Science.gov

Sample records for a4-based tri-bimaximal mixing

  1. Minimal modification of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sin Kyu

    2017-12-01

    We confront possible forms of the minimal modification of the tri-bimaximal (TBM) neutrino mixing matrix proposed by Kang and Kim (Phys. Rev. D 90, 077301 (2014)) with the latest global fit to neutrino data. One form among them is singled out by the current experimental results at 1σ confidence level (C.L.) The minimal modification of the TBM mixing matrix makes possible the prediction of Dirac-type CP phase in the Pontecorbo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata neutrino mixing matrix in terms of two neutrino mixing angles. By carrying out a numerical analysis based on the latest experimental results for neutrino mixing angles, we are able to present new results on the prediction of the Dirac-type CP phase. We also compare our results on CP violation with those from the current global fit at 1 σ C.L.

  2. "Hidden" O(2) and SO(2) symmetry in lepton mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-02-01

    To generate the minimal neutrino Majorana mass matrix that has a free solar mixing angle and Δ m_{{^{text{sol}}}}^2 = 0 it suffices to implement an O(2) symmetry, or one of its subgroups SO(2), ZN ≥3, or DN ≥3. This O(2) generalizes the hidden {text{Z}}_{{^{{2}}}}^s of lepton mixing and leads in addition automatically to μ-τ symmetry. Flavor-democratic perturbations, as expected e.g. from the Planck scale, then result in tri-bimaximal mixing. We present a minimal model with three Higgs doublets implementing a type-I seesaw mechanism with a spontaneous breakdown of the symmetry, leading to large θ 13 and small Δ m_{{^{text{sol}}}}^2 = 0 due to the particular decomposition of the perturbations under μ-τ symmetry.

  3. Radiative corrections to the solar lepton mixing sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-08-01

    The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles ( θ 12, θ 13, θ 23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the solar lepton mixing sum rule θ 12 ≈ θ 12 ν + θ 13 cos δ, where θ 12 ν stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θ 12 ν = 45 ° for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{2}) ≈ 35.3° for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{5+1}) ≈ 31.7° for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. For illustration, we work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.

  4. Renormalisation group corrections to neutrino mixing sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrlein, J.; Petcov, S. T.; Spinrath, M.; Titov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Neutrino mixing sum rules are common to a large class of models based on the (discrete) symmetry approach to lepton flavour. In this approach the neutrino mixing matrix U is assumed to have an underlying approximate symmetry form Ũν, which is dictated by, or associated with, the employed (discrete) symmetry. In such a setup the cosine of the Dirac CP-violating phase δ can be related to the three neutrino mixing angles in terms of a sum rule which depends on the symmetry form of Ũν. We consider five extensively discussed possible symmetry forms of Ũν: i) bimaximal (BM) and ii) tri-bimaximal (TBM) forms, the forms corresponding to iii) golden ratio type A (GRA) mixing, iv) golden ratio type B (GRB) mixing, and v) hexagonal (HG) mixing. For each of these forms we investigate the renormalisation group corrections to the sum rule predictions for δ in the cases of neutrino Majorana mass term generated by the Weinberg (dimension 5) operator added to i) the Standard Model, and ii) the minimal SUSY extension of the Standard Model.

  5. Flavon-induced connections between lepton flavour mixing and charged lepton flavour violation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2016-10-01

    In leptonic flavour models with discrete flavour symmetries, couplings between flavons and leptons can result in special flavour structures after they gain vacuum expectation values. At the same time, they can also contribute to the other lepton-flavour-violating processes. We study the flavon-induced LFV 3-body charged lepton decays and radiative decays and we take as example the A 4 discrete symmetry. In A 4 models, a Z 3 residual symmetry roughly holds in the charged lepton sector for the realisation of tri-bimaximal mixing at leading order. The only processes allowed by this symmetry are τ - → μ + e - e - , e + μ - μ -, and the other 3-body and all radiative decays are suppressed by small Z 3-breaking effects. These processes also depend on the representation the flavon is in, whether pseudo-real (case i) or complex (case ii). We calculate the decay rates for all processes for each case and derive their strong connection with lepton flavour mixing. In case i, sum rules for the branching ratios of these processes are obtained, with typical examples Br( τ - → μ + e - e -) ≈ Br( τ - → e + μ - μ -) and Br( τ - → e -γ) ≈ Br( τ - → μ -γ). In case ii, we observe that the mixing between two Z 3-covariant flavons plays an important role. All processes are suppressed by charged lepton masses and current experimental con- straints allow the electroweak scale and the flavon masses to be around hundreds of GeV. Our discussion can be generalised in other flavour models with different flavour symmetries.

  6. Nonzero θ13 from the Triangular Ansatz and Leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaoum, H. B.

    2012-08-01

    Recent experiments indicate a departure from the exact tri-bimaximal mixing by measure ring definitive nonzero value of θ13. Within the framework of type I seesaw mechanism, we reconstruct the triangular Dirac neutrino mass matrix from the μ - τ symmetric mass matrix. The deviation from μ - τ symmetry is then parametrized by adding dimensionless parameters yi in the triangular mass matrix. In this parametrization of the neutrino mass matrix, the nonzero value θ13 is controlled by Δy = y4 - y6. We also calculate the resulting leptogenesis and show that the triangular texture can generate the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe via leptogenesis scenario.

  7. Generic Friedberg-Lee symmetry of Dirac neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Shu; Xing Zhizhong; Li Xin

    2008-12-01

    We write out the generic Dirac neutrino mass operator which possesses the Friedberg-Lee symmetry and find that its corresponding neutrino mass matrix is asymmetric. Following a simple way to break the Friedberg-Lee symmetry, we calculate the neutrino mass eigenvalues and show that the resultant neutrino mixing pattern is nearly tri-bimaximal. Imposing the Hermitian condition on the neutrino mass matrix, we also show that the simplified ansatz is consistent with current experimental data and favors the normal neutrino mass hierarchy.

  8. Chirp mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we develop the theory of chirp mixing in NMR spectroscopy. The working principle is simple, given coupled homonuclear spins with offsets in range [ - B, B ] , we adiabatically sweep through the resonances. This achieves cross polarization between the z magnetization of the coupled spins. We repeat this basic operation many times with a supercycle to achieve appropriate mixing time. When we sweep through the resonances, midway between the resonances of the coupled spin I and S, the effective field seen by two spins is the same and hence they precess at same frequency around their effective fields. This means the coupling, which normally gets averaged out due to the chemical shift difference is no more averaged out for a short time and we get mixing. In this paper, we develop these basic ideas. By virtue of its design, the chirp mixing is much more broadband compared to state of the art methods. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on 13 C mixing in a sample of Alanine.

  9. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  10. Conservative mixing, competitive mixing and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2010-12-01

    In many of the models applied to simulations of turbulent transport and turbulent combustion, the mixing between particles is used to reflect the influence of the continuous diffusion terms in the transport equations. Stochastic particles with properties and mixing can be used not only for simulating turbulent combustion, but also for modeling a large spectrum of physical phenomena. Traditional mixing, which is commonly used in the modeling of turbulent reacting flows, is conservative: the total amount of scalar is (or should be) preserved during a mixing event. It is worthwhile, however, to consider a more general mixing that does not possess these conservative properties; hence, our consideration lies beyond traditional mixing. In non-conservative mixing, the particle post-mixing average becomes biased towards one of the particles participating in mixing. The extreme form of non-conservative mixing can be called competitive mixing or competition: after a mixing event, the loser particle simply receives the properties of the winner particle. Particles with non-conservative mixing can be used to emulate various phenomena involving competition. In particular, we investigate cyclic behavior that can be attributed to complex competing systems. We show that the localness and intransitivity of competitive mixing are linked to the cyclic behavior.

  11. Housing Mix, School Mix: Barriers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camina, M. M.; Iannone, P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent UK policy has emphasised both the development of socially mixed communities and the creation of balanced school intakes. In this paper, we use a case study of an area of mixed tenure in eastern England to explore policy in practice and the extent to which mechanisms of segregation impact on both the creation of socially mixed neighbourhoods…

  12. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  13. Blended aggregate bituminous mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    Virginia has provided skid resistant pavements in the limestone area of the state by placing thin overlays of sand mixes incorporating local materials, by sprinkling highly skid resistant aggregates on limestone bituminous mixes prior to rolling, and...

  14. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  15. Rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and field installation of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell rubber by weight of the mix. The performance is discussed as well as possible reasons for the early failure of the mix. Suggestions are made ...

  16. Foundations of chaotic mixing.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

    2004-05-15

    The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations.

  17. Electroosmotic mixing in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Ian; Batton, John; Aubry, Nadine

    2004-12-01

    Mixing is an essential, yet challenging, process step for many Lab on a Chip (LOC) applications. This paper presents a method of mixing for microfluidic devices that relies upon electroosmotic flow. In physical tests and in computer simulations, we periodically vary the electric field with time to mix two aqueous solutions. Good mixing is shown to occur when the electroosmotic flow at the two inlets pulse out of phase, the Strouhal number is on the order of 1, and the pulse volumes are on the order of the intersection volume.

  18. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  19. Mixed Polyanion Glass Cathodes: Mixed Alkali Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, A. K.; Chapel, A. S.; Kolopus, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    In lithium-ion batteries, mixed polyanion glass cathodes have demonstrated high capacities (200-500 mAh/g) by undergoing conversion and intercalation reactions. Mixed polyanion glasses typically have the same fundamental issues as other conversion cathodes, i.e.: large hysteresis, capacity fade, and 1st-cycle irreversible loss. A key advantage of glass cathodes is the ability to tailor their composition to optimize the desired physical properties and electrochemical performance. The strong dependence of glass physical properties (e.g., ionic diffusivity, electrical conductivity, and chemical durability) on the composition of alkali mixtures in a glass is well known and has been named the mixed alkali effect. The mixedmore » alkali effect on battery electrochemical properties is reported here for the first time. Depending on glass composition, the mixed alkali effect is shown to improve capacity retention during cycling (from 39% to 50% after 50 cycle test), to reduce the 1st-cycle irreversible loss (from 41% to 22%), and improve the high power (500 mA/g) capacity (from 50% to 67% of slow discharge capacity).« less

  20. Warm Mix Asphalt

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  1. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  2. High-mix insulins

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Farooqi, Mohammad Hamed; El-Houni, Ali E.

    2015-01-01

    Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use. PMID:26425485

  3. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  4. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  5. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  6. Features of neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    The elements (squared) of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross." Using the known vacuum mixing parameters as initial conditions, it is found that these equations have very good approximate solutions, for all values of the induced mass. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments.

  7. Rapid microfluidic mixing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Ross, David; Locascio, Laurie E

    2002-01-01

    A preformed T-microchannel imprinted in polycarbonate was postmodified with a pulsed UV excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm) to create a series of slanted wells at the junction. The presence of the wells leads to a high degree of lateral transport within the channel and rapid mixing of two confluent streams undergoing electroosmotic flow. Several mixer designs were fabricated and investigated. All designs were relatively successful at low flow rates (0.06 cm/s, > or = 75% mixing), but had varying degrees of success at high flow rates (0.81 cm/s, 45-80% mixing). For example, one design operating at high flow rates was able to split an incoming fluorescent stream into two streams of varying concentrations depending on the number of slanted wells present. The final mixer design was able to overcome stream splitting at high flow rates, and it was shown that the two incoming streams were 80% mixed within 443 microm of the T-junction for a flow rate of 0.81 cm/s. Without the presence of the mixer and at the same high flow rate, a channel length of 2.3 cm would be required to achieve the same extent of mixing when relying upon molecular diffusion entirely, while 6.9 cm would be required for 99% mixing.

  8. Stratified mixing by microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Gregory; Young, William; Lauga, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Vertical mixing is of fundamental significance to the general circulation, climate, and life in the ocean. In this work we consider whether organisms swimming at low Reynolds numbers might collectively contribute substantially to vertical mixing. Scaling analysis indicates that the mixing efficiency η, or the ratio between the rate of potential energy conversion and total work done on the fluid, should scale with η ~(a / l) 3 as a / l --> 0 , where a is the size of the organism and l = (νκ /N2)1/4 is an intrinsic length scale of a stratified fluid with kinematic viscosity ν, tracer diffusivity κ, and buoyancy frequency N2. A regularized singularity model demonstrates this scaling, indicating that in this same limit η ~ 1.2 (a / l) 3 for vertical swimming and η ~ 0.14 (a / l ) 3 for horizontal swimming. The model further predicts the absolute maximum mixing efficiency of an ensemble of randomly oriented organisms is around 6% and that the greatest mixing efficiencies in the ocean (in regions of strong salt-stratification) are closer to 0.1%, implying that the total contribution of microorganisms to vertical ocean mixing is negligible.

  9. Investigation of alternative curb mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    The objective was to design and test mixes that might satisfactorily be used to replace the asbestos curb mix. Tentatively, it was recommended that a Gilsonite mix be used where high stability was required.

  10. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  11. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  12. The Charged Lepton Mass Matrix and Non-zero θ13 with TeV Scale New Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

    2012-03-01

    We provide an explicit structure of the charged lepton mass matrix which is 2-3 symmetric except for a single breaking of this symmetry by the muon mass. We identify a flavor symmetric limit for the mass matrices where the first generation is decoupled from the other two in the charged lepton sector while in the neutrino sector the third generation is decoupled from the first two generations. The leptonic mixing in the symmetric limit can be, among other structures, the bi-maximal (BM) or the tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing. Symmetry breaking effects are included both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent θ13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and two singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.[4pt] This work was supported in part by the US-Egypt Joint Board on Scientific and Technological Co-operation award (Project ID: 1855) administered by the US Department of Agriculture, summer grant from the College of Liberal Arts, University of Mississippi and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1068052 and 1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  13. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatorymore » and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.« less

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  16. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  17. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  18. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  19. Radial mixing in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segaert, P.; Hirsch, Ch.; Deruyck, J.

    1991-03-01

    A method for computing the effects of radial mixing in a turbomachinery blade row has been developed. The method fits in the framework of a quasi-3D flow computation and hence is applied in a corrective fashion to through flow distributions. The method takes into account both secondary flows and turbulent diffusion as possible sources of mixing. Secondary flow velocities determine the magnitude of the convection terms in the energy redistribution equation while a turbulent diffusion coefficient determines the magnitude of the diffusion terms. Secondary flows are computed by solving a Poisson equation for a secondary streamfunction on a transversal S3-plane, whereby the right-hand side axial vorticity is composed of different contributions, each associated to a particular flow region: inviscid core flow, end-wall boundary layers, profile boundary layers and wakes. The turbulent mixing coefficient is estimated by a semi-empirical correlation. Secondary flow theory is applied to the VUB cascade testcase and comparisons are made between the computational results and the extensive experimental data available for this testcase. This comparison shows that the secondary flow computations yield reliable predictions of the secondary flow pattern, both qualitatively and quantitatively, taking into account the limitations of the model. However, the computations show that use of a uniform mixing coefficient has to be replaced by a more sophisticated approach.

  20. Mixed valent metals

    SciTech Connect

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, Jon M.

    Here, we review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effectmore » and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger's theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Nozieres exhaustion principle, Doniach's diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.« less

  1. Mixed valent metals

    DOE PAGES

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, Jon M.

    2016-07-04

    Here, we review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effectmore » and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger's theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Nozieres exhaustion principle, Doniach's diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.« less

  2. Electroosmotic Mixing in Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlisk, A. T.; Chen, Lei

    2004-11-01

    Electroosmotic flow in nanochannels is characterized by low Reynolds number in which flow mixing is difficult because of the dominance of molecular diffusion. Previous work shows that heterogenerous surface potential could generate a circulation region within the bulk flow near the surface. But all of this work requires that the ionic species be pairs of ions of equal and opposite valence and the distribution of ions is not considered. In the present work the electroosmotic flow in a rectangular channel with non-uniform zeta potential is examined. A model for the two dimensional electroosmotic flow problem is established. The distributions of potential, velocity and mole fractions are calculated numerically. Vortex formation is observed within the bulk flow near the the region of non-uniform zeta potential which suggests mixing can be induced.

  3. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  4. Stability of mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  5. Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa's, respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design met...

  6. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  7. MixSIAR: advanced stable isotope mixing models in R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...

  8. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  9. Experimental mixes to minimize rutting.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the materials and construction details involved in the design and placement of four experimental mixes on I-95 (Richmond- Petersburg Turnpike) in 1985 and follows the performance for 48 months. The mixes were designed to resist ...

  10. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  11. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  12. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  13. The boundary is mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Haggard, Hal M.; Rovelli, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    We show that in Oeckl's boundary formalism the boundary vectors that do not have a tensor form represent, in a precise sense, statistical states. Therefore the formalism incorporates quantum statistical mechanics naturally. We formulate general-covariant quantum statistical mechanics in this language. We illustrate the formalism by showing how it accounts for the Unruh effect. We observe that the distinction between pure and mixed states weakens in the general covariant context, suggesting that local gravitational processes are naturally statistical without a sharp quantal versus probabilistic distinction.

  14. Prefrontal bore mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Hans; Duineveld, Gerard; de Stigter, Henko

    2017-09-01

    Rainbow Ridge, a 1950 m deep upthrusted ultramafic block along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has an active hydrothermal vent system at 2400 m on its western slope. However, within 1 km from the vent excessive temperatures are barely measurable, probably due to strong turbulent mixing. This mixing is studied here using a 400 m long high-resolution temperature sensor array moored with a 600 m ranging 75 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler. Rich internal wave turbulence was recorded, characterized by 100-200 m upshoots and >200 m large overturning in particular near the end of the warming phase of the up and down moving tide. These highly nonlinear internal waves of tides interacting with buoyancy frequency waves extend up to 400 m above the sloping bottom of the ridge. While a turbulent "bottom boundary layer" could barely be defined, the more intense turbulence higher up in the water column is suggested to lead to the strong dispersion of the hydrothermal plume.

  15. System equivalent model mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  16. Transition mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

  17. Transient Chaotic Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollub, J. P.; Rothstein, David; Losert, Wolfgang

    1998-11-01

    We report a systematic experimental study of transient mixing in a family of two-dimensional vortex flows driven by magneto-hydrodynamic forces. The forcing method allows a number of distinct cases to be investigated spanning the range from Lagrangian chaos to 2D turbulence. Both spatially ordered and spatially irregular forcing situations are considered. The basic methodology is to label half of the fluid layer with a fluorescent dye, and to measure the subsequent dye distribution with a precision CCD camera. Diagnostics are devised that allow us separately to monitor the stretching of fluid elements and development of fine striations, diffusive smearing, and the transport of material across the cell. Various statistical measures are used, including the probability distribution, the scalar gradient PDF, and the power spectrum. We find major differences between the time-periodic and nonperiodic cases. The former generally show evidence of "KAM surfaces" or barriers to transport, so that mixing, while substantial, is incomplete. After a modest number of cycles (typically 10-20), the flow structure usually reaches a slowly evolving limiting form whose amplitude then decays, as has been proposed in several theoretical studies.

  18. Mixing Efficiency in the Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gregg, M C; D'Asaro, E A; Riley, J J; Kunze, E

    2018-01-03

    Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profiling with those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities. Although some mixing coefficients can be estimated from pycnocline measurements, at present mixing efficiency must be obtained from channel flows, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. Reviewing the different approaches demonstrates that estimates and parameterizations for mixing efficiency and coefficients are not converging beyond the at-sea comparisons with tracer releases, leading to recommendations for a community approach to address this important issue.

  19. Mixing Efficiency in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. C.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Riley, J. J.; Kunze, E.

    2018-01-01

    Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profiling with those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities. Although some mixing coefficients can be estimated from pycnocline measurements, at present mixing efficiency must be obtained from channel flows, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. Reviewing the different approaches demonstrates that estimates and parameterizations for mixing efficiency and coefficients are not converging beyond the at-sea comparisons with tracer releases, leading to recommendations for a community approach to address this important issue.

  20. Frontogenesis and turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Chen, F.; Shang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    A hydrological investigation was conducted in the shelf of eastern Hainan island during July 2012. With the in-situ measurements from four cross-shelf sections and satellite data, the submesoscale process of the fronts are discussed in this paper, the seasonal variation characteristics of thermal front, the three-dimensional structure, dynamic characteristics of frontal and mixed characteristics in the shelf sea of eastern Hainan island. It's obviously that the thermal front has a seasonal variation: the front is strongest in winter, and decreased gradually in spring and summer. However, it fade and disappear in fall. The core region of the front also changes with the seasons, it moved southward gradually from mainly distributed in the upwelling zone and the front center is not obvious in summer. it is a typical upwelling front in summer, the near shore is compensated with the underlying low-temperature and high-sale water , while the offshore is the high-temperature and low-salinity shelf water. The thermal front distribution is located in the 100m isobaths. The frontal intensity is reduced with increasing depth, and position goes to offshore. Subsurface temperature front is significantly higher in the surface of the sea, which may cause by the heating of nearshore sea surface water and lead to the weakening horizontal temperature gradient. Dynamic characteristics of the front has a great difference in both sides. The O(1) Rossby number is positive on the dense side and negative on the light side. The maximum of along-frontal velocity is 0.45m/s and the stretching is strengthened by strong horizontal shear, also is the potential vorticity, which can trace the cross front Ekman transport. We obtained the vertical velocity with by quasi-geostrophic omega equation and grasped the ageostrophic secondary circulation. The magnitude of frontal vertical velocity is O(10-5) and causes downwelling on the dense side and upwelling on the light side, which constitute the

  1. Generalized Friedberg-Lee model for CP violation in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, N.; Gousheh, S. S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a phenomenological model of Dirac neutrino mass operator based on the Friedberg-Lee neutrino mass model to include CP violation. By considering the most general set of complex coefficients, and imposing the condition that the mass eigenvalues are real, we find a neutrino mass matrix which is non-Hermitian, symmetric, and magic. In particular, we find that the requirement of obtaining real mass eigenvalues by transferring the residual phases to the mass eigenstates self-consistently dictates the following relationship between the imaginary part of the mass matrix elements B and the parameters of the Friedberg-Lee model: B=±(3)/(4)(a-br)2sin⁡22θ13cos⁡2θ12. We obtain inverted neutrino mass hierarchy m3=0. Making a correspondence between our model and the experimental data produces stringent conditions on the parameters as follows: 35.06°≲θ12≲36.27°, θ23=45°, 7.27°≲θ13≲11.09°, and 82.03°≲δ≲85.37°. We get mildly broken μ-τ symmetry, which reduces the resultant neutrino mixing pattern from tri-bimaximal to trimaximal. The CP violation as measured by the Jarlskog parameter is restricted by 0.027≲J≲0.044.

