to 23 weight percent of nitrogen. A typical phosphate glass contains: 10 to 60 mole % of Li/sub 2/O, Na/sub 2/O or K/sub 2/O; 5 to 40 mole % of BaO or CaO; 0 to 1 to 10 mole % of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/; and 40 to 70 mole % of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Nitrides, such as AlN, are the favored additives.

  18. Cost of phosphate removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction and operating costs of advanced wastewater treatment for phosphate removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants have been investigated on orders from the Federal Environmental Bureau in Berlin. Particular attention has been paid to applicable kinds of precipitants for pre-, simultaneous and post-precipitation as well as to different phosphate influent and effluent concentrations. The article offers detailed comments on determination of technical data, investments, capital costs, operating costs and annual costs as well as potential cost reductions resulting from precipitation. Selected results of the cost investigation are shown in graphical form as specific investments, operating and annual costs depending on wastewater flow.

  19. Formation of glycolaldehyde phosphate from glycolaldehyde in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Eschenmoser, A.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Amidotriphosphate (0.1 M) in aqueous solution at near neutral pH in the presence of magnesium ions (0.25 M) converts glycolaldehyde (0.025 M) within days at room temperature into glycolaldehyde phosphate in (analytically) nearly quantitative yields (76% in isolated product). This robust phosphorylation process was observed to proceed at concentrations as low as 30 microM glycolaldehyde and 60 microM phosphorylation reagent under otherwise identical conditions. In sharp contrast, attempts to achieve a phosphorylation of glycolaldehyde with cyclotriphosphate ('trimetaphosphate') as phosphorylating reagent were unsuccessful. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of glycolaldehyde with amidotriphosphate is an example of intramolecular delivery of the phosphate group.

  20. U. S. PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY: REVISED PROSPECTS AND POTENTIAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent E.

    1985-01-01

    Although the United States is the world's largest producer and exporter of phosphates, serious doubts have arisen in recent years that U. S. deposits could sustain this important role. The development of borehole mining; i. e. , extracting the phosphate matrix as a slurry through a drill hole, however, is cause for optimism. Commercial borehole mining is still years away, but the potential advantages are numerous and important. Recent surveys also suggest that offshore deposits and deeply buried onshore deposits much exceed previous estimates. On the basis of the new technology and revised resource estimates, one can easily see the potential for increased production from U. S. deposits.

  1. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth of calcium phosphates on magnesium substrates for corrosion control in biomedical applications via immersion techniques.

    PubMed

    Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Walker, Jemimah; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J; Pietak, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable replacement for current permanent metals used in orthopedic applications. Current investigations concentrate on the control of the corrosion rate to match bone healing. Calcium phosphate coatings have been a recent focus of these investigations through various coating protocols. Within this investigation, an in situ crystallization technique was utilized as an inexpensive and relatively simple method to produce a brushite and monetite coating on pure Mg. Coatings were characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion protection properties of the coatings were assessed in physiological buffers, Earles balanced salt solution, minimum essential media, and minimum essential media containing serum albumin, over a 4-week period. Using this novel coating protocol, our findings indicate brushite and monetite coated Mg to have significant corrosive protective effects when compared with its uncoated counterpart whilst maintaining high coating substrate adhesion, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Chloroplast Protease AMOS1/EGY1 Affects Phosphate Homeostasis under Phosphate Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang Wei; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Li, Guang Jie; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Wei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Plastid intramembrane proteases in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and flower morphology. Here, we show that Ammonium-Overly-Sensitive1 (AMOS1), a member of the family of plastid intramembrane proteases, plays an important role in the maintenance of phosphate (P) homeostasis under P stress. Loss of function of AMOS1 revealed a striking resistance to P starvation. amos1 plants displayed retarded root growth and reduced P accumulation in the root compared to wild type (Col-0) under P-replete control conditions, but remained largely unaffected by P starvation, displaying comparable P accumulation and root and shoot growth under P-deficient conditions. Further analysis revealed that, under P-deficient conditions, the cell wall, especially the pectin fraction of amos1, released more P than that of wild type, accompanied by a reduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) level and an increase in ethylene production. By using an ABA-insensitive mutant, abi4, and applying ABA and ACC exogenously, we found that ABA inhibits cell wall P remobilization while ethylene facilitates P remobilization from the cell wall by increasing the pectin concentration, suggesting ABA can counteract the effect of ethylene. Furthermore, the elevated ABA level and the lower ethylene production also correlated well with the mimicked P deficiency in amos1. Thus, our study uncovers the role of AMOS1 in the maintenance of P homeostasis through ABA-antagonized ethylene signaling. PMID:27516532

  4. Transcription of the pst Operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum Is Dependent on Phosphate Concentration and pH

