Science.gov

Sample records for a4-based tri-bimaximal mixing

  1. Tri-bimaximal Mixing from Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryo

    2008-11-23

    We investigate fermion mass matrices of the cascade form which lead to the tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector. The cascade neutrino matrix predicts a parameter-independent relation among the observables, which are the neutrino mixing angles and mass squared differences. The relation predicts that the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is close to maximal. We also study phenomenological aspect of the cascade form in supersymmetric theory, which are lepton flavor violation and thermal leptogenesis. A dynamical realivation of the cascade mass matrix are also presented in U(1) flavor theory.

  2. Breaking Tri-Bimaximal Mixing and Large θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Watanabe, A.

    2011-07-01

    The long baseline neutrino experiment, T2K, and the reactor experiment, Double Chooz will soon present new data. If we expect sinθ_{13} to be 0.1 - 0.2, which is close to the present experimental upper bound, we should not persist in the paradigm of the tri-bimaximal mixing. We discuss breaking the tri-bimaximal mixing by adding a simple mass matrix, which could be derived from some non-Abelian discrete symmetries. It is found that sinθ_{13} = 0.1 - 0.2 is expected in our model independent analysis of the generalized mass matrix for the normal or inverted hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum. On the other hand, sin^2θ_{23} and sin^2θ_{12} are expected to be not far from 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. As a typical example, we also discuss the A_4 flavor model with the 1 and 1' flavons, which break the tri-bimaximal mixing considerably. In this modified version of the Altarelli and Feruglio model, sinθ_{13} is predicted to be around 0.15 in the case of the normal hierarchical neutrino masses m_3 ≫ m_2, m_1, and 0.2 in the case of the inverted hierarchy m_3 ≪ m_2, m_1. The form of the neutrino mass matrix looks rather interesting -- it is suggestive of other discrete symmetries as well.

  3. Minimal modifications to the Tri-Bimaximal neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen-hua

    2014-11-01

    In light of the observation of a relatively large θ 13, the ever popular Tri-Bimaximal (TBM) neutrino mixing which predicts a vanishing θ 13 needs modifications. In this paper, we shall discuss the possibility of modifying it in a minimal way to fulfil this task. In the first part, a neutrino mass matrix with three independent parameters, which leads to the TM2 mixing, is obtained by analogy with that for the TBM mixing. In the second part, a model that can realize the TM2 mixing is constructed with flavor symmetries A 4 × U(1) × Z 2 × Z 2 × Z 2. It is the variant of a model that gives the TBM mixing, with only one more flavon field included. Furthermore, the imaginary vacuum expectation value (VEV) of this flavon breaks the imposed CP symmetry and results in θ 23 = 45° and the maximal CP violation. Besides, this model building approach can be generalized to the TM1 mixing in a straightforward way.

  4. Admixture of quasi-Dirac and Majorana neutrinos with tri-bimaximal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.

    2011-07-01

    We propose a realization of the so-called bimodal/schizophrenic model proposed recently. We assume S4, the permutation group of four objects as flavor symmetry giving tri-bimaximal lepton mixing at leading order. In these models the second massive neutrino state is assumed quasi-Dirac and the remaining neutrinos are Majorana states. In the case of inverse mass hierarchy, the lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay parameter mee is about two times that of the usual lower bound, within the range of sensitivity of the next generation of experiments.

  5. Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

    2008-04-01

    To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

  6. A predictive A model, charged lepton hierarchy and tri-bimaximal sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yin

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel A model in which the Tri-Bimaximal (TB) neutrino mixing and the charged lepton mass hierarchy are reproduced simultaneously. At leading order, the residual symmetry of the neutrino sector is Z×Z which guarantees the TB mixing without adjusting ad hoc free parameters. In the charged lepton sector, one of the previous Z is maximally broken and the resulting mass matrix is nearly diagonal and hierarchical. A natural mechanism for the required vacuum alignment is given with the help of the supersymmetry and an Abelian symmetry factor. In our model, subleading effects which could lead to appreciable deviations from TB mixing are very restrictive giving rise to possible next-to-leading predictions. From an explicit example, we show that our "constrained" A model is a natural framework, based on symmetry principle, to incorporate the TB sum rule: sinθ=1/3+2√{2}(cosδsinθ)/3.

  7. Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing and Weak Complementarity with S{sub 4} Discrete Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, Luca

    2010-02-10

    The neutrino oscillation data are well explained by the tri-bimaximal pattern. Recently a paper appeared showing that also the bimaximal pattern could be a very good starting point in order to describe the lepton mixing. In this paper I review both the flavour structures and then I present an explicit model.

  8. Trimaximal TM1 neutrino mixing in S4 with spontaneous CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    The measurement of the reactor angle by the Daya Bay and RENO experiments in 2012 has ruled out the tri-bimaximal paradigm. Adopting an S4 family symmetry, we propose direct models of the trimaximal type TM1 in which the tri-bimaximal Klein symmetry of the neutrino sector is broken to a residual Z2 symmetry. In such a scenario, the solar mixing angle is decreased compared to its tri-bimaximal value by about 1°, thus bringing it in excellent agreement with experimental observation. The atmospheric mixing angle, on the other hand, depends on the CP violating Dirac phase δ. Imposing CP conservation in the family symmetry limit, we show how to break the CP symmetry via flavon VEVs with well-defined complex phases, so that sizable deviations of the atmospheric angle from maximal mixing, consistent with the latest global fits, are produced. A related approach adopts non-Abelian groups which contain only half the Klein symmetry of the neutrino sector [44-47].

  9. Lepton mixing patterns from a scan of finite discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthausen, Martin; Lim, Kher Sham; Lindner, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    The recent discovery of a non-zero value of the mixing angle θ13 has ruled out tri-bimaximal mixing as the correct lepton mixing pattern generated by some discrete flavor symmetry (barring large next-to-leading order corrections in concrete models). In this work we assume that neutrinos are Majorana particles and perform a general scan of all finite discrete groups with order less than 1536 to obtain their predictions for lepton mixing angles. To our surprise, the scan of over one million groups only yields 3 interesting groups that give lepton mixing patterns which lie within 3-sigma of the current best global fit values. A systematic way to categorize such groups and the implications for flavor symmetry are discussed.

  10. Fermion masses and mixing in Δ (27 ) flavor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mohammed; Khalil, Shaaban

    2015-03-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) based on the non-Abelian discrete group Δ (27 ) is considered. The Δ (27 ) flavor symmetry is spontaneously broken only by gauge singlet scalar fields, therefore our model is free from any flavor changing neutral current (FCNC). We show that the model accounts simultaneously for the observed quark and lepton masses and their mixing. In the quark sector, we find that the up-quark mass matrix is flavor diagonal and the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix arises from down quarks. In the lepton sector, we show that the charged lepton mass matrix is almost diagonal. We also adopt type-I seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses. A deviated mixing matrix from tri-bimaximal Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (MNS), with a correlation between sin θ13 and sin2θ23 are illustrated.

  11. Generalised CP and trimaximal TM1 lepton mixing in S4 family symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2014-04-01

    We construct two flavor models based on S4 family symmetry and generalised CP symmetry. In both models, the S4 family symmetry is broken down to the Z2SU subgroup in the neutrino sector, as a consequence, the trimaximal TM1 lepton mixing is produced. Depending on the free parameters in the flavon potential, the Dirac CP is predicted to be either conserved or maximally broken, and the Majorana CP phases are trivial. The two models differ in the neutrino sector. The flavon fields are involved in the Dirac mass terms at leading order in the first model, and the neutrino mass matrix contains three real parameters such that the absolute neutrino masses are fixed. Nevertheless, the flavon fields enter into the Majorana mass terms at leading order in the second model. The leading order lepton mixing is of the tri-bimaximal form which is broken down to TM1 by the next to leading order contributions.

  12. Neutrino mixing with nonzero θ13 and CP violation in the 3-3-1 model based on A4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, Vo Van; Long, Hoang Ngoc

    2015-07-01

    We propose a 3-3-1 model with neutral fermions based on A4 flavor symmetry responsible for fermion masses and mixings with nonzero θ13. To get realistic neutrino mixing, we just add a new SU(3)L triplet being in 3̲ under A4. The neutrinos get small masses from two SU(3)L antisextets and one SU(3)L triplet. The model can fit the present data on neutrino masses and mixing as well as the effective mass governing neutrinoless double beta decay. Our results show that the neutrino masses are naturally small and a little deviation from the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing form can be realized. The Dirac CP violation phase δ is predicted to either 5.41∘ or 354.59∘ with θ23≠π 4.

  13. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  14. Models of neutrino mass, mixing and CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2015-12-01

    In this topical review we argue that neutrino mass and mixing data motivates extending the Standard Model (SM) to include a non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetry in order to accurately predict the large leptonic mixing angles and {C}{P} violation. We begin with an overview of the SM puzzles, followed by a description of some classic lepton mixing patterns. Lepton mixing may be regarded as a deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing, with charged lepton corrections leading to solar mixing sum rules, or tri-maximal lepton mixing leading to atmospheric mixing rules. We survey neutrino mass models, using a roadmap based on the open questions in neutrino physics. We then focus on the seesaw mechanism with right-handed neutrinos, where sequential dominance (SD) can account for large lepton mixing angles and {C}{P} violation, with precise predictions emerging from constrained SD (CSD). We define the flavour problem and discuss progress towards a theory of favour using GUTs and discrete family symmetry. We classify models as direct, semidirect or indirect, according to the relation between the Klein symmetry of the mass matrices and the discrete family symmetry, in all cases focussing on spontaneous {C}{P} violation. Finally we give two examples of realistic and highly predictive indirect models with CSD, namely an A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam and a fairly complete A 4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT of flavour, where both models have interesting implications for leptogenesis.

  15. Radiative corrections to the solar lepton mixing sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-08-01

    The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles ( θ 12, θ 13, θ 23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the solar lepton mixing sum rule θ 12 ≈ θ 12 ν + θ 13 cos δ, where θ 12 ν stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θ 12 ν = 45 ° for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{2}) ≈ 35.3° for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{5+1}) ≈ 31.7° for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. For illustration, we work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.

  16. Models for neutrino mass with discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, S.

    2011-08-01

    Discrete non-abelian flavor symmetries give in a natural way tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing as showed in a prototype model. However neutrino mass matrix pattern may be very different from the tri-bimaximal one if small deviations of TBM will be observed. We give the result of a model independent analysis for TBM neutrino mass pattern.

  17. Determining the Dirac CP violation phase in the neutrino mixing matrix from sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U = Ue† Uν, where Ue and Uν result from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we analyse the sum rules which the Dirac phase δ present in U satisfies when Uν has a form dictated by, or associated with, discrete symmetries and Ue has a "minimal" form (in terms of angles and phases it contains) that can provide the requisite corrections to Uν, so that reactor, atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing angles θ13, θ23 and θ12 have values compatible with the current data. The following symmetry forms are considered: i) tri-bimaximal (TBM), ii) bimaximal (BM) (or corresponding to the conservation of the lepton charge L‧ =Le -Lμ -Lτ (LC)), iii) golden ratio type A (GRA), iv) golden ratio type B (GRB), and v) hexagonal (HG). We investigate the predictions for δ in the cases of TBM, BM (LC), GRA, GRB and HG forms using the exact and the leading order sum rules for cos ⁡ δ proposed in the literature, taking into account also the uncertainties in the measured values of sin2 ⁡θ12, sin2 ⁡θ23 and sin2 ⁡θ13. This allows us, in particular, to assess the accuracy of the predictions for cos ⁡ δ based on the leading order sum rules and its dependence on the values of the indicated neutrino mixing parameters when the latter are varied in their respective 3σ experimentally allowed ranges.

  18. Predictions for the Majorana CP violation phases in the neutrino mixing matrix and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We obtain predictions for the Majorana phases α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 of the 3 × 3 unitary neutrino mixing matrix U = Ue† Uν, Ue and Uν being the 3 × 3 unitary matrices resulting from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino Majorana mass matrices, respectively. We focus on forms of Ue and Uν permitting to express α21 / 2 and α31 / 2 in terms of the Dirac phase δ and the three neutrino mixing angles of the standard parametrisation of U, and the angles and the two Majorana-like phases ξ21 / 2 and ξ31 / 2 present, in general, in Uν. The concrete forms of Uν considered are fixed by, or associated with, symmetries (tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc.), so that the angles in Uν are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue that allow to reproduce the measured values of the three neutrino mixing angles θ12, θ23 and θ13, we derive predictions for phase differences (α21 / 2 -ξ21 / 2), (α31 / 2 -ξ31 / 2), etc., which are completely determined by the values of the mixing angles. We show that the requirement of generalised CP invariance of the neutrino Majorana mass term implies ξ21 = 0 or π and ξ31 = 0 or π. For these values of ξ21 and ξ31 and the best fit values of θ12, θ23 and θ13, we present predictions for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay for both neutrino mass spectra with normal and inverted ordering.

  19. Nonzero θ13 and CP violation in a model with A4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.; Kang, Sin Kyu

    2012-11-01

    Motivated by recent observations of nonzero θ13 from the Daya Bay and RENO experiments, we propose a renormalizable neutrino model with A4 discrete symmetry accounting for deviations from the tri-bimaximal mixing pattern of the neutrino mixing matrix indicated by neutrino oscillation data. In the model, the light neutrino masses can be generated by radiative corrections, and we show how the light neutrino mass matrix can be diagonalized by the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing matrix whose entries are determined by the current neutrino data, including the Daya Bay result. We show that the origin of the deviations from the tri-bimaximal mixing is nondegeneracy of the neutrino Yukawa coupling constants, and unremovable CP phases in the neutrino Yukawa matrix give rise to both low energy CP violation measurable from neutrino oscillation and high energy CP violation.

  20. Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models

    SciTech Connect

    King, Stephen F.

    2010-02-10

    We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  1. Flavor symmetry and a model of Σ(3N3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    We study the lepton flavor models with the flavor symmetry (ZN×ZN×ZN)⋊Z3. Our models predict nonvanishing discrete values of θ13 as well as θ12 and θ23 depending on N. For certain values, our models realize the tribimaximal mixing angles with θ13 = 0. For other values, our models provide with discrete deviation from the tri-bimaximal mixing angles.

  2. Flavor symmetry and a model of {Sigma}(3N{sup 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimori, Hajime

    2012-07-27

    We study the lepton flavor models with the flavor symmetry (Z{sub N} Multiplication-Sign Z{sub N} Multiplication-Sign Z{sub N}) Right-Normal-Factor-Semidirect-Product Z{sub 3}. Our models predict nonvanishing discrete values of {theta}13 as well as {theta}12 and {theta}23 depending on N. For certain values, our models realize the tribimaximal mixing angles with {theta}{sub 13} 0. For other values, our models provide with discrete deviation from the tri-bimaximal mixing angles.

  3. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from the first ... disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive assessments followed by ...

  4. [Mixed cryoglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Roque, R; Ramiro, S; Vinagre, F; Cordeiro, A; Godinho, F; Santos, Maria José; Gonçalves, P; Canas da Silva, J

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases of cryoglobulinemia. A 70 years old woman, having skin ulcers on lower limbs, arthralgias, paresthesias and constitutional symptoms, for about 10 months. Exams revealed mild anemia, elevation of the biological parameters of inflammation and aminotransferases, positive cryoglobulin and rheumatoid factor in serum, and a severe reduction in C4 complement fraction. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology was negative. Idiopathic mixed cryoglobulinemia was diagnosed and corticosteroid therapy started. Given the lack of response, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis were added. Two weeks later the patient died in septic shock. The second case refers to a 41 years old female, with untreated hepatitis C who developed over a 6 month period petechiae and livedoid lesions on the lower limbs, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms and was admitted with intestinal necrosis. Exams were consistent with the diagnosis of mixed cryoglobulinemia associated, with HCV. She started therapy with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, with improvement. PMID:22113605

  5. Housing Mix, School Mix: Barriers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camina, M. M.; Iannone, P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent UK policy has emphasised both the development of socially mixed communities and the creation of balanced school intakes. In this paper, we use a case study of an area of mixed tenure in eastern England to explore policy in practice and the extent to which mechanisms of segregation impact on both the creation of socially mixed neighbourhoods…

  6. Mixing and Transport.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; Chapman, Tom; Siverts-Wong, Elena; Wei, Li; Mei, Ying

    2016-10-01

    This section covers research published during the calendar year 2015 on mixing and transport processes. The review covers mixing of anaerobic digesters, mixing of heat transfer, and environmental fate and transport. PMID:27620101

  7. Non-thermal leptogenesis in a simple 5D SO(10) GUT

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, Takeshi; Okada, Nobuchika E-mail: okadan@ua.edu

    2010-09-01

    We discuss non-thermal leptogenesis in the scheme of 5D orbifold SO(10) GUT with the smooth hybrid inflation. With unambiguously determined Dirac Yukawa couplings and an assumption for the neutrino mixing matrix of the tri-bimaximal from, we analyze baryon asymmetry of the universe via non-thermal leptogenesis in two typical cases for the light neutrino mass spectrum, the normal and inverted hierarchical cases. The resultant baryon asymmetry is obtained as a function of the lightest mass eigenvalue of the light neutrinos, and we find that a suitable amount of baryon asymmetry of the universe can be produced in the normal hierarchical case, while in the inverted hierarchical case the baryon asymmetry is too small to be consistent with the observation.

  8. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  9. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  10. Foundations of chaotic mixing.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

    2004-05-15

    The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations.

  11. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  12. Mixed matrix membrane development.

    PubMed

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    2003-03-01

    Two types of mixed matrix membranes were developed by UOP in the late 1980s. The first type includes adsorbent polymers, such as silicalite-cellulose acetate (CA), NaX-CA, and AgX-CA mixed matrix membranes. The silicalite-CA has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 5.15 +/- 2.2. In contrast, the CA membrane has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 0.77 +/- 0.06. The second type of mixed matrix membrane is PEG-silicone rubber. The PEG-silicone rubber mixed matrix membrane has high selectivity for polar gases, such as SO(2), NH(3), and H(2)S.

  13. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  14. To Mix or Not to Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttlewood, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the teaching strategy of the mixed independent school where she works, in which they split the students into four or five ability sets. The sets are decided primarily either by pupil achievement in the entrance examinations prior to Y9 or by pupil performance in the prep school. The author also presents the…

  15. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  16. Recurrent mixed tumor.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1986-01-01

    Recurrence of benign neoplasms can usually be attributed to incomplete excision. Such is the case with benign mixed tumors of salivary glands. Certain histopathologic features of mixed tumors, however, appear to facilitate recurrences. These are: a predominantly myxoid composition, and transcapsular extension by the tumor. Multicentric origin is possible, but it must be regarded as a much lower order of probability.

  17. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  18. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to - π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  19. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  20. High-mix insulins

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Farooqi, Mohammad Hamed; El-Houni, Ali E.

    2015-01-01

    Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use. PMID:26425485

  1. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  2. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  3. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lim, Hyun K; Yu, Yan; Glimm, James G

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  4. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  5. Idealized mixing impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-12-08

    The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs.

  6. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  7. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  8. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  9. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  10. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  11. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  12. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  13. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  14. Atomization and mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Jaqua, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art in atomization and mixing for triplet, pentad, and coaxial injectors is described. Injectors that are applicable for LOX/hydrocarbon propellants and main chamber and fuel rich preburner/gas generator mixture ratios are of special interest. Various applicable correlating equations and parameters as well as test data found in the literature are presented. The validity, utility, and important aspects of these data and correlations are discussed and the measurement techniques used are evaluated. Propellant mixing tests performed are described and summarized, results are reported, and tentative conclusions are included.

  15. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin

    2005-03-15

    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  16. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  17. Mixed waste characterization strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.; Peters, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive mixed wastes containing a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and hazardous waste subject to resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are generated, treated, and stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and are subject to federal and state statutory and regulatory requirements. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) are the two primary regulatory agencies which enforce these requirements. This paper describes the mechanism by which RFP will characterize mixed wastes within the LDR provisions of RCRA and the LDR FFCA as well as for meeting the waste acceptance criteria for disposal.

  18. Mixed waste characterization strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.; Peters, M.

    1992-08-01

    Radioactive mixed wastes containing a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and hazardous waste subject to resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are generated, treated, and stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and are subject to federal and state statutory and regulatory requirements. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) are the two primary regulatory agencies which enforce these requirements. This paper describes the mechanism by which RFP will characterize mixed wastes within the LDR provisions of RCRA and the LDR FFCA as well as for meeting the waste acceptance criteria for disposal.

  19. MixDown

    2010-01-01

    MixDown is a meta-build tool that orchestrates and manages the building of multiple 3rd party libraries. It can manage the downloading, uncompressing, unpacking, patching, configuration, build, and installation of 3rd party libraries using a variety of configuration and build tools. As a meta-build tool, it relies on 3rd party tools such as GNU Autotools, make, Cmake, scons, etc. to actually confugure and build libraries. MixDown includes an extensive database of settings to be used formore » general machines and specific leadership class computing resources.« less

  20. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  1. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie; Welch, Cynthia F.; Goodwin, Lynne Alese; Keller, Jennie

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  2. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  3. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  4. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  5. Progress in mix modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, A.K.

    1997-03-14

    We have identified the Cranfill multifluid turbulence model (Cranfill, 1992) as a starting point for development of subgrid models of instability, turbulent and mixing processes. We have differenced the closed system of equations in conservation form, and coded them in the object-oriented hydrodynamics code FLAG, which is to be used as a testbed for such models.

  6. Stabilizer for mixed fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.

    1984-03-13

    A stabilizer for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.

  7. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  8. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  9. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-07-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate {nu}{sub 2} is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  10. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  11. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  12. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Spetman, David

    1997-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ambient air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane. The modeling basis was centered on using convective Mach Number as the similarity parameter to establish correlation between subscale, cold flow tests and full scale, hot firing modes. This parameter has been used successfully to correlate supersonic shear layer growth rates. The experiment design includes hot (600 R) air as the rocket exhaust simulant and hot (760 R) carbon dioxide as the turbine exhaust gas simulant. The combination of gases and their elevated temperatures was required to achieve a convective Mach Number which matched the fall scale item design conditions. The carbon dioxide is seeded with Acetone to permit tracing of the mixing processes through Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The experiment and its design will be discussed in detail. Both the rocket and turbine exhaust duct nozzles are of unique (square and rectangular) shape and the turbine exhaust e)dt intersects the rocket nozzle wall upstream of the exit. Cold flow testing with the individual nozzles has been conducted to ascertain their behavior in comparison to conventional flow theory. These data are presented.

  13. Mixing, entropy and competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices.

  14. Mixing of carbonate waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Plummer, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    When mineral solutions of different compositions are mixed, the molalities and activities of individual ions in the mixture are often non-linear functions of their end-member values. This non-linearity is particularly significant in determining mineral saturation levels. Mixtures of saturated solutions may be either undersaturated or supersaturated depending on the end-member compositions and the physical conditions in which end-members and their mixtures exist. In carbonate solutions important non-linear effects occur due to redistribution of carbonate species. In extreme cases this causes mixture pH to be below both the end-member pH values. A simple but precise computer program (WATMIX) has been developed for calculating mixture composition for closed and open system mixing of arbitrary end-members. A number of mixing examples are considered which allow one to isolate three important processes leading to non-linear behaviour: the algebraic effect, the ??PCO2 effect, and the ionic strength effect. ?? 1976.