  2. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  3. Mixing entropy in Dean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Petru; Vyhnalek, Brian; Kaufman, Miron

    2013-03-01

    We investigate mixing in Dean flows by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation for a circular channel. Tracers of two chemical species are carried by the fluid. The centrifugal forces, experienced as the fluid travels along a curved trajectory, coupled with the fluid incompressibility induce cross-sectional rotating flows (Dean vortices). These transversal flows promote the mixing of the chemical species. We generate images for different cross sections along the trajectory. The mixing efficiency is evaluated using the Shannon entropy. Previously we have found, P. S. Fodor and M. Kaufman, Modern Physics Letters B 25, 1111 (2011), this measure to be useful in understanding mixing in the staggered herringbone mixer. The mixing entropy is determined as function of the Reynolds number, the angle of the cross section and the observation scale (number of bins). Quantitative comparison of the mixing in the Dean micromixer and in the staggered herringbone mixer is attempted.

  4. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  5. Mix design procedure for crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-06-01

    To improve the performance of hot-mix asphalt concrete at high temperatures, crumb-rubber is typically used. Although hot-mix asphalt concrete consisting of crumb-rubber has been successfully placed and have performed well over the years, the laborat...

  6. Functional Additive Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach. PMID:26347592

  7. Functional Additive Mixed Models.

    PubMed

    Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja

    2015-04-01

    We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach.

  8. Physical Interpretation of Mixing Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, Alexander; Pinsky, Mark; Magaritz-Ronen, L.

    2018-01-01

    Type of mixing at cloud edges is often determined by means of mixing diagrams showing the dependence of normalized cube of the mean volume radius on the dilution level. The mixing diagrams correspond to the final equilibrium state of mixing between two air volumes. While interpreting in situ measurements, scattering diagrams are plotted in which normalized droplet concentration is used instead of dilution level. Utilization of such scattering diagrams for interpretation of in situ observations faces significant difficulties and often leads to misinterpretation of the mixing process and to uncertain conclusions concerning the mixing type. In this study we analyze the scattering diagrams obtained by means of a Lagrangian-Eulerian model of a stratocumulus cloud. The model consists of 2,000 interacting Largangian parcels which mix with their neighbors during their motion in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the diagram, each parcel is denoted by a point. Changes of microphysical parameters of the parcel are represented by movements of the point in the scattering diagram. The method of plotting the scattering diagrams using the model is in many aspects similar to that used in in situ measurements. It is shown that a scattering diagram shows snapshots of a transient mixing process. The location of points in the scattering diagrams reflects largely the history and the origin of air parcels. Location of points on scattering diagram characterizes intensity of entrainment, and different parameters of droplet size distributions (DSDs) like concentration, mean volume (or effective) radius, and DSD width.

  9. Iowa City Ready Mix, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Iowa City Ready Mix, Inc., for alleged violations at a facility located at 1854 South Riverside, Iowa City, IA (“facility”). The facility produces and transports ready mixe

  10. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

  11. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  12. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] J.M. Redondo. Turbulent mixing in the Atmosphere and Ocean. Fluid Physics. 584-597. World Scientific. New York. 1994

  13. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  14. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Turning Ocean Mixing Upside Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Mashayek, Ali; Campin, Jean-Michael; McDougall, Trevor; Nikurashin, Maxim

    2015-11-01

    It is generally understood that small-scale mixing, such as is caused by breaking internal waves, drives upwelling of the densest ocean waters that sink to the ocean bottom at high latitudes. However the observational evidence that small-scale mixing is more vigorous close to the ocean bottom than above implies that small-scale mixing converts light waters into denser ones, thus driving a net sinking of abyssal water. It is shown that abyssal waters return to the surface along weakly stratified boundary layers, where the small-scale mixing of density decays to zero. The net ocean meridional overturning circulation is thus the small residual of a large sinking of waters, driven by small-scale mixing in the stratified interior, and an equally large upwelling, driven by the reduced small-scale mixing along the ocean boundaries. Thus whether abyssal waters upwell or sink in the net cannot be inferred simply from the vertical profile of mixing intensity, but depends also on the ocean hypsometry, i.e. the shape of the bottom topography. The implications of this result for our understanding of the abyssal ocean circulation will be presented with a combination of numerical models and observations.

  16. Mapping the Mixed Methods–Mixed Research Synthesis Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary. PMID:23066379

  17. Nanofluidic mixing via hybrid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziran; Li, Shunbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hui, Yu Sanna; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia

    2014-10-01

    We report the design and fabrication of the nanofluidic mixer comprising hybrid hydrophobic/hydrophilic micro-patterns on the top and bottom walls of the nanochannel. The unique feature of such mixer is that, without any geometric structure inside the nanochannel, the mixing can be realized solely by the hybrid surfaces. Besides, the mixing length in nanomixer has been significantly shortened comparing to micromixer. We attribute the mixing achievement to be caused by the convection and chaotic flows of two fluids along the hybrid surface due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanochannel.

  18. Nanofluidic mixing via hybrid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziran; Li, Shunbo; Zhou, Bingpu

    2014-10-20

    We report the design and fabrication of the nanofluidic mixer comprising hybrid hydrophobic/hydrophilic micro-patterns on the top and bottom walls of the nanochannel. The unique feature of such mixer is that, without any geometric structure inside the nanochannel, the mixing can be realized solely by the hybrid surfaces. Besides, the mixing length in nanomixer has been significantly shortened comparing to micromixer. We attribute the mixing achievement to be caused by the convection and chaotic flows of two fluids along the hybrid surface due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanochannel.

  19. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  20. Unruh effect for mixing neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzella, Gabriel; Fulling, Stephen A.; Landulfo, André G. S.; Matsas, George E. A.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the inverse β -decay rate calculated with respect to uniformly accelerated observers (experiencing the Unruh thermal bath) was revisited. Concerns have been raised regarding the compatibility of inertial and accelerated observers' results when neutrino mixing is taken into account. Here, we show that these concerns are unfounded by discussing the properties of the Unruh thermal bath with mixing neutrinos and explicitly calculating the decay rates according to both sets of observers, confirming thus that they are in agreement. The Unruh effect is perfectly valid for mixing neutrinos.

  1. Quick mixing of epoxy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, D. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Two materials are mixed quickly, thoroughly, and in precise proportion by disposable cartridge. Cartridge mixes components of fast-curing epoxy resins, with no mess, just before they are used. It could also be used in industry and home for caulking, sealing, and patching. Materials to be mixed are initially isolated by cylinder wall within cartridge. Cylinder has vanes, with holes in them, at one end and handle at opposite end. When handle is pulled, grooves on shaft rotate cylinder so that vanes rotate to extrude material A uniformly into material B.

  2. Barium Stars and Thermohaline Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Husti, Laura

    2008-01-24

    Barium stars are formed in binary systems through mass transfer from the carbon and s-element rich primary in the AGB phase, to the secondary star which is in a less evolved evolutionary stage. The mixing of the accreted material from the AGB donor with the envelope of the secondary results in a dilution of the s-element abundances. Dilution in red giants is explained by the occurence of the first dredge up, while in case of dwarfs thermohaline mixing would determine it. A comparison between the theoretical predictions of the AGB stellar models and the spectroscopical observations of a large samplemore » of barium stars has been made. Dilution due to thermohaline mixing was taken into account when searching for best fits of the observational data. The importance of thermohaline mixing in barium dwarfs is discussed.« less

  3. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  4. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  5. Perspectives On Dilution Jet Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.

    1990-01-01

    NASA recently completed program of measurements and modeling of mixing of transverse jets with ducted crossflow, motivated by need to design or tailor temperature pattern at combustor exit in gas turbine engines. Objectives of program to identify dominant physical mechanisms governing mixing, extend empirical models to provide near-term predictive capability, and compare numerical code calculations with data to guide future analysis improvement efforts.

  6. Perspectives on dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer code which displays 3-D oblique and 2-D plots of the temperature distribution downstream of jets mixing with a confined crossflow has been used to investigate the effects of varying the several independent flow and geometric parameters on the mixing. Temperature profiles calculated with this empirical model are presented to show the effects of orifice size and spacing, momentum flux ratio, density ratio, variable temperature mainstream, flow area convergence, orifice aspect ratio, and opposed and axially staged rows of jets.

  7. New Hampshire binder and mix review.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    This review was initiated to compare relative rut testing and simple performance tests (now known as Asphalt Mix : Performance Tests) for the New Hampshire inch mix with 15% Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP). The tested mixes were : made from ...

  8. Performance life of HMA mixes : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    A number of hot mix asphalt (HMA) types, such as permeable friction course (PFC), stone mastic asphalts : (SMA), performance design mixes and conventional dense graded mixes are currently used to construct or overlay : roads. One of the important inp...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Mixed Varieties § 51.2112 Mixed varieties. Any lot of shelled... Mixed;” “U.S. Select Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. Standard Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. No. 1 Whole and Broken...

  10. Mixing due Pulsating Turbulent Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, Holger; Nygård, Alexander; Fuchs, Laszlo

    Combustion efficiency and the formation of soot and/or NOx in Internal- Combustion engines depends strongly on the local air/fuel mixture, the local flow conditions and temperature. Modern diesel engines employ high injection pressure for improved atomization, but mixing is controlled largely by the flow in the cylinder. By injecting the fuel in pulses one can gain control over the atomization, evaporation and the mixing of the gaseous fuel. We show that the pulsatile injection of fuel enhances fuel break-up and the entrainment of ambient air into the fuel stream. The entrainment level depends on fuel property, such as fuel/air viscosity and density ratio, fuel surface-tension, injection speed and injection sequencing. Examples of enhanced break-up and mixing are given.

  11. Nonideal Rayleigh–Taylor mixing

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Iwerks, Justin; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh–Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts. PMID:20615983

  12. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Evaluating Mixed Research Studies: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Dellinger, Amy B.; Brannagan, Kim B.; Tanaka, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate application of a new framework, the validation framework (VF), to assist researchers in evaluating mixed research studies. Based on an earlier work by Dellinger and Leech, a description of the VF is delineated. Using the VF, three studies from education, health care, and counseling fields are…

  14. Use and abuse of mixing models (MixSIAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsCharacterizing trophic links in food webs is a fundamental ecological question. In our efforts to quantify energy flow through food webs, ecologists have increasingly used mixing models to analyze biological tracer data, often from stable isotopes. Whil...

  15. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  16. An Efficient Alternative Mixed Randomized Response Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Housila P.; Tarray, Tanveer A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we have suggested a new modified mixed randomized response (RR) model and studied its properties. It is shown that the proposed mixed RR model is always more efficient than the Kim and Warde's mixed RR model. The proposed mixed RR model has also been extended to stratified sampling. Numerical illustrations and graphical…

  17. Scalar entrainment in the mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandham, N. D.; Mungal, M. G.; Broadwell, J. E.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    New definitions of entrainment and mixing based on the passive scalar field in the plane mixing layer are proposed. The definitions distinguish clearly between three fluid states: (1) unmixed fluid, (2) fluid engulfed in the mixing layer, trapped between two scalar contours, and (3) mixed fluid. The difference betwen (2) and (3) is the amount of fluid which has been engulfed during the pairing process, but has not yet mixed. Trends are identified from direct numerical simulations and extensions to high Reynolds number mixing layers are made in terms of the Broadwell-Breidenthal mixing model. In the limit of high Peclet number (Pe = ReSc) it is speculated that engulfed fluid rises in steps associated with pairings, introducing unmixed fluid into the large scale structures, where it is eventually mixed at the Kolmogorov scale. From this viewpoint, pairing is a prerequisite for mixing in the turbulent plane mixing layer.

  18. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we review recent advances in Stable Isotope Mixing Models (SIMMs) and place them into an over-arching Bayesian statistical framework which allows for several useful extensions. SIMMs are used to quantify the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixtur...

  19. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  20. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005692 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  1. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  2. CASKAD. Manual Mixing in Bioreactor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-05

    ISS037-E-005694 (5 Oct. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 37 flight engineer, prepares to manually mix samples in a Bioreactor for the CASKAD experiment in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  3. Turbulent Mixing Chemistry in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, D.; Wiebe, D.

    2006-11-01

    A gas-grain chemical model with surface reaction and 1D/2D turbulent mixing is available for protoplanetary disks and molecular clouds. Current version is based on the updated UMIST'95 database with gas-grain interactions (accretion, desorption, photoevaporation, etc.) and modified rate equation approach to surface chemistry (see also abstract for the static chemistry code).

  4. Racially Mixed People in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the social and psychological adjustment of multiracial people, models for identity development, contemporary immigration and marriage patterns, and methodological issues involved in conducting research with mixed-race people, all in the context of America's multiracial past and present. The following 26…

  5. Workability of hot mix asphalt

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-04-01

    Workability in the field can be defined as a property that describes the ease with which hot mix asphalt (HMA) can be placed, worked by hand and compacted. Use of polymer-modified binders has increase in the U.S. due to the resultant performance bene...

  6. Hot mix asphalt tender zone

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    Approximately 500 million tons of hot mix asphalt (HMA) are placed in the United States each year. With this large quantity of HMA, it is expected that some construction problems will occur from time to time. One problem that has been observed for ye...

  7. Towards understanding turbulent scalar mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort towards understanding turbulent scalar mixing, we study the effect of molecular mixing, first in isolation and then by accounting for the effects of the velocity field. The chief motivation for this approach stems from the strong resemblance of the scalar probability density function (PDF) obtained from the scalar field evolving from the heat conduction equation that arises in a turbulent velocity field. However, the evolution of the scalar dissipation is different for the two cases. We attempt to account for these differences, which are due to the velocity field, using a Lagrangian frame analysis. After establishing the usefulness of this approach, we use the heat-conduction simulations (HCS), in lieu of the more expensive direct numerical simulations (DNS), to study many of the less understood aspects of turbulent mixing. Comparison between the HCS data and available models are made whenever possible. It is established that the beta PDF characterizes the evolution of the scalar PDF during mixing from all types of non-premixed initial conditions.

  8. Case mix management in context.

    PubMed

    King, H

    1988-02-01

    The advent of DRGs has demanded that hospitals account for all costs and resources. A case mix management system must take into consideration every component of a total managerial accounting strategy. This article discusses the factors healthcare institutions need to address to achieve a completely interfaced accounting system.

  9. Geoelectrical signatures of reactive mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, U.; Bandopadhyay, A.; Jougnot, D.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the effects of fluid mixing on geochemical reactions in the subsurface is of paramount importance owing to their pivotal role in processes such as contaminant migration or aquifer remediation, to name a few [1]. Large velocity gradients in the porous media are expected to lead to enhanced diffusive mixing accompanied by augmented reaction rates [2]. Despite its importance, accurate monitoring of such processes still remains an open challenge, mainly due to the opacity of the medium and to the lack of access to it. However, in recent years, geophysical methods based on electrical conductivity and polarization have come up as a promising tool for mapping and monitoring such reactions in the subsurface. In this regard, one of the main challenges is to properly characterize the multiple sources of electrical signals and in particular isolate the influence of reactive mixing on the electrical conductivity from those of other sources [3]. In this work, we explore the coupling between fluid mixing, reaction and charge migration in porous media to evaluate the potential of obtaining a spatially-resolved measurement of local reaction rates in the subsurface from electrical measurements. To this end, we employ a lamellar description of the mixing interface [4] with novel semi-analytical upscaling techniques to quantify changes in electrical conductivity induced by chemical reactions across mixing fronts. The changes in electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the concentration of ionic species as well as on the polarization of the pore (water) solution around the grains, which in turn are controlled by local reaction rates and, consequently, by the local velocity gradients. Hence, our results essentially suggest that local variations in the electrical conductivity may be quantitatively related to the mixing and reaction dynamics, and thus be used as a measurement tool to characterize these dynamics. References 1. M. Dentz, T. Le Borgne, A. Englert

  10. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account....1092(b)-4T Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account....1092(b)-4T Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account....1092(b)-4T Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account....1092(b)-4T Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account... Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts (as defined in...

  15. Convection Enhances Mixing in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Taimoor; Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Hogg, Andrew McC.

    2018-05-01

    Mixing efficiency is a measure of the energy lost to mixing compared to that lost to viscous dissipation. In a turbulent stratified fluid the mixing efficiency is often assumed constant at η = 0.2, whereas with convection it takes values closer to 1. The value of mixing efficiency when both stratified shear flow and buoyancy-driven convection are active remains uncertain. We use a series of numerical simulations to determine the mixing efficiency in an idealized Southern Ocean model. The model is energetically closed and fully resolves convection and turbulence such that mixing efficiency can be diagnosed. Mixing efficiency decreases with increasing wind stress but is enhanced by turbulent convection and by large thermal gradients in regions with a strongly stratified thermocline. Using scaling theory and the model results, we predict an overall mixing efficiency for the Southern Ocean that is significantly greater than 0.2 while emphasizing that mixing efficiency is not constant.

  16. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  17. Costing complexities in mixed apheresis.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, P M

    1993-07-01

    For mixed apheresis procedures {plasma (PMA) and platelets (PLTs) as products}, six cost-accounting methods are described for apportioning the unit procedure cost ($156.02; representative example) to the two products. The methods are derived from clinical/scientific apheresis principles, but provide a wide range of unit PLT costs ($14.10, 19.71, 34.37, 42.06, 43.82 and 52.00) which relate inversely to the corresponding unit PMA costs ($73.84, 63.01, 34.36, 19.37, 15.94 and 0.00). Two of the methods appear particularly appropriate, depending upon whether the procedure is driven by PLTs predominantly or by PMA+PLTs equally. The paper encourages apheresis physicians and scientists to debate the relative attributes of the methods, develop refinements of the same, and determine through dialogue that mixed apheresis costing models properly account for the clinical science of the service provided.

  18. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    overflew, a strong reflection front he float could be detected in the lidar elastic backscatter channel. Initial searches have detected several liar...grid scale mixing and stirring in numerical models. Ultimately our research will also enhance modeling and understanding of upper ocean ecosystems...km. A second objective is to determine whether slow but persistent vortices enhance the stirring attributable to shear dispersion. We also share

  19. Texture Mixing via Universal Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    classes and universal simulation. Based on the well-known Lempel and Ziv (LZ) universal compression scheme, the universal type class of a one...length that produce the same tree (dictionary) under the Lempel - Ziv (LZ) incre- mental parsing defined in the well-known LZ78 universal compression ...the well known Lempel - Ziv parsing algorithm . The goal is not just to synthesize mixed textures, but to understand what texture is. We are currently

  20. Mixed Infections and their Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    endocarditis , bactereF.,;a, and closed-space infections , such as brain or lung abscesses that cavnot be surgically drained. Combination therapy should not be...Systemic infection is a common complication of multiple injury despite the availability of potent and specific antibiotics. 2 Infections following...trauma are due to opportunistic pathogens that . originate from endogenous nr exogenous sources. These pathogens, often present as mixed infections

  1. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-19

    instabilities. A towed profiler was used to conduct synoptic, 4D surveys to resolve submesoscale variability. Results include finding that: (i...OBJECTIVES The LATMIX2 experimental program focused on two potential mechanisms for lateral mixing: 1. Submesoscale turbulence, generated by...Figure 1. LATMIX2 surveys . Red (black) lines mark Knorr (Atlantis) tracks plotted over SST images from 2 separate days, corresponding to the 2

  2. Experiments in dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are given on the mixing of a single row of jets with an isothermal mainstream in a straight duct, to include flow and geometric variations typical of combustion chambers in gas turbine engines. The principal conclusions reached from these experiments were: at constant momentum ratio, variations in density ratio have only a second-order effect on the profiles; a first-order approximation to the mixing of jets with a variable temperature mainstream can be obtained by superimposing the jets-in-an isothermal-crossflow and mainstream profiles; flow area convergence, especially injection-wall convergence, significantly improves the mixing; for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in-line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one half of the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio; and for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio.

  3. Experiments in dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the mixing of a single row of jets with an isothermal mainstream in a straight duct, with flow and geometric variations typical of combustion chambers in gas turbine engines included. It is found that at a constant momentum ratio, variations in the density ratio have only a second-order effect on the profiles. A first-order approximation to the mixing of jets with a variable temperature mainstream can, it is found, be obtained by superimposing the jets-in-an-isothermal-crossflow and mainstream profiles. Another finding is that the flow area convergence, especially injection-wall convergence, significantly improves the mixing. For opposed rows of jets with the orifice cone centerlines in-line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is determined to be 1/2 of the optimum value for single injection at the same momentum ratio. For opposed rows of jets with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is found to be twice the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio.

  4. Functional mixed effects spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    KRAFTY, ROBERT T.; HALL, MARTICA; GUO, WENSHENG

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In many experiments, time series data can be collected from multiple units and multiple time series segments can be collected from the same unit. This article introduces a mixed effects Cramér spectral representation which can be used to model the effects of design covariates on the second-order power spectrum while accounting for potential correlations among the time series segments collected from the same unit. The transfer function is composed of a deterministic component to account for the population-average effects and a random component to account for the unit-specific deviations. The resulting log-spectrum has a functional mixed effects representation where both the fixed effects and random effects are functions in the frequency domain. It is shown that, when the replicate-specific spectra are smooth, the log-periodograms converge to a functional mixed effects model. A data-driven iterative estimation procedure is offered for the periodic smoothing spline estimation of the fixed effects, penalized estimation of the functional covariance of the random effects, and unit-specific random effects prediction via the best linear unbiased predictor. PMID:26855437

  5. Material Barriers to Diffusive Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, George; Karrasch, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transport barriers, as zero-flux surfaces, are ill-defined in purely advective mixing in which the flux of any passive scalar is zero through all material surfaces. For this reason, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have been argued to play the role of mixing barriers as most repelling, attracting or shearing material lines. These three kinematic concepts, however, can also be defined in different ways, both within rigorous mathematical treatments and within the realm of heuristic diagnostics. This has lead to a an ever-growing number of different LCS methods, each generally identifying different objects as transport barriers. In this talk, we examine which of these methods have actual relevance for diffusive transport barriers. The latter barriers are arguably the practically relevant inhibitors in the mixing of physically relevant tracers, such as temperature, salinity, vorticity or potential vorticity. We demonstrate the role of the most effective diffusion barriers in analytical examples and observational data. Supported in part by the DFG Priority Program on Turbulent Superstructures.

  6. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  7. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  8. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  9. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures.

    PubMed

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gross, James J

    2017-06-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions.

  10. Code Mixing and Modernization across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    A review of recent studies addressed the functional uses of code mixing across cultures. Expressions of code mixing (CM) are not random; in fact, a number of functions of code mixing can easily be delineated, for example, the concept of "modernization.""Modernization" is viewed with respect to how bilingual code mixers perceive…

  11. Field management of asphalt concrete mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-01-01

    Marshall properties were determined on mixes from three different contractors each producing a 1/2-in and a 3/4-in top-sized aggregate mix. From these data, statistical analyses were made to determine differences among contractors and between mix typ...