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Oehmcke, Sonja; Meyer, Uta; Mix, Maren; Schwarz, Katrin; Fiedler, Tomas; Bahl, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The pst operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comprises five genes, pstS, pstC, pstA, pstB, and phoU, and shows a gene architecture identical to that of Escherichia coli. Deduced proteins are predicted to represent a high-affinity phosphate-specific ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system (Pst) and a protein homologous to PhoU, a negative phosphate regulon regulator. We analyzed the expression patterns of the pst operon in Pi-limited chemostat cultures during acid production at pH 5.8 or solvent production at pH 4.5 and in response to Pi pulses. Specific mRNA transcripts were found only when external Pi concentrations had dropped below 0.2 mM. Two specific transcripts were detected, a 4.7-kb polycistronic mRNA spanning the whole operon and a quantitatively dominating 1.2-kb mRNA representing the first gene, pstS. The mRNA levels clearly differed depending on the external pH. The amounts of the full-length mRNA detected were about two times higher at pH 5.8 than at pH 4.5. The level of pstS mRNA increased by a factor of at least 8 at pH 5.8 compared to pH 4.5 results. Primer extension experiments revealed only one putative transcription start point 80 nucleotides upstream of pstS. Thus, additional regulatory sites are proposed in the promoter region, integrating two different extracellular signals, namely, depletion of inorganic phosphate and the pH of the environment. After phosphate pulses were applied to a phosphate-limited chemostat we observed faster phosphate consumption at pH 5.8 than at pH 4.5, although higher optical densities were recorded at pH 4.5. PMID:16855236

  5. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery using Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-...

  6. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  7. Adsorption of Phosphate on Goethite: An Undergraduate Research Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Lorena; Barja, Beatriz C.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the adsorption of phosphate on goethite is presented, which also includes discussion on surface properties, interfaces, acid-base equilibrium, molecular structure and solid state chemistry. It was seen that many students were able to produce qualitatively correct results for a complex system of real interest and they…

  8. Phosphate interference during in situ treatment for arsenic in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic is a problem in many areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh, where reducing conditions in groundwater are the cause. In situ treatment is a novel approach wherein, by introduction of dissolved oxygen (DO), advantages over other treatment methods can be achieved through simplicity, not using chemicals, and not requiring disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. A lab-scale test of in situ treatment by air sparging, using a solution with approximately 5.3 mg L(-1) ferrous iron and 200 μg L(-1) arsenate, showed removal of arsenate in the range of 59%. A significant obstacle exists, however, due to the interference of phosphate since phosphate competes for adsorption sites on oxidized iron precipitates. A lab-scale test including 0.5 mg L(-1) phosphate showed negligible removal of arsenate. In situ treatment by air sparging demonstrates considerable promise for removal of arsenic from groundwater where iron is present in considerable quantities and phosphates are low.

  9. A retrospective study of proteinuria in dogs receiving toceranib phosphate.

    PubMed

    Piscoya, Sindy L; Hume, Kelly R; Balkman, Cheryl E

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of proteinuria in humans receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been well-documented. Reports of proteinuria with this class of drugs are limited in veterinary medicine. This retrospective study describes the incidence, severity, and progression of proteinuria in 55 dogs treated with toceranib phosphate, with or without concurrent glucocorticoid or NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Six dogs were proteinuric at baseline. Twelve of the 49 dogs that were not proteinuric at baseline developed proteinuria while receiving toceranib phosphate. Median urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio when proteinuria developed was 0.75 (range: 0.6 to 4.9). There was no association with intermittent glucocorticoid or NSAID use and development of proteinuria ( P = 0.5 and P = 0.7, respectively). Overall duration of toceranib phosphate treatment ranged from 70 to 802 days in proteinuric dogs and 28 to 1285 days in non-proteinuric dogs. Our results indicate a subset of dogs receiving toceranib phosphate may develop proteinuria; careful monitoring with serial UPCs is recommended.

  10. Structure of the inositol-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Kurnasov, Oleg V; Luk, Hung-Jie Daniel; Roberts, Mary F; Stec, Boguslaw