  15. MixSIAR: advanced stable isotope mixing models in R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...

  16. Mix/Cast Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

  17. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  18. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  19. The mixed chemistry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Millar, T. J.; Woods, P. M.; Chuimin, R. N.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) represent the last stage of evolution of intermediate mass stars (0.8 to 8M⊙) and, hence, by their very nature are fundamental to galactic evolution. The massive envelopes ejected during their earlier evolution (AGB phase) are an important source of recycled material in the form of dust and molecular gas into the interstellar medium. A small fraction of PNe show both O- and C-rich features and are therefore classified as mixed-chemistry objects. The origin of their mixed-chemistry is still uncertain. Our chemical models show that the PAHs may form in irradiated dense tori, and HST images confirm the presence of such tori in some of the objects. Using the VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the precise location of the PAHs. We find a dense dusty structures in all of the objects observed. The ionised [SIV] material is located inside the dusty tori, while the PAHs are present at the outer edges of these tori. This confirms that the PAHs formation is due to the photodissociation of CO. In the Galactic Disk, very few PNe have shown to harbour these mixed-chemistry phenomenon. We propose to observe the tori of a sample of bipolar PNe from the Galactic Disk that harbour a close binary system inside them. The chemical models show that the formation of long C-chain molecules is possible to occur in O-rich environments, but the formation of these C-rich molecules require a very dense region (Av˜4). To test this theory we propose to observe the very dense tori of these Galactic Disk PNe and compare these sample with the already observed sample of PNe in the Galactic Bulge (Guzman-Ramirez, et al., 2011;Guzman-Ramirez, et al., 2013, submitted).

  20. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Harold G.; /Indiana U.

    2009-05-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  1. Recent neutrino data and type III seesaw model with discrete symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, C. S.; Oh, Sechul

    2012-07-01

    In light of the recent neutrino experiment results from the Daya Bay and RENO Collaborations, we study phenomenology of neutrino mixing angles in the type III seesaw model with a discrete A4×Z2 symmetry, whose spontaneously breaking scale is much higher than the electroweak scale. At tree level, the tri-bimaximal (TBM) form of the lepton mixing matrix can be obtained from leptonic Yukawa interactions in a natural way. We introduce all possible effective dimension-five operators, invariant under the standard model gauge group and A4×Z2, and explicitly show that they induce a deviation of the lepton mixing from the TBM mixing matrix, which can explain a large mixing angle θ13 together with small deviations of the solar and atmospheric mixing angles from the TBM. Two possible scenarios are investigated, by taking into account either negligible or sizable contributions from the light charged lepton sector to the lepton mixing matrix. Especially it is found in the latter scenario that all the neutrino experimental data, including the recent best-fit value of θ13=8.68°, can be accommodated. The leptonic CP violation characterized by the Jarlskog invariant JCP has a nonvanishing value, indicating a signal of maximal CP violation.

  2. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  3. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  4. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  5. The leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase from sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the reference 3-neutrino mixing scheme with three light massive neutrinos, CP-violating effects in neutrino oscillations can be caused by the Dirac CP-violating phase δ present in the unitary neutrino mixing matrix U. Using the fact that U = U†eUv , where Ue and Uv are unitary matrices arising from the diagonalisation, respectively, of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we consider in a systematic way forms of Ue and Uv allowing us to express δ as a function of the neutrino mixing angles present in U and the angles contained in Uv. After obtaining sum rules for cos δ, we consider several forms of Uv dictated by, or associated with, symmetries, such as tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc., for which the angles in Uv are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue allowing to reproduce the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles, we construct the likelihood function for cos δ, using the prospective uncertainties in the determination of the mixing angles. Our results show that the measurement of δ along with improvement of the precision on the neutrino mixing angles can provide unique information about the possible existence of a new fundamental symmetry in the lepton sector.

  6. Biogenic inputs to ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2012-03-15

    Recent studies have evoked heated debate about whether biologically generated (or biogenic) fluid disturbances affect mixing in the ocean. Estimates of biogenic inputs have shown that their contribution to ocean mixing is of the same order as winds and tides. Although these estimates are intriguing, further study using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques is required to obtain conclusive evidence of biogenic mixing in the ocean. Biogenic ocean mixing is a complex problem that requires detailed understanding of: (1) marine organism behavior and characteristics (i.e. swimming dynamics, abundance and migratory behavior), (2) mechanisms utilized by swimming animals that have the ability to mix stratified fluids (i.e. turbulence and fluid drift) and (3) knowledge of the physical environment to isolate contributions of marine organisms from other sources of mixing. In addition to summarizing prior work addressing the points above, observations on the effect of animal swimming mode and body morphology on biogenic fluid transport will also be presented. It is argued that to inform the debate on whether biogenic mixing can contribute to ocean mixing, our studies should focus on diel vertical migrators that traverse stratified waters of the upper pycnocline. Based on our understanding of mixing mechanisms, body morphologies, swimming modes and body orientation, combined with our knowledge of vertically migrating populations of animals, it is likely that copepods, krill and some species of gelatinous zooplankton and fish have the potential to be strong sources of biogenic mixing. PMID:22357597

  7. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length.

    PubMed

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E

    2009-04-01

    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length.

  8. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  9. Mixing entropy in Dean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Petru; Vyhnalek, Brian; Kaufman, Miron

    2013-03-01

    We investigate mixing in Dean flows by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation for a circular channel. Tracers of two chemical species are carried by the fluid. The centrifugal forces, experienced as the fluid travels along a curved trajectory, coupled with the fluid incompressibility induce cross-sectional rotating flows (Dean vortices). These transversal flows promote the mixing of the chemical species. We generate images for different cross sections along the trajectory. The mixing efficiency is evaluated using the Shannon entropy. Previously we have found, P. S. Fodor and M. Kaufman, Modern Physics Letters B 25, 1111 (2011), this measure to be useful in understanding mixing in the staggered herringbone mixer. The mixing entropy is determined as function of the Reynolds number, the angle of the cross section and the observation scale (number of bins). Quantitative comparison of the mixing in the Dean micromixer and in the staggered herringbone mixer is attempted.

  10. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  11. Smoothing of mixed complementarity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.A.; More, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The authors introduce a smoothing approach to the mixed complementarity problem, and study the limiting behavior of a path defined by approximate minimizers of a nonlinear least squares problem. The main result guarantees that, under a mild regularity condition, limit points of the iterates are solutions to the mixed complementarity problem. The analysis is applicable to a wide variety of algorithms suitable for large-scale mixed complementarity problems.

  12. Optimal broadcasting of mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Guifang; Fan Heng

    2007-08-15

    The N to M (M{>=}N) universal quantum broadcasting of mixed states {rho}{sup xN} is proposed for a qubit system. The broadcasting of mixed states is universal and optimal in the sense that the shrinking factor is independent of the input state and achieves the upper bound. The quantum broadcasting of mixed qubits is a generalization of the universal quantum cloning machine for identical pure input states. A pure state decomposition of the identical mixed qubits {rho}{sup xN} is obtained.

  13. Mixed additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We consider mixed models y =∑i =0 w Xiβi with V (y )=∑i =1 w θiMi Where Mi=XiXi⊤ , i = 1, . . ., w, and µ = X0β0. For these we will estimate the variance components θ1, . . ., θw, aswell estimable vectors through the decomposition of the initial model into sub-models y(h), h ∈ Γ, with V (y (h ))=γ (h )Ig (h )h ∈Γ . Moreover we will consider L extensions of these models, i.e., y˚=Ly+ɛ, where L=D (1n1, . . ., 1nw) and ɛ, independent of y, has null mean vector and variance covariance matrix θw+1Iw, where w =∑i =1 n wi .

  14. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Mixed waste analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.J.; Turner, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Improved superpower relations followed by the Soviet Union`s collapse acted as catalysts for changing the mission at Rocky Flats. Now, environmental concerns command as much attention as production capability. As a result, laboratory instruments once dedicated to plutonium production have a new purpose - the analysis of mixed wastes. Waste drums destined for WIPP require headspace analysis by GS/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC). Flame AA analysis provides information on inorganic constituents. EPA guidelines for waste analysis (SW-846) overlook the obstacles of glove box manipulations. Sometimes, SW-846 guidelines conflict with the Rocky Flats waste minimization effort. However, the EPA encourages SW-846 adaptations if experimental data confirms the results. For water and soil samples, AA analysis of laboratory control samples show method capability inside a glove box. Non-radioactive drum headspace samples use a revised version of USEPA compendium method TO-14. Radioactive drum headspace samples require new instrumentation and change to SW-846 methods.

  16. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H.; Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  17. Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  20. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies. PMID:27421219

  1. Biomass conversion to mixed alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, M.T.; Loescher, M.; Ross, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the MixAlco Process which converts a wide variety of biomass materials (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural residues) to mixed alcohols. First, the biomass is treated with lime to enhance its digestibility. Then, a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms converts the lime-treated biomass to volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. To maintain fermentor pH, a neutralizing agent (e.g. calcium carbonate or lime) is added, so the fermentation actually produces VFA salts such as calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The VFA salts are recovered and thermally converted to ketones (e.g. acetone, methylethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) which are subsequently hydrogenated to mixed alcohols (e.g. isopropanol, isobutanol, isopentanol). Processing costs are estimated at $0.72/gallon of mixed alcohols making it potentially attractive for transportation fuels.

  2. Active Mixing in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chun-Hai; Tan, Jun-Jie; Ren, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    We investigate a minute magneto hydro-dynamic mixer with relatively rapid mixing enhancement experimentally and analytically. The mixer is fabricated with brass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layers. A secondary flow is generated by using the Lorentz force in the fluids. The efficiency of mixing is greatly improved due to the large increase of the contact area between two mixing fluids. The micro particle image velocimetry technique is employed to measure the fluid flow characteristics in the micro-channel. Numerical simulation is performed based on the theoretical model of the computational fluid dynamics and the electromagnetic field theory. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, which indicates that the mixing area is enlarged by the driving of Lorentz force and the mixing can be enhanced.

  3. CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

  4. The Charged Lepton Mass Matrix and Non-zero θ13 with TeV Scale New Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

    2012-03-01

    We provide an explicit structure of the charged lepton mass matrix which is 2-3 symmetric except for a single breaking of this symmetry by the muon mass. We identify a flavor symmetric limit for the mass matrices where the first generation is decoupled from the other two in the charged lepton sector while in the neutrino sector the third generation is decoupled from the first two generations. The leptonic mixing in the symmetric limit can be, among other structures, the bi-maximal (BM) or the tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing. Symmetry breaking effects are included both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent θ13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and two singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.[4pt] This work was supported in part by the US-Egypt Joint Board on Scientific and Technological Co-operation award (Project ID: 1855) administered by the US Department of Agriculture, summer grant from the College of Liberal Arts, University of Mississippi and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1068052 and 1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  5. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] J.M. Redondo. Turbulent mixing in the Atmosphere and Ocean. Fluid Physics. 584-597. World Scientific. New York. 1994

  6. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length.

    PubMed

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E

    2009-04-01

    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length. PMID:19392360

  7. Mapping the Mixed Methods–Mixed Research Synthesis Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary. PMID:23066379

  8. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  9. Nanofluidic mixing via hybrid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziran; Li, Shunbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hui, Yu Sanna; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia

    2014-10-20

    We report the design and fabrication of the nanofluidic mixer comprising hybrid hydrophobic/hydrophilic micro-patterns on the top and bottom walls of the nanochannel. The unique feature of such mixer is that, without any geometric structure inside the nanochannel, the mixing can be realized solely by the hybrid surfaces. Besides, the mixing length in nanomixer has been significantly shortened comparing to micromixer. We attribute the mixing achievement to be caused by the convection and chaotic flows of two fluids along the hybrid surface due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanochannel.

  10. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing). PMID:26093140

  11. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  12. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  13. Crossflow Mixing of Noncircular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscinsky, D. S.; True, B.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted of the isothermal mixing of a turbulent jet injected perpendicular to a uniform crossflow through several different types of sharp-edged orifices. Jet penetration and mixing was studied using planar Mie scattering to measure time-averaged mixture fraction distributions of circular, square, elliptical, and rectangular orifices of equal geometric area injected into a constant velocity crossflow. Hot-wire anemometry was also used to measure streamwise turbulence intensity distributions at several downstream planes. Mixing effectiveness was determined using (1) a spatial unmixedness parameter based on the variance of the mean jet concentration distributions and (2) by direct comparison of the planar distributions of concentration and of turbulence intensity. No significant difference in mixing performance was observed for the six configurations based on comparison of the mean properties.

  14. Modeling Mix in ICF Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Chang, B.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2014-10-01

    The observation of ablator material mixing into the hot spot of ICF implosions correlates with reduced yield in National Ignition Campaign (NIC) experiments. Higher Z ablator material radiatively cools the central hot spot, inhibiting thermonuclear burn. This talk focuses on modeling a ``high-mix'' implosion from the NIC, where greater than 1000 ng of ablator material was inferred to have mixed into the hot spot. Standard post-shot modeling of this implosion does not predict the large amounts of ablator mix necessary to explain the data. Other issues are explored in this talk and sensitivity to the method of radiation transport is found. Compared with radiation diffusion, Sn transport can increase ablation front growth and alter the blow-off dynamics of capsule dust. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  16. Perspectives on dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer code which displays 3-D oblique and 2-D plots of the temperature distribution downstream of jets mixing with a confined crossflow has been used to investigate the effects of varying the several independent flow and geometric parameters on the mixing. Temperature profiles calculated with this empirical model are presented to show the effects of orifice size and spacing, momentum flux ratio, density ratio, variable temperature mainstream, flow area convergence, orifice aspect ratio, and opposed and axially staged rows of jets.

  17. Sterile neutrinos for warm dark matter and the reactor anomaly in flavor symmetry models

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner; Zhang, He E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2012-01-01

    We construct a flavor symmetry model based on the tetrahedral group A{sub 4} in which the right-handed neutrinos from the seesaw mechanism can be both keV warm dark matter particles and eV-scale sterile neutrinos. This is achieved by giving the right-handed neutrinos appropriate charges under the same Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry responsible for the hierarchy of the charged lepton masses. We discuss the effect of next-to-leading order corrections to deviate the zeroth order tri-bimaximal mixing. Those corrections have two sources: (i) higher order seesaw terms, which are important when the seesaw particles are eV-scale, and (ii) higher-dimensional effective operators suppressed by additional powers of the cut-off scale of the theory. Whereas the mixing angles of the active neutrinos typically receive corrections of the same order, the mixing of the sterile neutrinos with the active ones is rather stable as it is connected with a hierarchy of mass scales. We also modify an effective A{sub 4} model to incorporate keV-scale sterile neutrinos.

  18. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  19. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594

  20. Mixing Effect in Internal Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    Detonation product gases are usually assumed to be completely mixed with an existing atmosphere by the time a peak quasi-static pressure (Pqs) is reached within an enclosed internal blast environment. With incomplete mixing, however, comes a loss in pressure from unburned fuel as well as a previously unrecognized source of error: heat capacity of the gas increases substantially with temperature, providing an energy sink in regions of unmixed hot gas. Our objective was to look at the extent of mixing by measuring gas temperature at several locations within a blast chamber at the time of peak Pqs. We recorded ranges of up to 400° C depending on charge location within the chamber, which is presumed to affect turbulence and mixing. Losses in peak Pqs of up to 13% may be attributed to this mixing effect for 1-kg Pentolite charges in a 62-m3 chamber in the simple geometries tested. A reasonably accurate Pqs may be extracted from blast wave reverberations in a chamber, allowing a closer look at effects such as gas mixing and consistency among multiple gages. These results point to an explanation for missing energy and a better understanding of heat flow in internal blast.

  1. Relating quark mixing neutrino mixing and {delta}{sub lep}

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S. M.; Chen Hengyu

    2013-05-23

    It is proposed that all flavor mixing is caused by the mixing of the three quark and lepton families with vectorlike fermions in 5+5-bar multiplets of SU(5). The entire 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 complex mass matrix of the neutrinos M{sub {nu}} is then found to have a simple expression in terms of two complex parameters and an overall scale. Thus, all the presently unknown neutrino parameters are predicted. The best fits are for {theta}{sub atm} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 Degree-Sign The leptonic Dirac CP phase is found to be somewhat greater than {pi}.

  2. Helium Microbeam Mixing of Bilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John Baran

    This study is an experimental and theoretical investigation of room-temperature mixing of bilayers by micron-width He^+ ion beams. Bilayer targets, including Cu/Al, Cu/Si and Sb/Si, were irradiated at room temperature in the University at Albany's Dynamitron particle accelerator with 2-MeV He^+ ion beams ranging from 2 to 6 μm in width. At doses on the order of 10^ {19}/cm^2, RBS spectra revealed evidence of interface mixing in all targets to depths of several thousand A within the cylinder irradiated by the beam. Both RBS spectra and isometric RBS contour maps of the target also showed that mixing of the interface extends laterally well beyond the irradiated area. The interface mixing reaches a maximum in an annular region several times larger in diameter than the ion-beam. Standard theories of primary-recoil, secondary -cascade and thermal-spike mixing predicted interface widths two orders of magnitude smaller than observed for Cu/Al bilayers. Furthermore, He^+ irradiation of Cu/Al targets at liquid-nitrogen temperature did not produce interface mixing, further indicating that ballistic interpretations of the mixing are inadequate. Defect concentrations as a function of position and time were calculated by numerical solution of coupled rate equations for vacancies and interstitials in aluminum. The results of these calculations show that room-temperature He^+ mixing of Cu/Al results almost exclusively from interstitial migration. The numerically calculated concentration of interstitials within the damage cylinder was used to derive an approximate expression for interface width as a function of dose. Comparisons of these predicted values with the experimentally determined interface width as a function of dose agree, within uncertainties. In addition, the annular region observed on RBS maps is explained by the continued presence of a non-equilibrium concentration of interstitials after the ion beam is shut off. Interface mixing in Cu/Si targets, although

  3. Mixing in massive stellar mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaburov, E.; Lombardi, J. C.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2008-01-01

    The early evolution of dense star clusters is possibly dominated by close interactions between stars, and physical collisions between stars may occur quite frequently. Simulating a stellar collision event can be an intensive numerical task, as detailed calculations of this process require hydrodynamic simulations in three dimensions. We present a computationally inexpensive method in which we approximate the merger process, including shock heating, hydrodynamic mixing and mass loss, with a simple algorithm based on conservation laws and a basic qualitative understanding of the hydrodynamics of stellar mergers. The algorithm relies on Archimedes' principle to dictate the distribution of the fluid in the stable equilibrium situation. We calibrate and apply the method to mergers of massive stars, as these are expected to occur in young and dense star clusters. We find that without the effects of microscopic mixing, the temperature and chemical composition profiles in a collision product can become double-valued functions of enclosed mass. Such an unphysical situation is mended by simulating microscopic mixing as a post-collision effect. In this way we find that head-on collisions between stars of the same spectral type result in substantial mixing, while mergers between stars of different spectral type, such as type B and O stars (~10 and ~40Msolar respectively), are subject to relatively little hydrodynamic mixing. Our algorithm has been implemented in an easy-to-use software package, which we have made publicly available for download.1

  4. Isospin Mixing in MAGNESIUM-24.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Charles David

    The (beta)-(gamma) circular polarization correlation asymmetry was measured for the pure Gamow-Teller decay of ('28)Al, for the pure Fermi decay of ('14)O and for the mixed decay of the ('24)Al 4('+) ground state to the 8.437 MeV, 4('+) state in ('24)Mg. The expected results were obtained for the pure Gamow-Teller and Fermi decays. From the results of the ('24)Al decay the isospin mixing of the 8.437 MeV, 4('+) state and the 9.515 MeV, 4('+) analog state in ('24)Mg was determined. The charge dependent matrix element mixing these two states was determined to be -95 (+OR-) 36 keV. This is the largest charge dependent matrix element observed in (beta) decay to date. This large value has not been completely explained and suggests the existence of a (DELTA)T = 1 nuclear force.

  5. Turbulent mix experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities produce material mixing that can significantly degrade weapons performance. We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in the turbulent regime in two experimental venues. RM experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two fluid targets. Interfacial perturbations are imposed with single sinusoidal modes to test linear theory and with three dimensional (3D) random modes to produce turbulent mix. RT experiments are conducted on a new facility, the Linear Electric Motor (LEM), in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated with arbitrary temporal profiles. This allows detailed diagnosis of the turbulence over a wide range of conditions. The Nova experiments study the high compression regime whereas the LEM experiments are incompressible. The results are compared to hydrodynamic simulations with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code (CALE). The goal is to develop and test engineering models of mix.

  6. Nonideal Rayleigh–Taylor mixing

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Iwerks, Justin; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh–Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts. PMID:20615983

  7. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lin, Hyun K; Iwerks, Justin G; Gliman, James G

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  8. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience.

  9. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Glimm, J.; Iwerks, J.; Sharp, D.H.

    2010-08-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts.

  10. Mixe de Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca (Mixe of Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Mixe, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Tlahuitoltepec, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  11. Use and abuse of mixing models (MixSIAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsCharacterizing trophic links in food webs is a fundamental ecological question. In our efforts to quantify energy flow through food webs, ecologists have increasingly used mixing models to analyze biological tracer data, often from stable isotopes. Whil...

  12. Bs Mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-04-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of B{sub s} mesons. B{sub s} Mixing is the most important analysis within the B Physics program of both experiments. In this paper they summarize the most recent results on this topic from both D0 and CDF experiments. There were very important updates in both experiments after his last talk, hence the organizers warmly recommended me to include the latest available results on B{sub s} mixing, instead of what he presents there.

  13. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  14. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  15. On the quantification of mixing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Methods for quantifying mixing in microfluidics have varied largely in the past, and various indices have been employed to represent the extent of mixing. Mixing between two or more colored liquids is usually quantified using simple mathematical functions operated over a sequence of images. The function, usually termed mixing indices, involves a measure of standard deviation. Here, we first review some mixing indices and then experimentally verify the index most representative of a mixing event. It is observed that the relative mixing index is not affected by the lighting conditions, unlike other known mixing indices. Based on this finding, the use of a relative mixing index is advocated for further use in the lab-on-a-chip community for quantifying mixing events.

  16. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we review recent advances in Stable Isotope Mixing Models (SIMMs) and place them into an over-arching Bayesian statistical framework which allows for several useful extensions. SIMMs are used to quantify the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixtur...

  17. The Mystery of Neutrino Mixings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-07-01

    In the last years we have learnt a lot about neutrino masses and mixings. Neutrinos are not all massless but their masses are very small. Probably masses are small because neutrinos are Majorana particles with masses inversely proportional to the large scale M of lepton number (L) violation, which turns out to be compatible with the GUT scale. We have understood that there is no contradiction between large neutrino mixings and small quark mixings, even in the context of GUTs and that neutrino masses fit well in the SUSY GUT picture. Out of equilibrium decays with CP and L violation of heavy RH neutrinos can produce a B-L asymmetry, then converted near the weak scale by instantons into an amount of B asymmetry compatible with observations (baryogenesis via leptogenesis). It appears that active neutrinos are not a significant component of Dark Matter in the Universe. A long list of models have been formulated over the years to understand neutrino masses and mixings. With the continuous improvement of the data most of the models have been discarded by experiment. The surviving models still span a wide range going from a maximum of symmetry, with discrete non-abelian flavour groups, to the opposite extreme of anarchy.

  18. Mixing and transport. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.J.W.

    1982-06-01

    The mixing and transport of water pollution is the subject of this literature review with 110 references. The environmental transport of pollutants is examined in streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, estuaries, salt marshes and coastal waters. The dynamics of fluid flow, and the physical properties of jets, plumes, and stratified fluids are discussed. (KRM)

  19. Tribimaximal mixing from small groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2011-07-01

    Current experimental data on the neutrino parameters are in good agreement with tribimaximal mixing and may indicate the presence of an underlying family symmetry. For 76 flavor groups, we perform a systematic scan for models: The particle content is that of the standard model plus up to three flavon fields, and the effective Lagrangian contains all terms of mass dimension ≤6. We find that 44 groups can accommodate models that are consistent with experiment at 3σ, and 38 groups can have models that are tribimaximal. For A4×Z3, T7, and T13 we look at correlations between the mixing angles and make a prediction for θ13 that will be testable in the near future. We present the details of a model with θ12=33.9°, θ23=40.9°, θ13=5.1° to show that the recent tentative hints of a nonzero θ13 can easily be accommodated. The smallest group for which we find tribimaximal mixing is T7. We argue that T7 and T13 are as suited to produce tribimaximal mixing as A4 and should therefore be considered on equal footing. In the appendixes, we present some new mathematical methods and results that may prove useful for future model building efforts.