  12. ERIC/EECE Report. Mixed Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes eight recent ERIC documents and seven journal articles on mixed-age grouping. Includes discussions of teaching in the multiage classroom, Kentucky's Primary Program, developmentally appropriate practices in the primary grades, thematic instruction, attitudes toward mixed-age grouping, and questions and answers about mixed-age grouping.…

  13. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  14. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch...

  15. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors in...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Mixed Varieties § 51.2112 Mixed varieties. Any lot of shelled almonds designated as “one type” or undesignated as to type, which...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Mixed Varieties § 51.2112 Mixed varieties. Any lot of shelled almonds designated as “one type” or undesignated as to type, which...

  18. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly well...

  19. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors in...

  20. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch...

  1. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors in...

  2. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors in...

  3. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  4. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  5. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  6. Installation report : rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the design of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell waste rubber and a field installation of the mix. The Marshall design procedure was used to determine the asphalt content for the mix containing 3.0% rubber as well ...

  7. A Call for Conducting Multivariate Mixed Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have written methodological works that provide an introductory- and/or intermediate-level guide to conducting mixed analyses. Although these works have been useful for beginning and emergent mixed researchers, with very few exceptions, works are lacking that describe and illustrate advanced-level mixed analysis approaches. Thus,…

  8. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors in...

  9. Foam-Mixing-And-Dispensing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, Keith Y.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Jackson, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Time-and-money-saving machine produces consistent, homogeneously mixed foam, enhancing production efficiency. Automatically mixes and dispenses polyurethane foam in quantities specified by weight. Consists of cart-mounted, air-driven proportioning unit; air-activated mechanical mixing gun; programmable timer/counter, and controller.

  10. Mixed-phase aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, T.; Krieger, U. K.; Koop, T.; Peter, T.

    2003-04-01

    Within a liquid aerosol particle a solid phase may coexist with the liquid over a wide range of ambient conditions. The optical properties of such particles are of interest for a number of reasons. They will affect the scattering albedo of atmospheric aerosols, may cause depolarisation in lidar measurements, and potentially open a window for studying the internal morphology and physical properties (e.g. wetting properties, diffusion constants) of composite particles in laboratory experiments. In this contribution, we will present results of experimental and theoretical work on mixed-phase aerosol particles. The optical properties of mixed-phase particles depend on the location of the inclusion in the liquid phase, which is determined by the surface tensions of the involved interfaces. In the case of complete wetting, the energetically favoured position of the inclusion is in the volume of the liquid phase. For partial wetting, a position at the surface of the liquid phase is favoured, with the contact angle between the solid, liquid and air being described by Young's equation. For systems with small contact angles, the difference in energy between an inclusion situated at the droplets surface and in its volume may be so small that the thermal energy kT is sufficient to displace the inclusion from the droplet surface into its volume. The critical contact angle depends on the size of the inclusion and the droplet and ranges from 0.1 to 10 degrees. Examples of mixed-phase aerosol particles are aged soot particles and sea salt particles at low relative humidity. For aged soot, contact angles on sulphuric acid clearly above 10 degrees have been reported, so that soot inclusions are expected to be located at the surface of aerosol particles. For mixed-phase sea salt particles, consisting of a solid NaCl inclusion and an aqueous solution of mainly NaCl and MgCl2, our measurements on macroscopic NaCl crystals show a contact angle clearly below 10 degrees and possibly as

  11. Manpower Mix for Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Larry J.; Young, John P.; Naddor, Eliezer

    1971-01-01

    A model is formulated to determine the mix of manpower and technology needed to provide health services of acceptable quality at a minimum total cost to the community. Total costs include both the direct costs associated with providing the services and with developing additional manpower and the indirect costs (shortage costs) resulting from not providing needed services. The model is applied to a hypothetical neighborhood health center, and its sensitivity to alternative policies is investigated by cost-benefit analyses. Possible extensions of the model to include dynamic elements in health delivery systems are discussed, as is its adaptation for use in hospital planning, with a changed objective function. PMID:5095652

  12. Mixed chimerism and split tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adra, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing hematopoietic mixed chimerism can lead to donor-specific tolerance to transplanted organs and may eliminate the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while also preventing chronic rejection. In this review, we discuss central and peripheral mechanisms of chimerism induced tolerance. However, even in the long-lasting presence of a donor organ or donor hematopoietic cells, some allogeneic tissues from the same donor can be rejected; a phenomenon known as split tolerance. With the current goal of creating mixed chimeras using clinically feasible amounts of donor bone marrow and with minimal conditioning, split tolerance may become more prevalent and its mechanisms need to be explored. Some predisposing factors that may increase the likelihood of split tolerance are immunogenicity of the graft, certain donor-recipient combinations, prior sensitization, location and type of graft and minimal conditioning chimerism induction protocols. Additionally, split tolerance may occur due to a differential susceptibility of various types of tissues to rejection. The mechanisms involved in a tissue’s differential susceptibility to rejection include the presence of polymorphic tissue-specific antigens and variable sensitivity to indirect pathway effector mechanisms. Finally, we review the clinical attempts at allograft tolerance through the induction of chimerism; studies that are revealing the complex relationship between chimerism and tolerance. This relationship often displays split tolerance, and further research into its mechanisms is warranted. PMID:22509425

  13. Mixed material formation and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Luthin, J.; Goldstraß, P.

    2001-03-01

    The formation of mixed phases on materials relevant for first wall components of fusion devices is studied under well-defined conditions in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). This is necessary in order to determine fundamental parameters governing the basic processes of chemical reaction, material mixing and erosion. We examined the binary systems comprising of the wall materials beryllium, silicon, tungsten and titanium and carbon, the latter being both a wall material and a plasma impurity. Experiments were carried out to study the interaction of carbon in the form of a vapor-deposited component on clean, well-defined elemental surfaces. The chemical composition and the binding state are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after annealing treatments. For all materials, a limited carbide formation is found at room temperature. Annealing carbon films on elemental substrate leads to a complete carbidization of the carbon layer. The carbide layers on Be and Si are stable even at very high temperatures, whereas the carbides of Ti and W dissolve. The erosion of these two metals by sputtering is then identical to the pure metals, whereas for Be and Si a protective carbide layer can reduce the sputtering yields.

  14. [Mixed states: evolution of classifications].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Fakra, E; Dassa, D; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    The nosological position of mixed states has followed the course of classifying methods in psychiatry, the steps of the invention of the clinic, progress in the organization of care, including the discoveries of psychopharmacology. The clinical observation of a mixture of symptoms emerging from usually opposite clinical conditions is classical. In the 70s, a syndromic specification fixed the main symptom combinations but that incongruous assortment failed to stabilize the nosological concept. Then stricter criteriology was proposed. To be too restrictive, a consensus operates a dimensional opening that attempts to meet the pragmatic requirements of nosology validating the usefulness of the class system. This alternation between rigor of categorization and return to a more flexible criteriological option reflects the search for the right balance between nosology and diagnosis. The definition of mixed states is best determined by their clinical and prognostic severity, related to the risk of suicide, their lower therapeutic response, the importance of their psychiatric comorbidities, anxiety, emotional lability, alcohol abuse. Trying to compensate for the lack of categorical definitions and better reflecting the clinical field problems, new definitions complement criteriology with dimensional aspects, particularly taking into account temperaments. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  16. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  17. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  18. A Darwinian mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, Kakani; Dabiri, John

    2009-11-01

    Recent observations of biogenic turbulence in the ocean have led to conflicting ideas regarding the contribution of animal swimming to ocean mixing. Previous measurements indicate elevated turbulent dissipation in the vicinity of large populations of planktonic animals swimming in concert. However, elevated turbulent dissipation is by itself insufficient proof of substantial biogenic mixing. We conducted field measurements of mixing efficiency by individual Mastigias sp. (a Palauan jellyfish) using a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus. These measurements revealed another mechanism that contributes to animal mixing besides wake turbulence. This mechanism was first described by Sir Charles Galton Darwin and is in fact the dominant mechanism of mixing by swimming animals. The efficiency of Darwin's mechanism (or drift) is dependent on animal shape rather than fluid length scale and, unlike turbulent wake mixing, is enhanced by the fluid viscosity. Therefore, it provides a means of biogenic mixing that can be equally effective in small plankton and large mammals.

  19. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  20. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  1. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  2. Multifractal Modeling of Turbulent Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiee, Mehdi; Zayernouri, Mohsen; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic processes in random media are emerging as interesting tools for modeling anomalous transport phenomena. Applications include intermittent passive scalar transport with background noise in turbulent flows, which are observed in atmospheric boundary layers, turbulent mixing in reactive flows, and long-range dependent flow fields in disordered/fractal environments. In this work, we propose a nonlocal scalar transport equation involving the fractional Laplacian, where the corresponding fractional index is linked to the multifractal structure of the nonlinear passive scalar power spectrum. This work was supported by the AFOSR Young Investigator Program (YIP) award (FA9550-17-1-0150) and partially by MURI/ARO (W911NF-15-1-0562).

  3. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  4. Extrusion-mixing compared with hand-mixing of polyether impression materials?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caroline; Kinsella, Daniel; Fleming, Garry J P

    2010-12-01

    The hypotheses tested were two-fold (a) whether altering the base:catalyst ratio influences working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression properties of a hand-mixed polyether impression material and (b) whether an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material would have a significant advantage over a hand-mixed polyether impression material mixed to the optimum base:catalyst ratio. The polyether was hand-mixed at the optimum (manufacturers recommended) base:catalyst ratios (7:1) and further groups were made by increasing or decreasing the catalyst length by 25%. Additionally specimens were also made from an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material and compared with the optimum hand-mixed base:catalyst ratio. A penetrometer assembly was used to measure the working time (n=5). Five cylindrical specimens for each hand-mixed and extrusion mixed group investigated were employed for elastic recovery and strain in compression testing. Hand-mixing polyether impression materials with 25% more catalyst than that recommended significantly decreased the working time while hand-mixing with 25% less catalyst than that recommended significantly increased the strain in compression. The extrusion-mixed polyether impression material provided similar working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression to the hand-mixed polyether mixed at the optimum base:catalyst ratio.

  5. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; ...

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [ Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ 15N and δ 18O) butmore » all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  7. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  8. Neutrino mixing and big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    We analyse active-active neutrino mixing in the early universe and show that transformation of neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries between flavours is unavoidable when neutrino mixing angles are large. This process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavour transformation, modified by the synchronisation of momentum states which results from neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. The new constraints placed on neutrino asymmetries eliminate the possibility of degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis.Implications of active-sterile neutrino mixing will also be reviewed.

  9. Passive Microfluidic device for Sub Millisecond Mixing

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Jay; Mohamed, Hisham; Barnard, David; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Mannella, Carmen A.; Wagenknecht, Terence; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of a novel microfluidic mixing device to achieve submillisecond mixing. The micromixer combines two fluid streams of several microliters per second into a mixing compartment integrated with two T- type premixers and 4 butterfly-shaped in-channel mixing elements. We have employed three dimensional fluidic simulations to evaluate the mixing efficiency, and have constructed physical devices utilizing conventional microfabrication techniques. The simulation indicated thorough mixing at flow rate as low as 6 µL/s. The corresponding mean residence time is 0.44 ms for 90% of the particles simulated, or 0.49 ms for 95% of the particles simulated, respectively. The mixing efficiency of the physical device was also evaluated using fluorescein dye solutions and FluoSphere-red nanoparticles suspensions. The constructed micromixers achieved thorough mixing at the same flow rate of 6 µL/s, with the mixing indices of 96% ± 1%, and 98% ± 1% for the dye and the nanoparticle, respectively. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation data. The device demonstrated promising capabilities for time resolved studies for macromolecular dynamics of biological macromolecules. PMID:20161619

  10. Mixing it but not mixed-up: mixed methods research in medical education (a critical narrative review).

    PubMed

    Maudsley, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Some important research questions in medical education and health services research need 'mixed methods research' (particularly synthesizing quantitative and qualitative findings). The approach is not new, but should be more explicitly reported. The broad search question here, of a disjointed literature, was thus: What is mixed methods research - how should it relate to medical education research?, focused on explicit acknowledgement of 'mixing'. Literature searching focused on Web of Knowledge supplemented by other databases across disciplines. Five main messages emerged: - Thinking quantitative and qualitative, not quantitative versus qualitative - Appreciating that mixed methods research blends different knowledge claims, enquiry strategies, and methods - Using a 'horses for courses' [whatever works] approach to the question, and clarifying the mix - Appreciating how medical education research competes with the 'evidence-based' movement, health services research, and the 'RCT' - Being more explicit about the role of mixed methods in medical education research, and the required expertise Mixed methods research is valuable, yet the literature relevant to medical education is fragmented and poorly indexed. The required time, effort, expertise, and techniques deserve better recognition. More write-ups should explicitly discuss the 'mixing' (particularly of findings), rather than report separate components.

  11. Mixed Reality Meets Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Forrest, William P; Mackey, Megan A; Shah, Vivek M; Hassell, Kerry M; Shah, Prashant; Wylie, Jennifer L; Gopinath, Janakiraman; Balderhaar, Henning; Li, Li; Wuelfing, W Peter; Helmy, Roy

    2017-12-01

    As science evolves, the need for more efficient and innovative knowledge transfer capabilities becomes evident. Advances in drug discovery and delivery sciences have directly impacted the pharmaceutical industry, though the added complexities have not shortened the development process. These added complexities also make it difficult for scientists to rapidly and effectively transfer knowledge to offset the lengthened drug development timelines. While webcams, camera phones, and iPads have been explored as potential new methods of real-time information sharing, the non-"hands-free" nature and lack of viewer and observer point-of-view render them unsuitable for the R&D laboratory or manufacturing setting. As an alternative solution, the Microsoft HoloLens mixed-reality headset was evaluated as a more efficient, hands-free method of knowledge transfer and information sharing. After completing a traditional method transfer between 3 R&D sites (Rahway, NJ; West Point, PA and Schnachen, Switzerland), a retrospective analysis of efficiency gain was performed through the comparison of a mock method transfer between NJ and PA sites using the HoloLens. The results demonstrated a minimum 10-fold gain in efficiency, weighing in from a savings in time, cost, and the ability to have real-time data analysis and discussion. In addition, other use cases were evaluated involving vendor and contract research/manufacturing organizations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. To mix or not to mix venous blood samples collected in vacuum tubes?

    PubMed

    Parenmark, Anna; Landberg, Eva

    2011-09-08

    There are recommendations to mix venous blood samples by inverting the tubes immediately after venipuncture. Though mixing allows efficient anticoagulation in plasma tubes and fast initiation of coagulation in serum tubes, the effect on laboratory analyses and risk of haemolysis has not been thoroughly evaluated. Venous blood samples were collected by venipuncture in vacuum tubes from 50 patients (10 or 20 patients in each group). Four types of tubes and 18 parameters used in routine clinical chemistry were evaluated. For each patient and tube, three types of mixing strategies were used: instant mixing, no mixing and 5 min of rest followed by mixing. Most analyses did not differ significantly in samples admitted to different mixing strategies. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase and haemolysis index showed a small but significant increase in samples omitted to instant mixing compared to samples without mixing. However, in one out of twenty non-mixed samples, activated partial thromboplastin time was seriously affected. These results indicate that mixing blood samples after venipuncture is not mandatory for all types of tubes. Instant mixing may introduce interference for those analyses susceptible to haemolysis. However, tubes with liquid-based citrate buffer for coagulation testing should be mixed to avoid clotting.

  13. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  14. Effect of end-point compaction on superpave hot mix asphalt (HMA) mix designs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-09

    In the Superpave hot mix asphalt (HMA) mix design system, gyratory specime ns are compacted to varying levels of initial (Ninitial), : design (Ndesign) and maximum (Nmaximum) gyrations. Initially, in the Superpave system, specimens were compacted to ...

  15. [Cytomorphology of acute mixed leukemia].

    PubMed

    Sucić, Mirna; Batinić, Drago; Zadro, Renata; Mrsić, Sanja; Labar, Boris

    2008-10-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukemias (AL) with blasts expressing both myeloid and lymphoid antigens are grouped with undifferentiated AL and bilineal AL in the group of AL of ambiguous lineage. Not all AL with myeloid and lymphoid antigens (ALMy+Ly) are true biphenotypic AL. According to EGIL scoring system, true biphenotypic ALMy+Ly are those with a sum of antigens 2 or more points for both myeloid and lymphoid lineage or for B and T lineage. The aim of this study was to compare cytomorphology and immunophenotype of AL to better understand the relation of certain AL morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and molecular biology of biphenotypic AL. The study included a group of 169 AL patients treated from 1985 till 1991, and a group of 102 AL patients treated from 1993 till 1996 at Zagreb University Hospital Center. Bone marrow and peripheral blood of the two groups of AL patients were analyzed according to Pappenheim (May-Grunwald-Giemsa), cytochemical and alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) immunocytochemical staining. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of bone marrow was also done in both patient groups. In the group of 169 adult AL patients, 116 were cytomorphologically classified as acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML), 35 as acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) and 18 as acute undifferentiated leukemias (ANLM). In 6 (3.4%) of 169 AL patients, blasts expressed both myeloid and lymphoid antigens. In the group of 102 AL patients there were 19 (18.6%) ALMy+Ly. In 64 patients cytomorphologically classified into AML subgroup out of 102 AL patients, there were 15 (14.7%/102; 23.4%/64) AML with lymphoid antigens (AMLLy+). In 35 patients cytomorphologically diagnosed as ALL and 3 as ANLM out of 102 AL, there were 4 (3.9%/102; 10.5%/38) ALL with myeloid antigens (ALLMy+). The incidence of mixed AL in 102 AL was more consistent with other studies, pointing to the necessity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD7 and TdT determination as part of standard immunophenotyping

  16. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled together...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled together...

  18. Physical properties of mixed dairy food proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mixed food protein gels are complex systems, which changes functional behaviors such as gelling properties and viscosity depending on the miscibility of the proteins. We have noted that differences in co-solubility of mixed proteins created unique network structures and gel properties. The effects o...

  19. Estimating growth and yield of mixed stands

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Burnell C. Fischer

    1989-01-01

    A mixed stand is defined as one in which no single species comprises more than 80 percent of the stocking. The growth estimation methods described below can be used not only in mixed stands but in almost any stand, regardless of species composition, age structure, or size structure. The methods described are necessary to accommodate the complex species mixtures and...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled together...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled together...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled together...

  3. Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

  4. Mixing Methods in Assessing Coaches' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergeer, Ineke; Lyle, John

    2007-01-01

    Mixing methods has recently achieved respectability as an appropriate approach to research design, offering a variety of advantages (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to outline and evaluate a mixed methods approach within the domain of coaches' decision making. Illustrated with data from a policy-capturing study on…

  5. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  6. A Martingale Characterization of Mixed Poisson Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    03LA A 11. TITLE (Inciuae Security Clanafication, ",A martingale characterization of mixed Poisson processes " ________________ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR... POISSON PROCESSES Jostification .......... . ... . . Di.;t ib,,jtion by Availability Codes Dietmar Pfeifer* Technical University Aachen Dist Special and...Mixed Poisson processes play an important role in many branches of applied probability, for instance in insurance mathematics and physics (see Albrecht

  7. Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Casandra E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

  8. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  9. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  10. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  11. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  12. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  13. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  14. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  15. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  16. Warm-mix asphalt : European practice.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-01

    Warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is a group of technologies that allow a reduction in the temperatures at which : asphalt mixes are produced and placed. These technologies tend to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt and : provide for the complete coating of ag...

  17. Efficiency of Metal Mixing in Dwarf Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Yutaka; Saitoh, Takayuki R., E-mail: yutaka.hirai@nao.ac.jp

    Metal mixing plays a critical role in the enrichment of metals in galaxies. The abundance of elements such as Mg, Fe, and Ba in metal-poor stars helps us understand the metal mixing in galaxies. However, the efficiency of metal mixing in galaxies is not yet understood. Here we report a series of N -body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies with different efficiencies of metal mixing using a turbulence-induced mixing model. We show that metal mixing apparently occurs in dwarf galaxies from Mg and Ba abundances. We find that a scaling factor for metal diffusion larger than 0.01 is necessarymore » to reproduce the measured abundances of Ba in dwarf galaxies. This value is consistent with the value expected from turbulence theory and experiments. We also find that the timescale of metal mixing is less than 40 Myr. This timescale is shorter than the typical dynamical times of dwarf galaxies. We demonstrate that the determination of a degree of scatters of Ba abundance by the observation will help us to better constrain the efficiency of metal mixing.« less

  18. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  19. The use of "mixing" procedure of mixed methods in health services research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Creswell, John

    2013-08-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged alongside qualitative and quantitative approaches as an important tool for health services researchers. Despite growing interest, among health services researchers, in using mixed methods designs, little has been done to identify the procedural aspects of doing so. To describe how mixed methods researchers mix the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their studies in health services research. We searched the PubMed for articles, using mixed methods in health services research, published between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010. We identified and reviewed 30 published health services research articles on studies in which mixed methods had been used. We selected 3 articles as illustrations to help health services researcher conceptualize the type of mixing procedures that they were using. Three main "mixing" procedures have been applied within these studies: (1) the researchers analyzed the 2 types of data at the same time but separately and integrated the results during interpretation; (2) the researchers connected the qualitative and quantitative portions in phases in such a way that 1 approach was built upon the findings of the other approach; and (3) the researchers mixed the 2 data types by embedding the analysis of 1 data type within the other. "Mixing" in mixed methods is more than just the combination of 2 independent components of the quantitative and qualitative data. The use of "mixing" procedure in health services research involves the integration, connection, and embedding of these 2 data components.

  20. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  1. An experimental study of reactive turbulent mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Marek, C. J.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of two coaxial gas streams, which react very rapidly, was performed to investigate the mixing characteristics of turbulent flow fields. The center stream consisted of a CO-N2 mixture and the outer annular stream consisted of air vitiated by H2 combustion. The streams were at equal velocity (50 m/sec) and temperature (1280 K). Turbulence measurements were obtained using hot film anemometry. A sampling probe was used to obtain time averaged gas compositions. Six different turbulence generators were placed in the annular passage to alter the flow field mixing characteristics. The turbulence generators affected the bulk mixing of the streams and the extent of CO conversion to different degrees. The effects can be related to the average eddy size (integral scale) and the bulk mixing. Higher extents of conversion of CO to CO2 were found be increasing the bulk mixing and decreasing the average eddy size.

  2. Scaling of Convective Mixing in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Fe, Jaime; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Convective mixing in porous media is triggered by a Rayleigh-Bénard-type hydrodynamic instability as a result of an unstable density stratification of fluids. While convective mixing has been studied extensively, the fundamental behavior of the dissolution flux and its dependence on the system parameters are not yet well understood. Here, we show that the dissolution flux and the rate of fluid mixing are determined by the mean scalar dissipation rate. We use this theoretical result to provide computational evidence that the classical model of convective mixing in porous media exhibits, in the regime of high Rayleigh number, a dissolution flux that is constant and independent of the Rayleigh number. Our findings support the universal character of convective mixing and point to the need for alternative explanations for nonlinear scalings of the dissolution flux with the Rayleigh number, recently observed experimentally.