    2013-09-01

    The unique steps in the synthesis of an unusual osmolyte in hyperthermophiles, di-myo-inositol-1,1'-phosphate (DIP), involve the production of CDP-inositol and its condensation with an inositol-1-phosphate molecule to form phosphorylated DIP. While many organisms fuse both activities into a single enzyme, the two are separate in Thermotoga maritima. The crystal structure of the T. maritima inositol-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, which as a soluble protein may transiently associate with its membrane-embedded partner phospho-DIP synthase (P-DIPS), has now been obtained. The structure shows a conserved motif of sugar nucleotide transferases (COG1213) with a structurally reinforced C-terminal Cys bonded to the core of the protein. A bound arsenosugar identifies the location of the active site for inositol 1-phosphate. Based on homologous structures from several species and the identification of the crucial conserved aspartate residue, a catalytic mechanism for this enzyme is proposed as well as a mode for its association with P-DIPS. This structure imposes constraints on the mode of association, communication and temperature activation of two separate enzymes in T. maritima. For the first time, a working model for the membrane-bound P-DIPS unit has been constructed. This sheds light on the functioning of the phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol synthases involved in many physiological processes that are homologous to P-DIPS. This work provides fresh insights into the synthesis of the unusual thermoprotective compound DIP in hyperthermophiles.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section 522.1244 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... your veterinarian before using in severely debilitated animals or animals under severe stress. Do not...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe suspended in 1/2 ounce of water for each 100 pounds of body weight; or sprinkled over a small amount of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe suspended in 1/2 ounce of water for each 100 pounds of body weight; or sprinkled over a small amount of...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe suspended in 1/2 ounce of water for each 100 pounds of body weight; or sprinkled over a small amount of...

  15. Modelling aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluektov, Pavel P.; Schmidt, Olga V.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2017-02-01

    A model is presented on nuclear sodium alumina phosphate (NAP) glass aqueous corrosion accounting for dissolution of radioactive glass and formation of corrosion products surface layer on the glass contacting ground water of a disposal environment. Modelling is used to process available experimental data demonstrating the generic inhibiting role of corrosion products on the NAP glass surface.

  16. Lowered dietary phosphate increases oral bioavailability of arsenate in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate (iAsv), an inorganic oxyanionic species, has physicochemical properties similar to inorganic phosphate (iP). There is evidence that iAsv competes with iP for transmembrane carriers that mediate iP uptake. Thus, it is possible that altered dietary intake of iP could modif...

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC SPECIATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LEAD IN PHOSPHATE AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The immobilization of Pb in contaminated soils as pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3CI, OH, F] through the addition of various phosphate amendments has gained much attention in the remediation community. However, it is difficult to fully determine the specia...

  18. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  19. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated...

  20. Chemical activation of gasification carbon residue for phosphate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpimaa, Sari; Runtti, Hanna; Lassi, Ulla; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of waste materials provides an economical and environmentally significant method to reduce the amount of waste. Bioash formed in the gasification process possesses a notable amount of unburned carbon and therefore it can be called a carbon residue. After chemical activation carbon residue could be use to replace activated carbon for example in wastewater purification processes. The effect of chemical activation process variables such as chemical agents and contact time in the chemical activation process were investigated. This study also explored the effectiveness of the chemically activated carbon residue for the removal of phosphate from an aqueous solution. The experimental adsorption study was performed in a batch reactor and the influence of adsorption time, initial phosphate concentration and pH was studied. Due to the carbon residue's low cost and high adsorption capacity, this type of waste has the potential to be utilised for the cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewaters. Potential adsorbents could be prepared from these carbonaceous by-products and used as an adsorbent for phosphate removal.

  1. Analysis of Phosphate Acquisition Efficiency in Different Arabidopsis Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Ram A.; Bruene, Asja; Altmann, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The morphological and physiological characteristics of Arabidopsis accessions differing in their phosphate acquisition efficiencies (PAEs) when grown on a sparingly soluble phosphate source (hydroxylapatite) were analyzed. A set of 36 accessions was subjected to an initial PAE evaluation following cultivation on synthetic, agarose-solidified media containing potassium phosphate (soluble) or hydroxylapatite (sparingly soluble). From the five most divergent accessions identified in this way, C24, Co, and Cal exhibited high PAEs, whereas Col-0 and Te exhibited low PAEs. These five accessions were analyzed in detail. Significant differences were found in root morphology, phosphate uptake kinetics, organic acid release, rhizosphere acidification, and the ability of roots to penetrate substrates. Long root hairs at high densities, high uptake per unit root length, and high substrate penetration ability in the efficient accessions C24 and Co mediate their high PAEs. The third accession with high PAE, Cal, exhibits a high shoot-to-root ratio, long roots with long root hairs, and rhizosphere acidification. These results are consistent with previous observations and highlight the suitability of using Arabidopsis accessions to identify and isolate genes determining the PAE in plants. PMID:11115894

  2. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of certain potassium... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China. \\1\\ The...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. Phosphate and phytate adsorption and precipitation on ferrihydrite surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Yongfeng; Tang, Yadong