  20. Simple rheology of mixed proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixing different proteins to form strong gel networks for food applications may create synergistic increases in viscoelasticity that cannot be achieved with a single protein. In this study, small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses were used to investigate the rheology of calcium caseinate (CC), e...

  1. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  2. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  3. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  4. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  5. Racially Mixed People in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the social and psychological adjustment of multiracial people, models for identity development, contemporary immigration and marriage patterns, and methodological issues involved in conducting research with mixed-race people, all in the context of America's multiracial past and present. The following 26…

  6. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  7. A mixed relaxed clock model.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Phillips, Matthew J; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-19

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  8. A mixed relaxed clock model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account... Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts (as defined...

  10. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  11. Collectibility for mixed quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Horodecki, Paweł; Życzkowski, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Bounds analogous to entropic uncertainty relations allow one to design practical tests to detect quantum entanglement by a collective measurement performed on several copies of the state analyzed. This approach, initially worked out for pure states only [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.150502 107, 150502 (2011)], is extended here for mixed quantum states. We define collectibility for any mixed states of a multipartite system. Deriving bounds for collectibility for positive partially transposed states of given purity provides insight into the structure of entangled quantum states. In the case of two qubits the application of complementary measurements and coincidence based detections leads to a test of entanglement of pseudopure states.

  12. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  13. Mixing enhancement using axial flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papamoschou, Dimitri (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for enhancing fluid mixing. The method comprises the following: (a) configuring a duct to have an effective outer wall, an effective inner wall, a cross-sectional shape, a first cross-sectional area and an exit area, the first cross-sectional area and the exit area being different in size; (b) generating a first flow at the first cross-sectional area, the first flow having a total pressure and a speed equal to or greater than a local speed of sound; and (c) generating a positive streamwise pressure gradient in a second flow in proximity of the exit area. The second flow results from the first flow. Fluid mixing is enhanced downstream from the duct exit area.

  14. Quark Mixing and Preon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senju, H.

    1991-07-01

    Inspired by unique features of the preon-subpreon model, we propose a new scheme for quark mixing. In our scheme, the mass relations m_{d} << m_{s} << m_{b} and m_{u} << m_{c} << m_{t} are naturally understood. The resultant CKM matrix has very nice properties. The fact that |V_{us}| and |V_{cd}| are remarkably large compared with other off-diagonal elements is naturally understood. |V_{cb}| =~ |V_{ts}| is predicted and their small values are explained. |V_{ub}| and |V_{td}| are predicted to be much smaller than |V_{cb}|. The parametrization invariant measure of CP violation, J, is predicted to be |V_{ud}| |V_{ub}| |V_{td}| sin phi. The mass relations and mixings of q', q'', l_{s} and leptons are also discussed.

  15. Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson Hall

    2009-03-31

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  16. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. A 4 × U(1)PQ model for the lepton flavor structure and the strong CP problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yusuke; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2016-06-01

    We present a model with A 4 × U(1)PQ lepton flavor symmetry which explains the origin of the lepton flavor structure and also solves the strong CP problem. Standard model gauge singlet fields, so-called "flavons", charged under the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry are introduced and are coupled with the lepton and the Higgs sectors. The flavon vacuum expectation values (VEVs) trigger spontaneous breaking of the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry. The breaking pattern of the A 4 accounts for the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing and the deviation from it due to the non-zero θ 13 angle, and the breaking of the U(1)PQ gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, axion, whose VEV cancels the QCD θ term. We investigate the breaking of the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry through an analysis on the scalar potential and further discuss the properties of the axion in the model, including its decay constant, mass and coupling with photons. It is shown that the axion decay constant is related with the right-handed neutrino mass through the flavon VEVs. Experimental constraints on the axion and their implications are also studied.

  18. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  19. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  20. Experiments in dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are given on the mixing of a single row of jets with an isothermal mainstream in a straight duct, to include flow and geometric variations typical of combustion chambers in gas turbine engines. The principal conclusions reached from these experiments were: at constant momentum ratio, variations in density ratio have only a second-order effect on the profiles; a first-order approximation to the mixing of jets with a variable temperature mainstream can be obtained by superimposing the jets-in-an isothermal-crossflow and mainstream profiles; flow area convergence, especially injection-wall convergence, significantly improves the mixing; for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in-line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one half of the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio; and for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio.

  1. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  2. Mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia and neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cream, J. J.; Hern, J. E. C.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Mackenzie, I. C. K.

    1974-01-01

    Three patients with peripheral neuropathy and mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia are reported. The significance of mixed cryoglobulinaemia and the pathogenesis of the peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Images PMID:4360402

  3. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly...

  4. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  5. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly well blanched stalks of celery in the same container....

  6. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly well blanched stalks of celery in the same container....

  7. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  8. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  9. Foam-Mixing-And-Dispensing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, Keith Y.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Jackson, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Time-and-money-saving machine produces consistent, homogeneously mixed foam, enhancing production efficiency. Automatically mixes and dispenses polyurethane foam in quantities specified by weight. Consists of cart-mounted, air-driven proportioning unit; air-activated mechanical mixing gun; programmable timer/counter, and controller.

  10. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  11. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  12. Code Mixing and Modernization across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    A review of recent studies addressed the functional uses of code mixing across cultures. Expressions of code mixing (CM) are not random; in fact, a number of functions of code mixing can easily be delineated, for example, the concept of "modernization.""Modernization" is viewed with respect to how bilingual code mixers perceive themselves, how…

  13. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sheller Run, U.S. Standard Sheller Run, U.S. No. 1 Whole and Broken may be designated as: “U.S. No. 1 Mixed;” “U.S. Select Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. Standard Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. No. 1 Whole and...

  14. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors...

  15. Challenges to Teaching Mixed Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Rebecca K.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Across the United States, many faculty members are developing new mixed re-search courses. However, before embarking on teaching these courses, it would be helpful for instructors to be aware of the challenges faced by instructors and students in mixed research courses. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative-dominant mixed research study was to…

  16. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced that…

  17. Ergodicity and mixing in quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Quan, H. T.; Wu, Biao

    2016-08-01

    After a brief historical review of ergodicity and mixing in dynamics, particularly in quantum dynamics, we introduce definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing using the structure of the system's energy levels and spacings. Our definitions are consistent with the usual understanding of ergodicity and mixing. Two parameters concerning the degeneracy in energy levels and spacings are introduced. They are computed for right triangular billiards and the results indicate a very close relation between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and quantum chaos. At the end, we argue that, besides ergodicity and mixing, there may exist a third class of quantum dynamics which is characterized by a maximized entropy.

  18. Ergodicity and mixing in quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongliang; Quan, H T; Wu, Biao

    2016-08-01

    After a brief historical review of ergodicity and mixing in dynamics, particularly in quantum dynamics, we introduce definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing using the structure of the system's energy levels and spacings. Our definitions are consistent with the usual understanding of ergodicity and mixing. Two parameters concerning the degeneracy in energy levels and spacings are introduced. They are computed for right triangular billiards and the results indicate a very close relation between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and quantum chaos. At the end, we argue that, besides ergodicity and mixing, there may exist a third class of quantum dynamics which is characterized by a maximized entropy. PMID:27627289

  19. Mixed Strategies in cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Physicists have been using evolutionary game theory to model and simulate cyclically competing species, with applications to lizard mating strategies and competing bacterial strains. However these models assume that each agent plays the same strategy, which is called a pure strategy in game theory, until they are beaten by a better strategy which they immediately adopt. We relax this constraint of an agent playing a single strategy by instead letting the agent pick its strategy randomly from a probability distribution, which is called a mixed strategy in game theory. This scheme is very similar to multiple occupancy models seen in the literature, the major difference being that interactions happen between sites rather than within them. Choosing strategies out of a distribution also has applications to economic/social systems such as the public goods game. We simulate a model of mixed strategy and cylic competition on a one-dimensional lattice with three and four strategies and find interesting spatial and stability properties depending on how discretized the choice of strategy is for the agents. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  20. Can whales mix the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavery, T. J.; Roudnew, B.; Seuront, L.; Mitchell, J. G.; Middleton, J.

    2012-07-01

    Ocean mixing influences global climate and enhances primary productivity by transporting nutrient rich water into the euphotic zone. The contribution of the swimming biosphere to diapycnal mixing in the ocean has been hypothesised to occur on scales similar to that of tides or winds, however, the extent to which this contributes to nutrient transport and stimulates primary productivity has not been explored. Here, we introduce a novel method to estimate the diapycnal diffusivity that occurs as a result of a sperm whale swimming through a pycnocline. Nutrient profiles from the Hawaiian Ocean are used to further estimate the amount of nitrogen transported into the euphotic zone and the primary productivity stimulated as a result. We estimate that the 80 sperm whales that travel through an area of 104 km2 surrounding Hawaii increase diapycnal diffusivity by 10-6 m2 s-1 which results in the flux of 105 kg of nitrogen into the euphotic zone each year. This nitrogen input subsequently stimulates 6 × 105 kg of carbon per year. The nutrient input of swimming sperm whales is modest compared to dominant modes of nutrient transport such as nitrogen fixation but occurs more consistently and thus may provide the nutrients necessary to enable phytoplankton growth and survival in the absence of other seasonal and daily nutrient inputs.

  1. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  2. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  3. Mixed interactions in random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Toma; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2002-03-01

    The description of thermodynamic properties of copolymers in terms of simple lattice models requires a value for the mixed interaction strength (ɛ_12) between unlike chain segments, in addition to parameters that can be derived from the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. If the monomers are chemically similar, Berthelot's geometric-mean combining rule provides a good first approximation for ɛ_12. In earlier work on blends of polyolefins [1], we found that the small-scale architecture of the chains leads to corrections to the geometric-mean approximation that are important for the prediction of phase diagrams. In this work, we focus on the additional effects due to sequencing of the monomeric units. In order to estimate the mixed interaction ɛ_12 for random copolymers, the small-scale simulation approach developed in [1] is extended to allow for random sequencing of the monomeric units. The approach is applied here to random copolymers of ethylene and 1-butene. [1] J. Luettmer-Strathmann and J.E.G. Lipson. Phys. Rev. E 59, 2039 (1999) and Macromolecules 32, 1093 (1999).

  4. [Mixed states: evolution of classifications].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Fakra, E; Dassa, D; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    The nosological position of mixed states has followed the course of classifying methods in psychiatry, the steps of the invention of the clinic, progress in the organization of care, including the discoveries of psychopharmacology. The clinical observation of a mixture of symptoms emerging from usually opposite clinical conditions is classical. In the 70s, a syndromic specification fixed the main symptom combinations but that incongruous assortment failed to stabilize the nosological concept. Then stricter criteriology was proposed. To be too restrictive, a consensus operates a dimensional opening that attempts to meet the pragmatic requirements of nosology validating the usefulness of the class system. This alternation between rigor of categorization and return to a more flexible criteriological option reflects the search for the right balance between nosology and diagnosis. The definition of mixed states is best determined by their clinical and prognostic severity, related to the risk of suicide, their lower therapeutic response, the importance of their psychiatric comorbidities, anxiety, emotional lability, alcohol abuse. Trying to compensate for the lack of categorical definitions and better reflecting the clinical field problems, new definitions complement criteriology with dimensional aspects, particularly taking into account temperaments. PMID:24359850

  5. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  6. Mixing stops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find that they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.

  7. Mixed tumour of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Endo, Y; Ishikawa, E; Ushigome, S

    1996-05-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman presented with a polypoid 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.9 cm mass located in the posterior wall of the lower vagina. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of benign epithelial and stromal-type elements. Predominant epithelial elements were mucinous glands with squamous metaplasia and islands of mature squamous epithelium. The stromal-type cells showed reticular or short fascicular patterns with a transition to the epithelial elements. There was no dual epithelial-myoepithelial combination in the glands as seen in so-called mixed tumours (pleomorphic adenomas) of the salivary gland. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial elements were strongly positive for cytokeratin, PKK1 and epithelial membrane antigen, while the stromal-type cells co-expressed PKK1 and vimentin. Staining for S-100 protein, muscle actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and CD34 was uniformly negative in the tumour cells. The DNA pattern was diploid. The patient is alive and well without recurrence for 50 months after excision. These results indicate that an epithelial cell proliferation, probably of the remnant vestibular gland, plays a major role in the development of mixed tumours of the vagina.

  8. Mixed Layers and Satellite Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, R.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the process to determine whether it is possible to retrieve boundary layer structure with the current sounding techniques, temperature retievals were performed for radiosonde profiles that showed temperature inversions. It was found that when temperature inversions exceed 8 to 10 C a retrieval will indeed show a temperature increase with height over a limited vertical distance. For weaker inversions retrieved temperatures are generally smoothly decreasing with height. It is, however, impossible to determine the actual mixed layer height from the retrievals. Whether the water vapor channels could be used in observing mixed layer structure was investigated. Temperature inversions are accompanied by significant drops in relative humidity. While this effect is very pronounced in parts of the trade wind regimes with relative humidity drops of up to 60%, it is widespread in other areas of the ocean as well. A simulation experiment was performed in which brightness temperatures were computed for smooth temperature and humidity profiles and compared with those computed from inversion profiles.

  9. Diffusion in mixed solvents. II - The heat of mixing parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carapellucci, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation of second-order rate constants for many reactions involving electron transfer between organic molecules, solvated electron reactions, iodine diffusion coefficients, and triplet state electron transfer reactions has been made with the heat of mixing parameter (HMP) for the aqueous binary solvent systems. The aqueous binary solvents studied are those containing methanol or ethanol (type I solvent); 1-propanol or tert-butyl alcohol (type II solvent); or sucrose or glycerol (type III solvent). A plot of the HMP vs. the diffusion parameter for each reaction yields superimposable curves for these reactions in a particular solvent mixture over the entire solvent mixture range, irrespective of the value of the reaction's rate constant or diffusion coefficient in water.

  10. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  11. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  12. A Darwinian mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, Kakani; Dabiri, John

    2009-11-01

    Recent observations of biogenic turbulence in the ocean have led to conflicting ideas regarding the contribution of animal swimming to ocean mixing. Previous measurements indicate elevated turbulent dissipation in the vicinity of large populations of planktonic animals swimming in concert. However, elevated turbulent dissipation is by itself insufficient proof of substantial biogenic mixing. We conducted field measurements of mixing efficiency by individual Mastigias sp. (a Palauan jellyfish) using a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus. These measurements revealed another mechanism that contributes to animal mixing besides wake turbulence. This mechanism was first described by Sir Charles Galton Darwin and is in fact the dominant mechanism of mixing by swimming animals. The efficiency of Darwin's mechanism (or drift) is dependent on animal shape rather than fluid length scale and, unlike turbulent wake mixing, is enhanced by the fluid viscosity. Therefore, it provides a means of biogenic mixing that can be equally effective in small plankton and large mammals.

  13. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  14. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste.

  15. Mixing and Transition Control Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Considerable progress in understanding nonlinear phenomena in both unbounded and wallbounded shear flow transition has been made through the use of a combination of high- Reynolds-number asymptotic and numerical methods. The objective of this continuing work is to fully understand the nonlinear dynamics so that ultimately (1) an effective means of mixing and transition control can be developed and (2) the source terms in the aeroacoustic noise problem can be modeled more accurately. Two important aspects of the work are that (1) the disturbances evolve from strictly linear instability waves on weakly nonparallel mean flows so that the proper upstream conditions are applied in the nonlinear or wave-interaction streamwise region and (2) the asymptotic formulations lead to parabolic problems so that the question of proper out-flow boundary conditions--still a research issue for direct numerical simulations of convectively unstable shear flows--does not arise. Composite expansion techniques are used to obtain solutions that account for both mean-flow-evolution and nonlinear effects. A previously derived theory for the amplitude evolution of a two-dimensional instability wave in an incompressible mixing layer (which is in quantitative agreement with available experimental data for the first nonlinear saturation stage for a plane-jet shear layer, a circular-jet shear layer, and a mixing layer behind a splitter plate) have been extended to include a wave-interaction stage with a three-dimensional subharmonic. The ultimate wave interaction effects can either give rise to explosive growth or an equilibrium solution, both of which are intimately associated with the nonlinear self-interaction of the three dimensional component. The extended theory is being evaluated numerically. In contrast to the mixing-layer situation, earlier comparisons of theoretical predictions based on asymptotic methods and experiments in wall-bounded shear-flow transition have been somewhat lacking

  16. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  17. Extrusion-mixing compared with hand-mixing of polyether impression materials?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caroline; Kinsella, Daniel; Fleming, Garry J P

    2010-12-01

    The hypotheses tested were two-fold (a) whether altering the base:catalyst ratio influences working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression properties of a hand-mixed polyether impression material and (b) whether an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material would have a significant advantage over a hand-mixed polyether impression material mixed to the optimum base:catalyst ratio. The polyether was hand-mixed at the optimum (manufacturers recommended) base:catalyst ratios (7:1) and further groups were made by increasing or decreasing the catalyst length by 25%. Additionally specimens were also made from an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material and compared with the optimum hand-mixed base:catalyst ratio. A penetrometer assembly was used to measure the working time (n=5). Five cylindrical specimens for each hand-mixed and extrusion mixed group investigated were employed for elastic recovery and strain in compression testing. Hand-mixing polyether impression materials with 25% more catalyst than that recommended significantly decreased the working time while hand-mixing with 25% less catalyst than that recommended significantly increased the strain in compression. The extrusion-mixed polyether impression material provided similar working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression to the hand-mixed polyether mixed at the optimum base:catalyst ratio.

  18. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Alduncin, Gonzalo

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  19. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods testedmore » are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-01

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR), a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  1. Ultrasonic Mixing of Epoxy Curing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    New ultrasonic mixing technique used to mix several curing agents/epoxy combinations. Major component of commercially available base epoxy resin used in tetraglycidylmethylenedianiline (TGMDA). In ultrasonic mixing system cup holds resin and curing agent during acoustic excitation. Samples placed in cup with top to ultrasonic horn forming bottom of cup. Ultrasonically treated until amber colored and transparent. Because ultrasonic agitation drives out entrapped air, degassing not necessary before cure.

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the

  3. Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the reactor mixing angle {θ }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {θ }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}ν {P}ν , where Ul and {U}ν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}ν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {θ }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{δ }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.

  4. Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.

  5. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  6. Passive Microfluidic device for Sub Millisecond Mixing

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Jay; Mohamed, Hisham; Barnard, David; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Mannella, Carmen A.; Wagenknecht, Terence; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of a novel microfluidic mixing device to achieve submillisecond mixing. The micromixer combines two fluid streams of several microliters per second into a mixing compartment integrated with two T- type premixers and 4 butterfly-shaped in-channel mixing elements. We have employed three dimensional fluidic simulations to evaluate the mixing efficiency, and have constructed physical devices utilizing conventional microfabrication techniques. The simulation indicated thorough mixing at flow rate as low as 6 µL/s. The corresponding mean residence time is 0.44 ms for 90% of the particles simulated, or 0.49 ms for 95% of the particles simulated, respectively. The mixing efficiency of the physical device was also evaluated using fluorescein dye solutions and FluoSphere-red nanoparticles suspensions. The constructed micromixers achieved thorough mixing at the same flow rate of 6 µL/s, with the mixing indices of 96% ± 1%, and 98% ± 1% for the dye and the nanoparticle, respectively. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation data. The device demonstrated promising capabilities for time resolved studies for macromolecular dynamics of biological macromolecules. PMID:20161619

  7. Ocean Mixing due to MJO wind bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiana, K.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements in the equatorial Indian Ocean, including 2 months from ship at 0, 80E and a year from moorings at 0,80E and 0,90E with chipods to measure mixing, documented the oceanic responses to several MJO events during fall 2011-spring 2012. The MJO attributed westerly wind bursts generated the Yoshida-Wyrtki Jet and intense surface-forced mixing. The jet persisted long after the MJO passage and enhanced subsurface mixing at the Jet's base. The impact of MJO-initialized mixing on continued sea surface temperature modification is discussed.

  8. Neutrino mass, mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexei Y.

    2013-07-01

    Status of the discrete symmetry approach to explanation of the lepton masses and mixing is summarized in view of recent experimental results, in particular, establishing relatively large 1-3 mixing. The lepton mixing can originate from breaking of discrete flavor symmetry Gf to different residual symmetries Gl and Gv in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. In this framework the symmetry group condition has been derived which allows to get relations between the lepton mixing elements immediately without explicit model building. The condition has been applied to different residual neutrino symmetries Gv. For generic (mass independent) Gv = Z2 the condition leads to two relations between the mixing parameters and fixes one column of the mixing matrix. In the case of Gv = Z2 × Z2 the condition fixes the mixing matrix completely. The non-generic (mass spectrum dependent) Gv lead to relations which include mixing angles, neutrino masses and Majorana phases. The symmetries Gl, Gv, Gf are identified which lead to the experimentally observed values of the mixing angles and allow to predict the CP phase.

  9. Malignant mixed tumor of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M E; LiVolsi, V A; McMahon, R T

    1979-10-01

    This paper reports a case of carcinoma arising in a benign mixed tumor of lacrimal gland following multiple recurrences. The patient had eight recurrences of the benign lesion and after 32 years developed an adenocarcinoma associated with recurrent nodules of still recognizable benign mixed tumor. The literature on malignant mixed tumors of the lacrimal gland is reviewed noting the confusion in diagnostic terminology in early reports. Our patient illustrates the resemblance between malignant mixed tumor (carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma) of lacrimal and salivary gland both clinically and pathologically.

  10. Samoan Passage Abyssal Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickett, J. B.; Voet, G.; Alford, M. H.; Girton, J. B.; Carter, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the bottom water entering the North Pacific, about 6 Sv of mostly Antarctic origin, flows northward through the Samoan Passage (SP), where previous hydrographic studies have inferred extremely strong watermass modification as it transits the complicated, narrow passage. Global-scale numerical models at best poorly resolve this critical aspect of the global ocean circulation and the processes that affect it. We are in the midst of conducting a major next-generation experiment, coupling hydrographic/lowered ADCP and microstructure profiler measurements with simultaneous high-resolution profiling moorings and detailed numerical simulations. Our goals are to: (1) quantify the flow and its pathways through the SP, and compare them to measurements made 20 years ago as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 2) quantify, with direct measurements, the turbulence and mixing the flow undergoes and the processes that lead to it, and 3) use the resulting knowledge to determine the best strategy for future monitoring of the SP. Here we present initial results from the first two of the experiment's three cruises, which have provided a detailed view of the flow magnitude, pathways and turbulence as it transits the passage's sills. Bathymetry, stratification, rotation, and inertia all play important roles in selecting the pathways taken by the flow, with the lighter layers siphoning off through the shallower sills to the west and the densest water following the deeper main eastern channel. Flows in this main channel are initially O(0.1 m/s), accelerating to > 0.4 m/s at the northernmost of the two major sills, leading to strong shears and warming of the bottom water from 0.66 to 0.72 C through mixing within the stratified overflow and entrainment of overlying water. Direct microstructure measurements show large vertical diffusivities of 10^{-4}-10^{-3} m^2/s throughout the passage and up to 10^{-2} m^2/s past the northern sill, where the flow

  11. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2014-07-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A 4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A 4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A 4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the N symmetries capable of producing such A 4-based minimal hybrid models.