  3. Line Mixing in Water Vapor and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A multispectrum fitting algorithm has been used to identify line mixing and determine mixing parameters for infrared transitions of H2O and CH4 in the 5-9 micrometer region. Line mixing parameters at room temperature were determined for two pairs of transitions in the v2 fundamental band of H2O-16, for self-broadening and for broadening by H2, He, CO2, N2, O2 and air. Line mixing parameters have been determined from air-broadened CH4 spectra, recorded at temperatures between 210 K and 314 K, in selected R-branch manifolds of the v4 band. For both H2O and CH4, the inclusion of line mixing was seen to have a greater effect on the retrieved values of the line shifts than on the retrieved values of other parameters

  4. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  5. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  6. Microfluidic mixing through oscillatory transverse perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. W.; Xia, H. M.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhu, P.

    2018-05-01

    Fluid mixing in miniaturized fluidic devices is a challenging task. In this work, the mixing enhancement through oscillatory transverse perturbations coupling with divergent circular chambers is studied. To simplify the design, an autonomous microfluidic oscillator is used to produce the oscillatory flow. It is then applied to four side-channels that intersect with a central channel of constant flow. The mixing performance is tested at high fluid viscosities of up to 16 cP. Results show that the oscillatory flow can cause strong transverse perturbations which effectively enhance the mixing. The influence of a fluidic capacitor in the central channel is also examined, which at low viscosities can intensify the perturbations and further improve the mixing.

  7. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or

  8. Nationwide review of mixed and non-mixed components from different manufacturers in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rinne M; van Steenbergen, Liza N; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Zeegers, Adelgunde V C M; Stewart, Roy E; Poolman, Rudolf W; Hosman, Anton H

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Combining components from different manufacturers in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is common practice worldwide. We determined the proportion of THAs used in the Netherlands that consist of components from different manufacturers, and compared the revision rates of these mixed THAs with those of non-mixed THAs. Patients and methods Data on primary and revision hip arthroplasty are recorded in the LROI, the nationwide population-based arthroplasty register in the Netherlands. We selected all 163,360 primary THAs that were performed in the period 2007–2014. Based on the manufacturers of the components, 4 groups were discerned: non-mixed THAs with components from the same manufacturer (n = 142,964); mixed stem-head THAs with different manufacturers for the femoral stem and head (n = 3,663); mixed head-cup THAs with different head and cup manufacturers (n = 12,960), and mixed stem-head-cup THAs with different femoral stem, head, and cup manufacturers (n = 1,773). Mixed prostheses were defined as THAs (stem, head, and cup) composed of components made by different manufacturers. Results 11% of THAs had mixed components (n = 18,396). The 6-year revision rates were similar for mixed and non-mixed THAs: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1w–3.7) for mixed THAs and 3.5% (95% CI: 3.4–3.7) for non-mixed THAs. Revision of primary THAs due to loosening of the acetabulum was more common in mixed THAs (16% vs. 12%). Interpretation Over an 8-year period in the Netherlands, 11% of THAs had mixed components—with similar medium-term revision rates to those of non-mixed THAs. PMID:27348544

  9. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  10. Different mixing techniques in experimental mesocosms—does mixing affect plankton biomass and community composition?

    PubMed Central

    Striebel, Maren; Kirchmaier, Leo; Hingsamer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the past four decades, mesocosm studies have been successfully used for a wide range of applications and have provided a lot of information on trophic interactions and biogeochemical cycling of aquatic ecosystem. However, the setup of such mesocosms (e.g., dimensions and duration of experiments) needs to be adapted to the relevant biological processes being investigated. Mixing of the water column is an important factor to be considered in mesocosm experiments because enclosing water in an artificial chamber always alters the mixing regime. Various approaches have been applied to generate mixing in experimental ecosystems, including pure mechanical mixing (e.g., using a disc), airlifts, bubbling with compressed air, and pumping. In this study, we tested different mixing techniques for outdoor mesocosms and their impact on plankton biomass and community composition. We compared mesocosms mixed with a disc, an airlift-system, and bubbling, and used a nonactively mixed mesocosm as a control. We investigated phytoplankton, ciliate, and zooplankton communities during a 19-d mesocosm experiment. Based on our results, we concluded that mechanical mixing with a disc was the most effective technique due to the undertow produced by lowering and lifting the disc. While no mixing technique affected seston biomass, zooplankton biomass was highest in the treatments mixed with the disc. The airlift treatments had the lowest relative share of small flagellates. However, no further differences in phytoplankton community composition occurred and no differences in zooplankton community composition existed between all actively mixed treatments. PMID:25729335

  11. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types. PMID:26549938

  12. Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix.

    PubMed

    Soueidan, Hayssam; Maurier, Florence; Groppi, Alexis; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Tardy, Florence; Citti, Christine; Dupuy, Virginie; Nikolski, Macha

    2013-01-01

    Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/.

  13. Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table inmore » $$O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.« less

  14. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel's hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution's kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types.

  15. Diffusion-limited mixing by incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher J.; Doering, Charles R.

    2018-05-01

    Incompressible flows can be effective mixers by appropriately advecting a passive tracer to produce small filamentation length scales. In addition, diffusion is generally perceived as beneficial to mixing due to its ability to homogenize a passive tracer. However we provide numerical evidence that, in cases where advection and diffusion are both actively present, diffusion may produce negative effects by limiting the mixing effectiveness of incompressible optimal flows. This limitation appears to be due to the presence of a limiting length scale given by a generalised Batchelor length (Batchelor 1959 J. Fluid Mech. 5 113–33). This length scale limitation may in turn affect long-term mixing rates. More specifically, we consider local-in-time flow optimisation under energy and enstrophy flow constraints with the objective of maximising the mixing rate. We observe that, for enstrophy-bounded optimal flows, the strength of diffusion may not impact the long-term mixing rate. For energy-constrained optimal flows, however, an increase in the strength of diffusion can decrease the mixing rate. We provide analytical lower bounds on mixing rates and length scales achievable under related constraints (point-wise bounded speed and rate-of-strain) by extending the work of Lin et al (2011 J. Fluid Mech. 675 465–76) and Poon (1996 Commun. PDE 21 521–39).

  16. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  17. Using mixed methods in health research

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  18. Heat of mixing and morphological stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model, which incorporates heat of mixing in the energy balance, has been developed to analyze the morphological stability of a planar solid-liquid interface during the directional solidification of a binary alloy. It is observed that the stability behavior is almost that predicted by the analysis of Mullins and Sekerka (1963) at low growth velocities, while deviations in the critical concentration of about 20-25 percent are observed under rapid solidification conditions for certain systems. The calculations indicate that a positive heat of mixing makes the planar interface more unstable, whereas a negative heat of mixing makes it more stable, in terms of the critical concentration.

  19. Proxy case mix measures for nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Cyr, A B

    1983-01-01

    Nursing home case mix measures are needed for the same purposes that spurred the intensive development of case mix measures for hospitals: management and planning decisions, organizational performance research, and reimbursement policy analysis. This paper develops and validates a pair of complementary measures that are simple to compute, are easy to interpret, and use generally available data. They are not, however, definitive. A secondary purpose of this paper is thus to galvanize the development of data bases that will give rise to superior case mix measures for nursing homes.

  20. η and η' mixing from lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Michael, C; Ottnad, K; Urbach, C

    2013-11-01

    We present a lattice QCD computation of η and η' masses and mixing angles, for the first time controlling continuum and quark mass extrapolations. The results for M(η) = 551(8)(stat) (6)(yst) MeV and M(η') = 1006(54)(stat)(38)(syst)(+61)(ex) MeV are in excellent agreement with experiment. Our data show that the mixing in the quark flavor basis can be described by a single mixing angle of Ø = 46(1)(stat)(3)(syst)° indicating that the η' is mainly a flavor singlet state.

  1. Balanced detection for self-mixing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Cavedo, Federico; Pesatori, Alessandro; Zhao, Changming; Norgia, Michele

    2017-01-15

    We propose a new detection scheme for self-mixing interferometry using two photodiodes for implementing a differential acquisition. The method is based on the phase opposition of the self-mixing signal measured between the two laser diode facet outputs. The subtraction of the two outputs implements a sort of balanced detection that improves the signal quality, and allows canceling of unwanted signals due to laser modulation and disturbances on laser supply and transimpedance amplifier. Experimental results demonstrate the benefits of differential acquisition in a system for both absolute distance and displacement-vibration measurement. This Letter provides guidance for the design of self-mixing interferometers using balanced detection.

  2. Visualizing Statistical Mix Effects and Simpson's Paradox.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Zan; Wattenberg, Martin

    2014-12-01

    We discuss how "mix effects" can surprise users of visualizations and potentially lead them to incorrect conclusions. This statistical issue (also known as "omitted variable bias" or, in extreme cases, as "Simpson's paradox") is widespread and can affect any visualization in which the quantity of interest is an aggregated value such as a weighted sum or average. Our first contribution is to document how mix effects can be a serious issue for visualizations, and we analyze how mix effects can cause problems in a variety of popular visualization techniques, from bar charts to treemaps. Our second contribution is a new technique, the "comet chart," that is meant to ameliorate some of these issues.

  3. Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

  4. Viscoplastic properties of laponite-CMC mixes.

    PubMed

    Tarhini, Z; Jarny, S; Texier, A

    2017-04-01

    In this dataset, 15 samples of laponite-CMC mixes were realized and their viscoplastic properties are determined. Rheological parameters are then expressed as a function of age and components concentrations.

  5. [Mix 10] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  6. [Mix 4] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  7. [Mix 5] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  8. On polars of mixed projection bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang-Jian; Leng, Gang-Song

    2006-04-01

    Recently, Lutwak established general Minkowski inequality, Brunn-Minkowski inequality and Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for mixed projection bodies. In this paper, following Lutwak, we established their polar forms. As applications, we prove some interrelated results.

  9. Phase transformation of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Alexei; Isaac, George

    2003-01-01

    The glaciation time of a mixed-phase cloud due to the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism is calculated using an adiabatic one-dimensional numerical model for the cases of zero, ascending, descending and oscillating vertical velocities. The characteristic values of the glaciation time are obtained for different concentrations of ice particles and liquid-water content. Steady state is not possible for the ice-water content/total water content ratio in a uniformly vertically moving mixed-phase parcel. The vertical oscillation of a cloud parcel may result in a periodic evaporation and activation of liquid droplets in the presence of ice particles during infinite time. After a certain time, the average ice-water content and liquid-water content reach a steady state. This phenomenon may explain the existence of long-lived mixed-phase stratiform layers. The obtained results are important for understanding the mechanisms of formation and life cycle of mixed-phase clouds.

  10. Air pollution from hot mix plants.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-10-01

    The Louisiana Air Control Commission adopted Regulation II, effective 1969, which sets stringent limits on suspended particulates. Because of the lack of knowledge concerning air pollution caused by hot mix plants within the Stake and because of the ...

  11. Meson spectroscopy, quark mixing and quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A.T.

    1979-04-01

    A semiphenomenological theory of the quark-antiquark meson mass spectrum is presented. Relativistic kinematic effects due to unequal quark masses and SU (3) -breaking effects in the slopes of Regge trajectories and in radially excited states are taken into account. Violation of the OZI rule is accounted for by means of a mixing matrix for the quark wave functions, which is given by QCD. To describe the dependence of the mixing parameters on the meson masses, a simple extrapolation of the QCD expressions is proposed from the ''asymptotic-freedom'' region to the ''infrared-slavery'' region. To calculate the masses and mixing angles ofmore » the pseudoscalar mesons, the condition for a minimal pion mass is proposed. The eta-meson mass is then shown to be close to its maximum. The predictions of the theory for meson masses and mixing angles are in good agreement with experiment.« less

  12. [Mix 13] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  13. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  14. Detection of stripping in hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-03-11

    Stripping in hot mix asphalt (HMA) refers to the loss of adhesion between the asphalt cement and the aggregate surface primarily caused by the action of moisture and moisture vapor (Kandhal and Rickards 2001). Moisture damage begins with a reduction ...

  15. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  16. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  17. Helicity in supercritical temporal mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okong'o, N.

    2003-01-01

    Databases of transitional states obtained from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, 02/H2 and C7Hle/N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects.

  18. Can We Mix Jocks and Jills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Ira

    1979-01-01

    Since Title IX was enacted in 1975, schools have been liberalizing physical education in both elementary and secondary grades. Despite some initial wariness and low participation rates, mixed physical education classes continue to grow and improve. (EB)

  19. Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interactions Print version Harmful Interactions Mixing Alcohol With Medicines You’ve probably seen this warning on medicines ... falls and serious injuries, especially among older people. Medicines may have many ingredients Some medications—including many ...

  20. [Mix 3] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  1. [Mix 14] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  2. [Mix 7] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  3. [Mix 16] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  4. [Mix 6] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  5. [Mix 12] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  6. [Mix 1] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  7. [Mix 2] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  8. [Mix 8] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  9. [Mix 11] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  10. [Mix 15] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  11. [Mix 9] HMACP mixture design : combined gradation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Getting Started: Begin with the Combined Gradations or Summary sheet. Here you will select dependent variables such as specification year, mix type, asphalt content, combined aggregate, and others. These variable will affect the calculation of other ...

  12. Electroosmotic flow mixing in zigzag microchannels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2007-03-01

    In this study we performed numerical and experimental investigations into the mixing of EOFs in zigzag microchannels with two different corner geometries, namely sharp corners and flat corners. In the zigzag microchannel with sharp corners, the flow travels more rapidly near the inner wall of the corner than near the outer wall as a result of the higher electric potential drop. The resulting velocity gradient induces a racetrack effect, which enhances diffusion within the fluid and hence improves the mixing performance. The simulation results reveal that the mixing index is approximately 88.83%. However, the sharp-corner geometry causes residual liquid or bubbles to become trapped in the channel at the point where the flow is almost stationary, when the channel is in the process of cleaning. Accordingly, a zigzag microchannel with flat-corner geometry is developed. The flat-corner geometry forms a convergent-divergent type nozzle which not only enhances the mixing performance in the channel, but also prevents the accumulation of residual liquid or bubbles. Scaling analysis reveals that this corner geometry leads to an effective increase in the mixing length. The experimental results reveal that the mixing index is increased to 94.30% in the flat-corner zigzag channel. Hence, the results demonstrate that the mixing index of the flat-corner zigzag channel is better than that of the conventional sharp-corner microchannel. Finally, the results of Taguchi analysis indicate that the attainable mixing index is determined primarily by the number of corners in the microchannel and by the flow passing height at each corner.

  13. Theoretical and numerical studies of chaotic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Jun

    Theoretical and numerical studies of chaotic mixing are performed to circumvent the difficulties of efficient mixing, which come from the lack of turbulence in microfluidic devices. In order to carry out efficient and accurate parametric studies and to identify a fully chaotic state, a spectral element algorithm for solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes and species transport equations is developed. Using Taylor series expansions in time marching, the new algorithm employs an algebraic factorization scheme on multi-dimensional staggered spectral element grids, and extends classical conforming Galerkin formulations to nonconforming spectral elements. Lagrangian particle tracking methods are utilized to study particle dispersion in the mixing device using spectral element and fourth order Runge-Kutta discretizations in space and time, respectively. Comparative studies of five different techniques commonly employed to identify the chaotic strength and mixing efficiency in microfluidic systems are presented to demonstrate the competitive advantages and shortcomings of each method. These are the stirring index based on the box counting method, Poincare sections, finite time Lyapunov exponents, the probability density function of the stretching field, and mixing index inverse, based on the standard deviation of scalar species distribution. Series of numerical simulations are performed by varying the Peclet number (Pe) at fixed kinematic conditions. The mixing length (lm) is characterized as function of the Pe number, and lm ∝ ln(Pe) scaling is demonstrated for fully chaotic cases. Employing the aforementioned techniques, optimum kinematic conditions and the actuation frequency of the stirrer that result in the highest mixing/stirring efficiency are identified in a zeta potential patterned straight micro channel, where a continuous flow is generated by superposition of a steady pressure driven flow and time periodic electroosmotic flow induced by a stream-wise AC

  14. Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech

    2009-03-01

    We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.

  15. Quick-Mixing Studies Under Reacting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The low-NO(x) emitting potential of rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn )RQL) combustion makes it an attractive option for engines of future stratospheric aircraft. Because NO(x) formation is exponentially dependent on temperature, the success of the RQL combustor depends on minimizing high temperature stoichiometric pocket formation in the quick-mixing section. An experiment was designed and built, and tests were performed to characterize reaction and mixing properties of jets issuing from round orifices into a hot, fuel-rich crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct. The reactor operates on propane and presents a uniform, non-swirling mixture to the mixing modules. Modules consisting of round orifice configurations of 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 18 holes were evaluated at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and jet-to-mainstream mass-flaw ratio of 2.5. Temperatures and concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, HC, and NO(x) were obtained upstream, down-stream, and within the orifice plane to determine jet penetration as well as reaction processes. Jet penetration was a function of the number of orifices and affected the mixing in the reacting system. Of the six configurations tested, the 14-hole module produced jet penetration close to the module half-radius and yielded the best mixing and most complete combustion at a plane one duct diameter from the orifice leading edge. The results reveal that substantial reaction and heat release occur in the jet mixing zone when the entering effluent is hot and rich, and that the experiment as designed will serve to explore satisfactorily jet mixing behavior under realistic reacting conditions in future studies.

  16. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  17. Fast mix table construction for material discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a 'mix table,' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mixmore » table in O(number of voxels x log number of mixtures) time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation. (authors)« less

  18. Chaotic Fluid Mixing in Crystalline Sphere Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuban, R.; Lester, D. R.; Le Borgne, T.; Méheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We study the Lagrangian dynamics of steady 3D Stokes flow over simple cubic (SC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices of close-packed spheres, and uncover the mechanisms governing chaotic mixing. Due to the cusp-shaped sphere contacts, the topology of the skin friction field is fundamentally different to that of continuous (non-granular) media (e.g. open pore networks), with significant implications for fluid mixing. Weak symmetry breaking of the flow orientation with respect to the lattice symmetries imparts a transition from regular to strong chaotic mixing in the BCC lattice, whereas the SC lattice only exhibits weak mixing. Whilst the SC and BCC lattices share the same symmetry point group, these differences are explained in terms of their space groups, and we find that a glide symmetry of the BCC lattice generates chaotic mixing. These insight are used to develop accurate predictions of the Lyapunov exponent distribution over the parameter space of mean flow orientation, and point to a general theory of mixing and dispersion based upon the inherent symmetries of arbitrary crystalline structures.

  19. Thermodynamics of Mixing Primary Alkanolamines with Water.

    PubMed

    Idrissi, Abdenacer; Jedlovszky, Pal

    2018-05-17

    The volume, energy, entropy, and Helmholtz free energy of mixing of the seven simplest primary alkanolamine molecules, i.e., MEA, MIPA, 2A1P, ABU, AMP, AMP2, and 1A2B with water is investigated by extensive computer simulations and thermodynamic integration. To check the force field dependence of the results, all calculations are repeated with two commonly used water models, namely SPC/E and TIP4P. The obtained results show that the thermodynamics of mixing of alkanolamines and water is largely independent from the type of the alkanolamine molecule. The Helmholtz free energy of mixing is found to be negative for all alkanolamines at every composition, in accordance with the experimentally known full miscibility of these molecules and water. This free energy decrease occurring upon mixing is found to be clearly of energetic origin, as the energy of mixing always turns out to be negative in the entire composition range, while the entropy of mixing is also negative up to high alkanolamine mole fractions. The obtained results suggest that alkanolamines form, on average, stronger hydrogen bonds with water than what is formed by two water molecules, and they induce some ordering of the hydrating water molecules both through the hydrophobic hydration of their side chains and through the strong hydrogen bonding.

  20. Simultaneous mixing and pumping using asymmetric microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Yoon, Sang Youl; Sung, Hyung Jin; Smith, Charles G.

    2007-10-01

    This study proposes ideas for simultaneous mixing and pumping using asymmetric microelectrode arrays. The driving force of the mixing and pumping was based on electroosmotic flows induced by alternating current (ac) electric fields on asymmetric microelectrodes. The key idea was to bend/incline the microelectrodes like diagonal/herringbone shapes. Four patterns of the asymmetric electrode arrays were considered depending on the shape of electrode arrays. For the diagonal shape, repeated and staggered patterns of the electrode arrays were studied. For the herringbone shape, diverging and converging patterns were examined. These microelectrode patterns forced fluid flows in the lateral direction leading to mixing and in the channel direction leading to pumping. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the linear theories of ac electro-osmosis. The performances of the mixing and pumping were assessed in terms of the mixing efficiency and the pumping flow rate. The results indicated that the helical flow motions induced by the electrode arrays play a significant role in the mixing enhancement. The pumping performance was influenced by the slip velocity at the center region of the channel compared to that near the side walls.

  1. Visualizing turbulent mixing of gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.; Jain, Sandeep

    1995-01-01

    A physical model and interactive computer graphics techniques have been developed for the visualization of the basic physical process of stochastic dispersion and mixing from steady-state CFD calculations. The mixing of massless particles and inertial particles is visualized by transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Groups of particles are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as their statistical dispersion about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of particles in a turbulent environment are traced, not just mean paths. In combustion simulations of many industrial processes, good mixing is required to achieve a sufficient degree of combustion efficiency. The ability to visualize this multiphase mixing can not only help identify poor mixing but also explain the mechanism for poor mixing. The information gained from the visualization can be used to improve the overall combustion efficiency in utility boilers or propulsion devices. We have used this technique to visualize steady-state simulations of the combustion performance in several furnace designs.

  2. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  3. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  4. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. Thismore » waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.« less

  5. What is so new about mixed methods?

    PubMed

    Pelto, Pertti J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I dispute claims that mixed methods research emerged only recently in the social sciences. I argue that some anthropologists and sociologists (and others) have used mixed methods in fieldwork for at least 80 years, and there are studies from early in the 20th century that clearly fall within the definition of "mixed methods." I explore some of the history of the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data in earlier ethnographic works and show that in some sectors of social science research, the "emergence" and proliferation of mixed methods were particularly notable around the middle of the 20th century. Furthermore, concerning issues about "paradigms of research" in the social sciences, I identify some of the types of research in which the mixing of QUAL and QUAN approaches was more likely to occur. I suggest that some of the literature about research paradigms has involved a certain amount of "myth-making" in connection with descriptions of qualitative and quantitative research assumptions and styles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Evaluating Georgia DOT's compaction requirements for stone matrix asphalt mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-01

    This study determined a compactive effort for Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixes with the Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) that would match a 50-blow Marshall compactive effort using aggregates and mix designs common in Georgia. SMA mix designs were ...