    Phosphorous (P) sorption on mineral surfaces largely controls P mobility and bioavailability, hence its pollution potential, but the sorption speciation and mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we have identified and quantified the speciation of both phosphate and phytate sorbed on ferrihydrite with various P loadings at pH 3–8 using differential atomic pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD), and P and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. With increasing P sorption loading for both phosphate and phytate, the sorption mechanism transits from bidentate-binuclear surface complexation tomore » unidentified ternary complexation and to precipitation of amorphous FePO 4 and amorphous Fe-phytate. At a given P sorption loading, phosphate precipitates more readily than phytate. Both phosphate and phytate promote ferrihydrite dissolution with phytate more intensively, but the dissolved FeIII concentration in the bulk solution is low because the majority of the released Fe III precipitate with the anions. Results also show that amorphous FePO 4 and amorphous Fe-phytate have similar PO 4 local coordination environment. In conclusion, these new insights into the P surface complexation and precipitation, and the ligand-promoted dissolution behavior improve our understanding of P fate in soils, aquatic environment and water treatment systems as mediated by mineral-water interfacial reactions.« less

  6. Phosphate and phytate adsorption and precipitation on ferrihydrite surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Yongfeng; Tang, Yadong; ...

    2017-09-26

    Phosphorous (P) sorption on mineral surfaces largely controls P mobility and bioavailability, hence its pollution potential, but the sorption speciation and mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we have identified and quantified the speciation of both phosphate and phytate sorbed on ferrihydrite with various P loadings at pH 3–8 using differential atomic pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD), and P and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. With increasing P sorption loading for both phosphate and phytate, the sorption mechanism transits from bidentate-binuclear surface complexation tomore » unidentified ternary complexation and to precipitation of amorphous FePO 4 and amorphous Fe-phytate. At a given P sorption loading, phosphate precipitates more readily than phytate. Both phosphate and phytate promote ferrihydrite dissolution with phytate more intensively, but the dissolved FeIII concentration in the bulk solution is low because the majority of the released Fe III precipitate with the anions. Results also show that amorphous FePO 4 and amorphous Fe-phytate have similar PO 4 local coordination environment. In conclusion, these new insights into the P surface complexation and precipitation, and the ligand-promoted dissolution behavior improve our understanding of P fate in soils, aquatic environment and water treatment systems as mediated by mineral-water interfacial reactions.« less

  7. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (0.3 ounce of powder) per 100 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (0.3 ounce of powder) per 100 pounds of body weight. (2) Indications...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section 721.10302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section 721.10302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section 721.10302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium...

  12. DECREASING LEAD BIOAVAILABILITY OF MINE WASTES: TWO PHOSPHATE FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Findings from two evaluation studies of phosphate-based in situ treatment of soils for reducing lead (Pb) bioavailability at two lead mining and lead refining Superfund sites will be presented and discussed. These assessments correlated physicochemical data with results obtained...

  13. Low phosphate alters lateral root setpoint angle and gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hanwen; Murali, Bhavna; Barber, Kevin; Wolverton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Lateral roots, responsible for water and nutrient uptake, maintain nonvertical angles throughout development. Soil phosphate is one limiting nutrient for plant growth that is known to induce changes to root system architecture, such as increased lateral root formation. This study seeks to determine whether phosphate concentration affects lateral root orientation in addition to its previously described influences on root architecture. Images of intact Arabidopsis root systems were recorded for 24 h, and lateral root tip angles were measured for wild-type and mutant pgm-1 and pin3-1 roots on a full or low phosphate medium. Setpoint angles of unstimulated root systems were determined, as were gravitropic responses of lateral roots over time. The root system setpoint angles of wild-type and mutant pin3-1 roots showed a shift toward a more vertical orientation on low orthophosphate (Pi) medium. The gravitropic responses of both pgm-1 and pin3-1 roots on low Pi medium was elevated relative to control Pi medium. Mutations in two phosphate transporters with high levels of expression in the root showed a gravitropic response similar to wild-type roots grown on low Pi, supporting a role for Pi status in regulating lateral root gravitropism. Lateral root orientation and gravitropism are affected by Pi status and may provide an important additional parameter for describing root responses to low Pi. The data also support the conclusion that gravitropic setpoint angle reacts to nutrient status and is under dynamic regulation.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  17. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphate abnormalities in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Radin, Bethany; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Derangements of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These minerals have vital roles in the cellular physiology of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. This article describes the pathophysiology of these mineral disorders. It aims to provide the emergency practitioner with an overview of the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Congenital hemolytic anemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Mura, M; Saidi, R; Wolf, A; Moalic, J L; Oliver, M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme defect with a wide range of clinical manifestations that can be severe. A variety of factors including many medications can induce hemolytic episodes. Screening for G6PD deficiency is required before use of some drugs especially primaquine or dapsone.

  19. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  20. Fulminant hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moiz, Bushra; Ali, Sidra Asad

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder affecting some 400 million people worldwide. Though clinically silent, it may result in hemolysis on oxidative stress induced by drugs or infections. Viral hepatitis A with coexisting G6PD deficiency can be devastating associated with severe hemolysis, anemia, renal failure, and hepatic encephalopathy.