  12. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  13. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  14. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser; Haynes, Donald A; Cooley, James H; Sherrill, Manolo E; Mancini, Roberto C; Tommasini, Riccardo; Golovkin, Igor E; Haan, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  15. Film processing investigation. [improved chemical mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present operational chemical mixing system for the Photographic Technology Division is evaluated, and the limitations are defined in terms of meeting the present and programmed chemical supply and delivery requirements. A major redesign of the entire chemical mixing, storage, analysis, and supply system is recommended. Other requirements for immediate and future implementations are presented.

  16. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  17. Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson sorption cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Joule-Thomson (JT) sorption cryocooling is the most mature technology for cooling from a normal Room-Temperature (RT) down to temperatures below 100 K in the absence of moving parts. Therefore, high reliability and no vibrations are attainable, in comparison with other cryocoolers. Cooling to 80 - 100 K with JT cryocoolers is often implemented with pure nitrogen. Alternatively, mixed refrigerants have been suggested for reducing the operating pressures to enable closed cycle cryocooling. There is a variety of publications describing nitrogen sorption cryocoolers with different configurations of sorption compressors. In the present research we suggest a novel sorption JT cryocooler that operates with a mixed refrigerant. Merging of sorption cryocooling and a mixed refrigerant enables the use of a simple, single stage compressor for cooling to 80 - 100 K, lower operating temperatures of the sorption cycle, and thus - reduced power consumption. In previous studies we have analyzed sorption compressors for mixed gases and mixed refrigerants for JT cryocoolers, separately. In this paper the option of mixed refrigerant sorption JT cryocoolers is explored. The considerations for developing mixed refrigerants to be driven by sorption compressors and to be utilized with JT cryocoolers are provided. It appears that, unlike with pure nitrogen, mixed refrigerants can be suitable for JT cryocooling with a single stage sorption compressor.

  18. Milestone M4900: Simulant Mixing Analytical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-07-26

    This report addresses Milestone M4900, ''Simulant Mixing Sample Analysis Results,'' and contains the data generated during the ''Mixing of Process Heels, Process Solutions, and Recycle Streams: Small-Scale Simulant'' task. The Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for this task is BNF-003-98-0079A. A report with a narrative description and discussion of the data will be issued separately.

  19. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  20. Mixing and transport by ciliary carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Nawroth, Janna; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Kanso, Eva

    2013-11-01

    Cilia are hair-like micro-structures observed on surfaces of many biological systems such as the human lungs. Cilia usually beat asymmetrically in a coordinate manner and serve for flow generation and sensing. Here, we use a 3D computational model to study the fluid transport and mixing due to the beating of an infinite array of cilia. In accord with recent experiments, we observed two distinct regions: a fluid transport region above the cilia and a fluid mixing region below the cilia tip. We examined the effect of the metachronal wave (due to phase differences between neighboring cilia) on the net flow and mixing rate. We found that the metachronal wave can enhance both transport and mixing rate of the fluid, often simultaneously. Our results suggest that the simultaneous enhancement in fluid transport and mixing is due to the enhancement in shear flow. As the flow above the cilia increases, shear rate in the fluid increases and such shear enhances stretching, which is an essential ingredient for mixing. Estimation of the time scale of the mixing indicates that, compared to diffusion, the mixing due to the cilia beat may be significant or even the dominate way of distributing molecules in some biological systems.

  1. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  2. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  3. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled...

  4. Discontinuous mixed covolume methods for parabolic problems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ailing; Jiang, Ziwen

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L(2).

  5. Quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayadeep; Demkowicz, L. F. Leszek F.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we construct a sequence of projectors into certain polynomial spaces satisfying a commuting diagram property with norm bounds independent of the polynomial degree. Using the projectors, we obtain quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods, including the Raviart-Thomas method and mixed formulations of Maxwell equations. We also prove some discrete Friedrichs type inequalities involving curl.

  6. The anova to mixed model transition.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris

    2016-09-01

    A transition towards mixed models is underway in science. This transition started up because the requirements for using analyses of variances are often not met and mixed models clearly provide a better framework. Neuroscientists have been slower than others in changing their statistical habits and are now urged to act.

  7. Neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2014-05-02

    A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

  8. Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…

  9. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  10. Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Casandra E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

  11. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  12. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  13. 7 CFR 29.3532 - Mixed (M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed (M). 29.3532 Section 29.3532 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3532 Mixed (M). Variegated or distinctly different colors of the type mingled...

  14. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  15. Mixing Methods in Assessing Coaches' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergeer, Ineke; Lyle, John

    2007-01-01

    Mixing methods has recently achieved respectability as an appropriate approach to research design, offering a variety of advantages (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to outline and evaluate a mixed methods approach within the domain of coaches' decision making. Illustrated with data from a policy-capturing study on…

  16. Toponium-Z/sup 0/ mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Franzini, P.J.

    1986-11-01

    The subject of Z/sup 0/-toponium interference is briefly reviewed. The qualitative features of the Z/sup 0/ mixing with one t anti t state are discussed. Effects of mixing with the full t anti t spectrum, of the smearing due to beam spread, and of different potentials, are then shown.

  17. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or

  18. Physics of collisionless phase mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, D.; Haruki, T.

    2008-11-15

    Previous studies of phase mixing of ion cyclotron (IC), Alfvenic, waves in the collisionless regime have established the generation of parallel electric field and hence acceleration of electrons in the regions of transverse density inhomogeneity. However, outstanding issues were left open. Here we use the 2.5 D, relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code and an analytic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) formulation, to establish the following points: (i) Using the generalized Ohm's law we find that the parallel electric field is supported mostly by the electron pressure tensor, with a smaller contribution from the electron inertia term. (ii) The generated parallel electric field and the fraction of accelerated electrons are independent of the IC wave frequency remaining at a level of six orders of magnitude larger than the Dreicer value and approximately 20%, respectively. The generated parallel electric field and the fraction of accelerated electrons increase with the increase of IC wave amplitude. The generated parallel electric field seems to be independent of plasma beta, while the fraction of accelerated electrons strongly increases with the decrease of plasma beta (for plasma beta of 0.0001 the fraction of accelerated electrons can be as large as 47%). (iii) In the collisionless regime IC wave dissipation length (that is defined as the distance over which the wave damps) variation with the driving frequency shows a deviation from the analytical MHD result, which we attribute to a possible frequency dependence of the effective resistivity. (iv) Effective anomalous resistivity, inferred from our numerical simulations, is at least four orders of magnitude larger than the classical Spitzer value.

  19. The mixed waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

  20. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Assume the facts are the same as in example (1), except that A has a second mixed straddle account, which...), except that interest and carrying charges in the amount of $4,000 are allocable to the second mixed... second mixed straddle account, which has an annual account net loss of $20,000 of long-term capital...

  2. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  3. Investigating Turbulent Mix in HEDLP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Devolder, B.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Kline, J. L.; Welser-Sherrill, L.

    2016-03-01

    Mix is an important issue in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP), specifically Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. In ICF, shock waves traverse fuel capsule defects and material interfaces, and due to hydrodynamic instabilities transitioning into turbulence, these shocks can initiate mix between shell and fuel, degrading yield. To this end, a series of laser-driven mix experiments has been designed for the OMEGA and NIF laser facilities to investigate the turbulent mixing of materials proceeded by reshock and shear, which initiates Richtmyer-Meshkov and\\or Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on a tracer layer. The experiments are designed to understand if the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn (BHR) mix model that has been implemented in LANL's RAGE hydrodynamics code has coefficients that are properly determined for an HEDLP environment.

  4. Line Mixing in Water Vapor and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A multispectrum fitting algorithm has been used to identify line mixing and determine mixing parameters for infrared transitions of H2O and CH4 in the 5-9 micrometer region. Line mixing parameters at room temperature were determined for two pairs of transitions in the v2 fundamental band of H2O-16, for self-broadening and for broadening by H2, He, CO2, N2, O2 and air. Line mixing parameters have been determined from air-broadened CH4 spectra, recorded at temperatures between 210 K and 314 K, in selected R-branch manifolds of the v4 band. For both H2O and CH4, the inclusion of line mixing was seen to have a greater effect on the retrieved values of the line shifts than on the retrieved values of other parameters

  5. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  7. An experimental study of reactive turbulent mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Marek, C. J.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of two coaxial gas streams, which react very rapidly, was performed to investigate the mixing characteristics of turbulent flow fields. The center stream consisted of a CO-N2 mixture and the outer annular stream consisted of air vitiated by H2 combustion. The streams were at equal velocity (50 m/sec) and temperature (1280 K). Turbulence measurements were obtained using hot film anemometry. A sampling probe was used to obtain time averaged gas compositions. Six different turbulence generators were placed in the annular passage to alter the flow field mixing characteristics. The turbulence generators affected the bulk mixing of the streams and the extent of CO conversion to different degrees. The effects can be related to the average eddy size (integral scale) and the bulk mixing. Higher extents of conversion of CO to CO2 were found be increasing the bulk mixing and decreasing the average eddy size.

  8. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  9. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or

  10. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  11. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  12. Degradation of mix hydrocarbons by immobilized cells of mix culture using a trickle fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chapatwala, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The microorganisms, capable of degrading mix hydrocarbons were isolated from the soil samples collected from the hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The mix cultures were immobilized in calcium alginate solution in the form of beads. A trickle fluidized bed air-uplift-type reactor designed to study the degradation of mix hydrocarbons was filled with 0.85% normal saline containing the immobilized cells of mix culture. The immobilized beads were aerated with CO[sub 2]-free air at 200 ml/min. The degradation of different concentrations of hydrocarbons in the presence/absence of commercially available fertilizers by the immobilized cells of mix culture is now in progress.

  13. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types. PMID:26549938

  14. Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in $O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.

  15. Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. Methods In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. Results We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Availability Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/. PMID:24564706

  16. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 μL of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

  17. Theoretical analysis of mixing in liquid clouds - Part 3: Inhomogeneous mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.; Korolev, A.

    2015-11-01

    An idealized model of time-dependent mixing between cloud and non-cloud volumes is analyzed. Initial droplet size distribution (DSD) in cloud volume is assumed to be monodisperse. Both analytical investigation and parcel model investigation are used to study mixing processes and solve diffusion-evaporation equations. It is shown that the evolution of microphysical variables and the final equilibrium stage are unambiguously determined by two non-dimensional parameters. The first parameter, R, which is proportional to the ratio of the saturation deficit to the liquid water content in a cloud volume, determines whether the equilibrium stage is reached at 100 % relative humidity, or, rather, leads to a full evaporation of cloud droplets. The second parameter, Da, is the Damkölher number, which is equal to the ratio of the characteristic mixing time and phase relaxation time. This parameter (together with parameter R) determines whether mixing takes place according to a homogeneous or an inhomogeneous scenario. An analysis of the results obtained within a wide range of parameters R and Da is presented. It is shown that there is no pure homogeneous mixing, since the first stage of mixing is always inhomogeneous. Turbulent mixing between different volumes always starts as inhomogeneous and the mixing type can change during the mixing process. At any values of governing parameters, mixing leads to the formation of a tail of small droplets in the DSD and therefore to DSD broadening. The broadening depends onDa and the final DSD dispersion can be as large as 0.2 at large Da. The total duration of the mixing process varies from several to one hundred phase relaxation times, depending on R and Da. Delimitation between the types of mixing on the Da-R plane is carried out. The definitions of homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixings are reconsidered and clarified. The paper also compares the results of the current study with those obtained with classical mixing concepts.

  18. Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

  19. B mixing and flavor tagging at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, James S.; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2004-12-01

    The CDF Collaboration has made a preliminary measurement of B{sub d} mixing as a first step toward measuring mixing in the B{sub s} system. Flavor tagging using opposite-side jets and muons as well as same-side tagging schemes have been applied. Results agree well with precise results from the B-factories. They use these results to estimate CDF's B{sub s} mixing range using the present data set ({approx} 250 pb{sup -1}) and extrapolate to the potential from larger data sets in future running.

  20. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  1. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  2. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  3. Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interactions Print version Harmful Interactions Mixing Alcohol With Medicines You’ve probably seen this warning on medicines ... falls and serious injuries, especially among older people. Medicines may have many ingredients Some medications—including many ...

  4. Convective mixing in intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Of the many processes occurring in the stellar interiors, mixing is one of the most important because stars will never forget its effects, for the rest of their lives. In the placid evolutionary phases of intermediate mass stars it is perhaps the most challenging one because, while we know that convection is certainly the main mixing agent, very little is known about its extension outside the unstable zones and its efficiency in regions with chemical profiles. In spite of the great efforts made in the last decades to improve our understanding of the mixing processes, much of our knowledge still relies on empirical calibrations. In this review, I will focus on the impact of mixing during the main nuclear burning phases of intermediate mass stars and discuss potentially helpful tests such as, the transition mass between low-and intermediate mass stars, the blue and red helium burning sequences, and the helium burning lifetimes.

  5. Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment: Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that insufficient mixing occurs in the pelagic ocean to maintain the large scale thermohaline circulation. Observed mixing rates fall a factor of ten short of classical indices such as Munk's "Abyssal Recipe." The growing suspicion is that most of the mixing in the sea occurs near topography. Exciting recent observations by Polzin et al., among others, fuel this speculation. If topographic mixing is indeed important, it must be acknowledged that its geographic distribution, both laterally and vertically, is presently unknown. The vertical distribution of mixing plays a critical role in the Stommel Arons model of the ocean interior circulation. In recent numerical studies, Samelson demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of flow in the abyssal ocean to the spatial distribution of mixing. We propose to study the topographic mixing problem through an integrated program of modeling and observation. We focus on tidally forced mixing as the global energetics of this process have received (and are receiving) considerable study. Also, the well defined frequency of the forcing and the unique geometry of tidal scattering serve to focus the experiment design. The Hawaiian Ridge is selected as a study site. Strong interaction between the barotropic tide and the Ridge is known to take place. The goals of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are to quantify the rate of tidal energy loss to mixing at the Ridge and to identify the mechanisms by which energy is lost and mixing generated. We are challenged to develop a sufficiently comprehensive picture that results can be generalized from Hawaii to the global ocean. To achieve these goals, investigators from five institutions have designed HOME, a program of historic data analysis, modeling and field observation. The Analysis and Modeling efforts support the design of the field experiments. As the program progresses, a global model of the barotropic (depth independent) tide, and two models of the

  6. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  7. Physical Properties of Ferroelectric Mixed Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwun, Sook-Il; Noh, Keum Hwan

    2001-04-01

    The recent studies of the KH2PO4 family mixed crystals with long-range ferroelectric (FE) order and short-range glass order have been reviewed. In mixed crystals of KH2PO4 family FE or antiferroelectric (AFE) with intermediate mixing concentration, a competing interaction gives rise to a nonergodic proton glass (PG) similar to magnetic spin glass. To understand the phase diagram, we have investigated the phase near FE boundary and observed a coexistence of FE and PG in Rb1-x(NH4)xH2AsO4 and Rb1-x(NH4)xH2PO4 mixed crystals. The nonergodic behavior of the coexisting PG was investigated by the polarization as well as dielectric constant measurement. The remaining FE polarization and the low freezing temperature were discussed in terms of mean field model of dipole glass systems.

  8. Hardy's criterion of nonlocality for mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca

    2006-03-15

    We generalize Hardy's proof of nonlocality to the case of bipartite mixed statistical operators, and we exhibit a necessary condition which has to be satisfied by any given mixed state {sigma} in order that a local and realistic hidden variable model exists which accounts for the quantum mechanical predictions implied by {sigma}. Failure of this condition will imply both the impossibility of any local explanation of certain joint probability distributions in terms of hidden variables and the nonseparability of the considered mixed statistical operator. Our result can be also used to determine the maximum amount of noise, arising from imperfect experimental implementations of the original Hardy's proof of nonlocality, in presence of which it is still possible to put into evidence the nonlocal features of certain mixed states.

  9. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E; Rivera, Micheal; Chen, Jun; Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  10. Fermion masses, flavour mixing and CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G. G.

    2008-11-23

    The pattern of neutrino masses and mixings is characteristically different from those observed in the quark sector. I discuss how this can be elegantly explaned through a combination of an underlying family symmetry and the see-saw mechanism.

  11. Microbiology: Mixing Wine, Chocolate, and Coffee.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Yeasts associated with cocoa and coffee beans are genetically distinct. These populations have been created through the migration and mixing of populations associated with vineyards, trees in America, and the ancestral seat of this species in Far East Asia.

  12. Free surface mixing with heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, P.E.; Fadda, D.

    1997-05-23

    This study investigates the thermal mixing phenomenon as external rocking excitations are applied to a container partially filled with a thermally nonhomogeneous fluid. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of the rocking frequency on thermal mixing in free surface flows. Numerical results show that optimum mixing is achieved while rocking at the wave natural frequency of the tank where the free surface displacements are greatest. At this optimal frequency the strong mixing is observed to be highly concentrated in the area near the free surface. The interest is motivated by the desire to understand the fundamental physics as well as by the importance of current engineering applications in fields such as solar energy (collectors), environmental engineering (ponds, estuaries) aerospace (fuel tanks), electronics (thermal management), manufacturing (sand casting), and air conditioning (residential enclosures).

  13. [Determination of taste sensitivity with mixed solutions].

    PubMed

    Marco Algarra, R

    1990-01-01

    In the second part of our study we present the results of the mixture of four basic tastes in comparison with those of the simple solutions, mea ng as well the fatigue phenomenon with the mixed solutions.

  14. Ocean mixing studied near Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkel, Robert; Munk, Walter; Worcester, Peter; Comuelle, Bruce D.; Rudnick, Daniel; Sherman, Jeffrey; Filloux, Jean H.; Dushaw, Brian D.; Howe, Bruce M.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Lee, Craig M.; Kunze, Eric; Gregg, Michael C.; Miller, Jack B.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Luther, Douglas S.; Firing, Eric; Brainard, Rusty; Flament, Pierre J.; Chave, Alan D.; Moum, James M.; Caldwell, Douglas R.; Levine, Murray D.; Boyd, Timothy; Egbert, Gary D.

    The Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) is a grassroots program to study turbulent mixing processes near the Hawaiian Ridge. The HOME is motivated by the desire to understand diffusive aspects of the advective-diffusive balance that mediates the general circulation of the oceans. HOME is focused on tidally driven mixing, given the ubiquity of the tide as a deep-sea energy source.As the sea surface cools at high latitude, surface waters sink. Subsidence rate is sufficient to fill the worlds ocean with cold bottom water in approximately 3,000 years. Diffusive processes that transfer heat into the abyssal ocean are required to maintain a steady-state thermal structure. An effective eddy diffusivity of order Kp=10-4 m2 s-1, 700 times the molecular diffusivity of heat, is necessary [Munk, 1966]. Such a diffusivity might be supported by either mechanical mixing (turbulent transport) or thermodynamic (so-called doubly diffusive) processes.

  15. Electroosmotic flow mixing in zigzag microchannels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2007-03-01

    In this study we performed numerical and experimental investigations into the mixing of EOFs in zigzag microchannels with two different corner geometries, namely sharp corners and flat corners. In the zigzag microchannel with sharp corners, the flow travels more rapidly near the inner wall of the corner than near the outer wall as a result of the higher electric potential drop. The resulting velocity gradient induces a racetrack effect, which enhances diffusion within the fluid and hence improves the mixing performance. The simulation results reveal that the mixing index is approximately 88.83%. However, the sharp-corner geometry causes residual liquid or bubbles to become trapped in the channel at the point where the flow is almost stationary, when the channel is in the process of cleaning. Accordingly, a zigzag microchannel with flat-corner geometry is developed. The flat-corner geometry forms a convergent-divergent type nozzle which not only enhances the mixing performance in the channel, but also prevents the accumulation of residual liquid or bubbles. Scaling analysis reveals that this corner geometry leads to an effective increase in the mixing length. The experimental results reveal that the mixing index is increased to 94.30% in the flat-corner zigzag channel. Hence, the results demonstrate that the mixing index of the flat-corner zigzag channel is better than that of the conventional sharp-corner microchannel. Finally, the results of Taguchi analysis indicate that the attainable mixing index is determined primarily by the number of corners in the microchannel and by the flow passing height at each corner.

  16. Nonadditive Mixed State Phases in Neutron Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Klepp, J.; Sponar, S.; Filipp, S.; Lettner, M.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2009-03-10

    In a neutron polarimetry experiment mixed neutron spin phases are determined. We consider evolutions leading to purely geometric, purely dynamical and combined phases. It is experimentally demonstrated that the sum of the geometric and dynamical phases--both obtained in separate measurements--is not equal to the associated total phase as obtained from a third measurement, unless the system is in a pure state. In this sense, mixed state phases are not additive.

  17. Techniques for Bs Mixing at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Salamanna, Giuseppe; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-12-01

    The techniques used to perform a measurement of the mixing frequency of the B{sub s} meson ({Delta}M{sub s}) with the CDF detector at the TeVatron collider are described. Particular stress is put on CDF techniques for flavor tagging, which is possibly the major issue for mixing measurements at a hadron collider. Also CDF performances on lifetime and final state reconstruction are described. The final result of the amplitude scanning presented at 2005 Winter Conferences is reported.

  18. Renormalization in general theories with intergeneration mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with intergeneration mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of intergeneration mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from matrix algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties.

  19. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

  20. Entrainment and mixing mechanism in monsoon clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Sudarsan; Prabhakaran, Thara; Pandithurai, Govindan; Brenguier, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-01

    Entrainment and consequent mixing impacts the cloud microphysical parameters and droplet size distribution (DSD) significantly which are very important for cloud radiative properties and the mechanism for first rain drop formation. The entrainment and mixing mechanisms are investigated in this study using in situ observations in warm cumulus clouds over monsoon region. Entrainment is discussed in the framework of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixing concepts and their effects on cloud droplet size distribution, number concentration, liquid water content and mean radius are described. The degree of homogeneity increases with droplet number concentration and adiabatic fraction, indicating homogeneous type mixing in the cloud core where dilution is less. Inhomogeneous mixing is found to be a dominating process at cloud edges where dilution is significant. Cloud droplet size distribution (DSD) is found to shift towards lower sizes during a homogeneous mixing event in the cloud core whereas spectral width of DSD decreases due to inhomogeneous mixing at cloud edges. Droplet size spectra suggests that largest droplets are mainly formed in the less diluted cloud core while diluted cloud edges have relatively smaller droplets, so that raindrop formation occurs mainly in the core of the cloud. The origin of the entrained parcels in deep cumulus clouds is investigated using conservative thermodynamical parameters. The entrained parcels originate from a level close to the observation level or slightly below through lateral edges. Cloud edges are significantly diluted due to entrainment of sub-saturated environmental air which can penetrate several hundred meters inside the cloud before it gets mixed completely with the cloud mass. Less diluted parcels inside the cloud core originates from a level much below the cloud base height. Penetrating downdraft from cloud top is seldom observed at the observation level and strong downdrafts may be attributed to in-cloud oscillation

  1. Twisted flavors and tribimaximal neutrino mixing.

    PubMed

    Haba, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-07-28

    A new framework for handling flavor symmetry breaking in the neutrino sector is discussed where the source of symmetry breaking is traced to the global property of right-handed neutrinos in extra-dimensional space. Light neutrino phenomenology has rich and robust predictions such as the tribimaximal form of generation mixing, controlled mass spectrum, and no need of flavor mixing couplings in the theory.

  2. Microemulsion formation with mixed chlorinated hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, J.R. Jr.; Pope, G.A.; Wade, W.H.; Weerasooriya, V.; Yapa, A. )

    1994-11-01

    Mixing rules for water/chlorocarbon/anionic surfactant systems have been studied. It was found that the behavior of chlorocarbons parallels the ideal mixing rules for hydrocarbons. The polarity of some chlorocarbons prevented a direct determination of electrolyte concentration and solubilization parameter for optimum formulations. These values were obtained by extrapolation and have been tabulated. Various complex mixtures containing chlorocarbons and hydrocarbons were prepared and their experimental optimum salinities were compared to calculated values.