  7. Installation of warm mix asphalt projects in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Several processes have been developed to reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt (HMA) without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the installation of warm mix asphalt ...

  8. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  9. Application of the Fokker-Planck molecular mixing model to turbulent scalar mixing using moment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.

    2017-06-01

    An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.

  10. Solute mixing regulates heterogeneity of mineral precipitation in porous media: Effect of Solute Mixing on Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Xie, Minwei; Packman, Aaron I.

    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to track the spatiotemporal evolution of mineral precipitation and the consequent alteration of the pore structure. Column experiments were conducted by injecting CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions into granular porous media either as a premixed supersaturated solution (external mixing) or as separate solutions that mixed within the specimen (internal mixing). The two mixing modes produced distinct mineral growth patterns. While internal mixing promoted transverse heterogeneity with precipitation at the mixing zone, external mixing favored relatively homogeneous precipitation along the flow direction. The impact of precipitation on pore water flow and permeability was assessed via 3-D flowmore » simulations, which indicated anisotropic permeability evolution for both mixing modes. Under both mixing modes, precipitation decreased the median pore size and increased the skewness of the pore size distribution. Such similar pore-scale evolution patterns suggest that the clogging of individual pores depends primarily on local supersaturation state and pore geometry.« less

  11. Contemplating case mix: A primer on case mix classification and management.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andrew P; Poss, Jeffery W; McKillop, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Case mix classifications are the frameworks that underlie many healthcare funding schemes, including the so-called activity-based funding. Now more than ever, Canadian healthcare administrators are evaluating case mix-based funding and deciphering how they will influence their organization. Case mix is a topic fraught with technical jargon and largely relegated to government agencies or private industries. This article provides an abridged review of case mix classification as well as its implications for management in healthcare. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  12. Mixed ethnicity and behavioural problems in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Background The population of mixed ethnicity individuals in the UK is growing. Despite this demographic trend, little is known about mixed ethnicity children and their problem behaviours. We examine trajectories of behavioural problems among non-mixed and mixed ethnicity children from early to middle childhood using nationally representative cohort data in the UK. Methods Data from 16 330 children from the Millennium Cohort Study with total difficulties scores were analysed. We estimated trajectories of behavioural problems by mixed ethnicity using growth curve models. Results White mixed (mean total difficulties score: 8.3), Indian mixed (7.7), Pakistani mixed (8.9) and Bangladeshi mixed (7.2) children had fewer problem behaviours than their non-mixed counterparts at age 3 (9.4, 10.1, 13.1 and 11.9, respectively). White mixed, Pakistani mixed and Bangladeshi mixed children had growth trajectories in problem behaviours significantly different from that of their non-mixed counterparts. Conclusions Using a detailed mixed ethnic classification revealed diverging trajectories between some non-mixed and mixed children across the early life course. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms, which may influence increasing behavioural problems in mixed ethnicity children. PMID:26912571

  13. Mixing, segregation, and flow of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Joseph J.

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation addresses mixing, segregation, and flow of granular materials with the ultimate goal of providing fundamental understanding and tools for the rational design and optimization of mixing devices. In particular, the paradigm cases of a slowly rotated tumbler mixer and flow down an inclined plane are examined. Computational work, as well as supporting experiments, are used to probe both two and three dimensional systems. In the avalanching regime, the mixing and flow can be viewed either on a global-scale or a local-scale. On the global-scale, material is transported via avalanches whose gross motion can be well described by geometrical considerations. On the local-scale, the dynamics of the particle motion becomes important; particles follow complicated trajectories that are highly sensitive to differences in size/density/morphology. By decomposing the problem in this way, it is possible to study the implications of the geometry and dynamics separately and to add complexities in a controlled fashion. This methodology allows even seemingly difficult problems (i.e., mixing in non-convex geometries, and mixing of dissimilar particles) to be probed in a simple yet methodical way. In addition this technique provides predictions of optimal mixing conditions in an avalanching tumbler, a criterion for evaluating the effect of mixer shape, and mixing enhancement strategies for both two and three dimensional mixers. In the continuous regime, the flow can be divided into two regions: a rapid flow region of the cascading layer at the free surface, and a fixed bed region undergoing solid body rotation. A continuum-based description, in which averages are taken across the layer, generates quantitative predictions about the flow in the cascading layer and agrees well with experiment. Incorporating mixing through a diffusive flux (as well as constitutive expression for segregation) within the cascading layer allows for the determination of optimal mixing conditions

  14. Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J

    2000-02-01

    Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.

  15. Statistical models of global Langmuir mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Breivik, Øyvind; Webb, Adrean

    2017-05-01

    The effects of Langmuir mixing on the surface ocean mixing may be parameterized by applying an enhancement factor which depends on wave, wind, and ocean state to the turbulent velocity scale in the K-Profile Parameterization. Diagnosing the appropriate enhancement factor online in global climate simulations is readily achieved by coupling with a prognostic wave model, but with significant computational and code development expenses. In this paper, two alternatives that do not require a prognostic wave model, (i) a monthly mean enhancement factor climatology, and (ii) an approximation to the enhancement factor based on the empirical wave spectra, are explored and tested in a global climate model. Both appear to reproduce the Langmuir mixing effects as estimated using a prognostic wave model, with nearly identical and substantial improvements in the simulated mixed layer depth and intermediate water ventilation over control simulations, but significantly less computational cost. Simpler approaches, such as ignoring Langmuir mixing altogether or setting a globally constant Langmuir number, are found to be deficient. Thus, the consequences of Stokes depth and misaligned wind and waves are important.

  16. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  17. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, M.; INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi; Dell'Anno, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify inmore » detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.« less

  18. Who Moves to Mixed-Income Neighborhoods?*

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra; White, T. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study the income dispersion of recent cohorts of migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods. We investigate whether neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion attract economically diverse in-migrants. If recent in-migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods exhibit high levels of income dispersion, this is consistent with stable mixed-income neighborhoods. If, however, mixed-income neighborhoods are comprised of homogenous low-income (high-income) cohorts of long-term residents combined with homogenous high-income (low-income) cohorts of recent arrivals, this is consistent with neighborhood transition. Our results indicate that neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion do in fact attract a much more heterogeneous set of in-migrants, particularly from the tails of the income distribution. Our results also suggest that the residents of mixed-income neighborhoods may be less heterogeneous with respect to lifetime income. PMID:21479114

  19. Receptivity of the compressible mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Matthew F.; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2005-09-01

    Receptivity of compressible mixing layers to general source distributions is examined by a combined theoretical/computational approach. The properties of solutions to the adjoint Navier Stokes equations are exploited to derive expressions for receptivity in terms of the local value of the adjoint solution. The result is a description of receptivity for arbitrary small-amplitude mass, momentum, and heat sources in the vicinity of a mixing-layer flow, including the edge-scattering effects due to the presence of a splitter plate of finite width. The adjoint solutions are examined in detail for a Mach 1.2 mixing-layer flow. The near field of the adjoint solution reveals regions of relatively high receptivity to direct forcing within the mixing layer, with receptivity to nearby acoustic sources depending on the source type and position. Receptivity ‘nodes’ are present at certain locations near the splitter plate edge where the flow is not sensitive to forcing. The presence of the nodes is explained by interpretation of the adjoint solution as the superposition of incident and scattered fields. The adjoint solution within the boundary layer upstream of the splitter-plate trailing edge reveals a mechanism for transfer of energy from boundary-layer stability modes to Kelvin Helmholtz modes. Extension of the adjoint solution to the far field using a Kirchhoff surface gives the receptivity of the mixing layer to incident sound from distant sources.

  20. Theoretical analysis of mixing in liquid clouds – Part 3: Inhomogeneous mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei

    2016-07-28

    An idealized diffusion–evaporation model of time-dependent mixing between a cloud volume and a droplet-free volume is analyzed. The initial droplet size distribution (DSD) in the cloud volume is assumed to be monodisperse. It is shown that evolution of the microphysical variables and the final equilibrium state are unambiguously determined by two non-dimensional parameters. The first one is the potential evaporation parameter R, proportional to the ratio of the saturation deficit to the liquid water content in the cloud volume, that determines whether the equilibrium state is reached at 100 % relative humidity, or is characterized by a complete evaporation ofmore » cloud droplets. The second parameter Da is the Damkölher number equal to the ratio of the characteristic mixing time to the phase relaxation time. Parameters R and Da determine the type of mixing. The results are analyzed within a wide range of values of R and Da. It is shown that there is no pure homogeneous mixing, since the first mixing stage is always inhomogeneous. The mixing type can change during the mixing process. Any mixing type leads to formation of a tail of small droplets in DSD and, therefore, to DSD broadening that depends on Da. At large Da, the final DSD dispersion can be as large as 0.2. The total duration of mixing varies from several to 100 phase relaxation time periods, depending on R and Da. The definitions of homogeneous and inhomogeneous types of mixing are reconsidered and clarified, enabling a more precise delimitation between them. The paper also compares the results obtained with those based on the classic mixing concepts.« less

  1. Theoretical analysis of mixing in liquid clouds – Part 3: Inhomogeneous mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei

    An idealized diffusion–evaporation model of time-dependent mixing between a cloud volume and a droplet-free volume is analyzed. The initial droplet size distribution (DSD) in the cloud volume is assumed to be monodisperse. It is shown that evolution of the microphysical variables and the final equilibrium state are unambiguously determined by two non-dimensional parameters. The first one is the potential evaporation parameter R, proportional to the ratio of the saturation deficit to the liquid water content in the cloud volume, that determines whether the equilibrium state is reached at 100 % relative humidity, or is characterized by a complete evaporation ofmore » cloud droplets. The second parameter Da is the Damkölher number equal to the ratio of the characteristic mixing time to the phase relaxation time. Parameters R and Da determine the type of mixing. The results are analyzed within a wide range of values of R and Da. It is shown that there is no pure homogeneous mixing, since the first mixing stage is always inhomogeneous. The mixing type can change during the mixing process. Any mixing type leads to formation of a tail of small droplets in DSD and, therefore, to DSD broadening that depends on Da. At large Da, the final DSD dispersion can be as large as 0.2. The total duration of mixing varies from several to 100 phase relaxation time periods, depending on R and Da. The definitions of homogeneous and inhomogeneous types of mixing are reconsidered and clarified, enabling a more precise delimitation between them. The paper also compares the results obtained with those based on the classic mixing concepts.« less

  2. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  3. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  4. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  5. Clustering of Variables for Mixed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, J.; Chavent, M.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter presents clustering of variables which aim is to lump together strongly related variables. The proposed approach works on a mixed data set, i.e. on a data set which contains numerical variables and categorical variables. Two algorithms of clustering of variables are described: a hierarchical clustering and a k-means type clustering. A brief description of PCAmix method (that is a principal component analysis for mixed data) is provided, since the calculus of the synthetic variables summarizing the obtained clusters of variables is based on this multivariate method. Finally, the R packages ClustOfVar and PCAmixdata are illustrated on real mixed data. The PCAmix and ClustOfVar approaches are first used for dimension reduction (step 1) before applying in step 2 a standard clustering method to obtain groups of individuals.

  6. Microfluidic mixing using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Matthew; Owen, Drew; Mao, Wenbin; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine mixing in a microfluidic channel that incorporates a hybrid passive-active micromixer. The passive part of the mixer consists of a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top microchannel wall. The active component of the mixer is made up of microbeads rotating around small pillars on the bottom of the microchannel. In our simulations, we use a binary fluid lattice Boltzmann model to simulate the system and characterize the microfluidic mixing in the system. We consider the passive and active micromixers separately and evaluate their combined effect on the mixing of binary fluids. We compare our simulations with the experimental results obtained in a microchannel with magnetically actuated microbeads. Our findings guide the design of an efficient micromixer to be used in sampling in complex fluids. Financial support from NSF (CBET-1159726) is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  8. Superlubricity of a Mixed Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-Zuo; Zhang, Chen-Hui; Luo, Jian-Bin; Lu, Xin-Chun; Wen, Shi-Zhu

    2011-05-01

    A super-low friction coefficient of 0.0028 is measured under a pressure of 300 MPa when the friction pair (the silicon nitride ball sliding on the silicate glass) is lubricated by the mixed aqueous solution of glycerol and boric acid. The morphorlogies of the hydroxylated glass plate are observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) in deionized water, glycerol, boric acid and their mixed aqueous solution. Bonding peaks of the retained liquids adhered on the surface of the sliding track are detected by an infrared spectrum apparatus and a Raman spectrum apparatus. The mechanism of the superlubricity of the glycerol and boric acid mixed aqueous solution is discussed. It is deduced that the formation of the lubricant film has enough strength to support higher loads, the hydration effect offering the super lower shear resistance. Key words: superlubricity, water based lubricant, ultra-low friction

  9. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  10. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  12. Vlasov Simulation of Mixing in Antihydrogen Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Chukman; Fajans, Joel; Friedland, Lazar; Wurtele, Jonathan; Alpha Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    In the ALPHA apparatus, low temperature antiprotons (p) and positrons (e+) are prepared adjacent to each other in a nested Penning trap. To create trappable antihydrogen (H), the two species must be mixed such that some resultant H atoms have sub-Kelvin kinetic energy. A new simulation has been developed to study and optimize the autoresonant mixing, in ALPHA. The p dynamics are governed by their own self- field, the e+ plasma field, and the external fields. The e+ 's are handled quasi-statically with a Poisson-Boltzmann solver. p 's are handled by multiple time dependent 1D Vlasov-Poisson solvers, each representing a radial slice of the plasma. The 1D simulatiuons couple through the 2D Poisson equation. We neglect radial transport due to the strong solenoidal field. The advantages and disadvantages of different descretization schemes, comparisons of simulation with experiment, and techniques for optimizing mixing, will be presented.

  13. Convex set and linear mixing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, P.; Greeley, R.

    1993-01-01

    A major goal of optical remote sensing is to determine surface compositions of the earth and other planetary objects. For assessment of composition, single pixels in multi-spectral images usually record a mixture of the signals from various materials within the corresponding surface area. In this report, we introduce a closed and bounded convex set as a mathematical model for linear mixing. This model has a clear geometric implication because the closed and bounded convex set is a natural generalization of a triangle in n-space. The endmembers are extreme points of the convex set. Every point in the convex closure of the endmembers is a linear mixture of those endmembers, which is exactly how linear mixing is defined. With this model, some general criteria for selecting endmembers could be described. This model can lead to a better understanding of linear mixing models.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  16. Effect of mixing method on the mixing degree during the preparation of triturations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu; Sekiguchi, Hiroko; Komada, Fusao; Kawabata, Haruno; Ohtani, Michiteru; Saitoh, Yukiya; Kariya, Satoru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Uchino, Katsuyoshi; Iga, Tatsuji

    2004-03-01

    By using lactose colored with erythrocin, we investigated the effects of mixing methods on mixing degree during the preparation of trituration with a mortar and pestle. The extent of powder dilution was set to 4 to 64 fold in the experiments. We compared the results obtained by using two methods: (1) one-step mixing of powders after addition of diluents and (2) gradual mixing of powders after addition of diluents. As diluents, we used crystallized lactose and powdered lactose for the preparation of trituration. In the preparation of 64-fold trituration, an excellent degree of mixing was obtained, with CV values of less than 6.08%, for both preparation methods and for the two kinds of diluents. The mixing of two kinds of powders whose distributions of particle sizes were similar resulted in much better degree of mixing, with CV values of less than 3.0%. However, the concentration of principal agents in 64-fold trituration was reduced by 20% due to the adsorption of dye to the apparatus. Under conditions in which a much higher dilution rate and/or much better degree of dilution was required, it must be necessary to dilute powders with considering their physicality and to determine the concentrations of principal agents after the mixing.

  17. Friendship in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Mixed and Non-Mixed Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Aviezer, Anat; Heung, Kelly; Brown, John; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Friendships containing a child with autism and a friend with typical development ("mixed" friendships, n = 26) and those of children with autism and a friend with a disability ("non-mixed," n = 16) were contrasted with friendships of typically developing subjects and their friends (n = 31). Measures included dyadic interaction samples, and…

  18. MixSIAR: A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model for characterizing intrapopulation niche variation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The science of stable isotope mixing models has tended towards the development of modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances or syntheses of the current state of the art are published in parity with software packa...

  19. Prediction of dynamic and mixing characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers using DNS and LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) have been conducted of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, in order to assess the ability of LES to reproduce dynamic and mixing aspects of the DNS which affect combustion, independently of combustion models.

  20. Identifying geochemical processes using End Member Mixing Analysis to decouple chemical components for mixing ratio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizardi, Flavia; Bea, Sergio A.; Carrera, Jesús; Vives, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Mixing calculations (i.e., the calculation of the proportions in which end-members are mixed in a sample) are essential for hydrological research and water management. However, they typically require the use of conservative species, a condition that may be difficult to meet due to chemical reactions. Mixing calculation also require identifying end-member waters, which is usually achieved through End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). We present a methodology to help in the identification of both end-members and such reactions, so as to improve mixing ratio calculations. The proposed approach consists of: (1) identifying the potential chemical reactions with the help of EMMA; (2) defining decoupled conservative chemical components consistent with those reactions; (3) repeat EMMA with the decoupled (i.e., conservative) components, so as to identify end-members waters; and (4) computing mixing ratios using the new set of components and end-members. The approach is illustrated by application to two synthetic mixing examples involving mineral dissolution and cation exchange reactions. Results confirm that the methodology can be successfully used to identify geochemical processes affecting the mixtures, thus improving the accuracy of mixing ratios calculations and relaxing the need for conservative species.

  1. Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Lipid Mixing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membranes are often hindered by the slow lateral diffusion of lipids and the limited time scale of MD. In order to study the dynamics of mixing and characterize the lateral distribution of lipids in converged mixtures, we report microsecond-long all-atom MD simulations performed on the special-purpose machine Anton. Two types of mixed bilayers, POPE:POPG (3:1) and POPC:cholesterol (2:1), as well as a pure POPC bilayer, were each simulated for up to 2 μs. These simulations show that POPE:POPG and POPC:cholesterol are each fully miscible at the simulated conditions, with the final states of the mixed bilayers similar to a random mixture. By simulating three POPE:POPG bilayers at different NaCl concentrations (0, 0.15, and 1 M), we also examined the effect of salt concentration on lipid mixing. While an increase in NaCl concentration is shown to affect the area per lipid, tail order, and lipid lateral diffusion, the final states of mixing remain unaltered, which is explained by the largely uniform increase in Na+ ions around POPE and POPG. Direct measurement of water permeation reveals that the POPE:POPG bilayer with 1 M NaCl has reduced water permeability compared with those at zero or low salt concentration. Our calculations provide a benchmark to estimate the convergence time scale of all-atom MD simulations of lipid mixing. Additionally, equilibrated structures of POPE:POPG and POPC:cholesterol, which are frequently used to mimic bacterial and mammalian membranes, respectively, can be used as starting points of simulations involving these membranes. PMID:25237736

  2. Quantifying Diapycnal Mixing in an Energetic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Gregory N.; Bluteau, Cynthia E.; Jones, Nicole L.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulent diapycnal mixing controls global circulation and the distribution of tracers in the ocean. For turbulence in stratified shear flows, we introduce a new turbulent length scale Lρ dependent on χ. We show the flux Richardson number Rif is determined by the dimensionless ratio of three length scales: the Ozmidov scale LO, the Corrsin shear scale LS, and Lρ. This new model predicts that Rif varies from 0 to 0.5, which we test primarily against energetic field observations collected in 100 m of water on the Australian North West Shelf (NWS), in addition to laboratory observations. The field observations consisted of turbulence microstructure vertical profiles taken near moored temperature and velocity turbulence time series. Irrespective of the value of the gradient Richardson number Ri, both instruments yielded a median Rif=0.17, while the observed Rif ranged from 0.01 to 0.50, in agreement with the predicted range of Rif. Using a Prandtl mixing length model, we show that diapycnal mixing Kρ can be predicted from Lρ and the background vertical shear S. Using field and laboratory observations, we show that Lρ=0.3LE where LE is the Ellison length scale. The diapycnal diffusivity can thus be calculated from Kρ=0.09LES2. This prediction agrees very well with the diapycnal mixing estimates obtained from our moored turbulence instruments for observed diffusivities as large as 10-1 m2s-1. Moorings with relatively low sampling rates can thus provide long time series estimates of diapycnal mixing rates, significantly increasing the number of diapycnal mixing estimates in the ocean.

  3. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure allmore » solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.« less

  4. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shuhuai; Bakajin, Olgica

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance.more » We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.« less

  5. Ionic conductivity and mixed-ion effect in mixed alkali metaphosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Jefferson Esquina; Ferri, Fabio Aparecido; Pizani, Paulo Sergio; Martins Rodrigues, Ana Candida; Kundu, Swarup; Schneider, José Fabián; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-03-01

    In this work, mixed alkali metaphosphate glasses based on K-Na, Rb-Na, Rb-Li, Cs-Na and Cs-Li combinations were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), complex impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. DSC analyses show that both the glass transition (T g ) and melting temperatures (T m ) exhibit a clear mixed-ion effect. The ionic conductivity shows a strong mixed-ion effect and decreases by more than six orders of magnitude at room temperature for Rb-Na or Cs-Li alkali pairs. This study confirms that the mixed-ion effect may be explained as a natural consequence of random ion mixing because ion transport is favoured between well-matched energy sites and is impeded due to the structural mismatch between neighbouring sites for dissimilar ions.

  6. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  8. Medicaid prospective payment: Case-mix increase

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Samuel L.; Kronenfeld, Jennie J.

    1990-01-01

    South Carolina Medicaid implemented prospective payment by diagnosis-related group (DRG) for inpatient care. The rate of complications among newborns and deliveries doubled immediately. The case-mix index for newborns increased 66.6 percent, which increased the total Medicaid hospital expenditure 5.5 percent. Outlier payments increased total expenditure further. DRG distribution change among newborns has a large impact on spending because newborn complication DRGs have high weights. States adopting a DRG-based payment system for Medicaid should anticipate a greater increase in case mix than Medicare experienced. PMID:10113463

  9. Groverian measure of entanglement for mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Daniel; Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer

    2006-04-15

    The Groverian entanglement measure, introduced earlier for pure quantum states of multiple qubits [O. Biham, M.A. Nielsen, and T. Osborne, Phys. Rev. A 65, 062312 (2002)], is generalized to the case of mixed states. The Groverian measure of a mixed state of n qubits is obtained by a purification procedure into a pure state of 2n qubits, followed by an optimization process, before the resulting state is fed into Grover's search algorithm. It is expressed in terms of the maximal success probability of the algorithm and in this sense provides an operational measure of entanglement.