  3. Quick-Mixing Studies Under Reacting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The low-NO(x) emitting potential of rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn )RQL) combustion makes it an attractive option for engines of future stratospheric aircraft. Because NO(x) formation is exponentially dependent on temperature, the success of the RQL combustor depends on minimizing high temperature stoichiometric pocket formation in the quick-mixing section. An experiment was designed and built, and tests were performed to characterize reaction and mixing properties of jets issuing from round orifices into a hot, fuel-rich crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct. The reactor operates on propane and presents a uniform, non-swirling mixture to the mixing modules. Modules consisting of round orifice configurations of 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 18 holes were evaluated at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and jet-to-mainstream mass-flaw ratio of 2.5. Temperatures and concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, HC, and NO(x) were obtained upstream, down-stream, and within the orifice plane to determine jet penetration as well as reaction processes. Jet penetration was a function of the number of orifices and affected the mixing in the reacting system. Of the six configurations tested, the 14-hole module produced jet penetration close to the module half-radius and yielded the best mixing and most complete combustion at a plane one duct diameter from the orifice leading edge. The results reveal that substantial reaction and heat release occur in the jet mixing zone when the entering effluent is hot and rich, and that the experiment as designed will serve to explore satisfactorily jet mixing behavior under realistic reacting conditions in future studies.

  4. Microwave mixing with niobium variable thickness bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.-K.; Callegari, A.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Niobium thin-film bridges 300-A thick, 1-micron wide, and 0.5-micron long joining two bulk films 5000-A thick and having normal resistance of the order of 1 ohm have been fabricated and used for microwave mixing at 10 GHz. They exhibit Josephson, bolometric, and multiple-flux-flow mixing and have useful response at 100-200 GHz. The data show in a direct way limitations imposed by flux flow and heating.

  5. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  6. Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech

    2009-03-01

    We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.

  7. Benign mixed tumor of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Ma, C K; Fine, G; Lewis, J; Lee, M W

    1979-12-01

    A case of mixed tumor, salivary gland type, removed by segmental resection of the trachea is reported. Only thirteen acceptable and five probable tracheal mixed tumors have been found in the world literature. The behavior of this variety of tumor in the trachea appears to be similar to its counterpart in other sites and distinctly different from the more frequently encountered epithelial tumors: squamous cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  8. B lifetimes and mixing with the SLD

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The lifetimes of B{sup 0} and B{sup {plus_minus}} mesons have been measured with the SLD detector at the SLC using topological reconstructions of the B mesons. Studies of B{sub s} mixing, using similar techniques, show that the prospects for measuring B{sub s} mixing with an upgraded vertex detector are good if x{sub x} {le} 15.

  9. Characterization of Mixing Between Water and Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline; Green, Erica; Acevedo, Marina; Otero, Margarita; Demond, Avery

    2012-11-01

    Currently, gasoline containing ethanol is considered to be among the best alternatives to gasoline. However, the potential environmental impact of a spill of ethanol-based biofuels on aquatic environments is an area of open discussion and research. Since these fuels are a combination of a miscible fluid (ethanol) and an immiscible fluid (gasoline), models used for traditional gasoline fuels (immiscible in water) are not applicable. Preliminary experiments show that when a solution of ethanol and glycol is mixed with water, a third mixed fluid is formed. Two distinct mixing regimes were observed. An exothermic reaction also occurred between ethanol and water. In the first regime, a turbulent wake is created between the ethanol/glycol and water layers causing the ethanol and glycol solution to entrain and mix into with the water phase. Because the mixed fluid is denser than either parent fluid, a dramatic overturning is possible. The amount of mixing was found to be dependent upon the initial ratio of ethanol to glycol in the parent fluid. The second regime begins when the turbulent wake has dissipated and the internal wave created by the plate has begun to settle, typically within the first minute. At this point, Bénard-like cells, similar to those typically seen in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, form at the interface and relatively slow mass transfer is evident. The cells at the interface show distinct features of interfacial turbulence, including small transverse waves, denoting that instabilities exist there. Funding from UM-OVPR and NSF Advance.

  10. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  11. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

  12. Effect of mixed dust on sinter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.H.; Moon, S.M.; Jhung, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years low grade ion ores such as limonite and dusts containing iron oxides are being increasingly used in the sintering process. The regulations for pollution control are being more severely strengthened year by year, therefore, companies are facing the important issue of producing high quality sinters using low grade iron ores with the least environmental contamination. 250 thousand tons of mixed dust corresponding to 25% of the annual total dusts generated at Pohang steel works are being reused in sinter plants. The dusts collected by DL-sinter machine, LD-converter, BF-ore bin and incinerator are transported to the open yard for drying. They are mixed according to the relatively constant ratio produced by the above dust source and added to the mixed raw materials for sintering. The added quantity of mixed dust was so small (average 1.8 wt.%) compared with the total raw mix that the authors had little interest and no research result has yet been achieved. In this research, therefore, under the similar conditions to the actual operation in the sinter plant, sintering pot tests were carried out while changing the added quantity of mixed dust. The physical and chemical properties of the sample sinter were investigated and the results are presented in this report.

  13. What is so new about mixed methods?

    PubMed

    Pelto, Pertti J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I dispute claims that mixed methods research emerged only recently in the social sciences. I argue that some anthropologists and sociologists (and others) have used mixed methods in fieldwork for at least 80 years, and there are studies from early in the 20th century that clearly fall within the definition of "mixed methods." I explore some of the history of the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data in earlier ethnographic works and show that in some sectors of social science research, the "emergence" and proliferation of mixed methods were particularly notable around the middle of the 20th century. Furthermore, concerning issues about "paradigms of research" in the social sciences, I identify some of the types of research in which the mixing of QUAL and QUAN approaches was more likely to occur. I suggest that some of the literature about research paradigms has involved a certain amount of "myth-making" in connection with descriptions of qualitative and quantitative research assumptions and styles.

  14. Transient mixed chimerism for allograft tolerance.

    PubMed

    Oura, Tetsu; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Mixed chimerism discovered in Freemartin cattle by Ray Owen 70 years ago paved the way for research on immune tolerance. Since his discovery, significant progress has been made in the effort to induce allograft tolerance via mixed chimerism in various murine models. However, induction of persistent mixed chimerism has proved to be extremely difficult in major histocompatibility complex mismatched humans. Chimerism induced in humans tends to either disappear or convert to full donor chimerism, depending on the intensity of the conditioning regimen. Nevertheless, our studies in both NHPs and humans have clearly demonstrated that renal allograft tolerance can be induced by transient mixed chimerism. Our studies have shown that solid organ allograft tolerance via transient mixed chimerism 1) requires induction of multilineage hematologic chimerism, 2) depends on peripheral regulatory mechanisms, rather than thymic deletion, for long-term maintenance, 3) is organ specific (kidney and lung but not heart allograft tolerance are feasible). A major advantage of tolerance induction via transient mixed chimerism is exclusion of the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Our ongoing studies are directed toward improving the consistency of tolerance induction, reducing the morbidity of the conditioning regimen, substituting clinically available agents, such as Belatacept for the now unavailable anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, and extending the protocol to recipients of deceased donor allografts.

  15. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de; Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Serodio, H.

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  16. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  17. Visualizing turbulent mixing of gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.; Jain, Sandeep

    1995-01-01

    A physical model and interactive computer graphics techniques have been developed for the visualization of the basic physical process of stochastic dispersion and mixing from steady-state CFD calculations. The mixing of massless particles and inertial particles is visualized by transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Groups of particles are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as their statistical dispersion about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of particles in a turbulent environment are traced, not just mean paths. In combustion simulations of many industrial processes, good mixing is required to achieve a sufficient degree of combustion efficiency. The ability to visualize this multiphase mixing can not only help identify poor mixing but also explain the mechanism for poor mixing. The information gained from the visualization can be used to improve the overall combustion efficiency in utility boilers or propulsion devices. We have used this technique to visualize steady-state simulations of the combustion performance in several furnace designs.

  18. Effects of temporal fluctuations on mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, Maria; Dentz, Marco; Post, Vincent E. A.; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-04-01

    Mixing and dispersion in coastal aquifers are strongly influenced by periodic temporal flow fluctuations on multiple time-scales ranging from days (tides), seasons (pumping and recharge) to glacial cycles (regression and transgressions). Transient forcing effects lead to a complex space- ant time-dependent flow response which induces enhanced spreading and mixing of a dissolved substance. We study effective mixing and solute transport in temporally fluctuating one-dimensional flow for a stable stratification of two fluids of different density. We derive explicit expressions for the concentration distribution and variance to identify the controls and obtain realistic predictions of the coupling between mixing and oscillatory transient flow. We find that the magnitude of transient-driven mixing is mainly controlled by the hydraulic diffusivity, the period and the initial interface location. We also find a spatial dependence of the effective dispersion coefficient which at long times causes the concentration profile to become asymmetric. Sand column experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions are presented to validate the theoretical effective model defined. The proposed formulation is found to provide very good predictions and correctly reproduces the experimental mixing dynamics.

  19. Quantifying mixing using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bacca, Lori A; Hartt, William H; McCarthy, Michael J

    2012-01-25

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media (1, 2). The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile (1)H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for

  20. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance < σ? >, horizontal wind speed variance < σu,v >, vertical wind speed variance < σw >, viscous dissipation rate < ǫ >, and turbu- lent kinetic energy < e > have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances < σu,v > and < σw >. On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance < σ > are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity

  1. Quantifying Mixing using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Emilio J.; McCarthy, Kathryn L.; Bacca, Lori A.; Hartt, William H.; McCarthy, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media 1, 2. The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile 1H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for

  2. Quantifying mixing using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bacca, Lori A; Hartt, William H; McCarthy, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media (1, 2). The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile (1)H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for

  3. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for

  4. Development of a simplified asphalt mix stability procedure for use in Superpave volumetric mix design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihab Hussein Fahmy

    Over the last five decades, two common test methods (Marshall and Hveem) have evolved for the design of asphaltic mixes. These design methods have been historically found to be generally reliable and reasonable for most application in design. However, premature distress in many flexible pavements suggests that these empirical methods of design do not guarantee a stable mix. Recently, many studies have been carried out in order to develop a rational mix design procedure that accounts for both the mix volumetric properties as well as fundamental engineering properties. Among those is the Superpave design procedure, which was originally divided into three, hierarchical levels termed the volumetric mix design (level I), the abbreviated mix design (level II), and the full mix design (level III). In the volumetric design, the entire mix design process is based upon the volumetric properties and does not include a test method to evaluate the stability/strength of the mix. Although both the abbreviated level and the full level of design included test methods that considered the engineering properties in a complete and a comprehensive manner; they required the purchase of very expensive equipment and a large number of samples to be tested. The objective of this research was to develop a new rational "fundamental" mix strength (stability) test for the design of dense graded mixes to overcome the limitations of the Hveem and Marshall empirical methods and to fill the gaps and major deficiencies in the current Superpave volumetric mix design. The new procedure is based upon the Superpave volumetric design (level I) but is augmented by the simple, but fundamental mix strength (stability) test. Such a test is now currently absent in the existing Superpave approach. The new procedure introduces the flow time as a fundamental engineering design criterion in the mix design. This parameter is defined as the time (in seconds) at which plastic flow in a mix occurs under creep loading

  5. Liquid–liquid mixing studies in annular centrifugal contactors comparing stationary mixing vane options

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-09-11

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of an annular centrifugal contactor show the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported for operation of a 12.5 cm engineering-scale contactor unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixing-zone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugal contactors.

  6. Jet mixing long horizontal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    Large storage tanks may require mixing to achieve homogeneity of contents for several reasons: prior to sampling for mass balance purposes, for blending in reagents, for suspending settled solids for removal, or for use as a feed tank to a process. At ORNL, mixed waste evaporator concentrates are stored in 50,000-gal tanks, about 12 ft in diameter and 60 ft long. This tank configuration has the advantage of permitting transport by truck and therefore fabrication in the shop rather than in the field. Jet mixing experiments were carried out on two model tanks: a 230-gal (1/6-linear-scale) Plexiglas tank and a 25,000-gal tank (about 2/3 linear scale). Mixing times were measured using sodium chloride tracer and several conductivity probes distributed through the tanks. Several jet sizes and configurations were tested. One-directional and two-directional jets were tested in both tanks. Mixing times for each tank were correlated with the jet Reynolds number. Mixing times were correlated for the two tank sizes using the recirculation time for the developed jet. When the recirculation times were calculated using the distance from the nozzle to the end of the tank as the length of the developed jet, the correlation was only marginally successful. Data for the two tank sizes were correlated empirically using a modified effective jet length expressed as a function of the Reynolds number raised to the 1/3 power. Mixing experiments were simulated using the TEMTEST computer program. The simulations predicted trends correctly and were within the scatter of the experimental data with the lower jet Reynolds numbers. Agreement was not as good at high Reynolds numbers except for single nozzles in the 25,000-gal tank, where agreement was excellent over the entire range.

  7. Turbulent mixing in a precessing sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Susumu Shimizu, Masaki; Kawahara, Genta

    2014-11-15

    By numerically simulating turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers in a precessing sphere, we propose a method to enhance the mixing of a fluid confined within a smooth cavity by its rotational motion alone. To precisely evaluate the mixing efficiency, we extend the quantification method proposed by Danckwerts [“The definition and measurement of some characteristics of mixtures,” Appl. Sci. Res. A 3, 279–296 (1952)] to the case in which only a finite number of fluid particle trajectories can be known. Our accurate numerical tracking of fluid particles in the flow, which is controlled by the Reynolds number (an indicator of the spin rate) and the Poincaré number (the precession rate), shows the following results. First, the mixing process on the time scale normalized by the spin period is independent of the Reynolds number as long as it is high enough for the flow to be developed turbulence. Second, fastest mixing is achieved under weak precession (Poincaré number ≈0.1); in such cases, perfect mixing requires only 10–15 spins of the container. Third, the power to sustain turbulence is a weakly increasing function of the Poincaré number, and the energy efficiency of the mixing is also maximized when the Poincaré number is about 0.1. Fourth, efficient mixing driven by the weak precession arises from the effective cooperation of complex large-scale flow and small-scale turbulence, which itself is sustained by the large-scale flow.

  8. Theoretical analysis of mixing in liquid clouds - Part 3: Inhomogeneous mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei

    2016-07-01

    An idealized diffusion-evaporation model of time-dependent mixing between a cloud volume and a droplet-free volume is analyzed. The initial droplet size distribution (DSD) in the cloud volume is assumed to be monodisperse. It is shown that evolution of the microphysical variables and the final equilibrium state are unambiguously determined by two non-dimensional parameters. The first one is the potential evaporation parameter R, proportional to the ratio of the saturation deficit to the liquid water content in the cloud volume, that determines whether the equilibrium state is reached at 100 % relative humidity, or is characterized by a complete evaporation of cloud droplets. The second parameter Da is the Damkölher number equal to the ratio of the characteristic mixing time to the phase relaxation time. Parameters R and Da determine the type of mixing.The results are analyzed within a wide range of values of R and Da. It is shown that there is no pure homogeneous mixing, since the first mixing stage is always inhomogeneous. The mixing type can change during the mixing process. Any mixing type leads to formation of a tail of small droplets in DSD and, therefore, to DSD broadening that depends on Da. At large Da, the final DSD dispersion can be as large as 0.2. The total duration of mixing varies from several to 100 phase relaxation time periods, depending on R and Da.The definitions of homogeneous and inhomogeneous types of mixing are reconsidered and clarified, enabling a more precise delimitation between them. The paper also compares the results obtained with those based on the classic mixing concepts. >

  9. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  10. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to `radiation-enhanced diffusion` (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results.

  11. Rate of chaotic mixing in localized flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujlel, Jalila; Pigeonneau, Franck; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Jop, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    We study experimentally the rate of chaotic mixing in viscoplastic fluids by using a rod-stirring protocol with a rotating vessel. Only a limited zone localized around the stirring rods is highly sheared at a given time. Using a dyed spot as the initial condition, we measure the decay of concentration fluctuations of dye as mixing proceeds. The mixing rate is found to be proportional to the volume of highly sheared fluid during a rotation period of the rods and inversely proportional to the number of rotations of the rods over a rotation of the vessel. Due to numerical simulations and experimental measurements, we relate the volume of highly sheared fluid to the parameters of the flow. We propose a quantitative two-zone model for the mixing rate, taking into account the geometry of the highly sheared zone as well as the rate at which fluid is renewed inside this zone. For all experiments, the model predicts correctly the scaling of the exponential mixing rates during a first rapid stage and a second slower one.

  12. Transversal and longitudinal mixing in compound channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.; Angiolani, S.; Brocchini, M.

    2012-12-01

    An experimental campaign, based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of free-surface velocities, forms the basis for an analysis of the mixing processes which occur in a compound-channel flow. The flow mixing is characterized in terms of Lagrangian statistics (absolute dispersion and diffusivity) and of the related mean flow characteristics. Mixing properties strongly depend on the ratiorh between the main channel flow depth (h*mc) and the floodplain depth (h*fp), and three flow classes can be identified, namely shallow, intermediate, and deep flows. In the present study the large time asymptotic behavior of the mixing characteristics is analyzed in terms of the absolute diffusivity in order to characterize typical values of longitudinal and transversal diffusivity coefficients. Various sets of experiments, which cover a wide range of the governing physical parameters, have been performed and the asymptotic values of the absolute diffusivity have been evaluated. The results are then compared with several studies of flow dispersion for both the longitudinal diffusivity coefficient and the transversal turbulent mixing coefficient. The present results highlight a stronger dependence of such coefficients with the flow-depth ratio than with the flow regime (Froude number).

  13. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  14. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  15. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    2010-08-16

    Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

  16. Mixing in suspensions of active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkin, Dmitri O.; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-03-01

    Microscopic active particles self-propelling in the surrounding fluid create flows that eventually lead to emergence of non-equilibrium states with long-ranged fluctuations. One of the technologically important consequences of these fluctuations is enhanced mixing of the surrounding fluid. It is also critical for understanding the ecology of a particular type of biological active systems, bacterial suspension, as the enhanced mixing strongly alters the fluxes of nutrients. We consider the theoretical foundations of fluid mixing enhancement in dilute suspensions of active force-free swimmers. We describe the impediments to fluid mixing imposed by the physical nature of fluid flows created by swimmers, and different ways of overcoming them. We show that fluid mixing in 3D suspensions of force-free (dipolar) swimmers is dominated by the effect of curvature of their trajectories, and obtain an exact analytical expression for the corresponding effective diffusion coefficient. Our results highlight limitations of alternative ``effective temperature'' approaches and may serve as a quantitative tool for designing technological applications.

  17. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Mojet, J; Tekamp, F A; Abbink, J H

    2010-02-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been used as test foods for the quantification of the mixing ability. The aim of our study was to compare the results obtained with the comminution of an artificial test food and the results obtained from mixing of a two-coloured chewing gum. The degree of mixing of the colours of the chewing gum was quantified with an optical method. Twenty young subjects with a natural dentition (average age 24 years) and twenty elderly subjects, mostly with complete dentures (average age 72 years), participated in the study. Significant differences in masticatory performance between the two groups were detected with both methods. However, the comminution test was better in discriminating the masticatory performance of the two groups. The mixing ability test with the two-coloured chewing gum proofed to be a good method to determine masticatory function in subjects with a compromised masticatory performance (elderly subjects). However, the method appeared to be less suitable for subjects with a good masticatory performance (young subjects).

  18. Flow and mixing by small intestine villi.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; de Loubens, C; Love, R J; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M

    2015-06-01

    Flow and mixing in the small intestine are multi-scale processes. Flows at the scale of the villi (finger-like structures of ≈500 μm length) are poorly understood. We developed a three-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model to gain insight into the effects of villous movements and the rheology of digesta on flow, mixing and absorption of nutrients at the periphery of the intestinal lumen. Our model simulated the hydrodynamic consequences of villi movements that resulted from folding of the mucosa during longitudinal contractions. We found that cyclic approximation and separation of groups of villi generated laminar eddies at the edges of the group and augmented mass transfers in the radial direction between the inter-villous space and the intestinal lumen which improved the absorption of nutrients and mixing at the periphery of the lumen. This augmentation was greater with highly diffusible nutrients and with high levels of shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) of the fluid. We compared our results with bulk flows simulations done by previous workers and concluded that villous movements during longitudinal contractions is a major radial mixing mechanism in the small intestine and increases mixing and absorption around the mucosa despite adverse rheology.

  19. Mixing Dynamics Between Water and Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline; Demond, Avery; Lei, Jiariu; Green, Erica

    2013-11-01

    Currently, ethanol-based biofuels are considered to be among the best alternatives to gasoline. However, the potential environmental impact of a spill of such fuels on aquatic environments is an area of open discussion and research. Since these fuels are a combination of a miscible fluid (ethanol) and an immiscible fluid (gasoline), models used for traditional gasoline fuels (immiscible in water) are not applicable. Preliminary experiments show that when a solution of ethanol and glycol is mixed with water, a third mixed fluid is formed. Two distinct mixing regimes are observed. A turbulent wake is created between the ethanol/glycol and water layers to cause the ethanol and glycol solution to entrain and mix into with the water phase. In the first regime, due to nonlinear mixing behavior, a dramatic overturning is possible for a certain range of parameters. The second regime begins when the turbulent wake has dissipated and the internal wave created by the plate has begun to settle, typically within the first minute. At this point, Bénard-like cells, similar to those typically seen in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, form at the interface and relatively slow mass transfer is evident. Both regimes are described quantitatively with a set of dimensionless parameters.

  20. Mixed gaits in small avian terrestrial locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Andrada, Emanuel; Haase, Daniel; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A.; M. Kilbourne, Brandon; Denzler, Joachim; Fischer, Martin S.; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have historically categorized gaits discretely (e.g. regular gaits such as walking, running). However, previous results suggest that animals such as birds might mix or regularly or stochastically switch between gaits while maintaining a steady locomotor speed. Here, we combined a novel and completely automated large-scale study (over one million frames) on motions of the center of mass in several bird species (quail, oystercatcher, northern lapwing, pigeon, and avocet) with numerical simulations. The birds studied do not strictly prefer walking mechanics at lower speeds or running mechanics at higher speeds. Moreover, our results clearly display that the birds in our study employ mixed gaits (such as one step walking followed by one step using running mechanics) more often than walking and, surprisingly, maybe as often as grounded running. Using a bio-inspired model based on parameters obtained from real quails, we found two types of stable mixed gaits. In the first, both legs exhibit different gait mechanics, whereas in the second, legs gradually alternate from one gait mechanics into the other. Interestingly, mixed gaits parameters mostly overlap those of grounded running. Thus, perturbations or changes in the state induce a switch from grounded running to mixed gaits or vice versa. PMID:26333477

  1. Prediction of dynamic and mixing characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers using DNS and LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) have been conducted of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, in order to assess the ability of LES to reproduce dynamic and mixing aspects of the DNS which affect combustion, independently of combustion models.

  2. MixSIAR: A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model for characterizing intrapopulation niche variation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The science of stable isotope mixing models has tended towards the development of modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances or syntheses of the current state of the art are published in parity with software packa...

  3. Mixed qubits cannot be universally broadcast

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lin; Chen Yixin

    2007-06-15

    We show that no universal quantum cloning machine exists that can broadcast an arbitrary mixed qubit with a constant fidelity. Based on this result, we investigate the dependent quantum cloner in the sense that some parameter of the input qubit {rho}{sub s}({theta},{omega},{lambda}) is regarded as constant in the fidelity. For the case of constant {omega}, we establish the 1{yields}2 optimal symmetric dependent cloner with a fidelity 1/2. It is also shown that the 1{yields}M optimal quantum cloning machine for pure qubits is also optimal for mixed qubits, when {lambda} is the unique parameter in the fidelity. For general N{yields}M broadcasting of mixed qubits, the situation is very different.