  10. Global analysis of fermion mixing with exotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, Enrico; Roulet, Esteban; Tommasini, Daniele

    1991-01-01

    The limits are analyzed on deviation of the lepton and quark weak-couplings from their standard model values in a general class of models where the known fermions are allowed to mix with new heavy particles with exotic SU(2) x U(1) quantum number assignments (left-handed singlets or right-handed doublets). These mixings appear in many extensions of the electroweak theory such as models with mirror fermions, E(sub 6) models, etc. The results update previous analyses and improve considerably the existing bounds.

  11. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  12. Drone inflight mixing of biochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Katariya, Mayur; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Minife, Tristan; Gupta, Harshit; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2018-03-15

    Autonomous systems for sample transport to the laboratory for analysis can be improved in terms of timeliness, cost and error mitigation in the pre-analytical testing phase. Drones have been reported for outdoor sample transport but incorporating devices on them to attain homogenous mixing of reagents during flight to enhance sample processing timeliness is limited by payload issues. It is shown here that flipping maneuvers conducted with quadcopters are able to facilitate complete and gentle mixing. This capability incorporated during automated sample transport serves to address an important factor contributing to pre-analytical variability which ultimately impacts on test result reliability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Model-Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-01-01

    New Abelimore » an vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model-independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e + e − experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by ϵ ≲ 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.« less

  14. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  17. Numerical simulations of compressible mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Normand, Xavier

    1990-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional temporally growing compressible mixing layers are presented. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is initially excited by a white-noise perturbation superimposed onto a hyperbolic tangent meanflow profile. The linear regime is studied at low resolution in the case of two flows of equal temperatures, for convective Mach numbers from 0.1 to 1 and for different values of the Reynolds number. At higher resolution, the complete evolution of a two-eddy mixing layer between two flows of different temperatures is simulated at moderate Reynolds number. Similarities and differences between flows of equal convective Mach numbers are discussed.

  18. Advantages from Mixed Storage of Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    A^dN^MM ADy^->6y 7<^ TECHNICAL REPORT ARBRL-TR-02506 ADVANTAGES FROM MIXED STORAGE OF AMMUNITION Ona R. Lyman July 1983 US ARMY ARMAMENT...that "weigh out." Benefits can be derived from mixing an ammunition that "weighs out" with ammunition that "cubes out." In principle, it is...accessible. Below is listed a step-by-step procedure for determining benefits to be derived. Step 1. Select a munition that "weighs out" and note if more

  19. Separable decompositions of bipartite mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    We present a practical scheme for the decomposition of a bipartite mixed state into a sum of direct products of local density matrices, using the technique developed in Li and Qiao (Sci. Rep. 8:1442, 2018). In the scheme, the correlation matrix which characterizes the bipartite entanglement is first decomposed into two matrices composed of the Bloch vectors of local states. Then, we show that the symmetries of Bloch vectors are consistent with that of the correlation matrix, and the magnitudes of the local Bloch vectors are lower bounded by the correlation matrix. Concrete examples for the separable decompositions of bipartite mixed states are presented for illustration.

  20. Magma mixing during caldera forming eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    During explosive caldera-forming eruptions magma erupts through a ring dyke. Flow is driven, in part, by foundering of a magma chamber roof into underlying buoyant magma. One intriguing and poorly understood characteristic of deposits from calderas is that bulk ignimbrite, pumices, and crystals can show complex stratigraphic zonation. We propose that zonation patterns can be explained by different, and temporally evolving subsidence styles, and that the geometry imposed by subsidence can affect flow and cause mixing in the chamber and ring dyke. We use two series of laboratory experiments to investigate aspects of the mixing properties of flow in the chamber and ring dike during caldera collapse. In the first series, cylindrical blocks of height, h, and diameter, d, are released into circular analog magma chambers of diameter D and height H, containing buoyant fluids with viscosities that we vary. Subsidence occurs as a result of flow through the annular gap (ring dike) between the block and the wall of the surrounding tank of width, w = D-d. Three dimensionless parameters characterize the nature and evolution of the subsidence, and the resulting flow: A Reynolds number, Re, a tilt number, T = w/h and a subsidence number, S = w/H. Whereas Re indicates the importance of inertia for flow and mixing, T and S are geometric parameters that govern the extent of roof tilting, the spatial variation in w during collapse and the wavelength and structure of fluid motions. On the basis of field observations and theoretical arguments we fix T ≍ 0.14 and characterize subsidence and the corresponding flow over a wide range of Re - S parameter space appropriate to silicic caldera systems. Where S < 2 and Re < 103 the roof can rotate or tilt as it sinks and a spectrum of fluid mechanical behavior within the ring dike are observed. The combination of roof rotation and tilting drives unsteady, 3D overturning motions within the ring dike that are inferred to cause extensive mixing

  1. 29 CFR 1614.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed case complaints. 1614.302 Section 1614.302 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.302 Mixed case complaints. (a) Definitions—(1) Mixed case complaint. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with a federal agency...

  2. 29 CFR 1614.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed case complaints. 1614.302 Section 1614.302 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.302 Mixed case complaints. (a) Definitions—(1) Mixed case complaint. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with a federal agency...

  3. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits... Rules for Mixing and Converting Denatured Spirits § 19.391 Mixing denatured spirits. (a) Spirits of the... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas. A...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section... General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing of... to the hazards associated with the mixing of the bulk explosive material underground. (b) Storage...

  5. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  6. 29 CFR 1614.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed case complaints. 1614.302 Section 1614.302 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.302 Mixed case complaints. (a) Definitions—(1) Mixed case complaint. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with a federal agency...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section... General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing of... to the hazards associated with the mixing of the bulk explosive material underground. (b) Storage...

  8. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section... General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing of... to the hazards associated with the mixing of the bulk explosive material underground. (b) Storage...

  10. 7 CFR 58.619 - Mix processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mix processing room. 58.619 Section 58.619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....619 Mix processing room. The rooms used for combining mix ingredients and processing the mix shall...

  11. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  12. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must submit...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1) A...

  14. 7 CFR 58.619 - Mix processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mix processing room. 58.619 Section 58.619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....619 Mix processing room. The rooms used for combining mix ingredients and processing the mix shall...

  15. 7 CFR 58.619 - Mix processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mix processing room. 58.619 Section 58.619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....619 Mix processing room. The rooms used for combining mix ingredients and processing the mix shall...

  16. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed case complaints. 1614.302 Section 1614.302 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.302 Mixed case complaints. (a) Definitions—(1) Mixed case complaint. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with a federal agency...

  18. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed case... discrimination or it may contain additional allegations that the MSPB has jurisdiction to address. A mixed case...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section... General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing of... to the hazards associated with the mixing of the bulk explosive material underground. (b) Storage...

  20. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed case... discrimination or it may contain additional allegations that the MSPB has jurisdiction to address. A mixed case...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section... General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing of... to the hazards associated with the mixing of the bulk explosive material underground. (b) Storage...

  2. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A...

  3. 29 CFR 1614.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed case complaints. 1614.302 Section 1614.302 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.302 Mixed case complaints. (a) Definitions—(1) Mixed case complaint. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with a federal agency...

  4. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed case... discrimination or it may contain additional allegations that the MSPB has jurisdiction to address. A mixed case...

  5. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must submit...

  6. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A...

  7. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1) A...

  9. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must submit...

  10. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must submit...

  11. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits... Rules for Mixing and Converting Denatured Spirits § 19.391 Mixing denatured spirits. (a) Spirits of the... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas. A...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1) A...

  13. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits... Rules for Mixing and Converting Denatured Spirits § 19.391 Mixing denatured spirits. (a) Spirits of the... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas. A...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1) A...

  15. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits... Rules for Mixing and Converting Denatured Spirits § 19.391 Mixing denatured spirits. (a) Spirits of the... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas. A...

  16. Segregation of asphalt mixes caused by surge silos : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    Segregation of asphalt mixes continues to be a problem in Virginia, particularly with base mixes and coarse surface mixes. Although the problem is encountered primarily on jobs using surge silos, it has been related to other factors such as mix desig...

  17. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  18. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  19. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  20. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  1. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  2. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed nuts. 164.110 Section 164.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  3. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  6. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  7. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  8. Investigating the Metallicity–Mixing-length Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Lucas S.; Basu, Sarbani; Joel Ong J., M.; Bonaca, Ana; Chaplin, William J.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar models typically use the mixing-length approximation as a way to implement convection in a simplified manner. While conventionally the value of the mixing-length parameter, α, used is the solar-calibrated value, many studies have shown that other values of α are needed to properly model stars. This uncertainty in the value of the mixing-length parameter is a major source of error in stellar models and isochrones. Using asteroseismic data, we determine the value of the mixing-length parameter required to properly model a set of about 450 stars ranging in log g, {T}eff}, and [{Fe}/{{H}}]. The relationship between the value of α required and the properties of the star is then investigated. For Eddington atmosphere, non-diffusion models, we find that the value of α can be approximated by a linear model, in the form of α /{α }ȯ =5.426{--}0.101 {log}(g)-1.071 {log}({T}eff}) +0.437([{Fe}/{{H}}]). This process is repeated using a variety of model physics, as well as compared with previous studies and results from 3D convective simulations.

  9. Mixed Age Grouping for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Lorraine L.

    1991-01-01

    The application of mixed-age grouping at Rainard School (Houston, Texas), a private school for gifted students, is described. Discussed are advantages (such as encouraging cooperation instead of competition), the optimum age spread, the differentiated and individualized curriculum, parent reactions, teacher reactions, and difficulties. (DB)

  10. The Mixed Political Blessing of Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of sustainability rhetoric, curriculum, infrastructure, and marketing on college campuses is a mixed blessing. On the one hand, college presidents are pledging to eliminate their campuses' global warming emissions; colleges and universities are building wind turbines, composters, and green buildings; and sustainability coordinators are…

  11. Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Livet, Pierre

    2010-01-27

    Experimental psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions--which we formally represent by comparisons between 'unexpected utilities' and expected ones--the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery.

  12. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  13. Control of Jet Noise Through Mixing Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark; Brown, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    The idea of using mixing enhancement to reduce jet noise is not new. Lobed mixers have been around since shortly after jet noise became a problem. However, these designs were often a post-design fix that rarely was worth its weight and thrust loss from a system perspective. Recent advances in CFD and some inspired concepts involving chevrons have shown how mixing enhancement can be successfully employed in noise reduction by subtle manipulation of the nozzle geometry. At NASA Glenn Research Center, this recent success has provided an opportunity to explore our paradigms of jet noise understanding, prediction, and reduction. Recent advances in turbulence measurement technology for hot jets have also greatly aided our ability to explore the cause and effect relationships of nozzle geometry, plume turbulence, and acoustic far field. By studying the flow and sound fields of jets with various degrees of mixing enhancement and subsequent noise manipulation, we are able to explore our intuition regarding how jets make noise, test our prediction codes, and pursue advanced noise reduction concepts. The paper will cover some of the existing paradigms of jet noise as they relate to mixing enhancement for jet noise reduction, and present experimental and analytical observations that support these paradigms.

  14. Jet Mixing in a Reacting Cylindrical Crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the mixing of air jets into the hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone. The mixing, as a result, occurs in a reacting environment with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from round orifices. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture without swirl to mixing modules consisting of 8, 9, 10, and 12 holes at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 2.5. Concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, and HC are obtained upstream, downstream, and within the orifice plane. O2 profiles indicate jet penetration while CO2, CO, and HC profiles depict the extent of reaction. Jet penetration is observed to be a function of the number of orifices and is found to affect the mixing in the reacting system. The results demonstrate that one module (the 12-hole) produces near-optimal penetration defined here as a jet penetration closest to the module half-radius, and hence the best uniform mixture at a plane one duct radius from the orifice leading edge.

  15. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  16. BSM Kaon Mixing at the Physical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Peter; Garron, Nicolas; Kettle, Julia; Khamseh, Ava; Tsang, Justus Tobias

    2018-03-01

    We present a progress update on the RBC-UKQCD calculation of beyond the standard model (BSM) kaon mixing matrix elements at the physical point. Simulations are performed using 2+1 flavour domain wall lattice QCD with the Iwasaki gauge action at 3 lattice spacings and with pion masses ranging from 430 MeV to the physical pion mass.

  17. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to that...

  18. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to that...

  19. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to that...

  20. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to that...

  1. A random distribution reacting mixing layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard A.; Marek, C. John; Myrabo, Leik N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for simulation of molecular mixing, and the resulting velocity and temperature fields has been developed. The ideas are applied to the flow conditions present in the NASA Lewis Research Center Planar Reacting Shear Layer (PRSL) facility, and results compared to experimental data. A gaussian transverse turbulent velocity distribution is used in conjunction with a linearly increasing time scale to describe the mixing of different regions of the flow. Equilibrium reaction calculations are then performed on the mix to arrive at a new species composition and temperature. Velocities are determined through summation of momentum contributions. The analysis indicates a combustion efficiency of the order of 80 percent for the reacting mixing layer, and a turbulent Schmidt number of 2/3. The success of the model is attributed to the simulation of large-scale transport of fluid. The favorable comparison shows that a relatively quick and simple PC calculation is capable of simulating the basic flow structure in the reacting and nonreacting shear layer present in the facility given basic assumptions about turbulence properties.

  2. Germinated wheat: Phytochemical composition and mixing characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germinated grain recently attracts interest due to its beneficial effect on human health. In this research, whole wheat flour samples obtained after three days and five days of germination were analyzed for biochemical components, mixing quality, and effects on human breast cancer cells. Germinati...

  3. Evaluation of soil modification mixing procedures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Lime is routinely used as a soil modification agent in Kansas to improve the performance of subgrade soils with the primary goal of reducing volume change. Effective mixing of lime and soil is critical to ensuring that the expected improvements occur...

  4. Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llusa, Marcos; Muzzio, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on educational activity designed to introduce students (or industrial employees) in the pharmaceutical arena to some of the most common problems in the mixing of solids: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and lubricant (i.e. magnesium stearate) homogenization, characterization of segregation tendencies, and…

  5. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  6. Alternative acceptance procedures for asphalt mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-01-01

    By the year 2005, the use of chlorinated solvents is to be eliminated. Faced with this eventuality, VDOT formed a task force to look at alternatives for the acceptance of asphalt mixes. One alternative is to use biodegradable solvents in the extracti...

  7. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  8. Applied Mathematics Should Be Taught Mixed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary I.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the differences between applied and pure mathematics and provides extensive history of mixed mathematics. Argues that applied mathematics should be taught allowing for speculative mathematics, which involves breaking down a given problem into simpler parts until one arrives at first principles. (ASK)

  9. Development of a base mix design procedure.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the development of a compaction procedure for base mixes containing aggregates of 1 1/2" (38 mm) maximum size. The specimens were made in a manner similar to that given in ASTM Designation 1561-71, except that...

  10. Acoustics of a Mixed Porosity Felt Airfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    higher Reynolds numbers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wings, hydrofoils, propulsor blade , stall, shed vortices, trailing edge scattering, owl, mixed...hydrofoils, and propulsor blades produce noise in operation. This noise has several potential sources, including stall, shed vortices, and trailing edge...that are concerned primarily with cooling high-temperature turbine blades [10] or mitigating shock waves [11] [12]. Theoretical work on a poroelastic

  11. A Mixed Learning Approach in Mechatronics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, O.; Tuncalp, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a Web-based mixed learning approach model on mechatronics education. The model combines different perception methods such as reading, listening, and speaking and practice methods developed in accordance with the vocational background of students enrolled in the course Electromechanical Systems in…

  12. Mixed Methodology in Group Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…

  13. Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions

    PubMed Central

    Livet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Experimental psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions—which we formally represent by comparisons between ‘unexpected utilities’ and expected ones—the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery. PMID:20026464

  14. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  15. Neutrino Masses and Mixings and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, George M.

    1998-10-01

    Here we discuss the implications of light neutrino masses and neutrino flavor/type mixing for dark matter, big bang nucleosynthesis, and models of heavy element nucleosynthesis in super novae. We will also argue the other way and discuss possible constraints on neutrino physics from these astrophysical considerations.

  16. A New Model for Mix It Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, Teaching Tolerance's Mix It Up at Lunch Day program has helped millions of students cross social boundaries and create more inclusive school communities. Its goal is to create a safe, purposeful opportunity for students to break down the patterns of social self-segregation that too often plague schools. Research conducted in 2006 by…

  17. MIXING QUANTIFICATION BY VISUAL IMAGING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on development of a method for quantifying two measures of mixing, the scale and intensity of segregation, through flow visualization, video recording, and software analysis. This non-intrusive method analyzes a planar cross section of a flowing system from an ...

  18. Silvicultural systems for harvesting mixed hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    Mixed stands that include oaks, yellow-poplar, black cherry, maples, white ash, basswood, birches, American beech, and other species are commonly found in the central hardwood forest. Depending on site quality and past stand treatment, overstory composition may range from nearly pure stands of oak or yellow-poplar to mixtures of 20 or more species.

  19. Charged lepton mixing - an experimental overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    Exploring the flavor sector of the Standard Model has always been a powerful probe in particle physics. Searches for charged leptons mixing, in particular muon decays, effectively pioneered this program almost 100 years ago. Still, even what one might consider, naively, simple questions, like why three lepton generations, are left unanswered. We do know now that neutral leptons (neutrinos) mix. We also know that, in all likelihood, the physics behind charged lepton mixing is also somehow responsible for generating neutrino masses. Not surprisingly, a revived interest in this field is currently under way, with experiments either ongoing or at planning stage throughout the world. The advent of powerful high intensity beams opens up new venues for exploration. Coupled with clever experimental ideas, sensitivities that were previously impossible to attain, are now within reach. I will review here the current status of charged lepton mixing experiments, what should we expect from the next generation projects and my view on how the field will progress in the future.

  20. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan

    2017-07-01

    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  1. Installation report : experimental mix using foamed asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the first foam asphalt mix produced and used in a highway pavement in Virginia. The aggregate used was a local Eastern Shore sand modified with 5% fly ash to improve the gradation. A foam asphalt chamber on a portable pug-mixer ...

  2. The Mixed Effects Trend Vector Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rooij, Mark; Schouteden, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation of mixed effect baseline category logit models for multinomial longitudinal data can be prohibitive due to the integral dimension of the random effects distribution. We propose to use multidimensional unfolding methodology to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. As a by-product, readily interpretable graphical…

  3. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important tomore » release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not

  4. Dark-Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production from Mixed Biowastes Using Defined Mixed Cultures.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2017-06-01

    Biological hydrogen (H 2 ) production from the biowastes is widely recognized as a suitable alternative approach to utilize low cost feed instead of costly individual sugars. In the present investigation, pure and mixed biowastes were fermented by defined sets of mixed cultures for hydrolysis and H 2 production. Under batch conditions, up to 65, 67 and 70 L H 2 /kg total solids (2%, TS) were evolved from apple pomace (AP), onion peels (OP) and potato peels (PP) using a combination of hydrolytic mixed culture (MHC5) and mixed microbial cultures (MMC4 or MMC6), respectively. Among the different combinations of mixed biowastes including AP, OP, PP and pea-shells, the combination of OP and PP exhibited maximum H 2 production of 73 and 84 L/kg TS with MMC4 and MMC6, respectively. This study suggested that H 2 production can be effectively regulated by using defined sets of mixed cultures for hydrolysis and H 2 production from pure and mixed biowastes as feed even under unsterile conditions.

  5. Rigorous buoyancy driven bubble mixing for centrifugal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Burger, S; Schulz, M; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2016-01-21

    We present batch-mode mixing for centrifugal microfluidics operated at fixed rotational frequency. Gas is generated by the disk integrated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to liquid water (H2O) and gaseous oxygen (O2) and inserted into a mixing chamber. There, bubbles are formed that ascent through the liquid in the artificial gravity field and lead to drag flow. Additionaly, strong buoyancy causes deformation and rupture of the gas bubbles and induces strong mixing flows in the liquids. Buoyancy driven bubble mixing is quantitatively compared to shake mode mixing, mixing by reciprocation and vortex mixing. To determine mixing efficiencies in a meaningful way, the different mixers are employed for mixing of a lysis reagent and human whole blood. Subsequently, DNA is extracted from the lysate and the amount of DNA recovered is taken as a measure for mixing efficiency. Relative to standard vortex mixing, DNA extraction based on buoyancy driven bubble mixing resulted in yields of 92 ± 8% (100 s mixing time) and 100 ± 8% (600 s) at 130g centrifugal acceleration. Shake mode mixing yields 96 ± 11% and is thus equal to buoyancy driven bubble mixing. An advantage of buoyancy driven bubble mixing is that it can be operated at fixed rotational frequency, however. The additional costs of implementing buoyancy driven bubble mixing are low since both the activation liquid and the catalyst are very low cost and no external means are required in the processing device. Furthermore, buoyancy driven bubble mixing can easily be integrated in a monolithic manner and is compatible to scalable manufacturing technologies such as injection moulding or thermoforming. We consider buoyancy driven bubble mixing an excellent alternative to shake mode mixing, in particular if the processing device is not capable of providing fast changes of rotational frequency or if the low average rotational frequency is challenging for the other integrated fluidic operations.

  6. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting a value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES-LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.

  7. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T., E-mail: watanabe.tomoaki@c.nagoya-u.jp; Nagata, K.

    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting amore » value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES–LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.« less

  8. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), themore » Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.« less

  9. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  10. [Mixed depressions: clinical and neurophysiological biomarkers].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Geoffroy, P-A; Vion-Dury, J; Balzani, C; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Cermolacce, M; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of major depressive episodes (MDE) highlighted the frequent association of symptoms or signs of mania or hypomania with depressive syndrome. Beyond the strict definition of DSM-IV, epidemiological recognition of a subset of MDE characterized by the presence of symptoms or signs of the opposite polarity is clinically important because it is associated with pejorative prognosis and therapeutic response compared to the subgroup of "typical MDE". The development of DSM-5 took into account the epidemiological data. DSM-5 opted for a more dimensional perspective in implementing the concept of "mixed features" from an "episode" to a "specification" of mood disorder. As outlined in the DSM-5: "Mixed features associated with a major depressive episode have been found to be a significant risk factor for the development of bipolar I and II disorder. As a result, it is clinically useful to note the presence of this specifier for treatment planning and monitoring of response to therapeutic". However, the mixed features are sometimes difficult to identify, and neurophysiological biomarkers would be useful to make a more specific diagnosis. Two neurophysiological models make it possible to better understand MDE with mixed features : i) the emotional regulation model that highlights a tendency to hyper-reactive and unstable emotion response, and ii) the vigilance regulation model that highlights, through EEG recording, a tendency to unstable vigilance. Further research is required to better understand relationships between these two models. These models provide the opportunity of a neurophysiological framework to better understand the mixed features associated with MDE and to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers to guide therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulated transitions in resonant atom Majorana mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Segarra, Alejandro

    2018-02-01

    Massive neutrinos demand to ask whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles. Majorana neutrinos are an irrefutable proof of physics beyond the Standard Model. Neutrinoless double electron capture is not a process but a virtual Δ L = 2 mixing between a parent A Z atom and a daughter A ( Z - 2) excited atom with two electron holes. As a mixing between two neutral atoms and the observable signal in terms of emitted two-hole X-rays, the strategy, experimental signature and background are different from neutrinoless double beta decay. The mixing is resonantly enhanced for almost degeneracy and, under these conditions, there is no irreducible background from the standard two-neutrino channel. We reconstruct the natural time history of a nominally stable parent atom since its production either by nature or in the laboratory. After the time periods of atom oscillations and the decay of the short-lived daughter atom, at observable times the relevant "stationary" states are the mixed metastable long-lived state and the non-orthogonal short-lived excited state, as well as the ground state of the daughter atom. We find that they have a natural population inversion which is most appropriate for exploiting the bosonic nature of the observed atomic transitions radiation. Among different observables of the atom Majorana mixing, we include the enhanced rate of stimulated X-ray emission from the long-lived metastable state by a high-intensity X-ray beam: a gain factor of 100 can be envisaged at current XFEL facilities. On the other hand, the historical population of the daughter atom ground state can be probed by exciting it with a current pulsed optical laser, showing the characteristic absorption lines: the whole population can be excited in a shorter time than typical pulse duration.

  12. Resilient modulus and the fatigue properties of Kansas hot mix asphalt mixes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    This research study aimed to determine the dynamic modulus, bending stiffness and fatigue properties of four representative Superpave Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures used in the construction of base layers of Kansas flexible pavements and to compare t...

  13. Friendship in High-functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Mixed and Non-mixed Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marjorie; Aviezer, Anat; Heung, Kelly; Brown, John; Rogers, Sally J.

    2017-01-01

    Friendships containing a child with autism and a friend with typical development (“mixed” friendships, n = 26) and those of children with autism and a friend with a disability (“non-mixed,” n = 16) were contrasted with friendships of typically developing subjects and their friends (n = 31). Measures included dyadic interaction samples, and interview and questionnaire data from subjects, friends, and parents. Mixed friendship interactions resembled typical friendships. Participants in mixed friendships were more responsive to one another, had stronger receptive language skills, exhibited greater positive social orientation and cohesion, and demonstrated more complex coordinated play than in the non-mixed dyads. Exposure to typical peers appears to have significant effects on friendship behaviors. PMID:18058212

  14. Liquid–liquid mixing studies in annular centrifugal contactors comparing stationary mixing vane options

    DOE PAGES

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-09-11

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of an annular centrifugal contactor show the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported for operation of a 12.5 cm engineering-scale contactor unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixing-zone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugalmore » contactors.« less

  15. Tests of Parameterized Langmuir Circulation Mixing in the Oceans Surface Mixed Layer II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-11

    inertial oscillations in the ocean are governed by three-dimensional processes that are not accounted for in a one-dimensional simulation , and it was...Unlimited 52 Paul Martin (228) 688-5447 Recent large-eddy simulations (LES) of Langmuir circulation (LC) within the surface mixed layer (SML) of...used in the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and tested for (a) a simple wind-mixing case, (b) simulations of the upper ocean thermal structure at Ocean

  16. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  17. Mixing noise reduction for rectangular supersonic jets by nozzle shaping and induced screech mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of mixing noise modification were studied for supersonic jets flowing from rectangular nozzles with an aspect ratio of about five and a small dimension of about 1.4 cm. The first involves nozzle geometry variation using either single (unsymmetrical) or double bevelled (symmetrical) thirty degree cutbacks of the nozzle exit. Both converging (C) and converging-diverging (C-D) versions were tested. The double bevelled C-D nozzle produced a jet mixing noise reduction of about 4 dB compared to a standard rectangular C-D nozzle. In addition all bevelled nozzles produced an upstream shift in peak mixing noise which is conducive to improved attenuation when the nozzle is used in an acoustically treated duct. A large increase in high frequency noise also occurred near the plane of the nozzle exit. Because of near normal incidence, this noise can be easily attenuated with wall treatment. The second approach uses paddles inserted on the edge of the two sides of the jet to induce screech and greatly enhance the jet mixing. Although screech and mixing noise levels are increased, the enhanced mixing moves the source locations upstream and may make an enclosed system more amenable to noise reduction using wall acoustic treatment.

  18. Theoretical investigation of mixing in warm clouds – Part 2: Homogeneous mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei; ...

    2016-07-28

    Evolution of monodisperse and polydisperse droplet size distributions (DSD) during homogeneous mixing is analyzed. Time-dependent universal analytical expressions for supersaturation and liquid water content are derived. For an initial monodisperse DSD, these quantities are shown to depend on a sole non-dimensional parameter. The evolution of moments and moment-related functions in the course of homogeneous evaporation of polydisperse DSD is analyzed using a parcel model. It is shown that the classic conceptual scheme, according to which homogeneous mixing leads to a decrease in droplet mass at constant droplet concentration, is valid only in cases of monodisperse or initially very narrow polydispersemore » DSD. In cases of wide polydisperse DSD, mixing and successive evaporation lead to a decrease of both mass and concentration, so the characteristic droplet sizes remain nearly constant. As this feature is typically associated with inhomogeneous mixing, we conclude that in cases of an initially wide DSD at cloud top, homogeneous mixing is nearly indistinguishable from inhomogeneous mixing.« less

  19. Theoretical investigation of mixing in warm clouds – Part 2: Homogeneous mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei

    Evolution of monodisperse and polydisperse droplet size distributions (DSD) during homogeneous mixing is analyzed. Time-dependent universal analytical expressions for supersaturation and liquid water content are derived. For an initial monodisperse DSD, these quantities are shown to depend on a sole non-dimensional parameter. The evolution of moments and moment-related functions in the course of homogeneous evaporation of polydisperse DSD is analyzed using a parcel model. It is shown that the classic conceptual scheme, according to which homogeneous mixing leads to a decrease in droplet mass at constant droplet concentration, is valid only in cases of monodisperse or initially very narrow polydispersemore » DSD. In cases of wide polydisperse DSD, mixing and successive evaporation lead to a decrease of both mass and concentration, so the characteristic droplet sizes remain nearly constant. As this feature is typically associated with inhomogeneous mixing, we conclude that in cases of an initially wide DSD at cloud top, homogeneous mixing is nearly indistinguishable from inhomogeneous mixing.« less

  20. Mixed and Complex Mixed Migration during Armed Conflict: Multidimensional Empirical Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, legal, policy, and academic communities largely ascribed to a dichotomy between forced and voluntary migration, creating a black and white vision that was convenient for legal and policy purposes. More recently, discussions have begun addressing the possibility of mixed migration, acknowledging that there is likely a wide continuum between forced and voluntary, and most migrants likely move with some amount of compulsion and some volition, even during armed conflict. While the mixed migration hypothesis is well-received, empirical evidence is disparate and somewhat blunt at this point. In this article, I contribute a direct theoretical and causal pathway discussion of mixed migration. I also propose the complex mixed migration hypothesis, which argues that not only do non-conflict related factors influence migration during conflict, but they do so differently than during periods of relative peace. I empirically test both hypotheses in the context of the recent armed conflict in Nepal. Using detailed survey data and event history models, results provide strong evidence for both mixed migration and complex mixed migration during conflict hypotheses. These hypotheses and evidence suggest that armed conflict might have substantial impacts on long-term population growth and change, with significant relevance in both academic and policy spheres. PMID:26366007

  1. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  2. Linear Mixed Models: Gum and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendacká, Barbora; Täubner, Angelika; Eichstädt, Sascha; Bruns, Thomas; Elster, Clemens

    2014-04-01

    In Annex H.5, the Guide to the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] recognizes the necessity to analyze certain types of experiments by applying random effects ANOVA models. These belong to the more general family of linear mixed models that we focus on in the current paper. Extending the short introduction provided by the GUM, our aim is to show that the more general, linear mixed models cover a wider range of situations occurring in practice and can be beneficial when employed in data analysis of long-term repeated experiments. Namely, we point out their potential as an aid in establishing an uncertainty budget and as means for gaining more insight into the measurement process. We also comment on computational issues and to make the explanations less abstract, we illustrate all the concepts with the help of a measurement campaign conducted in order to challenge the uncertainty budget in calibration of accelerometers.

  3. BDA special care case mix model.

    PubMed

    Bateman, P; Arnold, C; Brown, R; Foster, L V; Greening, S; Monaghan, N; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-04-10

    Routine dental care provided in special care dentistry is complicated by patient specific factors which increase the time taken and costs of treatment. The BDA have developed and conducted a field trial of a case mix tool to measure this complexity. For each episode of care the case mix tool assesses the following on a four point scale: 'ability to communicate', 'ability to cooperate', 'medical status', 'oral risk factors', 'access to oral care' and 'legal and ethical barriers to care'. The tool is reported to be easy to use and captures sufficient detail to discriminate between types of service and special care dentistry provided. It offers potential as a simple to use and clinically relevant source of performance management and commissioning data. This paper describes the model, demonstrates how it is currently being used, and considers future developments in its use.

  4. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  5. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors.

    PubMed

    Inal, Sahika; Malliaras, George G; Rivnay, Jonathan

    2017-11-24

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  6. Quantum darwinism in a mixed environment.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H T; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2009-09-11

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes that we-the observers-acquire our information about the "systems of interest" indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Here, we show that information about a system can be acquired from a mixed-state, or hazy, environment, but the storage capacity of an environment fragment is suppressed by its initial entropy. In the case of good decoherence, the mutual information between the system and the fragment is given solely by the fragment's entropy increase. For fairly mixed environments, this means a reduction by a factor 1-h, where h is the haziness of the environment, i.e., the initial entropy of an environment qubit. Thus, even such hazy environments eventually reveal the state of the system, although now the intercepted environment fragment must be larger by approximately (1-h)(-1) to gain the same information about the system.

  7. Quantum Darwinism in a Mixed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2009-09-01

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes that we—the observers—acquire our information about the “systems of interest” indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Here, we show that information about a system can be acquired from a mixed-state, or hazy, environment, but the storage capacity of an environment fragment is suppressed by its initial entropy. In the case of good decoherence, the mutual information between the system and the fragment is given solely by the fragment’s entropy increase. For fairly mixed environments, this means a reduction by a factor 1-h, where h is the haziness of the environment, i.e., the initial entropy of an environment qubit. Thus, even such hazy environments eventually reveal the state of the system, although now the intercepted environment fragment must be larger by ˜(1-h)-1 to gain the same information about the system.

  8. Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, C.

    2008-02-15

    Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleonsmore » and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers.« less

  9. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  10. Diphotons from electroweak triplet-singlet mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Howe, Kiel; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.

    2016-08-23

    The neutral component of a real pseudoscalar electroweak (EW) triplet can produce a diphoton excess at 750 GeV, if it is somewhat mixed with an EW singlet pseudoscalar. This triplet-singlet mixing allows for greater freedom in the diboson branching ratios than the singlet-only case, but it is still possible to probe the parameter space extensively with 300 fb -1. The charged component of the triplet is pair produced at the LHC, which results in a striking signal in the form of a pair of Wγ resonances with an irreducible rate of 0.27 fb. Other signatures include multiboson final states from cascade decaysmore » of the triplet-singlet neutral states. In conclusion, a large class of composite models feature both EW singlet and triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in their spectrum, with the diboson couplings generated by axial anomalies.« less

  11. Mixed-initiative control of intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed-initiative user interfaces provide a means by which a human operator and an intelligent system may collectively share the task of deciding what to do next. Such interfaces are important to the effective utilization of real-time expert systems as assistants in the execution of critical tasks. Presented here is the Incremental Inference algorithm, a symbolic reasoning mechanism based on propositional logic and suited to the construction of mixed-initiative interfaces. The algorithm is similar in some respects to the Truth Maintenance System, but replaces the notion of 'justifications' with a notion of recency, allowing newer values to override older values yet permitting various interested parties to refresh these values as they become older and thus more vulnerable to change. A simple example is given of the use of the Incremental Inference algorithm plus an overview of the integration of this mechanism within the SPECTRUM expert system for geological interpretation of imaging spectrometer data.

  12. Case mix reimbursement for nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, R E

    1986-01-01

    Nursing home care is growing in importance as the population ages and as Medicare's prospective payment system encourages earlier discharges from acute care settings to nursing homes. Nursing home reimbursement policy is primarily a Medicaid issue, since Medicaid pays for about half the nation's nursing home care. The research reviewed in this article suggests a strong association between case mix and cost, and a weaker but still positive association between quality and cost. The research also implies that traditional nursing home reimbursement methodologies may impede access and may lower quality for Medicaid (and Medicare) recipients. To offset these problems, several states have recently begun to incorporate case mix directly into the reimbursement process. These systems deserve careful policy consideration.

  13. Mixed-Halide Perovskites with Stabilized Bandgaps.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Zhao, Lianfeng; Tran, Nhu L; Lin, Yunhui Lisa; Silver, Scott H; Kerner, Ross A; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Scholes, Gregory D; Rand, Barry P

    2017-11-08

    One merit of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites is their tunable bandgap by adjusting the halide stoichiometry, an aspect critical to their application in tandem solar cells, wavelength-tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. However, the phase separation of mixed-halide perovskites caused by light or applied bias results in undesirable recombination at iodide-rich domains, meaning open-circuit voltage (V OC ) pinning in solar cells and infrared emission in LEDs. Here, we report an approach to suppress halide redistribution by self-assembled long-chain organic ammonium capping layers at nanometer-sized grain surfaces. Using the stable mixed-halide perovskite films, we are able to fabricate efficient and wavelength-tunable perovskite LEDs from infrared to green with high external quantum efficiencies of up to 5%, as well as linearly tuned V OC from 1.05 to 1.45 V in solar cells.

  14. Viable twin cosmology from neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator

    2017-09-01

    Twin Higgs models solve the little hierarchy problem without introducing new colored particles; however, they are often in tension with measurements of the radiation density at late times. Here we explore viable cosmological histories for twin Higgs models. In particular, we show that mixing between the Standard Model (SM) and twin neutrinos can thermalize the two sectors below the twin QCD phase transition, significantly reducing the twin sector's contribution to the radiation density. The requisite twin neutrino masses of O (1 - 20 ) GeV and mixing angle with SM neutrinos of 10-3-10-5 can be probed in a variety of current and planned experiments. We further find that these parameters can be naturally accessed in a warped UV completion, where the neutrino sector can also generate the Z2-breaking Higgs mass term needed to produce the hierarchy between the symmetry breaking scales f and v .

  15. Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.

  16. Presence within a mixed reality environment.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Paul; Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; Drummond, Sarah

    2004-10-01

    Mixed reality environments represent a new approach to creating technology-mediated experiences. However, there is a lack of empirical research investigating users' actual experience. The aim of the current exploratory, non-experimental study was to establish levels of and identify factors associated with presence, within the framework of Schubert et al.'s model of presence. Using questionnaire and interview methods, the experience of the final performance of the Desert Rain mixed reality environment was investigated. Levels of general and spatial presence were relatively high, but levels of involvement and realness were not. Overall, intrinsic motivation, confidence and intention to re-visit Desert Rain were high. However, age was negatively associated with both spatial presence and confidence to play. Furthermore, various problems in navigating the environment were identified. Results are discussed in terms of Schubert's model and other theoretical perspectives. Implications for system design are presented.

  17. Dynamic Infinite Mixed-Membership Stochastic Blockmodel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuhui; Cao, Longbing; Xu, Richard Yi Da

    2015-09-01

    Directional and pairwise measurements are often used to model interactions in a social network setting. The mixed-membership stochastic blockmodel (MMSB) was a seminal work in this area, and its ability has been extended. However, models such as MMSB face particular challenges in modeling dynamic networks, for example, with the unknown number of communities. Accordingly, this paper proposes a dynamic infinite mixed-membership stochastic blockmodel, a generalized framework that extends the existing work to potentially infinite communities inside a network in dynamic settings (i.e., networks are observed over time). Additional model parameters are introduced to reflect the degree of persistence among one's memberships at consecutive time stamps. Under this framework, two specific models, namely mixture time variant and mixture time invariant models, are proposed to depict two different time correlation structures. Two effective posterior sampling strategies and their results are presented, respectively, using synthetic and real-world data.

  18. Cumulus cloud venting of mixed layer ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ching, J. K. S.; Shipley, S. T.; Browell, E. V.; Brewer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are presented which substantiate the hypothesis that significant vertical exchange of ozone and aerosols occurs between the mixed layer and the free troposphere during cumulus cloud convective activity. The experiments utilized the airborne Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) system. This system provides simultaneous range resolved ozone concentration and aerosol backscatter profiles with high spatial resolution. Evening transects were obtained in the downwind area where the air mass had been advected. Space-height analyses for the evening flight show the cloud debris as patterns of ozone typically in excess of the ambient free tropospheric background. This ozone excess was approximately the value of the concentration difference between the mixed layer and free troposphere determined from independent vertical soundings made by another aircraft in the afternoon.

  19. Mixed Frames and Risky Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Zeng, Zhicong; Mai, Yuexia; Miao, Danmin

    2017-01-01

    By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions. In study 2, the results suggested that after controlling the effects of the hedonic tone of the sure options, risky option description did not significantly predict decision-making. In study 3, we found that neither the sure-to-risky option presentation order nor presentation order within risky options had significant effect on decision-making. We thus concluded that sure option description can serve as the decision-making foundation (reference point) for decision-makers in mixed frames.

  20. Investigation of mixed saliva by optoelectronic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Ekaterina; Nepomnyashchaya, Elina; Baranov, Maksim; Velichko, Elena; Aksenov, Evgenii; Bogomaz, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    At present, saliva and its properties are being actively studied. Human saliva is a unique biological material that has potential in clinical practice. A detailed analysis of the characteristics and properties of saliva is relevant for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, the properties and characteristics of saliva are studied using optoelectronic methods: dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and optical microscopy. Mixed saliva from a healthy patient and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 was used as an object of the study. The dynamics of the behavior of a healthy and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 is visible according to the results obtained. All three methods confirm hypothesis of structural changes in mixed saliva in the disease of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  1. Quantum Groups, Property (T), and Weak Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannan, Michael; Kerr, David

    2018-06-01

    For second countable discrete quantum groups, and more generally second countable locally compact quantum groups with trivial scaling group, we show that property (T) is equivalent to every weakly mixing unitary representation not having almost invariant vectors. This is a generalization of a theorem of Bekka and Valette from the group setting and was previously established in the case of low dual by Daws, Skalski, and Viselter. Our approach uses spectral techniques and is completely different from those of Bekka-Valette and Daws-Skalski-Viselter. By a separate argument we furthermore extend the result to second countable nonunimodular locally compact quantum groups, which are shown in particular not to have property (T), generalizing a theorem of Fima from the discrete setting. We also obtain quantum group versions of characterizations of property (T) of Kerr and Pichot in terms of the Baire category theory of weak mixing representations and of Connes and Weiss in terms of the prevalence of strongly ergodic actions.

  2. Mixing Dynamics Induced by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Mazuruk, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    Microstructural and compositional homogeneity in metals and alloys can only be achieved if the initial melt is homogeneous prior to the onset of solidification processing. Naturally induced convection may initially facilitate this requirement but upon the onset of solidification significant compositional variations generally arise leading to undesired segregation. Application of alternating magnetic fields to promote a uniform bulk liquid concentration during solidification processing has been suggested. To investigate such possibilities an initial study of using traveling magnetic fields (TMF) to promote melt homogenization is reported in this work. Theoretically, the effect of TMF-induced convection on mixing phenomena is studied in the laminar regime of flow. Experimentally, with and without applied fields, both: mixing dynamics by optically monitoring the spreading of an initially localized dye in transparent fluids and, compositional variations in metal alloys have been investigated.

  3. Mixing Dynamics Induced by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Mazuruk, Konstantin; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural and compositional homogeneity in metals and alloys can only be achieved if the initial melt is homogeneous prior to the onset of solidification processing. Naturally induced convection may initially facilitate this requirement but upon the onset of solidification significant compositional variations generally arise leading to undesired segregation. Application of alternating magnetic fields to promote a uniform bulk liquid concentration during solidification processing has been suggested. To investigate such possibilities an initial study of using traveling magnetic fields (TMF) to promote melt homogenization is reported in this work. Theoretically, the effect of TMF-induced convection on mixing phenomena is studied in the laminar regime of flow. Experimentally, with and without applied fields, both 1) mixing dynamics by optically monitoring the spreading of an initially localized dye in transparent fluids and, 2) compositional variations in metal alloys have been investigated.

  4. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  5. Mix-and-diffuse serial synchrotron crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Dierksmeyer, Dennis; Mariani, Valerio; ...

    2017-10-09

    Unravelling the interaction of biological macromolecules with ligands and substrates at high spatial and temporal resolution remains a major challenge in structural biology. The development of serial crystallography methods at X-ray free-electron lasers and subsequently at synchrotron light sources allows new approaches to tackle this challenge. Here, a new polyimide tape drive designed for mix-and-diffuse serial crystallography experiments is reported. The structure of lysozyme bound by the competitive inhibitor chitotriose was determined using this device in combination with microfluidic mixers. The electron densities obtained from mixing times of 2 and 50 s show clear binding of chitotriose to the enzymemore » at a high level of detail. Here, the success of this approach shows the potential for high-throughput drug screening and even structural enzymology on short timescales at bright synchrotron light sources.« less

  6. Mix-and-diffuse serial synchrotron crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Dierksmeyer, Dennis; Mariani, Valerio

    Unravelling the interaction of biological macromolecules with ligands and substrates at high spatial and temporal resolution remains a major challenge in structural biology. The development of serial crystallography methods at X-ray free-electron lasers and subsequently at synchrotron light sources allows new approaches to tackle this challenge. Here, a new polyimide tape drive designed for mix-and-diffuse serial crystallography experiments is reported. The structure of lysozyme bound by the competitive inhibitor chitotriose was determined using this device in combination with microfluidic mixers. The electron densities obtained from mixing times of 2 and 50 s show clear binding of chitotriose to the enzymemore » at a high level of detail. Here, the success of this approach shows the potential for high-throughput drug screening and even structural enzymology on short timescales at bright synchrotron light sources.« less

  7. Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.

    1989-01-01

    Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.

  8. Financial modeling/case-mix analysis.

    PubMed

    Heck, S; Esmond, T

    1983-06-01

    The authors describe a case mix system developed by users which goes beyond DRG requirements to respond to management's clinical/financial data needs for marketing, planning, budgeting and financial analysis as well as reimbursement. Lessons learned in development of the system and the clinical/financial base will be helpful to those currently contemplating the implementation of such a system or evaluating available software.