  4. Mixed Adenocarcinoid Tumor Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Regeti, Kalyani; Jehangir, Waqas; Zafar, Shoaib; Sen, Shuvendu; Sidhom, Ibrahim; Yousif, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Mixed adenocarcinoid tumors are not uncommon neoplasms of appendix. The clinical presentation of these tumors is often similar to that of acute appendicitis or may present as asymptomatic. These tumors are found incidentally during histopathological examination of the resected appendix following appendectomy or other abdominal procedures. Mixed adenocarcinoids usually behave as adenocarcinomas with rapid metastasis, so prognosis depends upon how aggressive the tumor behaves. The present study reports a case of a 53-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and fever for 1 day and underwent successful appendectomy and recovered later. Subsequently, a mixed adenocarcinoma with carcinoid features of the appendix was diagnosed by histopathological examination. Follow-up examination of the patient in 3 months revealed metastasis of carcinoma to the peritoneum with adenocarcinoma features.

  5. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  6. Communication capacity of mixed quantum t -designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsen, Sarah; Dall'Arno, Michele; Szymusiak, Anna

    2016-08-01

    We operationally introduce mixed quantum t -designs as the most general arbitrary-rank extension of projective quantum t -designs which preserves indistinguishability from the uniform distribution for t copies. First, we derive upper bounds on the classical communication capacity of any mixed t -design measurement for t ∈[1 ,5 ] . Second, we explicitly compute the classical communication capacity of several mixed t -design measurements, including the depolarized version of any qubit and qutrit symmetric, informationally complete (SIC) measurement and complete mutually unbiased bases, the qubit icosahedral measurement, the Hoggar SIC measurement, any anti-SIC (where each element is proportional to the projector on the subspace orthogonal to one of the elements of the original SIC), and the uniform distribution over pure effects.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  8. Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.

  9. Zero-gravity transient thermal mixing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lands, J. F., Jr.; Ried, R. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The experimental program described is an outgrowth of independent investigations into alternate redesign concepts for the Apollo SM cryogenic oxygen storage system. The experiments were continued, after the redesign was established, to provide physical insight into transient thermal mixing in zero-gravity and to aid in the characterization of the system performance in flight. Zero-gravity heat transfer and fluid mixing were simulated experimentally through an analogy between unsteady heat conduction and species diffusion. To further support numerical analyses of the cryogenic oxygen storage system, the experimental investigation was extended to include a cubical tank geometry, representative of existing numerical models. In general, the transient flow patterns in the cubical tank are far more complex than those of the spherical tank and the extent of fluid mixing is significantly greater but less repeatable.

  10. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  13. Scotogenic model for co-bimaximal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, P. M.; Grimus, W.; Jurčiukonis, D.; Lavoura, L.

    2016-07-01

    We present a scotogenic model, i.e. a one-loop neutrino mass model with dark right-handed neutrino gauge singlets and one inert dark scalar gauge doublet η, which has symmetries that lead to co-bimaximal mixing, i.e. to an atmospheric mixing angle θ 23 = 45° and to a CP -violating phase δ = ±π /2, while the mixing angle θ 13 remains arbitrary. The symmetries consist of softly broken lepton numbers L α ( α = e, μ, τ ), a non-standard CP symmetry, and three Z_2 symmetries. We indicate two possibilities for extending the model to the quark sector. Since the model has, besides η, three scalar gauge doublets, we perform a thorough discussion of its scalar sector. We demonstrate that it can accommodate a Standard Model-like scalar with mass 125 GeV, with all the other charged and neutral scalars having much higher masses.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  18. Induction of tolerance through mixed chimerism.

    PubMed

    Sachs, David H; Kawai, Tatsuo; Sykes, Megan

    2014-01-01

    "Mixed chimerism" refers to a state in which the lymphohematopoietic system of the recipient of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells comprises a mixture of host and donor cells. This state is usually attained through either bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Although numerous treatment regimens have led to transplantation tolerance in mice, the induction of mixed chimerism is currently the only treatment modality that has been successfully extended to large animals and to the clinic. Here we describe and compare the use of mixed chimerism to establish transplantation tolerance in mice, pigs, monkeys, and in the clinic. We also attempt to correlate the mechanisms involved in achieving tolerance with the nature of the tolerance that has resulted in each case.

  19. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  20. Effective mixing strategies with microbubble streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2013-11-01

    Homogeneous mixing of chemical/biological samples and reagents is one of the essential preparation steps for lab-on-a-chip systems. As effective Stokes flows driven by fast time scale oscillatory flows, microbubble streaming flows are a tool uniquely positioned between passive and active mixing approaches. Guided by thorough theoretical understanding of the flows and of micromixing itself, we investigate various designs of microbubble mixers, employing two key strategies: (a) introducing controlled unsteadiness in the acoustic driving pattern, e.g. by duty-cycling and driving frequency modulation, and (b) optimizing the arrangement of multiple bubbles, such as the number, position, and orientation of the microbubbles, particularly to generate 3D chaotic flow patterns. Both of these approaches significantly improve mixing over that of previous steady 2D bubble micro-mixers, and the strategies can be combined for greater effect. Current address: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology

  1. Mixed parity pairing in a dipolar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, G. M.; Hainzl, C.; Laux, M.

    2016-10-01

    We show that fermionic dipoles in a two-layer geometry form Cooper pairs with both singlet and triplet components when they are tilted with respect to the normal of the planes. The mixed parity pairing arises because the interaction between dipoles in the two different layers is not inversion symmetric. We use an efficient eigenvalue approach to calculate the zero-temperature phase diagram of the system as a function of the dipole orientation and the layer distance. The phase diagram contains purely triplet as well as mixed singlet and triplet superfluid phases. We show in detail how the pair wave function for dipoles residing in different layers smoothly changes from singlet to triplet symmetry as the orientation of the dipoles is changed. Our results indicate that dipolar quantum gases can be used to unambiguously observe mixed parity pairing.

  2. Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

  3. Clustering of Variables for Mixed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, J.; Chavent, M.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter presents clustering of variables which aim is to lump together strongly related variables. The proposed approach works on a mixed data set, i.e. on a data set which contains numerical variables and categorical variables. Two algorithms of clustering of variables are described: a hierarchical clustering and a k-means type clustering. A brief description of PCAmix method (that is a principal component analysis for mixed data) is provided, since the calculus of the synthetic variables summarizing the obtained clusters of variables is based on this multivariate method. Finally, the R packages ClustOfVar and PCAmixdata are illustrated on real mixed data. The PCAmix and ClustOfVar approaches are first used for dimension reduction (step 1) before applying in step 2 a standard clustering method to obtain groups of individuals.

  4. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.

    1990-12-01

    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hohnstreiter, G. F.; Glass, R. E.; McAllaster, M. E.; Nigrey, P. J.; Trennel, A. J.; Yoshimura, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas.

  6. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  7. Charged lepton corrections to scaling neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, S.; Gautam, Radha Raman; Singh, Lal

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the Majorana nature of neutrinos, a general expression for the charged lepton corrections to scaling neutrino mixing has been obtained in the context of three flavor neutrino oscillations. The nonzero value of the reactor mixing angle is nicely accommodated. It is noted that scaling in the effective neutrino mass matrix is equivalent to the presence of two vanishing minors corresponding to first row elements of the effective neutrino mass matrix. A value of the reactor mixing angle which is fairly close to the currently measured best fit is predicted for charged lepton corrections of the order of the Cabbibo angle. We also present symmetry realization of such texture structures in the framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism with a nondiagonal charged lepton mass matrix using discrete Abelian flavor symmetry.

  8. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  9. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  10. Turbulent mixing in high-altitude explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Bell, J.B. ); Ferguson, R.E. ); White, W.W.; McCartor, T.H. )

    1992-09-01

    Numerical simulations of a high-altitude explosion were performed using a Godunov code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The code solves the two-dimensional (2-D), time-dependent conservation laws of inviscid gas dynamics while AMR is used to focus the computational effort in the mixing regions. The calculations revealed that a spherical density interface embedded in this flow was unstable and rolled up into a turbulent mixing layer. The shape of the interface was qualitatively similar to experimental photographs. Initially, the mixing layer width grew as a linear function of time, but eventually it reached an asymptotically-constant value. The flow field was azimuthally-averaged to evaluate the mean-flow profiles and the R.M.S. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The mean kinetic energy rapidly approached zero as the blast wave decayed, but the fluctuating kinetic energy asymptotically approached a small constant value (a fraction of a percent of the maximum kinetic energy). This represents the rotational kinetic energy driven by the vorticity field, that continued to mix the fluid indefinitely. It was shown that the vorticity field corresponds to a function that fluctuates between plus and minus values -- with a volume-averaged mean of zero. The amplitude of the vorticity fluctuations decayed as t[sup [minus]1]. The corresponding enstrophy increased linearly with time because of a cascade process for the mean-squared vorticity. This result is in good agreement with the 2-D calculations of turbulent flow as reported by G.K. Batchelor. The problem should be recalculated in 3-D to study the decay of turbulent mixing for spherical interfaces.

  11. Turbulent mixing in high-altitude explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Bell, J.B.; Ferguson, R.E.; White, W.W.; McCartor, T.H.

    1992-09-01

    Numerical simulations of a high-altitude explosion were performed using a Godunov code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The code solves the two-dimensional (2-D), time-dependent conservation laws of inviscid gas dynamics while AMR is used to focus the computational effort in the mixing regions. The calculations revealed that a spherical density interface embedded in this flow was unstable and rolled up into a turbulent mixing layer. The shape of the interface was qualitatively similar to experimental photographs. Initially, the mixing layer width grew as a linear function of time, but eventually it reached an asymptotically-constant value. The flow field was azimuthally-averaged to evaluate the mean-flow profiles and the R.M.S. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The mean kinetic energy rapidly approached zero as the blast wave decayed, but the fluctuating kinetic energy asymptotically approached a small constant value (a fraction of a percent of the maximum kinetic energy). This represents the rotational kinetic energy driven by the vorticity field, that continued to mix the fluid indefinitely. It was shown that the vorticity field corresponds to a function that fluctuates between plus and minus values -- with a volume-averaged mean of zero. The amplitude of the vorticity fluctuations decayed as t{sup {minus}1}. The corresponding enstrophy increased linearly with time because of a cascade process for the mean-squared vorticity. This result is in good agreement with the 2-D calculations of turbulent flow as reported by G.K. Batchelor. The problem should be recalculated in 3-D to study the decay of turbulent mixing for spherical interfaces.

  12. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shuhuai; Bakajin, Olgica

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  13. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  14. Lidar observations of mixed layer dynamics - Tests of parameterized entrainment models of mixed layer growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Coulter, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric mixed layer depth, the entrainment zone depth and the wind speed and wind direction were used to test various parameterized entrainment models of mixed layer growth rate. Six case studies under clear air convective conditions over flat terrain in central Illinois are presented. It is shown that surface heating alone accounts for a major portion of the rise of the mixed layer on all days. A new set of entrainment model constants was determined which optimized height predictions for the dataset. Under convective conditions, the shape of the mixed layer height prediction curves closely resembled the observed shapes. Under conditions when significant wind shear was present, the shape of the height prediction curve departed from the data suggesting deficiencies in the parameterization of shear production. Development of small cumulus clouds on top of the layer is shown to affect mixed layer depths in the afternoon growth phase.

  15. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Management of pesticide mixing and loading facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dwinell, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Many pesticide applicators have decided that a Chemical Mixing Facility (CMF) is the best way to manage problems of soil and water contamination at pesticide mixing and loading sites. These facilities must be managed properly to avoid the accumulation of potentially hazardous wastes, the creation of a point source of pollution, and possible fines for violation of environmental protection laws. Proper management must include pesticide containers, equipment rinsewater, sludge and sediments that accumulate on the pad, and materials used to contain and collect spills.

  17. Medicare case-mix index increase

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Paul B.; Carter, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Medicare paid hospitals a higher amount per admission in 1984 than had been planned because the case-mix index (CMI), which reflects the proportion of patients in high-weighted DRG's versus low-weighted ones, increased more than had been projected. This study estimated the degree to which the increase in the CMI from 1981 reflected medical practice changes, the aging of the Medicare inpatient population, changes in coding practices of physicians and hospitals, and changes in the way that the Health Care Financing Administration collects the data on case-mix. All of the above, except for aging, contributed to the increase in the CMI. PMID:10311672

  18. Heat Transfer Problems of Mixed Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Tetsu; Koyama, Shigeru; Goto, Masao; Takamatsu, Hiroshi

    From the point of view of the application of non-azeotropic mixed refrigerants to heat pump and refrigeration cycles, literatures on condensation and evaporation are surveyed and future problems to be studied are extracted. All researches on the relevant problems are recently started and still in developing way except for condensation on a single horizontal tube. Particularly, the studies for condensation and evaporation of mixed Freon refrigerant in a horizontal tube, which are the most important in practice, are far backward in comparison with single component refrigerant in every point of heat transfer characteristics, flow pattern and theoretical analysis.

  19. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  20. Microplate well coverage mixing using superhydrophobic contact.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Thach; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Lye, Jonathan Kok Keung; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2012-11-01

    Two important challenges in microplate instrumentation are to achieve full well sample coverage and complete mixing. An effective approach of using superhydrophobic rods to accomplish these challenges is reported here. Experiments conducted showed that analytes above 50μl could be made to completely cover the bottom of 96-well standard and transparency microplates. Complete mixing was accomplished by moving the rod parallel to the well bottom while contacting the liquid. The approach is simple and controlled, and it minimizes the problems of spillage and cross-contamination. It works with analytes with varied volumes and of different viscosities present in each well of the microplate. PMID:22864233

  1. Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jing; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan; Cai Zi

    2010-12-15

    We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.

  2. Outlier robust nonlinear mixed model estimation.

    PubMed

    Williams, James D; Birch, Jeffrey B; Abdel-Salam, Abdel-Salam G

    2015-04-15

    In standard analyses of data well-modeled by a nonlinear mixed model, an aberrant observation, either within a cluster, or an entire cluster itself, can greatly distort parameter estimates and subsequent standard errors. Consequently, inferences about the parameters are misleading. This paper proposes an outlier robust method based on linearization to estimate fixed effects parameters and variance components in the nonlinear mixed model. An example is given using the four-parameter logistic model and bioassay data, comparing the robust parameter estimates with the nonrobust estimates given by SAS(®).

  3. Diffusion and ion mixing in amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Averback, R.S.; Ding, F.; Loxton, C.; Baker, J.

    1986-10-01

    Tracer impurity diffusion and ion beam mixing in amorphous (a-)Ni/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/ were measured. A correlation between the metallic radius of an impurity and its tracer diffusivity was observed; it is similar to that found in crystalline ..cap alpha..-Zr and ..cap alpha..-Ti. In addition, the temperature dependence of diffusion in a-NiZr exhibits Arrhenius behavior. Ion beam mixing of different impurities in a-NiZr correlates with tracer diffusivity at both high and low temperatures. At higher temperatures radiation enhanced diffusion (RED) was observed. The activation enthalpy of the RED diffusion coefficient is 0.3 eV/atom.

  4. Launch site integration for mixed fleet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Launch site impacts and integration planning issues are presented to support launch operations for a mixed vehicle fleet (manned and cargo). Proposed ground systems and launch site configurations are described. Prelaunch processing scenarios and schedules are developed for candidate launch vehicles. Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle architectures are presented to meet future launch requirements, including the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. The significance of operational designs for future launch vehicles is shown to be a critical factor in planning for mixed fleet launch site operations.

  5. Global analysis of fermion mixing with exotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, Enrico; Roulet, Esteban; Tommasini, Daniele

    1991-01-01

    The limits are analyzed on deviation of the lepton and quark weak-couplings from their standard model values in a general class of models where the known fermions are allowed to mix with new heavy particles with exotic SU(2) x U(1) quantum number assignments (left-handed singlets or right-handed doublets). These mixings appear in many extensions of the electroweak theory such as models with mirror fermions, E(sub 6) models, etc. The results update previous analyses and improve considerably the existing bounds.

  6. Mix experiments with the NOVA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, V.C.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Skokowski, P.G.

    1988-10-01

    The NOVA mix experiments are designed to study mix between two dissimilar materials subjected to strong (M/approximately/50) shocks and variable accelerations in a direction normal to their common boundary. The main purpose of the experiments is to provide a data base with which predictive models can be compared and normalized. Together with shock tube experiments, which explore a different regime, the current NOVA tests investigate the shock induced source terms in our model and the evolution of both Rayleigh-Taylor stable and unstable interfaces. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  8. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  9. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  10. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  11. B^0_s mixing at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Piedra, Jonatan; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2006-08-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of b-hadrons. One of the most important analyses within the B physics program of the CDF experiment is B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing. Since the time this school was held, several improvements in the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing analysis have made possible the measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation frequency, result that has been presented at the FPCP 2006 Conference.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  13. Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-22

    New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

  14. Mixed OPEs in {N}=2 superconformal theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Israel A.

    2016-05-01

    Using superspace techniques, we compute the mixed OPE between an {N}=2 stress-tensor multiplet, a chiral multiplet and a flavor current multiplet. We perform a detailed analysis of the three-point function between two of the mentioned multiplets and a third arbitrary operator. We then solve all the constraints coming from the {N}=2 superconformal symmetry and from the equations of motion and/or conservation equations, and obtain all the possible operators that can appear in the expansion. This calculation is the first step towards a more general superconformal block analysis of mixed correlators in {N}=2 theories.

  15. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Janusz; de Lucas, Javier

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  16. Multitasking and mixed systems for provider payment.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The problem of multitasking refers to the challenge of designing incentives to motivate appropriate effort across multiple tasks when the desired outcomes for some tasks are more difficult to measure than others. Multitasking is pervasive in health care. I use a simple model to show that the problem of multitasking further strengthens conventional arguments for mixed payment systems such as partial capitation. When pay-for-performance metrics are imperfect for rewarding service-specific quality efforts, using mixed payment helps to balance incentives for quality effort across services.

  17. Overview of robotics for Mixed Waste Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Operations Robotics program is developing robotics technology to make the handling and treatment of Department of Energy mixed waste; better, faster, safer and cheaper. This technology will provide remote operations and not require humans to be in contact with this radioactive and hazardous waste. The technology includes remote handling and opening of waste containers, remote removal of waste from the containers, remote characterization and sorting of the waste, and remote treatment and disposition of the waste. The initial technology development program culminated in an integrated demonstration in November 1993 and each aspect of this technology is described.

  18. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  19. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891... Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A mixed-finance developer may include, on an up-front or deferral basis, or a combination of both, a...

  20. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891... Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A mixed-finance developer may include, on an up-front or deferral basis, or a combination of both, a...

  1. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891... Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A mixed-finance developer may include, on an up-front or deferral basis, or a combination of both, a...

  2. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891... Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee. A mixed-finance developer may include, on an up-front or deferral basis, or a combination of both, a...

  3. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  4. 24 CFR 891.815 - Mixed-finance developer's fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed-finance developer's fee. 891...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.815 Mixed-finance developer's fee. (a) Mixed-finance developer's fee....

  5. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  6. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  7. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  8. 24 CFR 891.825 - Mixed-finance closing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed-finance closing documents...-Profit Limited Partnerships and Mixed-Finance Development for Supportive Housing for the Elderly or Persons with Disabilities § 891.825 Mixed-finance closing documents. The mixed-finance owner must...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1)...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1)...

  11. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  12. 29 CFR 1910.426 - Mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed-gas diving. 1910.426 Section 1910.426 Labor... Mixed-gas diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified. (b) Limits. Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when: (1)...

  13. 12 CFR 268.302 - Mixed case complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction. The Board will apply sections 1614.302 to 1614.310 of 29 CFR to the processing of a mixed case... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed case complaints. 268.302 Section 268.302... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 268.302 Mixed case complaints. A mixed...

  14. What is mixing and can it be complex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2013-07-01

    While the concept of mixing is commonly used in science and engineering, its exact interpretation may vary between different disciplines. In the present work, we analyse the concept of mixing in context of mechanical mixing, the ergodic theory, modelling of turbulent reacting fluid flows and complex competitive systems. Although mixing represents a dissipative process, which is responsible for irreversible increase of molecular disorder, mixing nevertheless can be associated with emergence of complexity under certain conditions. This dual role of mixing is noted and examined here. The appendix discusses three fundamental hypotheses, which are related to understanding of mixing and were introduced by Boltzmann.

  15. Deviations in tribimaximal mixing from sterile neutrino sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, S.; Raj, Desh; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-10-01

    We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero Ue3 element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero θ13 and atmospheric mixing θ23 different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.

  16. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to...

  17. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Initial mixing is defined to be that dispersion or diffusion of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid... adequate to predict initial dispersion and diffusion of the waste, these shall be used, if necessary, in.... (2) When field data on the dispersion and diffusion of a waste of characteristics similar to...

  18. The Mixed Effects Trend Vector Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rooij, Mark; Schouteden, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation of mixed effect baseline category logit models for multinomial longitudinal data can be prohibitive due to the integral dimension of the random effects distribution. We propose to use multidimensional unfolding methodology to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. As a by-product, readily interpretable graphical…

  19. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinde, J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; McFarquhar, Greg; Yannuzzi, V. T.; Avramov, Alexander; Greenburg, S.; Johnson, N.; Zhang, G.; Poellot, Michael; Mather, Jim H.; Turner, David D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Zak, Bernard D.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Daniel, J. S.; Kok, G. L.; Tobin, D. C.; Holz, R. E.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, Patrick; Tooman, Tim P.; Ivey, Mark D.; Richardson, S. J.; Bahrmann, C. P.; Shupe, Matthew D.; DeMott, Paul J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schofield, R.

    2007-02-01

    In order to help bridge the gaps in our understanding of mixed-phase Arctic clouds, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (DOE-ARM) funded an integrated, systematic observational study. The major objective of the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted September 27–October 22, 2004 during the autumnal transition season, was to collect a focused set of observations needed to advance our understanding of the cloud microphysics, cloud dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative properties, and evolution of Arctic mixed-phase clouds. These data would then be used to improve to both detailed models of Arctic clouds and large-scale climate models. M-PACE successfully documented the microphysical structure of arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles in both single-layer and multi-layer clouds, over the two ground-based remote sensing sites at Barrow and Oliktok Point. Liquid was found in clouds with temperatures down to -30C, the coldest cloud top temperature below -40C sampled by the aircraft. The remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. Flights into arctic cirrus clouds revealed microphysics properties very similar to their mid-latitude in situ formed cousins, with dominant ice crystal habit bullet rosettes.

  20. Control of Jet Noise Through Mixing Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark; Brown, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    The idea of using mixing enhancement to reduce jet noise is not new. Lobed mixers have been around since shortly after jet noise became a problem. However, these designs were often a post-design fix that rarely was worth its weight and thrust loss from a system perspective. Recent advances in CFD and some inspired concepts involving chevrons have shown how mixing enhancement can be successfully employed in noise reduction by subtle manipulation of the nozzle geometry. At NASA Glenn Research Center, this recent success has provided an opportunity to explore our paradigms of jet noise understanding, prediction, and reduction. Recent advances in turbulence measurement technology for hot jets have also greatly aided our ability to explore the cause and effect relationships of nozzle geometry, plume turbulence, and acoustic far field. By studying the flow and sound fields of jets with various degrees of mixing enhancement and subsequent noise manipulation, we are able to explore our intuition regarding how jets make noise, test our prediction codes, and pursue advanced noise reduction concepts. The paper will cover some of the existing paradigms of jet noise as they relate to mixing enhancement for jet noise reduction, and present experimental and analytical observations that support these paradigms.

  1. Effective High School Teachers: A Mixed Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Don P.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    The researchers conducted a sequential qualitative-quantitative mixed analysis of the characteristics of effective high school teachers as perceived by 615 college students, predominantly Hispanic, at two Hispanic-Serving Institutions. Qualitative analyses revealed the presence of 24 themes: Caring; Communication; Creative; Disciplinarian;…

  2. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  3. A Mixed Learning Approach in Mechatronics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, O.; Tuncalp, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a Web-based mixed learning approach model on mechatronics education. The model combines different perception methods such as reading, listening, and speaking and practice methods developed in accordance with the vocational background of students enrolled in the course Electromechanical Systems in…

  4. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  5. A random distribution reacting mixing layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for simulation of molecular mixing and the resulting velocity and temperature fields has been developed. The ideas are applied to the flow conditions present in the NASA Lewis Planar Reacting Shear Layer (PRSL) facility, and results compared to experimental data. A gaussian transverse turbulent velocity distribution is used in conjunction with a linearly increasing time scale to describe the mixing of different regions of the flow. Equilibrium reaction calculations are then performed on the mix to arrive at a new species composition and temperature. Velocities are determined through summation of momentum contributions. The analysis indicates a combustion efficiency of the order of 80 percent for the reacting mixing layer, and a turbulent Schmidt number of 2/3. The success of the model is attributed to the simulation of large-scale transport of fluid. The favorable comparison shows that a relatively quick and simple PC calculation is capable of simulating the basic flow structure in the reacting and non-reacting shear layer present in the facility given basic assumptions about turbulence properties.

  6. A random distribution reacting mixing layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard A.; Marek, C. John; Myrabo, Leik N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for simulation of molecular mixing, and the resulting velocity and temperature fields has been developed. The ideas are applied to the flow conditions present in the NASA Lewis Research Center Planar Reacting Shear Layer (PRSL) facility, and results compared to experimental data. A gaussian transverse turbulent velocity distribution is used in conjunction with a linearly increasing time scale to describe the mixing of different regions of the flow. Equilibrium reaction calculations are then performed on the mix to arrive at a new species composition and temperature. Velocities are determined through summation of momentum contributions. The analysis indicates a combustion efficiency of the order of 80 percent for the reacting mixing layer, and a turbulent Schmidt number of 2/3. The success of the model is attributed to the simulation of large-scale transport of fluid. The favorable comparison shows that a relatively quick and simple PC calculation is capable of simulating the basic flow structure in the reacting and nonreacting shear layer present in the facility given basic assumptions about turbulence properties.

  7. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  8. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reasonable scientific evidence to demonstrate that other methods of estimating a reasonable allowance for initial mixing are appropriate for a specific material, such methods may be used with the concurrence of... estimated by one of these methods, in order of preference: (1) When field data on the proposed dumping...

  9. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reasonable scientific evidence to demonstrate that other methods of estimating a reasonable allowance for initial mixing are appropriate for a specific material, such methods may be used with the concurrence of... estimated by one of these methods, in order of preference: (1) When field data on the proposed dumping...

  10. 40 CFR 227.29 - Initial mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reasonable scientific evidence to demonstrate that other methods of estimating a reasonable allowance for initial mixing are appropriate for a specific material, such methods may be used with the concurrence of... estimated by one of these methods, in order of preference: (1) When field data on the proposed dumping...

  11. Terahertz homodyne self-mixing transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Till Breuer, Stefan; Blömer, Dominik; Patel, Sanketkumar; Schlosser, Malte; Birkl, Gerhard; Elsäßer, Wolfgang; Simonetta, Marcello; Deninger, Anselm; Giuliani, Guido

    2015-02-09

    A compact homodyne self-mixing terahertz spectroscopy concept is experimentally investigated and confirmed by calculations. This method provides amplitude and phase information of the terahertz radiation emitted by a photoconductive antenna in a transmission experiment where a rotating chopper wheel serves as a feedback mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment the frequency-dependent refractive index of Teflon is measured.

  12. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  13. Make It Active and Mix It up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    The author believes that "learning is doing," especially in science. The best way she can describe what she did, and the piece of advice she wants to pass on, is "make it active and mix it up". By describing how she went about teaching this lesson, she hopes she has conveyed how doing one's research (online for a start) and using a "variety" of…

  14. Global constraints on heavy neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2016-08-01

    We derive general constraints on the mixing of heavy Seesaw neutrinos with the SM fields from a global fit to present flavour and electroweak precision data. We explore and compare both a completely general scenario, where the heavy neutrinos are integrated out without any further assumption, and the more constrained case were only 3 additional heavy states are considered. The latter assumption implies non-trivial correlations in order to reproduce the correct neutrino masses and mixings as observed by oscillation data and thus some qualitative differences can be found with the more general scenario. The relevant processes analyzed in the global fit include searches for Lepton Flavour Violating (LFV) decays, probes of the universality of weak interactions, CKM unitarity bounds and electroweak precision data. In particular, a comparative and detailed study of the present and future sensitivity of the different LFV experiments is performed. We find a mild 1-2σ preference for non-zero heavy neutrino mixing of order 0.03-0.04 in the electron and tau sectors. At the 2σ level we derive bounds on all mixings ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 with the notable exception of the e - μ sector with a more stringent bound of 0.005 from the μ → eγ process.

  15. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  16. Mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, D.F.

    1991-06-01

    New polymer films were synthesized that are mixed ionic-electronic conductors. Preliminary ion transport measurements have been made on these materials in the reduced state where electronic conductivity is negligible. We also have made preliminary measurements of switching times for these materials. Theoretical studies have been performed ion pairing in insulating and electronically conducting films.

  17. Activity mixed outside main N. Sea sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on activity levels which are mixed in sectors outside the North Sea's major producing regions. Danish sector production prospects are improving in step with horizontal drilling technology. Dutch activity centers on laying on the Nogat pipeline system and developing gas fields that will feed it. And Ireland is considering ways of boosting exploratory interest.

  18. Noncommuting mixed states cannot be broadcast

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, H.; Caves, C.M.; Fuchs, C.A.; Jozsa, R.; Schumacher, B.

    1996-04-01

    We show that, given a general mixed state for a quantum system, there are no physical means for {ital broadcasting} that state onto two separate quantum systems, even when the state need only be reproduced marginally on the separate systems. This result extends the standard no-cloning theorem for pure states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  20. Jet mixing in a reacting cylindrical crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the mixing of air jets into the hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone. The mixing, as a result, occurs in a reacting environment with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from round orifices. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture without swirl to mixing modules consisting of 8, 9, 10, and 12 holes at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 2.5. Concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, and HC are obtained upstream, downstream, and within the orifice plane. O2 profiles indicate jet penetration while CO2, CO, and HC profiles depict the extent of reaction. Jet penetration is observed to be a function of the number of orifices and is found to affect the mixing in the reacting system. The results demonstrate that one module (the 12-hole) produces near-optimal penetration defined here as a jet penetration closest to the module half-radius, and hence the best uniform mixture at a plane one duct radius from the orifice leading edge.

  1. Noncommuting Mixed States Cannot Be Broadcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard; Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Jozsa, Richard; Schumacher, Benjamin

    1996-04-01

    We show that, given a general mixed state for a quantum system, there are no physical means for broadcasting that state onto two separate quantum systems, even when the state need only be reproduced marginally on the separate systems. This result extends the standard no-cloning theorem for pure states.

  2. Transient Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Batur, C.; Zhong, H.

    2002-01-01

    Mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows is of particular interest to microgravity processes, as the body force that governs the intensity of flow fields can be directly controlled. We consider a model experimental system to explore the dynamics of mixing which employs two miscible liquids inside a cavity separated initially by a divider. The two liquids are oriented vertically inside a rectangular cavity with constant width and height, and varying depths to span the range of a Hele-Shaw cell to a 3-D configuration. The two miscible liquids can be sufficiently diluted and died, for example water and deuterium oxide, such that a distinct interface exists across the divider. The transient mixing characteristic of the two fluids is addressed by following the Lagrangian history of the interface for various aspect ratios in the z-plane (depth variation) as well as a range of pulling velocities of the divider. The mixing characteristics of the two fluids are quantified from measurement of the length stretch of the interface and its flow field using respectively image processing techniques and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. Scaling analysis shows that the length stretch depends on four governing parameters, namely the Grashof number (Gr), Schmidt number (Sc), aspect ratio (Ar), and Reynolds number (Re). Variation of the Schmidt number is taken into account through thermophysical property variation. Thus our problem reduces to a codimension three bifurcation in parametric space for Gr, Ar, and Re.

  3. The mixed waste management facility. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a project summary for the Mixed Waste Management facility from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for June, 1995. Key developments were the installation of the MSO Engineering Development Unit (EDU) which is on schedule for operation in July, and the first preliminary design review. This report also describes budgets and includes a milestone log of activities.

  4. A New Model for Mix It Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, Teaching Tolerance's Mix It Up at Lunch Day program has helped millions of students cross social boundaries and create more inclusive school communities. Its goal is to create a safe, purposeful opportunity for students to break down the patterns of social self-segregation that too often plague schools. Research conducted in 2006 by…

  5. The Mixed Political Blessing of Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of sustainability rhetoric, curriculum, infrastructure, and marketing on college campuses is a mixed blessing. On the one hand, college presidents are pledging to eliminate their campuses' global warming emissions; colleges and universities are building wind turbines, composters, and green buildings; and sustainability coordinators are…

  6. Microbiology: Mixing Wine, Chocolate, and Coffee.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Yeasts associated with cocoa and coffee beans are genetically distinct. These populations have been created through the migration and mixing of populations associated with vineyards, trees in America, and the ancestral seat of this species in Far East Asia. PMID:27046811

  7. Introduction to Studies in Granular Mixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llusa, Marcos; Muzzio, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on educational activity designed to introduce students (or industrial employees) in the pharmaceutical arena to some of the most common problems in the mixing of solids: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and lubricant (i.e. magnesium stearate) homogenization, characterization of segregation tendencies, and…

  8. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  9. Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Park

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

  10. What masses do the neutrinos have? Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Efrosinin, V. P.

    2010-06-15

    Possible mechanisms for the production of low-mass neutrinos and sterile neutrinos are considered. The quark mixing angles are calculated under the assumption that the traces of left-right symmetry are stable with respect to the masses of constituent quarks. Order-of-magnitude estimates of the neutrino masses are obtained with the aid of experimental data on neutrino oscillations.

  11. Instructor Technology Use: A Mixed Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becking, Suzanne K.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was designed to examine instructional leaders' descriptions of their experience with integrating technology into their teaching. Seminal studies from the 1990s were found to remain true today--that teachers are not ready to incorporate technology into their teaching (Becker, 1999; Ertmer, 1999). In…

  12. Rotation induced mixing in stellar interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    The standard model of stellar structure is unable to account for various observational facts, such as anomalies in the surface composition, and there is now a broad consensus that some extra mixing must occur in the radiation zones, in addition to the always present convective overshoot or penetration. The search for the causes of this extra mixing started in the late seventies, and it was quickly realized - in particular by Sylvie Vauclair and her co-workers - that some mild turbulence must be present to counteract the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. What could be responsible for this turbulence? One suggestion was the internal gravity waves emitted at the boundary of convection zones, but it is still not established whether these waves will lead to true mixing. However they transport angular momentum, and therefore they generate differential rotation, which may be shear-unstable and thus lead to turbulence. Another way to transport angular momentum and produce an unstable rotation profile is through the large-scale circulation which is induced by the structural adjustments as the star evolves, or by the torques applied to it (due to stellar wind, accretion, tides). These processes participate in what is called the "rotational mixing"; their implementation in stellar evolution codes - again under Sylvie's impulse - has given birth to a new generation of stellar models, which agree much better with the observational constraints, although there is still room for improvement.

  13. Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Livet, Pierre

    2010-01-27

    Experimental psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions--which we formally represent by comparisons between 'unexpected utilities' and expected ones--the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery.

  14. MIXING QUANTIFICATION BY VISUAL IMAGING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on development of a method for quantifying two measures of mixing, the scale and intensity of segregation, through flow visualization, video recording, and software analysis. This non-intrusive method analyzes a planar cross section of a flowing system from an ...

  15. Payload flight assignments: NASA mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Norman

    1993-01-01

    This mixed fleet manifest, which serves as the baseline for planning purposes, includes payload flight assignments for the Space Shuttle through FY 1995 and NASA expendable launch vehicle (EVL) missions through FY 1999. The FY 1996-1999 Shuttle manifest planning is omitted pending Space Station redesign. Also included in this document are a list of previous flights, payload requests, and payload/acronyms.

  16. Mixed Methodology Research Design in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu

    2007-01-01

    In recent times many educational researchers have moved away from the traditional purist approach of strictly adopting either a qualitative or quantitative approach to conducting research. Instead they have attempted an eclectic mix of both methods in their research inquiry, combining aspects of both the traditions at various stages of their…

  17. Extended Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segawa, Eisuke; Emery, Sherry; Curry, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM framework) includes many models such as hierarchical and structural equation models. However, GLLAMM cannot currently accommodate some models because it does not allow some parameters to be random. GLLAMM is extended to overcome the limitation by adding a submodel that specifies a…

  18. Transitivity, weakly mixing property and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidong; Liang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyi; Sun, Xuelian

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a compact metric space without isolated points and let f : X → X be a continuous map. In this paper, if (X,f) is a transitive dynamical system with a repelling periodic point, then f is chaotic in the sense of Kato. In addition, if f is weakly topologically mixing, then f is chaotic in the strong sense of Kato.

  19. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  20. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4, 4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4, 4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared. Previously announced in STAR as N83-27018

  1. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed blanch. 51.576 Section 51.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. Germinated wheat: Phytochemical composition and mixing characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germinated grain recently attracts interest due to its beneficial effect on human health. In this research, whole wheat flour samples obtained after three days and five days of germination were analyzed for biochemical components, mixing quality, and effects on human breast cancer cells. Germinati...

  4. Neutrino mixing from C P symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Yao, Chang-Yuan; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-10-01

    The neutrino mass matrix has remnant C P symmetry expressed in terms of the lepton mixing matrix, and vice versa the remnant C P transformations allow us to reconstruct the mixing matrix. We study the scenario that all four remnant C P transformations are preserved by the neutrino mass matrix. The most general parametrization of remnant C P transformations is presented. The lepton mixing matrix is completely fixed by the remnant C P , and its explicit form is derived. The necessary and sufficient condition for conserved Dirac C P violating phase is found. If the Klein four flavor symmetry generated by the postulated remnant C P transformations arises from a finite flavor symmetry group, the phenomenologically viable lepton flavor mixing would be the trimaximal pattern, both Dirac C P phase δC P and Majorana phase α31 are either 0 or π while another Majorana phase α21 is a rational multiple of π . These general results are confirmed to be true in the case that the finite flavor symmetry group is Δ (6 n2).

  5. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  6. Electrohydrodynamic flow and chaotic mixing inside drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiumei

    Electrohyodynamics, proposed by G. I. Taylor (1966), is the study of fluid motion under the influence of electric fields. In this work, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the electrohydrodynamic flow field inside a dielectric liquid drop and its application in driving chaotic mixing. Previous works on the electrohydrodynamic flows are mainly restricted to neutrally buoyant drops. Since settling drops are expected to occur more commonly in applications, in the first part of this thesis we extend Taylor's theory to deal with translating drops. Both shape distortion and charge convection, when coupled with an asymmetric velocity profile, will produce a net drag and a shift in the settling speed. Corrections to the settling velocity from both contributions are calculated to the first order. Experiments are performed using a PMM/castor oil system, and are in qualitative agreement with the theory: the deformations and the change in settling velocity are all proportional to E2, as predicted, and the settling speed shows the correct trends with drop size. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate three dimensional chaotic mixing driven by the electrohydrodynamic flows. A spatially uniform electric field is periodically switched through an angle, which is equivalent to switching the symmetry axis of the Taylor circulation back and forth, chaotic mixing is therefore generated inside a drop. Mixing efficiency is studied numerically by tracing trajectories of Lagrangian particles. Our calculations of the mixed volume fraction and Lyapunov exponents give optimal mixing conditions. Mixing experiments for a switching angle of 0.5pi are performed using a silicone oil/castor oil system, and show excellent agreement with the theory. In the third part of this thesis, we discuss effects of finite charge relaxation and charge convection on the flow field in both DC and AC electric fields. A pole-to-equator convection, acting together with a slow charge relaxation

  7. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy

  8. Rigorous buoyancy driven bubble mixing for centrifugal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Burger, S; Schulz, M; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2016-01-21

    We present batch-mode mixing for centrifugal microfluidics operated at fixed rotational frequency. Gas is generated by the disk integrated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to liquid water (H2O) and gaseous oxygen (O2) and inserted into a mixing chamber. There, bubbles are formed that ascent through the liquid in the artificial gravity field and lead to drag flow. Additionaly, strong buoyancy causes deformation and rupture of the gas bubbles and induces strong mixing flows in the liquids. Buoyancy driven bubble mixing is quantitatively compared to shake mode mixing, mixing by reciprocation and vortex mixing. To determine mixing efficiencies in a meaningful way, the different mixers are employed for mixing of a lysis reagent and human whole blood. Subsequently, DNA is extracted from the lysate and the amount of DNA recovered is taken as a measure for mixing efficiency. Relative to standard vortex mixing, DNA extraction based on buoyancy driven bubble mixing resulted in yields of 92 ± 8% (100 s mixing time) and 100 ± 8% (600 s) at 130g centrifugal acceleration. Shake mode mixing yields 96 ± 11% and is thus equal to buoyancy driven bubble mixing. An advantage of buoyancy driven bubble mixing is that it can be operated at fixed rotational frequency, however. The additional costs of implementing buoyancy driven bubble mixing are low since both the activation liquid and the catalyst are very low cost and no external means are required in the processing device. Furthermore, buoyancy driven bubble mixing can easily be integrated in a monolithic manner and is compatible to scalable manufacturing technologies such as injection moulding or thermoforming. We consider buoyancy driven bubble mixing an excellent alternative to shake mode mixing, in particular if the processing device is not capable of providing fast changes of rotational frequency or if the low average rotational frequency is challenging for the other integrated fluidic operations. PMID:26607320

  9. Rigorous buoyancy driven bubble mixing for centrifugal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Burger, S; Schulz, M; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2016-01-21

    We present batch-mode mixing for centrifugal microfluidics operated at fixed rotational frequency. Gas is generated by the disk integrated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to liquid water (H2O) and gaseous oxygen (O2) and inserted into a mixing chamber. There, bubbles are formed that ascent through the liquid in the artificial gravity field and lead to drag flow. Additionaly, strong buoyancy causes deformation and rupture of the gas bubbles and induces strong mixing flows in the liquids. Buoyancy driven bubble mixing is quantitatively compared to shake mode mixing, mixing by reciprocation and vortex mixing. To determine mixing efficiencies in a meaningful way, the different mixers are employed for mixing of a lysis reagent and human whole blood. Subsequently, DNA is extracted from the lysate and the amount of DNA recovered is taken as a measure for mixing efficiency. Relative to standard vortex mixing, DNA extraction based on buoyancy driven bubble mixing resulted in yields of 92 ± 8% (100 s mixing time) and 100 ± 8% (600 s) at 130g centrifugal acceleration. Shake mode mixing yields 96 ± 11% and is thus equal to buoyancy driven bubble mixing. An advantage of buoyancy driven bubble mixing is that it can be operated at fixed rotational frequency, however. The additional costs of implementing buoyancy driven bubble mixing are low since both the activation liquid and the catalyst are very low cost and no external means are required in the processing device. Furthermore, buoyancy driven bubble mixing can easily be integrated in a monolithic manner and is compatible to scalable manufacturing technologies such as injection moulding or thermoforming. We consider buoyancy driven bubble mixing an excellent alternative to shake mode mixing, in particular if the processing device is not capable of providing fast changes of rotational frequency or if the low average rotational frequency is challenging for the other integrated fluidic operations.

  10. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting a value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES-LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.

  11. Mixed integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Emmerich, Michael T M; Eggermont, Jeroen; Bäck, Thomas; Schütz, M; Dijkstra, J; Reiber, J H C

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies (ESs) are powerful probabilistic search and optimization algorithms gleaned from biological evolution theory. They have been successfully applied to a wide range of real world applications. The modern ESs are mainly designed for solving continuous parameter optimization problems. Their ability to adapt the parameters of the multivariate normal distribution used for mutation during the optimization run makes them well suited for this domain. In this article we describe and study mixed integer evolution strategies (MIES), which are natural extensions of ES for mixed integer optimization problems. MIES can deal with parameter vectors consisting not only of continuous variables but also with nominal discrete and integer variables. Following the design principles of the canonical evolution strategies, they use specialized mutation operators tailored for the aforementioned mixed parameter classes. For each type of variable, the choice of mutation operators is governed by a natural metric for this variable type, maximal entropy, and symmetry considerations. All distributions used for mutation can be controlled in their shape by means of scaling parameters, allowing self-adaptation to be implemented. After introducing and motivating the conceptual design of the MIES, we study the optimality of the self-adaptation of step sizes and mutation rates on a generalized (weighted) sphere model. Moreover, we prove global convergence of the MIES on a very general class of problems. The remainder of the article is devoted to performance studies on artificial landscapes (barrier functions and mixed integer NK landscapes), and a case study in the optimization of medical image analysis systems. In addition, we show that with proper constraint handling techniques, MIES can also be applied to classical mixed integer nonlinear programming problems. PMID:22122384

  12. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  13. Turbulent Mixing Characteristics in Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Wang, Q.; Bucholtz, A.; Zheng, X.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence mixing in stratocumulus clouds plays fundamental roles in impacting aerosol-cloud microphysics, regulating cloud macroscopic distribution both in space and time, and interacting with large- and meso-scale meteorological conditions. Understanding the turbulence mixing is a key in understanding physical processes in stratocumulus. This work aims at providing some turbulence mixing characteristics within the entrainment zone using a large-eddy simulation (LES) technique in selected observation cases from two recent field campaigns: Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST) and VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study- Regional experiment (VOCALS-Rex). LES simulation results of two cases of observed stratocumulus clouds will be discussed. The first one is a nighttime cloud case observed on 8 August 2008 during POST. This case is characterized by a relatively weak inversion (~ 5K), weak wind shear across the inversion and strong moisture variability. The other is a daytime cloud case observed on 29 October 2008. This case is characterized by a strong inversion (15 K) and relatively strong wind shear ( ~7 m s-1) across the inversion, which is due to a westward upslope of the PBL height. We apply COAMPS-LES to both cases with initial soundings derived from the observations and large-scale conditions calculated using COAMPS real-time forecasts. Observed longwave radiative (LW) flux from POST is used to validate a simple LW radiation parameterization. Basic turbulence statistics are also computed from the observations; and they are used to evaluate the LES simulations. Analyses of the simulations are focused on the probability density function of Richardson number within the entrainment zone and mixing line characteristics, which can be used to understand the mixing processes produced by the wind shear, radiative cooling and evaporation.

  14. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  15. The solar neutrino problem: mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    The author reviews the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A "score card" is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed Sun - are handicapped.

  16. The solar neutrino problem: Mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    I review the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady-state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A “score card” is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed sun - are handicapped.

  17. Liquid–Liquid Mixing Studies in Annular Centrifugal Contactors Comparing Stationary Mixing Vane Options

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-11-10

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of annular centrifugal contactors showing the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported with selected measurements in a lab-scale 5 cm contactor and 12.5 cm engineering-scale unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixingzone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugal contactors.

  18. Mixed Barrier Model for the Mixed Glass Former Effect in Ion Conducting Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Michael; Müller, Christian R.; Maass, Philipp; Martin, Steve W.

    2009-04-01

    Mixing two types of glass formers in ion conducting glasses can be exploited to lower conductivity activation energy and thereby increasing the ionic conductivity, a phenomenon known as the mixed glass former effect (MGFE). We develop a model for this MGFE, where activation barriers for individual ion jumps get lowered in inhomogeneous environments containing both types of network forming units. Fits of the model to experimental data allow one to estimate the strength of the barrier reduction, and they indicate a spatial clustering of the two types of network formers. The model predicts a time-temperature superposition of conductivity spectra onto a common master curve independent of the mixing ratio.