  9. Lagrangian Mixing in an Axisymmetric Hurricane Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-23

    The MMR r is found by tak - ing the log of the time-series 6ρ(t)−A1, where A1 is 90% of the minimum value of6ρ(t), and the slope of the linear func...Advective mixing in a nondivergent barotropic hurricane model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 475 –497, doi:10.5194/acp-10- 475 -2010, 2010. Salman, H., Ide, K

  10. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  11. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  12. Photooxidation of mixed aryl and biarylphosphines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Celaje, Jeff A; Agua, Alon; Doan, Chad; Stewart, Timothy; Bau, Robert; Selke, Matthias

    2010-07-02

    Arylphosphines and dialkylbiarylphosphines react with singlet oxygen to form phosphine oxides and phosphinate esters. For mixed arylphosphines, the most electron-rich aryl group migrates to form the phosphinate, while for dialkylbiarylphosphines migration of the alkyl group occurs. Dialkylbiarylphosphines also yield arene epoxides, especially in electron-rich systems. Phosphinate ester formation is increased at high temperature, while protic solvents increase the yield of epoxide. The product distribution provides evidence for Buchwald's recent conformational model for the aerobic oxidation of dialkylbiarylphosphines.

  13. Turbulent mixing& combustion in TNT explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Ferguson, R E; Oppenheim, A K

    2000-12-12

    Effects of turbulent mixing induced by explosion of a 1-g spherical TNT charge in air are investigated. The detonation wave in the charge transforms the solid explosive (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N{sub 3}O{sub 6}) to gaseous products, rich in C{sub (S)}, and CO. The detonation pressure ({approx}210 kb) causes the products to expand rapidly, driving a blast wave into the surrounding air (Brode, 1959). The interface between the products and air is unstable (Richtmyer, 1960; Meshkov, 1960; Anisimov & Zel'dovich, 1977). As shown in Collage Ia-c, this region rapidly transitions into a turbulent mixing layer (Kuhl, 1996). As the embedded shock, I,more » implodes, it draws the mixing structures (Taylor cavities) into the origin (Collage Id-e). In this way air becomes distributed throughout the hot detonation products gases. This process is enhanced by shock reflections from confining walls. In either case (confined or unconfined), rapid combustion takes place where the expanded detonation products play the role of fuel. This leads to a dramatic increase in chamber pressure (Fig. 1)-in contrast to a corresponding TNT explosion in nitrogen. The problem was modeled as turbulent combustion in an unmixed system at large Reynolds, Peclet and Damkohler numbers (Kuhl et al, 1997). The numerical solution was obtained by a high-order Godunov scheme (Colella & Glaz, 1985). Adaptive Mesh Refinement (Berger & Colella, 1989) was used to follow the turbulent mixing on the computational grid in as much detail as possible. The results reveal all the dynamic features (Fig. 2) of the exothermic process of combustion controlled by fluid-mechanic transport in a highly turbulent field (Kuhl & Oppenheim, 1997), in contrast to the conventional reaction-diffusion mechanism of Zel'dovich & Frank-Kamenetskii (1938).« less

  14. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    combustion to be studied over a range of pressures of 0.1 atm < po < 10atm, permitting a range of two decades of Reynolds number to be covered. Depending on ...The effects of heat release were studied in a planar, gaseous reacting mixing layer formed between two sub- sonic freestreams; one containing hydrogen...and the Reynolds number study of Mungal et al (1985). The issue of heat release effects on the flow was specifically addressed elsewhere (see

  15. Melanoma Vaccines: Mixed Past, Promising Future

    PubMed Central

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Lee, Delphine J.; Faries, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer vaccines were one of the earliest forms of immunotherapy to be investigated. Past attempts to vaccinate against cancer, including melanoma, have mixed results, revealing the complexity of what was thought to be a simple concept. However, several recent successes and the combination of improved knowledge of tumor immunology and the advent of new immunomodulators make vaccination a promising strategy for the future. PMID:25245965

  16. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-10

    fluctuation of the " flame " length of such reactingjeatreent wer copoit sequencd shout tnhawate facility, documented previously’,’ 1 , using laser jets. A...motion film of such a chemically reacting turbulent jet visualized using this technique, is shown in figure 1. In each I. Flame length fluctuations of...acid-base reaction to determine length and time to allow a simultaneous view of mixing in the two scales for the flame length fluctuations of thin

  17. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-02

    jet diameter F2 fluorine H2 hydrogen HF hydrogen fluoride I(y) instantaneous fluorescence intensity distribution L-s flame length measured from...virtual origin -.4 of turbulent region (L-s). flame length at high Reynolds number LIF laser induced fluorescence N2 nitrogen PI product thickness (defined...mixing is attained as a function of the equivallence ratio. For small values of the equivalence ratio f, the flame length - defined here as the

  18. Turbulent Mixing in Exponential Transverse Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    parameter. The flame length of the jets is a direct measurement of the molecular scale mixing rate. ACCOMPLISHMENTS From observations of the trajectory...and cross-sectional size of the vortices, as well as the flame length , our measurements reveal the following: i) Under acceleration, the roll up and... flame lengths are a weak maximum when the acceleration parameter (x is about unity. For large cc, flame lengths slowly decline with increasing a, in

  19. Mixing in High Schmidt Number Turbulent Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    the higher Sc jet is less well mixed. The difference is less pronounced at higher Re. Flame length estimates imply either an increase in entrainment...72 8.0 Estimation of flame lengths ....................................... 74 8.1 Estim ation m...A.4) Lf flame length N number of trials (Eq. 3.1) p exponent in fits of the variance behavior with Re p probability of a binomial event (Eq. 3.1) p

  20. The Mathematics of Mixing Things Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconis, Persi

    2011-08-01

    How long should a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm be run? Using examples from statistical physics (Ehrenfest urn, Ising model, hard discs) as well as card shuffling, this tutorial paper gives an overview of a body of mathematical results that can give useful answers to practitioners (viz: seven shuffles suffice for practical purposes). It points to new techniques (path coupling, geometric inequalities, and Harris recurrence). The discovery of phase transitions in mixing times (the cutoff phenomenon) is emphasized.

  1. Ultrasonic Mixing of Epoxy Curing Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Li~fl , • 4 Future generation aircraft need higher performance polymer matrices to fully achieve the weight savings possible with composite materials...ref. 1). New resins are being formulated in an effort to understand basic polymer behav- ior and to develop improved resins (refs. 2, 3 and 4). Some... polymer /curing agent combinations that could be useful, cannot be mixed properly using conven- tional methods because of the high melting temperature

  2. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-15

    response, following the program control actuation. 3 in 2 vs. roughly the 8in2 required for the M1 = 1.5 (high speed stream Mach number) flow planned for...Papamoschou & Roshko (1988) as the compressibility-effect parameter, on the growth rate of the mixing layers was studied. In a finite thickness...attained is at present controversial; an issue that will have to be resolved both theoretically as well as with the planned for experiments. A sample plot

  3. Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2017-11-01

    Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e.θ23 = 45 ° and δ = ± 90 ° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV =V* P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V = URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU =U*, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2 = P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing-one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ-τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com; Kuranz, C. C.

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properlymore » accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.« less

  5. Hydraulic Control and Mixing in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, M. W.

    2006-05-01

    Properly modeling the exchange rate at the mouths of estuarine bays is critical to understanding the effects of freshwater and pollutants on the hydrographic and biological conditions within these bays. There is evidence that hydraulic control occurs at certain locations in the deeper channels of Chesapeake Bay and may be a mechanism in limiting the exchange rate. In addition, the vertical and horizontal mixing associated with the resulting hydraulic jumps has implications both for the hydrographic conditions and circulation, as well as for primary productivity within Chesapeake Bay. Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data, as well as conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles were collected during the spring of 2005 at various locations within Chesapeake Bay to better understand the occurrence and strength of hydraulic controls in relation to the phases of the fortnightly and semi-diurnal tidal cycles as well as to topography. Mixing is shown to occur alternatively over both hollows and bumps, depending on the tidal phase, and the strength and effects if this mixing is compared.

  6. Hawks, doves, and mixed-symmetry games.

    PubMed

    Crowley, P H

    2000-06-21

    The hawk-dove game has proved to be an important tool for understanding the role of aggression in social interactions. Here, the game is presented in a more general form (GHD) to facilitate analyses of interactions between individuals that may differ in "size", where size is interpreted as a surrogate for resource holding power. Three different situations are considered, based on the availability and use of information that interacting individuals have about their sizes: the classical symmetric case, in which no information about sizes is used, the asymmetric case, in which the individuals know their relative sizes and thus their chances of prevailing in combat, and a mixed-symmetry case, in which each individual only knows its own size (or only knows its opponent's size). I describe and use some recently developed methods for multitype games-evolutionary games involving two or more categories of players. With these methods and others, the evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) that emerge for the three different cases are identified and compared. A proof of the form and uniqueness of the ESS for the mixed-symmetry case is presented. In this situation, one size category at most can play a mixed strategy; larger individuals are aggressive and smaller individuals are not. As the number of size categories approaches infinity and the size distribution becomes continuous, there is a threshold size, above which all individuals are aggressive, and below which they are not. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose–response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction. PMID:25972433

  8. Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Besòs River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Besòs is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Besòs: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Defect-induced mix experiment for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Magelssen, G. R.; Murphy, T. J.; Obrey, K. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.; Finnegan, S. M.

    2013-11-01

    The Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME-II) will measure the implosion and mix characteristics of CH capsules filled with 5 atmospheres of DT by incorporating mid-Z dopant layers of Ge and Ga. This polar direct drive (PDD) experiment also will demonstrate the filling of a CH capsule at target chamber center using a fill tube. Diagnostics for these experiments include areal x-ray backlighting to obtain early time images of the implosion trajectory and a multiple-monochromatic imager (MMI) to collect spectrally-resolved images of the capsule dopant line emission near bangtime. The inclusion of two (or more) thin dopant layers at separate depths within the capsule shell facilitates spatial correlation of mix between the layers and the hot gas core on a single shot. The dopant layers are typically 2 μm thick and contain dopant concentrations of 1.5%. Three dimensional Hydra simulations have been performed to assess the effects of PDD asymmetry on capsule performance.

  10. Featured Image: Mixing Chemicals in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do stars mix chemicals in their interiors, leading to the abundances we measure at their surfaces? Two scientists from the Planetary Science Institute in Arizona, Tamara Rogers (Newcastle University, UK) and Jim McElwaine (Durham University, UK), have investigated the role that internal gravity waves have in chemical mixing in stellar interiors. Internal gravity waves not to be confused with the currently topical gravitational waves are waves that oscillate within a fluid that has a density gradient. Rogers and McElwaine used simulations to explore how these waves can cause particles in a stars interior to move around, gradually mixing the different chemical elements. Snapshots from four different times in their simulation can be seen below, with the white dots marking tracer particles and the colors indicating vorticity. You can see how the particles move in response to wave motion after the first panel. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationT. M. Rogers and J. N. McElwaine 2017 ApJL 848 L1. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8d13

  11. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actualmore » mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.« less

  12. Nonconvective mixing of miscible ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Frost, Denzil S; Machas, Michael; Perea, Brian; Dai, Lenore L

    2013-08-13

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are ionic compounds that are liquid at room temperature. We studied the spontaneous mixing behavior between two ILs, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), and observed notable phenomena. Experimental studies showed that the interface between the two ILs was unusually long-lived, despite the ILs being miscible with one another. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supported these findings and provided insight into the micromixing behavior of the ILs. We found that not only did the ions experience slow diffusion as they mix but also exhibited significant ordering into distinct regions. We suspect that this ordering disrupted concentration gradients in the direction normal to the interface, thus hindering diffusion in this direction and allowing the macroscopic interface to remain for long periods of time. Intermolecular interactions responsible for this behavior included the O-NH interaction between the EAN ions and the carbon chain-carbon chain interactions between the [BMIM](+) cations, which associate more strongly in the mixed state than in the pure IL state.

  13. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Mixed-Culture Nitrifiers ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The current research investigated monochloramine cometabolism by nitrifying mixed cultures grown under drinking water relevant conditions and harvested from sand-packed reactors before conducting suspended growth batch kinetic experiments. Three batch reactors were used in each experiment: (1) a positive control to estimate ammonia kinetic parameters, (2) a negative control to account for abiotic reactions, and (3) a cometabolism reactor to estimate cometabolism kinetic constants. Kinetic parameters were estimated in AQUASIM with a simultaneous fit to all experimental data. Cometabolism kinetics were best described by a first order model. Monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (30% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in mixed cultures similar to those found in drinking water distribution systems; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems. The results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in mixed cultures similar to those found in drinking water distribution systems; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems.

  14. The importance of fluctuations in fluid mixing.

    PubMed

    Kadau, Kai; Rosenblatt, Charles; Barber, John L; Germann, Timothy C; Huang, Zhibin; Carlès, Pierre; Alder, Berni J

    2007-05-08

    A ubiquitous example of fluid mixing is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a heavy fluid initially sits atop a light fluid in a gravitational field. The subsequent development of the unstable interface between the two fluids is marked by several stages. At first, each interface mode grows exponentially with time before transitioning to a nonlinear regime characterized by more complex hydrodynamic mixing. Unfortunately, traditional continuum modeling of this process has generally been in poor agreement with experiment. Here, we indicate that the natural, random fluctuations of the flow field present in any fluid, which are neglected in continuum models, can lead to qualitatively and quantitatively better agreement with experiment. We performed billion-particle atomistic simulations and magnetic levitation experiments with unprecedented control of initial interface conditions. A comparison between our simulations and experiments reveals good agreement in terms of the growth rate of the mixing front as well as the new observation of droplet breakup at later times. These results improve our understanding of many fluid processes, including interface phenomena that occur, for example, in supernovae, the detachment of droplets from a faucet, and ink jet printing. Such instabilities are also relevant to the possible energy source of inertial confinement fusion, in which a millimeter-sized capsule is imploded to initiate nuclear fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium. Our results suggest that the applicability of continuum models would be greatly enhanced by explicitly including the effects of random fluctuations.

  15. The importance of fluctuations in fluid mixing

    PubMed Central

    Kadau, Kai; Rosenblatt, Charles; Barber, John L.; Germann, Timothy C.; Huang, Zhibin; Carlès, Pierre; Alder, Berni J.

    2007-01-01

    A ubiquitous example of fluid mixing is the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, in which a heavy fluid initially sits atop a light fluid in a gravitational field. The subsequent development of the unstable interface between the two fluids is marked by several stages. At first, each interface mode grows exponentially with time before transitioning to a nonlinear regime characterized by more complex hydrodynamic mixing. Unfortunately, traditional continuum modeling of this process has generally been in poor agreement with experiment. Here, we indicate that the natural, random fluctuations of the flow field present in any fluid, which are neglected in continuum models, can lead to qualitatively and quantitatively better agreement with experiment. We performed billion-particle atomistic simulations and magnetic levitation experiments with unprecedented control of initial interface conditions. A comparison between our simulations and experiments reveals good agreement in terms of the growth rate of the mixing front as well as the new observation of droplet breakup at later times. These results improve our understanding of many fluid processes, including interface phenomena that occur, for example, in supernovae, the detachment of droplets from a faucet, and ink jet printing. Such instabilities are also relevant to the possible energy source of inertial confinement fusion, in which a millimeter-sized capsule is imploded to initiate nuclear fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium. Our results suggest that the applicability of continuum models would be greatly enhanced by explicitly including the effects of random fluctuations. PMID:17470811

  16. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  17. Mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Dutta, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Preparing an integrable system in a mixed state described by a thermal density matrix, we subject it to a sudden quench and explore the subsequent unitary dynamics. To address the question of whether the nonanalyticities, namely, the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), persist when the initial state is mixed, we consider two versions of the generalized Loschmidt overlap amplitude (GLOA). Our study shows that the GLOA constructed using the Uhlmann approach does not show any signature of DQPTs at any nonzero initial temperature. On the other hand, a GLOA defined in the interferometric phase approach through the purifications of the time-evolved density matrix, indeed shows that nonanalyiticies in the corresponding "dynamical free-energy density" persist, thereby establishing the existence of mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions (MSDQPTs). Our work provides a framework that perfectly reproduces both the nonanalyticities and also the emergent topological structure in the pure state limit. These claims are corroborated by analyzing the nonequilibrium dynamics of a transverse Ising chain initially prepared in a thermal state and subjected to a sudden quench of the transverse field.

  18. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1994-01-01

    An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

  19. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1994-08-16

    An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

  20. Numerical investigation of the entrainment and mixing processes in neutral and stably-stratified mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, A. B.; Smith, B. L.; Yadigaroglu, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1999-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a temporally-growing mixing layer has been carried out, for a variety of initial conditions at various Richardson and Prandtl numbers, by means of a pseudo-spectral technique; the main objective being to elucidate how the entrainment and mixing processes in mixing-layer turbulence are altered under the combined influence of stable stratification and thermal conductivity. Stratification is seen to significantly modify the way by which entrainment and mixing occur by introducing highly-localized, convective instabilities, which in turn cause a substantially different three-dimensionalization of the flow compared to the unstratified situation. Fluid which was able to cross the braid region mainly undisturbed (unmixed) in the unstratified case, pumped by the action of rib pairs and giving rise to well-formed mushroom structures, is not available with stratified flow. This is because of the large number of ribs which efficiently mix the fluid crossing the braid region. More efficient entrainment and mixing has been noticed for high Prandtl number computations, where vorticity is significantly reinforced by the baroclinic torque. In liquid sodium, however, for which the Prandtl number is very low, the generation of vorticity is very effectively suppressed by the large thermal conduction, since only small temperature gradients, and thus negligible baroclinic vorticity reinforcement, are then available to counterbalance the effects of buoyancy. This is then reflected in less efficient entrainment and mixing. The influence of the stratification and the thermal conductivity can also be clearly identified from the calculated entrainment coefficients and turbulent Prandtl numbers, which were seen to accurately match experimental data. The turbulent Prandtl number increases rapidly with increasing stratification in liquid sodium, whereas for air and water the stratification effect is less significant. A general law for the entrainment

  1. Rutting and fatigue properties of plant mixes from AE stone.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-01

    Loose mix from A.E. Stone, Inc. in Egg Harbor Township, NJ was supplied to the : Rutgers Asphalt Pavement Laboratory (RAPL) for evaluation. Three different plant : mixes were supplied for permanent deformation (rutting) and flexural fatigue testing; ...

  2. Field Management of Hot Mix Asphalt Volumetric Properties

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Demonstration Project No. 74 has clearly shown that significant differences exist between the volumetric properties of the laboratory designed and plant produced hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixes. The volumetric pr...

  3. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt using Iowa aggregates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  4. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt for Iowa roadways.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting : additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing : vir...

  5. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt using Iowa aggregates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various : WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphal...

  6. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  7. Transverse mixing of simulated piscicides in small montane streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter J.; Ard, Jenifer L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Thorough mixing of piscicides into receiving waters is important for efficient and effective fish eradication. However, no guidance exists for the placement of drip stations with respect to mixing. Salt (NaCl) was used as a tracer to measure the mixing rates of center versus edge applications in riffle–pool, straight, and meandering sections of montane streams. The tracer was applied at either the center or the edge of a channel and measured with a conductivity meter across a downstream grid to determine the distances at which transverse mixing was complete. No advantage was accrued by applying piscicides in different types of channels because transverse mixing distance did not differ among them. However, mixing distance was significantly shorter at center applications. Chemicals entering a stream at the center of the channel mixed thoroughly within 10 stream widths, whereas chemicals entering a stream channel at the edge mixed thoroughly within 20 stream widths.

  8. Early age rutting potential of warm mix asphalt (WMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Various plant produced Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures were evaluated and compared to identical : plant produced Hot Mix Asphalt to assess their early life rutting potential. Along with laboratory permanent : deformation testing, fatigue and moisture...

  9. Early age rutting potential of warm mix asphalt (WMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Various plant produced Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures were evaluated and compared to identical plant produced Hot Mix Asphalt to assess their early life rutting potential. Along with laboratory permanent deformation testing, fatigue and moisture dam...

  10. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  11. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Δmix parameter in the overlap on domain-wall mixed action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, M.; Alexandru, A.; Chen, Y.; Draper, T.; Freeman, W.; Gong, M.; Lee, F. X.; Li, A.; Liu, K. F.; Mathur, N.

    2012-07-01

    A direct calculation of the mixed action parameter Δmix with valence overlap fermions on a domain-wall fermion sea is presented. The calculation is performed on four ensembles of the 2+1 flavor domain-wall gauge configurations: 243×64 (aml=0.005, a=0.114fm) and 323×64 (aml=0.004, 0.006, 0.008, a=0.085fm). For pion masses close to 300 MeV we find Δmix=0.030(6)GeV4 at a=0.114fm and Δmix=0.033(12)GeV4 at a=0.085fm. The results are quite independent of the lattice spacing and they are significantly smaller than the results for valence domain-wall fermions on asqtad sea or those of valence overlap fermions on clover sea. Combining the results extracted from these two ensembles, we get Δmix=0.030(6)(5)GeV4, where the first error is statistical and the second is the systematic error associated with the fitting method.

  13. Radiotracer Technology in Mixing Processes for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Othman, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Many problems associated with the mixing process remain unsolved and result in poor mixing performance. The residence time distribution (RTD) and the mixing time are the most important parameters that determine the homogenisation that is achieved in the mixing vessel and are discussed in detail in this paper. In addition, this paper reviews the current problems associated with conventional tracers, mathematical models, and computational fluid dynamics simulations involved in radiotracer experiments and hybrid of radiotracer. PMID:24616642

  14. Skill Mix in the Health Care Workforce: Reviewing the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, James; Dal Poz, Mario R.

    2002-01-01

    The reasons a skill mix among health workers is important to health care systems were examined. The analysis was based on a review of studies conducted primarily in the United States. "Skill mix" was defined as the mix of posts, grades, or occupations in an organization and the combinations of activities or skills needed for each job…

  15. The Case for Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    In six brief chapters, mixed-age grouping of young children in schools and child care centers is explored and advocated. Chapter 1 defines mixed-age grouping, examines limitations of single-age grouping, and points out positive characteristics of mixed-age classes. Chapter 2 discusses social development as seen in children's interactions in…

  16. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with the Board based on race, color, religion...

  17. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed case complaint is a complaint of employment discrimination filed with the Board based on race, color, religion...

  18. Mixed Membership Distributions with Applications to Modeling Multiple Strategy Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyardt, April

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. "How do mixed membership models work?" and "Can mixed membership be used to model how students use multiple strategies to solve problems?". Mixed membership models have been used in thousands of applications from text and image processing to genetic microarray analysis. Yet…

  19. 9 CFR 114.6 - Mixing biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixing biological products. 114.6... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.6 Mixing biological products. Each biological product, when in liquid form, shall be mixed thoroughly in a single container. During bottling operations, the product shall be...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5075 - Mixed methyltin mercaptoester sulfides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed methyltin mercaptoester sulfides... Substances § 721.5075 Mixed methyltin mercaptoester sulfides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as mixed methyltin mercaptoester...