  19. Angular and spatial color mixing using mixing rods with the geometry of a chaotic-dispersive billiard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa S.; Baumgart, Jörg; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    For mixing light from different colored LEDs, an optical color mixing system is required to avoid colored shadows and color fringes. Concerning the different color mixing systems, mixing rods are widespread as they provide very good spatial color mixing with high efficiency. The essential disadvantage of mixing rods, so far, is the lack of angular color mixing. The solution presented in this publication is the application of a chaotic-dispersive billiard's geometry on the cross section of the mixing rod. To show both the spatial and the angular mixing properties of a square and a chaotic-dispersive mixing rod, simulations generated by the raytracing software ASAP are provided. All results are validated with prototype measurements.

  20. In situ characterization of polymer blend mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Zoltan Thomas

    Currently there is great interest in the development of polymer blend morphology arising from processing to control the properties of blends. A non-destructive technique, non-radiative energy transfer (NRET), was utilized to investigate polymer blend mixing ex and in situ . Donor (naphthyl) labeled polymers and acceptor (anthryl) labeled polymers were segregated to either phase domain limiting NRET to the interphase, and therefore permitting superior spatial resolution than obtained by other techniques such as light scattering. Observed donor and acceptor fluorescence intensities were correlated to respective concentrations, sample geometry, and interphase volume using a fluorescence model derived from the Beer-Lambert Law and Forster's description of NRET between a single donor-acceptor chromophore pair. Particular attention was devoted to the phenomena of direct chromophore excitation, NRET, and radiative energy transfer. The model was used to interpret experiments on the two determinant attributes of polymer mixing: interphase thickness and interphase area. Relative interphase thickness comparisons via polymer interdiffusion in a miscible blend of donor-labeled polystyrene and acceptor-labeled polystyrene indicated increasing ratios of acceptor fluorescence to donor fluorescence resulting from (1) longer diffusion time and (2) higher temperatures. Interphase area effects in an immiscible donor-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate)/acceptor-labeled polystyrene blend revealed a linear relationship between interphase area and donor to acceptor fluorescence ratio. Further interphase area investigation revealed that as the ratio of interphase area to sample volume increases, the resulting donor to acceptor fluorescence ratio approaches that of a homogenous mixed sample of equivalent thickness and dye concentration. The observed fluorescence ratio response to mixing was utilized to interpret two commercial applications: interphase contact and random immiscible blend

  1. Meeting Report: Hackathon-Workshop on Darwin Core and MIxS Standards Alignment (February 2012).

    PubMed

    Tuama, Eamonn Ó; Deck, John; Dröge, Gabriel; Döring, Markus; Field, Dawn; Kottmann, Renzo; Ma, Juncai; Mori, Hiroshi; Morrison, Norman; Sterk, Peter; Sugawara, Hideaki; Wieczorek, John; Wu, Linhuan; Yilmaz, Pelin

    2012-10-10

    The Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Genomic Standards Consortium convened a joint workshop at the University of Oxford, 27-29 February 2012, with a small group of experts from Europe, USA, China and Japan, to continue the alignment of the Darwin Core with the MIxS and related genomics standards. Several reference mappings were produced as well as test expressions of MIxS in RDF. The use and management of controlled vocabulary terms was considered in relation to both GBIF and the GSC, and tools for working with terms were reviewed. Extensions for publishing genomic biodiversity data to the GBIF network via a Darwin Core Archive were prototyped and work begun on preparing translations of the Darwin Core to Japanese and Chinese. Five genomic repositories were identified for engagement to begin the process of testing the publishing of genomic data to the GBIF network commencing with the SILVA rRNA database.

  2. Liquid–liquid mixing studies in annular centrifugal contactors comparing stationary mixing vane options

    DOE PAGES

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-09-11

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of an annular centrifugal contactor show the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported for operation of a 12.5 cm engineering-scale contactor unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixing-zone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugalmore » contactors.« less

  3. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  4. Accurate and computationally efficient mixing models for the simulation of turbulent mixing with PDF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Daniel W.; Jenny, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Different simulation methods are applicable to study turbulent mixing. When applying probability density function (PDF) methods, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions appear in closed form, which is not the case in second moment closure methods (RANS). Moreover, PDF methods provide the entire joint velocity-scalar PDF instead of a limited set of moments. In PDF methods, however, a mixing model is required to account for molecular diffusion. In joint velocity-scalar PDF methods, mixing models should also account for the joint velocity-scalar statistics, which is often under appreciated in applications. The interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model accounts for these joint statistics, but requires velocity-conditional scalar means that are expensive to compute in spatially three dimensional settings. In this work, two alternative mixing models are presented that provide more accurate PDF predictions at reduced computational cost compared to the IECM model, since no conditional moments have to be computed. All models are tested for different mixing benchmark cases and their computational efficiencies are inspected thoroughly. The benchmark cases involve statistically homogeneous and inhomogeneous settings dealing with three streams that are characterized by two passive scalars. The inhomogeneous case clearly illustrates the importance of accounting for joint velocity-scalar statistics in the mixing model. Failure to do so leads to significant errors in the resulting scalar means, variances and other statistics.

  5. Theoretical investigation of mixing in warm clouds - Part 2: Homogeneous mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Mark; Khain, Alexander; Korolev, Alexei; Magaritz-Ronen, Leehi

    2016-07-01

    Evolution of monodisperse and polydisperse droplet size distributions (DSD) during homogeneous mixing is analyzed. Time-dependent universal analytical expressions for supersaturation and liquid water content are derived. For an initial monodisperse DSD, these quantities are shown to depend on a sole non-dimensional parameter. The evolution of moments and moment-related functions in the course of homogeneous evaporation of polydisperse DSD is analyzed using a parcel model.It is shown that the classic conceptual scheme, according to which homogeneous mixing leads to a decrease in droplet mass at constant droplet concentration, is valid only in cases of monodisperse or initially very narrow polydisperse DSD. In cases of wide polydisperse DSD, mixing and successive evaporation lead to a decrease of both mass and concentration, so the characteristic droplet sizes remain nearly constant. As this feature is typically associated with inhomogeneous mixing, we conclude that in cases of an initially wide DSD at cloud top, homogeneous mixing is nearly indistinguishable from inhomogeneous mixing.

  6. Mixing noise reduction for rectangular supersonic jets by nozzle shaping and induced screech mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of mixing noise modification were studied for supersonic jets flowing from rectangular nozzles with an aspect ratio of about five and a small dimension of about 1.4 cm. The first involves nozzle geometry variation using either single (unsymmetrical) or double bevelled (symmetrical) thirty degree cutbacks of the nozzle exit. Both converging (C) and converging-diverging (C-D) versions were tested. The double bevelled C-D nozzle produced a jet mixing noise reduction of about 4 dB compared to a standard rectangular C-D nozzle. In addition all bevelled nozzles produced an upstream shift in peak mixing noise which is conducive to improved attenuation when the nozzle is used in an acoustically treated duct. A large increase in high frequency noise also occurred near the plane of the nozzle exit. Because of near normal incidence, this noise can be easily attenuated with wall treatment. The second approach uses paddles inserted on the edge of the two sides of the jet to induce screech and greatly enhance the jet mixing. Although screech and mixing noise levels are increased, the enhanced mixing moves the source locations upstream and may make an enclosed system more amenable to noise reduction using wall acoustic treatment.

  7. Mixed and Complex Mixed Migration during Armed Conflict: Multidimensional Empirical Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, legal, policy, and academic communities largely ascribed to a dichotomy between forced and voluntary migration, creating a black and white vision that was convenient for legal and policy purposes. More recently, discussions have begun addressing the possibility of mixed migration, acknowledging that there is likely a wide continuum between forced and voluntary, and most migrants likely move with some amount of compulsion and some volition, even during armed conflict. While the mixed migration hypothesis is well-received, empirical evidence is disparate and somewhat blunt at this point. In this article, I contribute a direct theoretical and causal pathway discussion of mixed migration. I also propose the complex mixed migration hypothesis, which argues that not only do non-conflict related factors influence migration during conflict, but they do so differently than during periods of relative peace. I empirically test both hypotheses in the context of the recent armed conflict in Nepal. Using detailed survey data and event history models, results provide strong evidence for both mixed migration and complex mixed migration during conflict hypotheses. These hypotheses and evidence suggest that armed conflict might have substantial impacts on long-term population growth and change, with significant relevance in both academic and policy spheres. PMID:26366007

  8. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B. ); Ramsey, W.G. . Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na[sub 2]O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO[sub 2]) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  9. Estimating mixing in hot Jupiter atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole; Lian, Yuan; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-10-01

    Ground- and space-based observations of exoplanets have shown that like solar system planets and brown dwarfs, clouds are ubiquitous in exoplanet atmospheres. However, the dynamics that underpin their formation and transport are still poorly understood. In order to further elucidate the three-dimensional mixing in exoplanet atmospheres, we present a generalized study comparing the dynamics of exoplanets to brown dwarfs and solar system planets. We utilize previously published hot Jupiter GCMs to estimate the microphysical timescales that dictate cloud formation and calculate horizontal and vertical wind profiles, and compare those to these other classes of substellar objects. In doing so, we can provide a framework for which to explain the small cloud particle sizes observed in hot Jupiters, and create a generalized profile for vertical mixing in hot Jupiter atmospheres.

  10. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  11. On the description of nonunitary neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escrihuela, F. J.; Forero, D. V.; Miranda, O. G.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2015-09-01

    Neutrino oscillations are well established and the relevant parameters determined with good precision, except for the C P phase, in terms of a unitary lepton mixing matrix. Seesaw extensions of the Standard Model predict unitarity deviations due to the admixture of heavy isosinglet neutrinos. We provide a complete description of the unitarity and universality deviations in the light-neutrino sector. Neutrino oscillation experiments involving electron or muon neutrinos and antineutrinos are fully described in terms of just three new real parameters and a new C P phase, in addition to the ones describing oscillations with unitary mixing. Using this formalism we describe the implications of nonunitarity for neutrino oscillations and summarize the model-independent constraints on heavy-neutrino couplings that arise from current experiments.

  12. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firby, C. J.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

  14. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  15. Flavor mixing in gauge-Higgs unification

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Y.; Kurahashi, N.; Lim, C. S.; Maru, N.; Tanabe, K.

    2012-07-27

    Gauge-Higgs unification is the fascinating scenario solving the hierarchy problem without supersymmetry. In this scenario, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet is identified with extra component of the gauge field in higher dimensions and its mass becomes finite and stable under quantum corrections due to the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. On the other hand, Yukawa coupling is provided by the gauge coupling, which seems to mean that the flavor mixing and CP violation do not arise at it stands. In this talk, we discuss that the flavor mixing is originated from simultaneously non-diagonalizable bulk and brane mass matrices. Then, this mechanism is applied to various flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) processes via Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson exchange at tree level and constraints for compactification scale are obtained.

  16. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  17. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  18. Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Gauthier, S.

    2016-07-01

    Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers for miscible fluids are investigated with a recently built model (Schneider and Gauthier 2015 J. Eng. Math. 92 55–71). Four Chebyshev–Fourier–Fourier direct numerical simulations are analyzed. They use different values for the compressibility parameters: Atwood number (the dimensionless difference of the heavy and light fluid densities) and stratification (accounts for the vertical variation of density due to gravity). For intermediate Atwood numbers and finite stratification, compressibility effects quickly occurs. As a result only nonlinear behaviours are reached. The influence of the compressibility parameters on the growth speed of the RTI is discussed. The 0.1—Atwood number/0.4—stratification configuration reaches a turbulent regime. This turbulent mixing layer is analyzed with statistical tools such as moments, PDFs, anisotropy indicators and spectra.

  19. [A modern concept of mixed dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is currently one of the most urgent problems. A number of newly registered cases of dementia in the world approaches to 7,7 millions that means that a new case of dementia arises every four seconds. According to WHO data, Western Europe is in the first place (appr. 7,0 millions of patients). In 2010, Russia was among 9 countries with the highest number of patients with dementia. Mixed dementia is characterized by the presence of one or several pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Its prevalence is about 45%. Neurodegenerative and vascular processes underlying dementia are mutually potentiated. An analysis of the majority of characteristics demonstrates that mixed dementia has characteristics of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Disturbances of neurotransmitter systems are caused by cholinergic deficit. Galantamine (reminil) is the drug that has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of dementia of Alzheimer's type including dementia with chronic disturbances of cerebral blood circulation.

  20. Impact of turbulent mixing on isoprene chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Barth, M. C.; Trainer, M.

    2016-07-01

    Isoprene, a volatile organic compound that is mainly emitted from trees, rapidly reacts with hydroxyl radical (OH) during daytime and subsequently forms ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. The isoprene-OH reaction can be affected by the interplay between chemistry and mixing because the two processes occur at a similar time scale. We investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on isoprene-OH reactivity with large eddy simulations (LES) coupled with comprehensive chemistry. Our results show that the covariance of isoprene and OH causes ~20% decrease to ~10% increase of the horizontal average reaction rate, depending on nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) abundances, compared to the rate that neglects the covariance. This wide range of effects on reaction rates is caused by the primary production and loss reactions of OH in each NOx regime. Our research promotes the use of LES for better understanding the role of turbulence in isoprene-OH reaction and parameterizations in large-scale models.

  1. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  2. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  3. Simplified models of mixed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David E-mail: dsanford@caltech.edu

    2014-02-01

    We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors.

  4. Linear Mixed Models: Gum and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendacká, Barbora; Täubner, Angelika; Eichstädt, Sascha; Bruns, Thomas; Elster, Clemens

    2014-04-01

    In Annex H.5, the Guide to the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] recognizes the necessity to analyze certain types of experiments by applying random effects ANOVA models. These belong to the more general family of linear mixed models that we focus on in the current paper. Extending the short introduction provided by the GUM, our aim is to show that the more general, linear mixed models cover a wider range of situations occurring in practice and can be beneficial when employed in data analysis of long-term repeated experiments. Namely, we point out their potential as an aid in establishing an uncertainty budget and as means for gaining more insight into the measurement process. We also comment on computational issues and to make the explanations less abstract, we illustrate all the concepts with the help of a measurement campaign conducted in order to challenge the uncertainty budget in calibration of accelerometers.

  5. Anelastic Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Gauthier, S.

    2016-07-01

    Anelastic Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layers for miscible fluids are investigated with a recently built model (Schneider and Gauthier 2015 J. Eng. Math. 92 55-71). Four Chebyshev-Fourier-Fourier direct numerical simulations are analyzed. They use different values for the compressibility parameters: Atwood number (the dimensionless difference of the heavy and light fluid densities) and stratification (accounts for the vertical variation of density due to gravity). For intermediate Atwood numbers and finite stratification, compressibility effects quickly occurs. As a result only nonlinear behaviours are reached. The influence of the compressibility parameters on the growth speed of the RTI is discussed. The 0.1—Atwood number/0.4—stratification configuration reaches a turbulent regime. This turbulent mixing layer is analyzed with statistical tools such as moments, PDFs, anisotropy indicators and spectra.

  6. Cumulus cloud venting of mixed layer ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ching, J. K. S.; Shipley, S. T.; Browell, E. V.; Brewer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are presented which substantiate the hypothesis that significant vertical exchange of ozone and aerosols occurs between the mixed layer and the free troposphere during cumulus cloud convective activity. The experiments utilized the airborne Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) system. This system provides simultaneous range resolved ozone concentration and aerosol backscatter profiles with high spatial resolution. Evening transects were obtained in the downwind area where the air mass had been advected. Space-height analyses for the evening flight show the cloud debris as patterns of ozone typically in excess of the ambient free tropospheric background. This ozone excess was approximately the value of the concentration difference between the mixed layer and free troposphere determined from independent vertical soundings made by another aircraft in the afternoon.

  7. Arene-thioether mixed complex radical cations

    SciTech Connect

    Werst, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    Studies of radiolytically generated radical cations in aromatic hydrocarbon solvents have led to the first direct characterization of monomeric thioether radical cations in liquid solution. Observation of these very reactive chemical intermediates is made possible by the great sensitivity of fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance (FDMR) and by solvent stabilization of the thioether radical cations via electron donation. Monomeric thioether radical cations in arene solvents such as toluene exist as arene-thioether mixed complex radical cations -- the first {pi}-lone pair mixed complex radical cations ever observed. Such orbital interactions are of fundamental importance for open-shell intermediates as they have consequences for both electronic structure and reactivity. Thioether radical cations provide a valuable test system to probe the chemical influence of orbital interactions that are generic to all {pi}-type and heteroatom-containing organic radical cations, and magnetic resonance provides unsurpassed structural resolution for condensed-phase paramagnetic intermediates.

  8. Quantum Darwinism in a Mixed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2009-09-01

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes that we—the observers—acquire our information about the “systems of interest” indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Here, we show that information about a system can be acquired from a mixed-state, or hazy, environment, but the storage capacity of an environment fragment is suppressed by its initial entropy. In the case of good decoherence, the mutual information between the system and the fragment is given solely by the fragment’s entropy increase. For fairly mixed environments, this means a reduction by a factor 1-h, where h is the haziness of the environment, i.e., the initial entropy of an environment qubit. Thus, even such hazy environments eventually reveal the state of the system, although now the intercepted environment fragment must be larger by ˜(1-h)-1 to gain the same information about the system.

  9. Quantum darwinism in a mixed environment.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H T; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2009-09-11

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes that we-the observers-acquire our information about the "systems of interest" indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Here, we show that information about a system can be acquired from a mixed-state, or hazy, environment, but the storage capacity of an environment fragment is suppressed by its initial entropy. In the case of good decoherence, the mutual information between the system and the fragment is given solely by the fragment's entropy increase. For fairly mixed environments, this means a reduction by a factor 1-h, where h is the haziness of the environment, i.e., the initial entropy of an environment qubit. Thus, even such hazy environments eventually reveal the state of the system, although now the intercepted environment fragment must be larger by approximately (1-h)(-1) to gain the same information about the system.

  10. [A modern concept of mixed dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is currently one of the most urgent problems. A number of newly registered cases of dementia in the world approaches to 7,7 millions that means that a new case of dementia arises every four seconds. According to WHO data, Western Europe is in the first place (appr. 7,0 millions of patients). In 2010, Russia was among 9 countries with the highest number of patients with dementia. Mixed dementia is characterized by the presence of one or several pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Its prevalence is about 45%. Neurodegenerative and vascular processes underlying dementia are mutually potentiated. An analysis of the majority of characteristics demonstrates that mixed dementia has characteristics of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Disturbances of neurotransmitter systems are caused by cholinergic deficit. Galantamine (reminil) is the drug that has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of dementia of Alzheimer's type including dementia with chronic disturbances of cerebral blood circulation. PMID:26356171

  11. A mixed choroid plexus papilloma and ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Seong Ik; Kim, Seung-Ki; Kim, In One; Park, Sung-Hye

    2016-04-01

    We report a novel case of a mixed choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and ependymoma with cartilaginous differentiation. This kind of mixed tumor has not been previously reported in the English literature. The patient was a 5-year-old girl, who presented with a 1-week history of fever and numbness of the right lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium revealed a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the occipital horn of the left lateral ventricle. Histologically, the tumor showed an intermixed CPP area and a low-grade papillary ependymoma-like area, which was studded with cartilage islands and psammoma bodies. In many foci, direct transition of CPP and ependymoma was observed, but there were no high-grade features. We report this novel case, describe the unique microscopic and immunohistochemical features, and speculate on the pathogenesis. PMID:26670168

  12. Diphotons from electroweak triplet-singlet mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Kiel; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.

    2016-08-01

    The neutral component of a real pseudoscalar electroweak (EW) triplet can produce a diphoton excess at 750 GeV, if it is somewhat mixed with an EW singlet pseudoscalar. This triplet-singlet mixing allows for greater freedom in the diboson branching ratios than the singlet-only case, but it is still possible to probe the parameter space extensively with 300 fb-1 . The charged component of the triplet is pair produced at the LHC, which results in a striking signal in the form of a pair of W γ resonances with an irreducible rate of 0.27 fb. Other signatures include multiboson final states from cascade decays of the triplet-singlet neutral states. A large class of composite models feature both EW singlet and triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in their spectrum, with the diboson couplings generated by axial anomalies.

  13. Mixed tumor of deep soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Toshisada; Oda, Yoshinao; Sakamoto, Akio; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Hachitanda, Yoichi; Masuda, Sachio; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2003-01-01

    Mixed tumors of the salivary gland and skin are relatively common but are quite rare in soft tissue. It is believed that, as in the salivary gland form, most of these lesions are benign, but that a small subset behave in an aggressive fashion. We report here a patient with recurrent mixed tumor of soft tissue with infiltrative growth. The primary tumor arose in deep subfascial soft tissue of the right lower leg and was adjacent to the surface of the fibula. An open biopsy and complete resection were performed. Upon histological examination of the resected specimen, neoplastic cell infiltration at the tumor/soft tissue interface was not obvious; local recurrence, however, was observed 1 year later. The patient was treated with wide resection. Histological examination confirmed that the recurrent tumor with an extensive chondroid area invaded the osseous tissue of the fibula. At present, 1 year after the second resection surgery, there is no evidence of disease.

  14. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, DH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-05-01

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized as a promising and economically viable technology for large-scale energy storage on worldwide electrical grids. But because these batteries are entirely liquid, fluid flow and instabilities may affect battery robustness and performance. Here we present estimates of flow magnitude and ultrasound measurements of the flow in a realistic liquid metal electrode. We find that flow does substantially affect mass transport by altering the electrode mixing time. Above a critical electrical current density, the convective flow organizes and gains speed, which promotes transport and would yield improved battery efficiency. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  15. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na{sub 2}O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO{sub 2}) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  16. Mass limit for light flavon with residual Z3 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Yu; Nomura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    We present a modified Altarelli and Feruglio A 4 model where an additional A 4 singlet-prime flavon is introduced. In this model, non-zero θ 13 is given by this additional A 4 singlet-prime flavon which breaks tri-bimaximal mixing. In the framework of the supersymmetry with U(1) R symmetry, we obtain vacuum expectation values (VEVs) and VEV alignments of flavons through driving fields. It is considered that flavon induces distinctive flavor violating process if flavon mass is light. Assuming mass of SUSY particles are sufficiently heavy so that the SUSY contributions can be negligible, we discuss the flavor violating Yukawa interaction through flavon exchange in the charged lepton sector. According to the potential analysis, the VEV of flavon breaks A 4 down to Z 3 in the charged lepton sector and relation among flavon masses is determined. Thanks for the residual Z 3 symmetry, many lepton flavor violating decay modes are forbidden except for τ → μμē and τ to eeoverline{μ} . A mass limit of the flavon from these three-body decay modes is 60 GeV taking into account the current experimental lower bounds at the Belle experiment. In our model, we predict a ratio of the branching ratios τ → μμē and τ to eeoverline{μ} by using known charged lepton masses. We also find that the production cross section for the flavon can be O(1) fb. Thus the flavon would be found at the LHC run 2 by searching for 4-tau lepton signal.

  17. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  18. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  19. LDV Measurement of Confined Parallel Jet Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    R.F. Kunz; S.W. D'Amico; P.F. Vassallo; M.A. Zaccaria

    2001-01-31

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements were taken in a confinement, bounded by two parallel walls, into which issues a row of parallel jets. Two-component measurements were taken of two mean velocity components and three Reynolds stress components. As observed in isolated three dimensional wall bounded jets, the transverse diffusion of the jets is quite large. The data indicate that this rapid mixing process is due to strong secondary flows, transport of large inlet intensities and Reynolds stress anisotropy effects.

  20. $B$ mixing and lifetimes at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Piedra, J.

    2006-04-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of b-hadrons. Both the D0 and CDF experiments have collected a sample of about 1 fb{sup -1}. they report results on three topics: b-hadron lifetimes, polarization amplitudes and the decay width difference in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}, and B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing.